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Cisco Networking Academy 2013

Activity 1

Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Devices

Introduction:

Either in a lab setting with actual equipment or in a simulated environment such as Packet
Tracer, it is important to select the proper cables to connect devices. In this activity, we will
select the proper cables to connect the various devices.

Learning Objectives:

Connect the devices.

Verify the connections.

Task 1: Connect the devices.

Make the following connections using the proper cable:

Connect PC1 to the first port on hub H1.

Connect the next port on hub H1 to interface FastEthernet0/0 or router R1.

Connect interface FastEthernet0/1 on router R1 to the first port on switch S1.

Connect the next port on switch S1 to interface FastEthernet0/0 or router R2.

Connect interface Serial0/0/1 on router R2 to interface Serial0/0/1 or router R3. Router R2 will
provide the timing signal on this circuit.

Connect interface FastEthernet0/0 or router R3 to PC3.

Task 2: Verify the connections.

The link lights between all connections should be green and your completion rate should be
100%. If the completion rate is not 100%, use the Check Results button and troubleshoot as
necessary.

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Activity -2

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Configure IP Addresses on Router Interfaces

Introduction:

The first step toward enabling a router to forward IP packets is to configure IP information on
the interfaces. This configuration provides access to directly connected networks.

Learning Objectives:

Configure IP information on routers.

Verify the configuration.

Verify Layer 1 and Layer 2 information.

Examine the IP routing table.

Task 1: Configure IP information on routers.

Step 1 Access router R1 and enter global configuration mode.

From the CLI tab, enter the privileged exec mode by issuing the enable command. Enter the
global configuration mode by issuing the command config t.

Step 2 Configure interfaces.

Enter the configuration mode for the first FastEthernet interface by issuing the command
interface fa0/0.

Configure the IP address by issuing the command ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 and
activate the interface with the no shutdown command.

Enter the configuration mode for the first Serial interface by issuing the command interface
s0/0/0.

Configure the IP address by issuing the command ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0.

Configure the clock rate with the clock rate 64000 command and activate the interface.

Step 3 Save the configuration.

Exit the configuration mode by hitting Ctrl+z. Save the configuration by issuing the command
copy run start.

Step 4 Configure routers R2 and R3.

Repeat Steps 1 through 3 for the other two routers using the information in the table above.

Task 2: Verify the configuration.

Step 1 Verify Layer 1 and Layer 2 information.

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On each of the three routers, verify the status of the interfaces by issuing the command show ip
interface brief. Verify the IP address on all of the interfaces and that the interfaces are up and
the line protocol is up.

Step 2 - Examine the IP routing table.

On each of the three routers, examine the IP routing table by issuing the command show ip
route. Notice that the routing table contains information only about directly connected
networks.

Activity-3

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Configure and Verify R1

Introduction:

All devices on the network are configured with the exception of R1. In order to have all devices
communicate R1 must be configured and the configuration verified.

Learning Objectives:

Configure R1.

Verify configuration using show commands.

Task 1: Configure R1.

Step 1 Configure the router name.

Configure the router R1 hostname to R1.

Step 2 Configure the FastEthernet interface.

Use the addressing table to configure the correct IP address for interface FastEthernet0/0,
create a description for the interface and activate the interface.

Step 3 Configure the Serial interface.

Use the addressing table to configure the correct IP address for interface Serial0/0/0, create a
description for the interface and activate the interface. Be sure to configure the clock rate.

Step 4 Configure passwords.

Configure the console, vty and enable secret passwords. Use cisco for the console and vty
passwords and class as the enable secret.

Step 5 Configure the login banner.

Configure a banner motd to advise that unauthorized access is prohibited.

Step 6 Save the configuration.

Save the configuration to NVRAM.

Task 2: Verify configuration.

To verify that the R1 has been properly configured show commands can be used. From the
privileged EXEC mode, use the following commands to verify the configuration.

show running-config

show startup-config

show ip route

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show interfaces

show ip interface brief

Activity-4

Network Representations

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Learning Objectives:

Explore the PT interface


Locate the key components used to place device symbols in the logical workplace
Examine the devices that can be placed in the logical workplace and their symbols
Place and connect devices
Add device symbols to the logical workplace
Connecting devices in the logical workplace using auto connection

Introduction:

Packet Tracer is a network simulator that allows you create a simulated network, configure the
devices in the network, test the network, and examine the traffic in the network. The first step
in creating a simulated network in Packet Tracer is to place the devices in the logical workplace
and connect them together.

Task 1: Explore the PT interface

Step1. Logical Workspace

When Packet Tracer starts, it presents a logical view of the network in Realtime mode. The
main part of the PT interface is the Logical Workplace. This is the large blank area where
devices can be placed and connected.

Step 2. Device Symbols

The lower left portion of the PT interface, below the yellow bar, is the portion of the interface
that you use to select and place devices into the logical workplace. The first box in the lower
left contains symbols that represent groups of devices.

Task 2: Add devices to the logical workplace

Step 1. Selecting and Placing Devices

To add a device to the logical workplace click on the specific device symbol, point to where
you want to place the device in the logical workplace (the pointer becomes a crosshair), and
click. Locate and place the following devices in a horizontal row across the logical workplace,
with about an inch between them, in order from left to right:

a server
a 2960 switch
an 1841 router
a hub
an IP phone
a PC

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Step 2. Connect the devices using auto connect

Click on the connections group symbol. The specific connection symbols provide different
cable types that can be used to connect devices. The first specific type, the gold lightning bolt,
will automatically select the connection type based on the interfaces available on the devices.
When you click on this symbol, the pointer resembles a cable connector.

Step 3. Packet Tracer Scoring

Packet Tracer activities can be configured to score your work. To check your configuration,
click the Check Results button below.

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Activity-5

Use of the TCP/IP Protocols and the OSI Model in Packet Tracer

Learning Objectives

Explore how PT uses the OSI Model and TCP/IP Protocols


Examine Packet Processing and Contents

Introduction:

In Packet Tracer simulation mode, detailed information about packets and how they are
processed by networking devices may be viewed. Common TCP/IP Protocols are modeled in
Packet Tracer, including DNS, HTTP, TFTP, DHCP, Telnet, TCP, UDP, ICMP, and IP. How
these protocols are used by networking devices in creating and processing packets is displayed,
in Packet Tracer, using a representation of the OSI Model.

Task 1: Explore the PT interface

Step 1. Examine the Help Files and Tutorials

From the pull down menu, choose Help->Contents. A web page will open. From the left frame,
choose Operating Modes->Simulation Mode. If not already familiar, read about simulation
mode.

Step 2. Switching from Realtime to Simulation Mode

In the far lower right of the PT interface is the toggle between Realtime and Simulation mode.
PT always starts in Realtime mode, in which networking protocols operate with realistic
timings. However, a powerful feature of Packet Tracer allows the user to "stop time" by
switching to Simulation mode.

Task 2: Examine Packet Contents and Processing

Step 1. Creating a Packet and Accessing the PDU Information Window

Click the Web Client PC. Choose the Desktop tab. Open the Web Browser. Enter the IP
address of the Web Server into the browser, 192.168.1.254. Clicking Go will initiate a web
server request. Minimize the Web Client configuration window. Since time in simulation is
event driven, you must use the Capture/Forward button to display network events. Two packets
appear in the event list, one of which has an eye next to it. An eye next to a packet means it is
displayed as an envelope on the logical topology. Find the first packet in the Event List, and
click the colored square in the Info column.

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Step 2. Investigating device algorithms in the OSI Model view

When you click the Info square for a packet in the event list, or if you click a packet envelope
displayed on the logical topology, the PDU Information window opens. The OSI model
organizes this window. In the case of the first packet we are viewing, notice the HTTP request
(at Layer 7) is then encapsulated, successively, at Layers 4, 3, 2, and 1.

Step 3. Inbound and Outbound PDUs

When opening the PDU Information window, the default is the OSI Model view. Now click the
Outbound PDU Details tab. Scroll down to the bottom of this window. There you will see that
HTTP (the web page request that started this series of events) is encapsulated as data in a TCP
segment, which in turn is encapsulated in an IP packet, which in turn is encapsulated in an
Ethernet frame, which in turn is transmitted as bits on the medium.

Step 4. Packet tracing: animations of packet flow

The first time through a packet animation, you are actually capturing the packets, as in a
protocol sniffer. Hence, the Capture/Forward button means "Capture" one set of events at a
time. Step through the web page request.

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Activity-6

Configure Ethernet Interfaces for IP on Hosts and Routers

Introduction:

Ethernet is the dominant Layer 2 technology used in LANs. To enable communication, the
Ethernet interfaces on hosts are configured with IP information. Router Ethernet interfaces are
also configured with IP information to allow them to communicate with the hosts in an attached
LAN.

Learning Objectives:

Configure IP information on Ethernet interfaces in a network.

Configure IP information on PCs.

Configure IP information on router Ethernet interfaces.

Verify proper operation.

Verify interface status on the routers.

Verify connectivity between hosts and routers.

Observe ARP operation.

Task 1: Configure IP information on Ethernet interfaces in a network.

Step 1 Configure IP information on PCs.

Configure the following IP information on the three network PCs:

PC1 - IP Address: 172.16.3.10, Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0, Gateway:172.16.3.1

PC2 - IP Address: 172.16.1.10, Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0, Gateway:172.16.1.1

PC3 - IP Address: 192.168.2.10, Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0, Gateway:192.168.2.1

Step 2 Configure IP information on router Ethernet interfaces.

Access router R1. From the CLI tab, enter privileged exec mode by issuing the enable
command. Enter global configuration mode by issuing the command config t. Enter
configuration mode for the first FastEthernet interface by issuing the command interface fa0/0.
Configure the IP address by issuing the command ip address 172.16.3.1 255.255.255.0.
Activate the interface by issuing the command no shutdown. Exit configuration mode by using
Ctrl+z. Save the configuration by issuing the command copy run start. Repeat the steps for the
other two routers using the following information:

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R2 - IP Address: 172.16.1.1, Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

R3 - IP Address: 192.168.2.1, Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

Task 2: Verify proper operation.

Step 1 Verify interface status on the routers.

On each of the three routers, verify the status of the FastEthernet interfaces by issuing the
command show ip interface brief.

Step 2 - Verify connectivity between hosts and routers.

From the PC1 command prompt, issue the command arp -a. On router R1, issue the command
show arp. Note the results. From the PC1 command prompt, issue the command ping
172.16.3.1. From the PC1 command prompt, issue the command arp -a. On router R1, issue the
command show arp. Note the results. Both devices now have an entry for the other in their
ARP table.

Step 3 - Observe ARP operation. Change to simulation mode.

Set the Event List Filters to show only ARP and ICMP events. From the PC2 command
prompt, issue the command ping 172.16.1.1. Minimize the command prompt window. Click
the Auto Capture / Play button. Notice that ARP packets are sent before the ICMP packets.

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Activity -7

Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Devices

Introduction:

Directly connected devices configured for IP can communicate with each other. Without
routing, these devices cannot communicate with other devices on networks that are not directly
connected.

Learning Objectives:

Check connectivity between devices.


Check connectivity between hosts and routers.
Check connectivity between routers.

Task 1: Check connectivity between devices.

Step 1 Check connectivity between hosts and routers.

From the command prompt on PC1, issue the command ping 172.16.3.1 to ping the
FastEthernet0/0 interface on router R1. From the command prompt on PC1 issue the command
ping 172.16.2.1 to ping the Serial0/0/0 interface on router R1. Both pings will succeed because
router R1 is directly connected to PC1. From the command prompt on PC1, issue the command
ping 172.16.2.2 to ping the Serial0/0/0 interface on router R2. This ping will fail because router
R2 is not directly connected to PC1. From PC2 and PC3 ping, the IP addresses of all the router
interfaces and note the results.

Step 2 Check connectivity between routers.

From the CLI on router R1 issue the command ping 172.16.3.10 to ping the FastEthernet
interface on PC1. From the CLI on router R1 issue the command ping 172.16.2.2 to ping the
Serial0/0/0 interface on router R2. Both pings will succeed because router R1 is directly
connected to PC1 and interface Serial0/0 on R2 is in the same subnet as Serial0/0/0 on router
R1. From the CLI on router R1 issue the command ping 172.16.1.1 to ping the
FastEathernet0/0 interface on router R2. This ping will fail because even though router R2 is
directly connected to router R1 the FastEathernet0/0 interface on router R2 is in a different
subnet and the IP routing table on router R1 does not have a route to that destination. This can
be confirmed by issuing the show ip route command on router R1. From router R2 and router
R3 ping the IP addresses of all the router and PC interfaces and note the results.

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Activity -8

Topology Diagram:

A nearly complete standard lab topology is provided as starting point. Learning Objectives:

Complete the Topology

Add Simple PDUs in Realtime Mode

Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode

Experiment with the model of the standard lab setup

Background:

Throughout the course, you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs, servers,
routers, and switches to learn networking concepts. In this activity, you will continue learning
how to build and analyze this standard lab topology. If you have not done so already, you are
encouraged to examine the Help files available from the Help Pull-down menu at the top of the
Packet Tracer GUI. Resources include a "My First PT Lab" to help you learn the basic
operation of Packet Tracer, tutorials to guide you through various tasks, and information on the
strengths and limitations of using Packet Tracer to model networks.

This activity will provide an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using Packet Tracer
simulator. Packet Tracer has two file formats it can create: .pkt files (network simulation model
files) and .pka files (activity files for practice). When you create your own networks in Packet
Tracer, or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers, you will often use the .pkt
file format. When you launched this activity from the curriculum, these instructions appeared.
They are the result of the .pka, Packet Tracer activity file format. At the bottom of these
instructions are two buttons: Check Results (which gives you feedback on how much of the
activity you have completed) and Reset Activity (which starts the activity over, if you want to
clear your work or gain more practice).

Task 1: Complete the Topology

Add a PC to the workspace. Configure it the following parameters: IP Address 172.16.1.2,


Subnet Mask 255.255.0.0, Default Gateway 172.16.255.254, DNS Server 192.168.254.254,
Display Name "1B" (do not include the quotation marks). Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of
the S1-Central Switch and check your work with the Check Results button to see that the
topology is complete.

Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Realtime Mode

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Wait until the switch link lights are green. Using the Add Simple PDU, send a test message
between PC 1B and Eagle Server. Note that this packet will appear in the lower right as a user
created PDU that can be manipulated for testing purposes. The first time you issue this one-
shot ping message, it will show as Failed--this is because of the ARP process, which will be
explained later. Double clicking the "Fire" button in the PDU List Window, send this single test
ping a second time. This time it will be successful. Please do this prior to the next task.

Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing)

Switch to simulation mode. Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the
network. Click on the packet envelope, or on the colored square in the Info column of the Event
List, to examine the packet at each step in its journey.

Task 4: Experiment with the model of the standard lab setup

The standard lab setup will consist of two routers, one switch, one server, and two PCs. Each of
these devices is pre-configured. Try creating different combinations of test packets and
analyzing their journey through the network.

Reflection:

If you have not already done so, you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your
instructor and complete My First PT Lab (available by using the HELP Pulldown Menu and
choosing CONTENTS).

Activity -9

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UDP Operation

Learning Objectives

Setup and run the simulation


Examine the results

Introduction:

UDP is a connectionless protocol. It is used in place of TCP where speed is important and
reliability is not a concern. Domain Name System (DNS) uses UDP as its transport protocol.
When a web page is requested using a URL, the IP address must be learned from a DNS server
before a web request can be encapsulated in an IP packet.

Task 1: Setup and run the simulation

Step 1. Enter simulation mode

To verify the connection, click on the PC in the logical workplace. Open the Web Browser on
the Desktop. Type udptcpexample.com into the URL box and click the Go button. The web
page should appear. Click the Simulation tab to enter simulation mode.

Step 2. Set Event List Filters

We want to capture only UDP events. In the Event List Filters section, click the Edit Filters
button. Select only UDP events. UDP events include UDP based application protocols like
DNS and TFTP.

Step 3. Request a web page from the PC

Restore the web browser window. In the Web Browser, click the Go button to request that the
web page be resent. Minimize the simulated browser window.

Step 4.Run the simulation

Click the Auto Capture / Play button. The exchange between the PC and the server is animated
and the events are added to the Event List. These events represent the PC's request for the IP
address associated with www.example.com and the server sending the IP address. A dialog box
appears indicating there are no more events. Click OK to close it.

Task 2: Examine the results

Step 1. Access specific PDUs

In the Simulation Panel Event List section, the last column contains a colored box that provides
access to detailed information about an event. Click the colored box in the last column for the
first event.

Step 2. Examine the contents of the PDU Information Window

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In this activity, we will focus only on event information only at Layer 4. The first tab in the
PDU Information window contains information about the inbound and outbound PDU as it
relates to the OSI model. Click the Layer 4: boxes for both the inbound and outbound layers
and read the content of the box and description in the box below the layers. Pay attention to the
source and destination port numbers. Click the Outbound PDU Details tab.

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Activity-10

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Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination

Addressing Table
This activity does not include an addressing table.

Learning Objectives

Capture a web request using an URL from a PC


Run the simulation and capture the traffic
Examine the captured traffic

Introduction:

Wire shark provides the ability to capture and display all of the network traffic entering and
leaving the PC on which it is installed through a network interface. Simulation mode in Packet
Tracer captures all network traffic flowing through the entire network but only supports a
limited number of protocols.

Task 1: Capture a web request using an URL from a PC.

Step 1. Run the simulation and capture the traffic. Enter Simulation mode.

Click on the PC. Open the Web Browser from the Desktop. Enter www.example.com into the
browser. Clicking on Go will initiate a web server request. Minimize the Web Client
configuration window. Two packets appear in the Event List, a DNS request needed to resolve
the URL to the IP address of the server and an ARP request needed to resolve the IP address of
the server to its hardware MAC address.

Click the Auto Capture / Play button to run the simulation and capture events. Click OK when
the "No More Events" message is reached.

Step 2. Examine the captured traffic. Find the first packet in the Event List.

click on the colored square in the Info column. When you click on the Info square for a packet
in the event list the PDU Information window opens. The OSI model organizes this window. In
the case of the first packet we are viewing, notice the DNS query (at Layer 7) is encapsulated in
an UDP segment at Layer 4 and so on. If you click on these layers, the algorithm used by the
device (in this case, the PC) is displayed. View what is going on at each layer.

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Activity-11

Routers Segment Broadcast Domains

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Introduction:

Broadcast packets are sent to every host in a network. Broadcasts generate excessive traffic on
the network and require every device on the network to examine the packet. The region of a
network that receives a broadcast is called a broadcast domain. Layer 2 switches extend
broadcast domains. Devices that perform Layer 3 routing processes divide broadcast domains.

Sometimes it may be more convenient to model separate networks in the same Packet Tracer
file. In this file there are two different networks. Packet Scenario 0 is switched and packet
Scenario 1 is routed.

Task 1: Run the Simulation Using Scenario 0

Step 1. Enter simulation mode

Click between the Simulation and Realtime modes three or four times to clear the Spanning
Tree Protocol on the switch ports; leave Packet Tracer in Simulation mode.

Step 2. Step through Scenario 0

The file will have loaded with Scenario 0, consisting of a Simple PDU (one shot ping) from PC
0 to the broadcast address of 255.255.255.255. Click on the colored Info square next to this
packet's listing in the Event List (or equivalently, click on the packet envelope displayed at PC
0) and examine the OSI Model and Outbound PDU Details views of the packet. Then click the
Capture / Forward button and watch the broadcast travel to all devices in the switched network.
Examine the packet at different points in its journey. If you receive a "Buffer Full" message,
click the View Previous Events button. The extent of these broadcasts defines a broadcast
domain. You may want to run the animation again using the Reset Simulation button and the
Auto Capture / Play button or create your own scenarios where you add test packets to the
network.

Task 2: Run the simulation Using Scenario 1

Step 1.Switch to Scenario 1

Near the lower right of the GUI, the scenario is currently set at Scenario 0. Use the pull down
menu to go to Scenario 1, where a broadcast packet is being sent from PC 6 to the broadcast
address of 255.255.255.255.

Step 2.Step through the Scenario 1

Click on the coloured Info square next to this packet's listing in the Event List (or equivalently,
click on the packet envelope displayed at PC 6) and examine the OSI Model and Outbound

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PDU Details views of the packet. Then click the Capture / Forward button and watch the
broadcast travel to all devices up to and including the router interface. Examine the packet at
different points in its journey. If you receive a "Buffer Full" message, click the View Previous
Events button. The extent of these broadcasts defines a broadcast domain, which in this case
ends at the router. You may want to run the animation again using the Reset Simulation button
and the Auto Capture / Play button or create your own scenarios where you add test packets to
the network.

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Activity-12

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Router Packet Forwarding

Learning Objectives

Examine how routers forward packets when a route to the destination exists in the
routing table
Examine how routers forward packets when no specific route exists, but a default route
has been configured
Examine how routers forward packets when neither a specific route nor a default route
exists

Introduction:

IP packets are forwarded between networks by routers that check their IP routing tables to find
the next hop to the destination network. If there is an entry for the destination network in the
routing table, the router will forward the packet out the interface indicated in the routing table.
If there is no entry for the destination network in the routing table but there is a default route,
the router will forward the packet out the interface indicated in the routing table for the default
route. If there is no entry for the destination network in the routing table and there is no default
route, the router will drop the packet.

This activity will use a configuration containing three routers, connecting three LANs. The first
LAN is 10.1.1.0/24 that contains PC_A. The second LAN is 10.1.2.0/24 that contains PC_B.
The last LAN 10.1.3.0/24 that contains PC_C. Router0 has a route to 10.1.2.0/24 and Router2
has a route to 10.1.1.0/24. So a ping from PC_A will reach PC_B and the reply will reach
PC_A. Router0 has no route to 10.1.3.0/24 but has a default route out interface S0/0/1 (toward
Router1). Router1 has no route to 10.1.1.0/24 and no default route.

Task 1: Run the Simulation using Scenario 0, from PC_A to PC_B

Step 1. Enter Simulation mode and send the packet.

The file loads with Scenario 0, which has a predefined packet from PC_A to PC_B, listed in the
User Created PDU window at the lower right. Double click on the Fire button once in Realtime
mode that will populate the ARP tables and make interpreting the routing behavior more clear.
Click the Simulation tab to enter Simulation mode.

Step 2. Trace the packet.

Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network. Inspect the packet at
each step, particularly at the routers. Compare the OSI Model tab explanations of the packet's
processing with the displayed routing table.

Task 2: Run the simulation using Scenario 1, from PC_A to PC_C

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Step 1. Move to Scenario 1.

Once you are done with Scenario 0, change to Scenario 1. You will still be in Simulation mode,
so switch to Realtime mode long enough to allow the ping from PC_A to PC_C to show
"Failed" in the Last Status column. This will populate the ARP tables and simplify the
interpretation of the routing behavior. Switch back to Simulation mode. Inspect the packet by
clicking on the colored square in the Info column of the Event List.

Step 2.Trace the packet.

Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network UNTIL it gets to
PC_C. Click the Capture / Forward button to pause the packet. Inspect the packet at each step
until PC_C, particularly at Router0 and Router1. Compare the OSI Model tab explanations of
the packet's processing with the displayed routing tables. Note that the ICMP echo request from
PC_A to PC_C can complete its journey because a default static route exists on Router0 and
the destination network is directly connected to Router1. However, these routes do not "point"
in both directions.

Task 3: Continue running the simulation using Scenario 1, From PC_C to PC_A

Step 1.Trace the packet.

Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network. Inspect the packet at
each step, in particular at Router1. Compare the OSI Model Tab explanations of the packet's
processing with the routing table of Router1, and note what happens to the ICMP echo reply
packet from PC_C to PC_A.

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Activity-13

Router Packet Forwarding

Learning Objectives

Examine how routers forward packets when a route to the destination exists in the
routing table
Examine how routers forward packets when no specific route exists, but a default route
has been configured
Examine how routers forward packets when neither a specific route nor a default route
exists

Introduction:

IP packets are forwarded between networks by routers that check their IP routing tables to find
the next hop to the destination network. If there is an entry for the destination network in the
routing table, the router will forward the packet out the interface indicated in the routing table.
If there is no entry for the destination network in the routing table but there is a default route,
the router will forward the packet out the interface indicated in the routing table for the default
route. If there is no entry for the destination network in the routing table and there is no default
route, the router will drop the packet.

This activity will use a configuration containing three routers, connecting three LANs. The first
LAN is 10.1.1.0/24 that contains PC_A. The second LAN is 10.1.2.0/24 that contains PC_B.
The last LAN 10.1.3.0/24 that contains PC_C. Router0 has a route to 10.1.2.0/24 and Router2
has a route to 10.1.1.0/24. So a ping from PC_A will reach PC_B and the reply will reach
PC_A. Router0 has no route to 10.1.3.0/24 but has a default route out interface S0/0/1 (toward
Router1). Router1 has no route to 10.1.1.0/24 and no default route.

Task 1: Run the Simulation using Scenario 0, from PC_A to PC_B

Step 1. Enter Simulation mode and send the packet.

The file loads with Scenario 0, which has a predefined packet from PC_A to PC_B, listed in the
User Created PDU window at the lower right. Double click on the Fire button once in Realtime
mode that will populate the ARP tables and make interpreting the routing behavior more clear.
Click the Simulation tab to enter Simulation mode.

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Step 2. Trace the packet.

Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network. Inspect the packet at
each step, particularly at the routers. Compare the OSI Model tab explanations of the packet's
processing with the displayed routing table.

Task 2: Run the simulation using Scenario 1, from PC_A to PC_C

Step 1. Move to Scenario 1.

Once you are done with Scenario 0, change to Scenario 1. You will still be in Simulation mode,
so switch to Realtime mode long enough to allow the ping from PC_A to PC_C to show
"Failed" in the Last Status column. This will populate the ARP tables and simplify the
interpretation of the routing behavior. Switch back to Simulation mode. Inspect the packet by
clicking on the colored square in the Info column of the Event List.

Step 2.Trace the packet.

Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network UNTIL it gets to
PC_C. Click the Capture / Forward button to pause the packet. Inspect the packet at each step
until PC_C, particularly at Router0 and Router1. Compare the OSI Model tab explanations of
the packet's processing with the displayed routing tables. Note that the ICMP echo request from
PC_A to PC_C can complete its journey because a default static route exists on Router0 and
the destination network is directly connected to Router1. However, these routes do not "point"
in both directions.

Task 3: Continue running the simulation using Scenario 1, From PC_C to PC_A

Step 1.Trace the packet.

Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network. Inspect the packet at
each step, in particular at Router1. Compare the OSI Model Tab explanations of the packet's
processing with the routing table of Router1, and note what happens to the ICMP echo reply
packet from PC_C to PC_A.

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Activity -14

Show Unicast, Broadcast and Multicast Traffic

Learning Objectives

Verify connectivity
Set up the simulation
Run the simulation

Introduction:

Most traffic in a network is unicast. If a PC sends an ICMP echo request to a remote router, the
source address in the IP packet header is the IP address of the PC, and the destination address
in the IP packet header is the IP address of the interface on the router. The packet is sent only to
the intended destination.

Task 1: Verify connectivity

Step 1. Access PC1

Click on PC1. Go to the Command Prompt on the Desktop.

Step 2. Ping Router3

Enter the command ping 10.0.3.2. The ping should succeed. Minimize the Command Prompt
window.

Task 2: Setup the simulation

Step 1. Enter Simulation mode

Click the Simulation tab to enter Simulation mode. Restore the PC1 window. Enter the
command ping 10.0.3.2. Minimize the Command Prompt window.

Step 2. Set Event List Filters

We want to capture only ICMP and RIP events. In the Event List Filters section, click the Edit
Filters button. Select only ICMP and RIP events.

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Task 3: Run the simulation

Step 1. Examine unicast traffic

The PDU at PC1 is an ICMP echo request intended for the serial interface on Router3. Click
the Capture / Forward button repeatedly and watch while the echo request is sent to Router3
and the echo reply is sent back to PC1. Stop when the first echo reply reaches PC1.

In the Simulation Panel Event List section, the last column contains a colored box that provides
access to detailed information about an event. Click the colored box in the last column for the
first event. The PDU Information window opens.

Examine the Layer 3 information for all of the events. Notice that both the source and
destination IP addresses are unicast addresses that refer to PC1 and the serial interface on
Router3. Click the Reset Simulation button.

Step 2. Examine broadcast traffic

Click on the Add Complex PDU button (the open envelope in the far right). Click on PC 1 to
serve as the source for this test message. For the destination address enter the broadcast address
255.255.255.255. For the sequence number enter 1; for the time enter 0. Click on the Create
PDU button; this test broadcast packet now appears in the Event List (as a "measured event")
and in the User Created PDU List (as a created packet that you can edit). Click the Capture /
Forward button twice. This packet will be sent to the switch, and forwarded to PC 2, PC 3, and
the router. Examine the Layer 3 information for all of the events. Notice that the destination IP
address 255.255.255.255, is the IP broadcast address. After you are done examining the
broadcast behavior, delete the test packet. (You can delete all of Scenario 0, and reset the
simulation, by using the Delete button to the right of the New button.)

Step 3. Examine multicast traffic

Click the Capture / Forward button again. Three RIP version 2 packets are at Router1 waiting
to be multicast out each interface.

Examine the contents of these packets by opening the PDU Information Window and click the
Capture / Forward button again. The packets are sent to the two other routers and the switch.
The routers accept and process the packets, because they are part of the multicast group. Click
the Capture / Forward button again. The packets are sent to the three hosts. The hosts reject and
drop the packets.

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Activity-15

Trace and Time To Live

Learning Objectives

Observe the operation of a trace


Observe how a packet's Time to Live is decremented in a routing loop

Introduction:

Several forms of the trace command are extremely useful as network troubleshooting tools. To
issue the command from the Windows command line, the form to use is tracert (IP address, or
URL if DNS is configured properly); to issue the command from IOS, the form to use is trace
or traceroute (IP address, or URL if DNS is configured properly).

Task 1: Examine the operation of a trace.

Step 1. Enter Simulation mode.

Click the Simulation tab to enter Simulation mode once the switch link lights are green
(toggling between Realtime and Simulation mode will speed up this process). We want to
capture only ICMP events. In the Event List Filters section, click the Edit Filters button. Select
only ICMP events.

Step 2. Issue the trace.

From the command prompt of PC0, issue the command tracert 192.168.1.2 and press the Enter
key. Minimize the command prompt window, the first packet should appear.

Step 3. Examine the first packet.

Examine the first packet that appears in the Event List by clicking on the colored Info square
for that packet.

Step 4. Step through the simulation, examining the TTL for the outgoing packets and the
replies.

Click the Capture / Forward button repeatedly until the entire tracert process is complete.
Examine the packet via the PDU Information window at various points along its journey. Note
that the tracert is built out of ping, more precisely, echo requests with increasing Time to Live
settings. Restore the PC0 command window periodically to view the progress of the command
output. When finished, click the Reset Simulation button.

Task 2: Observe how a packet's Time to Live is decremented in a routing loop.

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Step 1. Activate the routing loop.

Open Router0, and go to the Config tab. Find INTERFACE Serial0/0/1 (which has IP address
192.168.9.2), and change the Port Status to on. Because of previously configured static routes
on each of the routers, a deliberate routing loop for packets to unknown destinations is
activated when you turn on this interface. You can use the Inspect Tool (the magnifying glass
at the right of the GUI) to look at the routing tables for each of the routers; note that the default
static route for each router simply points to the next router.

Step 2. Add a complex PDU to an non-existent destination.

Use the Add Complex PDU button (the open envelope in the far right) to add a complex PDU
from PC0. For the destination IP address, use 172.16.1.1, an address which does not exist
anywhere on this network. For the sequence number, use 1, and for the time, use 0. Click on the
Create PDU button. The default static routes configured on the routers will keep forwarding
this packet until its Time to Live expires. Examine the first packet that appears in the Event
List by clicking on the colored Info square for that packet.

Step 3. Step through the simulation.

Click the Capture / Forward button repeatedly and observe how this packet is forwarded around
the routing loop. Examine the packet via the PDU Information window at various points along
its journey, and note that the routers are decrementing the Time to Live. Continue until the
packet is dropped and a notification is sent back to PC0.

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Activity -16

Ping and Traceroute

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to:

Use the ping command to verify simple TCP/IP network connectivity


Use the tracert / traceroute command to verify TCP/IP connectivity

Introduction:

This activity is the Packet Tracer equivalent to Lab 6.7.1: Ping and Traceroute.

Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity.

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Step 1. Using PC-1A, Verify Network Layer

Use the command ipconfig at the command prompt to verify TCP/IP Network layer
connectivity on the local host computer.

Step 2. Ping Gateway

Verify TCP/IP Network layer connectivity on the LAN. Enter the command ping
172.16.255.254 to verify TCP/IP Network layer connectivity to the default gateway.

Step 3. Ping Remote Host

Verify TCP/IP Network layer connectivity to a remote network. Enter the command ping
192.168.254.254 to verify TCP/IP Network layer connectivity to a device on a remote network.
In this case the Eagle Server will be used.

Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity.

Step 1. Verify Hops

Verify TCP/IP Network layer connectivity with the tracert command. Open the command
prompt and enter the command tracert 192.168.254.254.

Task 3: Reflection

Step 1. View Outputs

View the outputs of the traceroute command and compare them to what the command prompt
displayed.

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Activity-17

Examining ICMP Packets

Learning Objectives

Understand the format of ICMP packets

Use Packet Tracer to capture and examine ICMP messages

Introduction:

Wireshark provides the ability to capture and display all of the network traffic entering and
leaving the PC on which it is installed, through a network interface. Simulation mode in Packet
Tracer captures all network traffic flowing through the entire network, but only supports a
limited number of protocols. To come as close as possible to approximating Lab 6.7.2, we will
use a network consisting of a PC that is connected to a server through a single router.

Task 1: Use Packet Tracer to capture and examine ICMP messages.

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Step 1. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to Eagle Server.

Enter Simulation mode. The Event List Filters is set to display only ICMP events. Click on the
Pod PC. Open the Command Prompt from the Desktop. Enter the command ping eagle-
server.example.com and press the Enter key. Minimize the Pod PC configuration window.
Click the Auto Capture / Play button to run the simulation and capture events.

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Activity-18

Subnet and Router Configuration

Learning Objectives

Subnet an address space per given requirements

Assign appropriate addresses to interfaces and document

Configure and activate Serial and FastEthernet interfaces

Test and verify configurations

Reflect upon and document the network implementation

Introduction:

In this PT activity, you will design and apply an IP addressing scheme for the topology shown
in the Topology Diagram. You will be given one address block that you must subnet to provide
a logical addressing scheme for the network. The routers will then be ready for interface
address configuration according to your IP addressing scheme. When the configuration is
complete, verify that the network is working properly.

Task 1: Subnet the Address Space.

Step 1. Examine the network requirements.

You have been given the 192.168.1.0/24 address space to use in your network design. The
network consists of the following segments:

The LAN connected to router R1 will require enough IP addresses to support 15 hosts.

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The LAN connected to router R2 will require enough IP addresses to support 30 hosts.

The link between router R1 and router R2 will require IP addresses at each end of the link.

Do not use Variable Length Subnetting for this activity.

Step 2. Consider the following questions when creating your network design.

In your notebook or separate piece of paper answer the following questions.

How many subnets are needed for this network?

What is the subnet mask for this network in dotted decimal format?

What is the subnet mask for the network in slash format?

How many usable hosts are there per subnet?

Step 3. Assign subnetwork addresses to the Topology Diagram.

Assign second subnet to the network attached to R1.

Assign third subnet to the link between R1 and R2.

Assign fourth subnet to the network attached to R2.

Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses.

Step 1: Assign appropriate addresses to the device interfaces.

Assign the first valid host address in second subnet to the LAN interface on R1.

Assign the last valid host address in second subnet to PC1.

Assign the first valid host address in third subnet to the WAN interface on R1.

Assign the last valid host address in third subnet to the WAN interface on R2.

Assign the first valid host address in fourth subnet to the LAN interface of R2.

Assign the last valid host address in fourth subnet to PC2.

Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses.

Step 1: Configure the router interfaces.

To complete the activity in Packet Tracer you will be using the Config Tab. When you have
finished, be sure to save the running configuration to the NVRAM of the router.

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Note: Remember the Port Status of the interface must be turned on.

Note: The clock rate for any DCE serial connection is 64000.

Step 2: Configure the PC interfaces.

Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1 and PC2 with the IP addresses and default gateways
from your network design.

Task 4: Verify the Configurations.

Answer the following questions to verify that the network is operating as expected.

From the host attached to R1, is it possible to ping the default gateway?

From the host attached to R2, is it possible to ping the default gateway?

From the router R1, is it possible to ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2?

From the router R2, is it possible to ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1?

Note: In order to ping from a router, you must be in the CLI tab.

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Activity -19

Simple Wireless LAN Model

Learning Objectives

Examine the Wireless LAN network


Run the simulation

Introduction:

Wireless LANs are an increasingly important technology. They will be covered in more depth
in later courses. The example presented here is a simple model of a wireless LAN setup that
might be found in a home or small business.

Task 1: Examine the Wireless network.

Step 1. Open the various devices and examine their configurations.

Examine the devices that make up the wireless network using both the Physical and the Config
tabs. Note especially the following:

Both the PC and the printer have a Linksys wireless adapter installed. Also click the PC
Wireless button on the PC's Desktop tab.

On the wireless router, also examine the contents of the GUI tab.

The "Model of ISP" device is a Packet Tracer cluster. Click on it to open it and display the
devices that it contains. When finished examining the devices, click the Root=> button on the
yellow bar in the upper left to close it.

Step 2. Verify connectivity in Realtime mode by opening a web page.

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While in Realtime mode, open the Web Browser of the Home PC and type myispweb.com into
the URL and press the Enter key. The web page should be retrieved. This process helps
populate tables so you can focus on just the ICMP packets.

Task 2: Run the simulation.

Step 1. Start the simulation.

Switch to Simulation mode. We want to capture only ICMP events. In the Event List Filters
section, verify that only ICMP events are selected. The packet at the Home PC is a single
ICMP echo request that will be sent to the ISP's web server through the wireless network.

Step 2. Examine a ping packet at each step from the Home PC to the web server and back.

Examine the packet at the Home PC. Then click Capture / Forward again and again, opening
the packet for examination at each step in the process.

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Activity-20

Skills Integration Challenge-Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View

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Learning Objectives:

Connect the devices in the standard lab setup


Connect the devices
Verify connectivity
View the standard lab setup in the Physical Workspace
Enter and view the Physical Workspace
View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the Physical Workspace

Introduction:

When working in Packet Tracer, in a lab environment, or in a corporate setting it is important


to know how to select the proper cable and how to properly connect devices. This activity will
examine device configurations in Packet Tracer, selecting the proper cable based on the
configuration, and connecting the devices. This activity will also explore the physical view of
the network in Packet Tracer.

Task 1: Connect the devices in the standard lab setup

Step 1 Connect the devices

Connect PC 1A to the first port on switch S1-Central and PC 1B to the second port on switch
S1-Central using the proper cable.

Click on router R2-Central and examine the configuration using the Config tab. Connect the
proper interface on the router to Interface FastEthernet0/24 on switch S1-Central using the
proper cable.

Click on both routers and examine the configuration using the Config tab. Connect the routers
together using the proper interfaces and the proper cable

Click on router R1-ISP and examine the configuration using the Config tab. Connect the proper
interface on the router to the proper interface on Eagle Server using the proper cable.

Step 2 Verify connectivity

From the Command Prompt on the Desktop of both PCs issue the command ping
192.168.254.254, the IP address of Eagle Server. If the pings fail, check your connections and

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troubleshoot until the pings succeed. Check your configuration by clicking the Check Results
button.

Task 2: View the standard lab setup in the Physical Workspace

Step 1 - Enter and view the Physical Workspace

Most of our work in Packet Tracer has been done in the Logical Workspace. In an
internetwork, routers may be in different sites from across the street to across the globe. The
serial link between the routers represents a dedicated leased line between two locations
consisting of a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment), such as a router, connected to a DCE (Data
Communication Equipment), such as a CSU/DSU or modem. The DCE connects to a service
provider's local loop and the connections are repeated at the other end of the link. The Physical
Workspace allows us to see these relationships more clearly.

Enter the Physical Workspace by clicking the tab in the upper left hand corner of the
Workspace. It shows the connection between Central City and ISP City.

Step 2 - View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the Physical Workspace

Click on the Central City. You will see the city and the location of the Central Office building.
Click on the Central Office building. You will see the floor plan of the building and the
location of the Wiring Closet. Click on the Wiring Closet. You will see a physical
representation of the equipment installed in the wiring closet and the cabling that connects the
equipment. Examine this view of the topology.

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Activity-21

Observing the Effects of Collisions in a Shared Media Environment

Learning Objectives

Setup and run the simulation


Examine the results

Introduction:

In early implementations of Ethernet, hosts were directly connected to a shared coaxial cable in
a bus topology. The method used to control access in this shared media environment was
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). In later implementations,
hubs replaced coaxial cable, but collisions were still part of the basic operation. In this activity,
we will examine a network with 10 PCs connected to a hub, and observe the operation, while
they try to communicate simultaneously.

Task 1: Setup and run the simulation

Step 1. Enter simulation mode

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Click the Simulation tab to enter simulation mode. The two envelopes on each of the PCs on
the left side of the hub represent an ICMP echo request intended for the corresponding PC on
the right side of the hub and an ARP request to learn the MAC address of the target PC. We
will attempt to send these packets simultaneously through the hub.

Step 2. Run the simulation

Click the Auto Capture / Play button. All five ARP requests collide at the hub and a damaged
frame is broadcast to all of the PCs. The events are added to the Event List. Continue clicking
the Auto Capture / Play button. An ICMP event is added to the Event List as each of the five
PCs on the left time out the ARP request, and drop the buffered packet. A dialog box appears
indicating there are no more events. Click OK to close it.

Task 2: Examine the results

Step 1. Access specific PDUs

In the Simulation Panel Event List section, the last column contains a colored box that provides
access to detailed information about an event. Click the colored box in the last column for the
first event at Hub0. The PDU Information window opens.

Step 2. Examine the contents of the PDU Information Window

The first event at Hub0 describes the operation of a hub and the collision that occurred.
Examine the PDU information for the remaining events in the same fashion and note the effects
of the collision.

Step 3. Examine other scenarios

Select Scenario 1 at the bottom center of the interface. We will try to send just two packets
simultaneously through the hub. Run the simulation as described above and observe the results.
This scenario also fails. Select Scenario 2 at the bottom center of the interface. Run the
simulation as described above and observe the results. The MAC address is resolved, the ICMP
echo request is sent, and the ICMP echo reply, is received only when one PC sends information
at a time.

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Activity -22:

From Hubs to Switches

Learning Objectives

Observe the operation of a hub


Observe the operation of a switch
Observe the collision-free operation of a switch

Introduction:

A hub is a simple Layer 1 device that is used to connect devices. When a hub receives a frame
on any port it sends the frame out all of the other ports. A switch operates at Layer 2 and learns
the physical address of devices connected to each port. A switch stores this information in a
table. If the switch receives a frame destined for a device with a physical address that is in its
table, it only sends the frame out the port the device is on. This activity will compare the
operation of a hub with the operation of a switch. If you experience a delay waiting for the
switch link lights to turn from amber to green, toggling between Realtime and Simulation mode
3 or 4 times will speed up the process.

Task 1: Observe the operation of a hub.

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Step 1. Enter Simulation mode.

Switch to Simulation mode.

Step 2.Set Event List Filters.

We want to capture only ARP and ICMP events. In the Event List Filters section, verify that
only ARP and ICMP events will be displayed.

Step 3. Ping from PC1 to PC6.

Use the Add Simple PDU (the closed envelope) to send a single ping from PC1 to PC6. Click
on PC1, the source, and then click on PC6, the destination. Two events appear in the Event
List, an ICMP echo request and an ARP request to learn the MAC address of PC6. Click on the
colored boxes in the Info column to examine these events.

Step 4. Step through the simulation.

Click the Capture / Forward button again and again, opening the packets for examination at
each step in the process. Notice how the hub treats the broadcast ARP request, the unicast ARP
reply, and the unicast ICMP echo request and echo reply.

Task 2: Observe the operation of a switch.

Step 1. Clear the simulation.

Clear the simulation by using the Delete button to delete Scenario 0.

Step 2. Ping from PC7 to PC12.

Use the Add Simple PDU (the closed envelope) to send a single ping from PC7 to PC12. Click
on PC7, the source, and then click on PC12, the destination. Two events appear in the Event
List, an ICMP echo request and an ARP request to learn the MAC address of PC12. Click on
the colored boxes in the Info column to examine these events.

Step 3. Step through the simulation.

Click the Capture / Forward button again and again, opening the packets for examination at
each step in the process. Notice how the switch treats the broadcast ARP request, the unicast
APR reply, and the unicast ICMP echo request and echo reply.

Task 3: Observe the collision-free operation of a switch.

In Activity 9.4.2, we learned that collisions allow only one exchange to be sent between PCs at
a time, in a LAN built with hubs. We will send three simultaneous requests through the switch.

Step 1. Reset the simulation.

Reset the simulation by clicking the Reset Simulation button.

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Step 2. Simultaneously ping between multiple PCs.

Use the Add Simple PDU (the closed envelope) to add a single ping from PC8 to PC11. Click
on PC8, the source, and then click on PC11, the destination. Do the same between PC9 and
PC10. Four more events appear in the Event List, two ICMP echo requests and two ARP
requests to learn the MAC address of PC11 and PC 10. Click on the colored boxes in the Info
column to examine these events.

Step 3. Step through the simulation.

Click the Capture / Forward button again and again, opening the packets for examination at
each step in the process. Notice how the switch handles the volume of traffic without collisions.

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Activity-23

Switch Operation

Learning Objectives

Observe how a switch processes a broadcast


Observe how a switch processes a known unicast
Observe how a switch processes an unknown unicast

Introduction:

A switch operates at Layer 2, learns the physical address of devices connected to each port, and
stores this information in a table. Switches learn addresses from frames received by the switch.
If the switch receives a frame destined for a device with a physical address that is in its table, it
only sends the frame out the port the device is on. This is called a known unicast. If the switch
receives a broadcast, it floods the frame out all ports except the incoming port. Also, if the
switch receives a frame destined for a MAC address it does not have in its table, called an
unknown unicast, it also floods that frame out all ports except the incoming port. When a
switch floods a frame out all ports except the incoming port, it appears to behave as a hub does.
Strictly speaking, the PDU that a switch processes is a frame, but, in this lab, ping and ARP
packets are what are encapsulated in the frames, and may be thought of as packets as well.

Task 1: Observe how a switch processes a broadcast and a known unicast

Step 1. Complete the Spanning Tree protocol.

Complete the Spanning Tree protocol by toggling between Realtime and Simulation modes 4
times. All link lights should turn green. Leave PT in Simulation mode.

Step 2. Open ARP and MAC tables.

Using the Inspect Tool (magnifying glass), open the ARP tables for PC A and PC B, and the
MAC table for the switch. We are not interested in the ARP table for the switch at this time. It
is related to the switch management interface, which will be covered later in Chapter 11. Move
the selection arrow over the switch to view a summary of the switch ports and their interface
MAC addresses. Please note that this is not the table of addresses that the switch learns.
Arrange the windows above the topology.

Step 3. Add a Simple PDU to ping from PC A to PC B.

Use the Add Simple PDU (the closed envelope) to send a single ping from PC A to PC B. Click
on PC A, the source, and then, click on PC B, the destination. Two events appear in the Event
List, an ICMP echo request and an ARP request to learn the MAC address of PC B. Click on
the colored boxes in the Info column to examine these events.

Step 4. Step through the simulation.

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Use the Capture / Forward button to trace the resulting sequence of packets. Since the PC A
ARP table has no entry for PC B, in order to complete the ping it must first issue an ARP
request. The switch learns the MAC address of PC A, and the port to which it is connected,
from the ARP request. It learns the MAC address of PC B, and the port to which it is
connected, from the ARP reply. The switch floods the ARP request out all ports because ARP
requests are always broadcasts. Once PC A receives the ARP reply, it can complete the ping.
From the perspective of the switch, the ping is a known unicast. When you are done tracing the
packets, click the Reset Simulation button.

Task 2: Observe how a switch processes unknown unicasts

Step 1.Clearing the switch MAC address table.

Click on the switch. Click on the CLI tab. At the command prompt, press the Enter key a few
times, the Switch> prompt will appear. Type enable and press the Enter key. This should
change the prompt to Switch#. Type the command clear mac-address-table dynamic and press
the Enter key. Note that the MAC table for the switch that you displayed earlier is once again
empty. However, the PC ARP tables are still populated. Close the switch configuration
window.

Step 2. Resend the packet.

You should still be in Simulation mode. The user created PDU (the ping from PC A to PC B
that you created in Task 1) is still in the Event List. Use the Capture / Forward button to trace
the resulting sequence of packets. Because the ARP tables are populated, no ARP request
broadcast is necessary. But the when the echo request packet reaches the switch with its empty
MAC address table, it is now considered an unknown unicast. In this case, the switch, as in the
case of the broadcast, floods the packet out all ports, except the port it was received on. When
done, delete Scenario 0 by clicking the Delete button.

Task 3: Observe switch behavior in other situations.

Step 1. Ping through a hub.

Now try pinging from PC E to PC F using the Add Simple PDU button. Trace the packets to try
to understand what is happening. Note the switch learns that two MAC addresses exist through
one of its ports, and it learned this because the hub is forwarding all packets to the switch.

Step 2.Experiment.

Try other experiments to learn about the algorithm the switch is using to process frames.

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Activity-24

Network Activity Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

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Introduction:

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used by TCP/IP to map a Layer 3 IP address to a Layer 2
MAC address. When a frame is placed on the network, it must have a destination MAC
address. To dynamically discover the MAC address to the destination device, an ARP request
is broadcast on the LAN. The device that contains the destination IP address responds, and the
MAC address is recorded in ARP cache. Every device on the LAN keeps its own ARP cache,
or small area in RAM that holds ARP results. An ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that
have not been used for a certain period of time. Depending on the device, times differ. For
example, some Windows operating systems store ARP cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry
is used again during that time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes.

ARP is an excellent example in performance tradeoff. With no cache, ARP must continually
request address translations each time a frame is placed on the network. This adds latency to
the communication and could congest the LAN. Conversely, unlimited hold times could cause
errors with devices that leave the network or change the Layer 3 address.

A network engineer needs to be aware of ARP but may not interact with the protocol on a
regular basis. ARP is a protocol that enables network devices to communicate with the TCP/IP
protocol. Without ARP, there is no efficient method to build the datagram Layer 2 destination
address. Also, ARP is a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique
used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association in a network. An attacker
forges the MAC address of a device, and frames are sent to the wrong destination. Manually
configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. Finally, an authorized
MAC address list may be configured Cisco devices to restrict network access to only approved
devices.

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Task 1: Use Packet Tracer's arp command

Step 1. Access the Command Prompt. Use the Command Prompt button from the Desktop of
PC 1A. The arp command shows only the options available in Packet Tracer.

Step 2. Use the ping command to dynamically add entries in the ARP cache.

The ping command can be used to test network connectivity. By accessing other devices, ARP

associations are dynamically added to ARP cache. Ping the 255.255.255.255 address on PC 1A
and the issue the arp -a command to view learned MAC addresses.

Task 2: Use Packet Tracer to examine ARP exchanges

Step 1. Configure Packet Tracer for packet captures.

Enter Simulation mode. Verify that the Event List Filters display only ARP and ICMP events.

Step 2. Prepare the pod host computer for ARP captures.

Use the Packet Tracer command arp -d. on PC 1A. Then Ping the address 255.255.255.255.

Step 3. Capture and evaluate ARP communication.

For the ping, after issuing the command, click the Auto Capture / Play to capture the packets.
When the Buffer Full window opens, click the View Previous Events button.

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Activity -25

Connecting Devices with Different Media Types

Learning Objectives

Examine the configuration on the routers


View the router configuration
Note the active ports
Connect the devices
Use the proper media type between devices
Verify connectivity

Introduction:

When cabling in a lab environment using actual equipment and actual media, it is important to
select the proper media type, and the proper ports to connect the devices. In many cases,
different cables use the same connector type and it is easy to connect the wrong cable type into
the wrong port, possibly damaging the equipment. In Packet Tracer, you can select different
media types to connect devices and, where the connectors are the same, plug them in to the
wrong port.

Task 1: Examine the configuration on the routers

Step 1. View the router configuration.

Click on both routers and examine the configuration using the Config tab.

Step 2.Note the active ports.Routers have many interfaces; and not all may be in use. Look at
the configuration on all of the router interfaces. For each router, note which interfaces have the
Port Status on, have IP information configured, and, for serial interfaces, which interfaces have
the Clock Speed set.

Task 2: Connect the devices

Step 1. Use the proper media type between devices.

Switches and hubs provide a cross-over function on their ports to connect a PC or a router to a
switch using a Copper Straight-through cable. Use a Copper Straight-through cable to connect
interface FastEthernet0/0 on Router1 to interface FastEthernet0/1 on the switch and to connect
interface FastEthernet on PC1 to interface FastEthernet0/2 on the switch.

A PC can be directly connected to a router using a Copper Cross-over cable. Use a Copper
Cross-over cable to connect interface FastEthernet0/0 on Router2 to interface FastEthernet on
PC2.

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A dedicated leased line between two locations consists of a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment),
such as a router, connected to a DCE (Data Communication Equipment), such as a CSU/DSU
or modem. The DCE connects to a service provider's local loop. The DCE provides a clock
signal for synchronous serial communications. In a lab environment or in Packet Tracer we use
a serial crossover cable to simulate this connection. One router is configured to provide the
clock signal on its serial interface and the DCE end of the cable connects to that interface. We
will connect interface

Step 2. Verify connectivity

From the Command Prompt on the Desktop of PC1 issue the command ping 192.168.3.2, the
IP address of PC2. If the ping fails, check your connections and troubleshoot until the ping
succeeds. Check your configuration by clicking the Check Results button.

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Activity-26

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Use the Ping Command to Test Interface Responses

Introduction:

This activity will verify that the NIC address is bound to the IPv4 address and that the NIC is
ready to transmit signals across the medium.

Task 1: Determine if the NIC address is bound to the IPv4 address

Step 1. Ping the interface IP address on a PC

Click on PC 1A. The PC configuration window opens. Click the Command Prompt button on
the Desktop tab. Enter the command ipconfig to verify the IP address assigned to the interface.
Enter the command ping 172.16.1.1, the IP address assigned to the interface. The ping should
succeed, indicating that the NIC address is bound to the IPv4 address and that the NIC is ready
to transmit signals across the medium.

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Activity-27

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Examine Common IOS Show Commands

Learning Objectives:

Examine show commands on a router


Examine show commands in user EXEC mode
Examine show commands in privileged EXEC mode
Examine show commands on a switch
Examine show commands that are common with a router
Examine show commands unique to the switch

Introduction:

This activity will examine common show commands from the CLI of a router and a switch that
are already configured as part of the standard lab topology.

Task 1: Examine show commands on a router

Step 1. Examine show commands in user EXEC mode.

Click on router R2-Central. The router configuration window opens. Click the CLI tab and
press Enter. The user EXEC mode prompt appears. Enter the command show ?to see the
available show commands.

Issue the command show interfaces and observe the output. Issue the command show interfaces
serial 0/0/0 and observe the output.

Issue the command show version and observe the output.

Issue the command show ip interface and observe the output. Issue the command show ip
interface serial0/0/0 and observe the output. Issue the command show ip interface brief and
observe the output.

Issue the command show arp. The arp parameter is not recognized because this show command
in not available in user EXEC mode.

Step 2. Examine show commands in privileged EXEC mode.

Enter the command enable to enter privileged EXEC mode. The privileged EXEC mode
prompt appears. Enter the command show ?to see the available show commands.

Issue the command show arp and observe the output. Click on PC 1A. The PC configuration
window opens. Click the Desktop tab. Click the Command Prompt button. A Command
Prompt window opens. Type ping 192.168.254.254 (the IP address of the Eagle Server) and
press Enter. Repeat the ping command on PC 1B. Reissue the command show arp and observe
the output.

Issue the command show startup-config and observe the output.

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Task 2: Connect the devices

Step 1. Use the proper media type between devices.

This lab topology has already been configured for you please continue to Step 2.

Step 2. Examine show commands unique to the switch

Issue the command show mac-address-table and observe the output.

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Activity-28

Test Connectivity to a Host on the Local Network

Introduction:

This activity will verify that the local host and remote hosts are configured properly.

Task 1: Test connectivity to a host on the local network

Step 1. Create Connectivity in PT.

Toggling between Realtime and Simulation modes 4 times to ensure that all link lights turn
green. Leave PT in Realtime mode.

Step 2. Ping the IP address of another host on the local network

Click on PC 1A. The PC configuration window opens. Click the Command Prompt button on
the Desktop tab. Enter the command ping 172.16.1.2, the IP address of PC 1B. The ping should
succeed, indicating that both PC 1A and PC 1B are configured properly.

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Activity-29

Verify Communication Across the Internetwork

Introduction:

This activity will verify that a local host can communicate across the internetwork by pinging
the

gateway IP address of the local router and the IP address of a host in a remote network.

Task 1: Determine if a local host can communicate across the internetwork

Step 1. Create connectivity in PT

Toggling between Realtime and Simulation modes 4 times to ensure that all link lights turn
green. Leave PT in Realtime mode.

Step 2. Ping the gateway IP address of the local router.

Click on PC 1A. The PC configuration window opens. Click the Command Prompt button on
the Desktop tab. Enter the command ipconfig to verify the default gateway. Enter the command
ping 172.16.255.254, the IP address of the local interface on router R2-Central. The ping
should succeed, indicating that PC 1A can reach the local router.

Step 3. Ping the IP address of a host in a remote network

Enter the command ping 192.168.254.254, the IP address of the Eagle Server. The ping should
succeed, indicating that PC 1A can reach the Eagle Server in a remote network.

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Activity-30

Corporate Network Simulation

Introduction:

This Packet Tracer Activity shows a complex network of routers with many different
technologies. Be sure to view the activity in Simulation Mode so that you can see the traffic
traveling from multiple sources to multiple destinations over various types of media.

Task 1: Examine the corporate network in Simulation Mode.

Step 1. Enter Simulation Mode.

Enter Simulation mode by pressing Shift+S or clicking on the Simulation Mode button. If you
need help using the Packet Tracer Simulation Mode, select Contents... from the Help menu to
view the Packet Tracer Help Files.

Step 2. Examine the corporate network.

Create and watch the PDU activity that occurs in Simulation Mode. Information about
Simulation Mode can be found in the Packet Tracer Help Files.

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Activity-31

Introduction:

Either in a lab setting with actual equipment or in a simulated environment such as Packet
Tracer, it is important to select the proper cables to connect devices. In this activity, we will
select the proper cables to connect the various devices.

Learning Objectives:

Connect the devices.

Verify the connections.

Task 1: Connect the devices.

Make the following connections using the proper cable:

Connect PC1 to the first port on hub H1.

Connect the next port on hub H1 to interface FastEthernet0/0 or router R1.

Connect interface FastEthernet0/1 on router R1 to the first port on switch S1.

Connect the next port on switch S1 to interface FastEthernet0/0 or router R2.

Connect interface Serial0/0/1 on router R2 to interface Serial0/0/1 or router R3. Router R2 will
provide the timing signal on this circuit.

Connect interface FastEthernet0/0 or router R3 to PC3.

Task 2: Verify the connections.

The link lights between all connections should be green and your completion rate should be
100%. If the completion rate is not 100%, use the Check Results button and troubleshoot as
necessary.

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Activity-32

Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Devices

Introduction:

Directly connected devices configured for IP can communicate with each other. Without
routing, these devices cannot communicate with other devices on networks that are not directly
connected.

Learning Objectives:

Check connectivity between devices.

Check connectivity between hosts and routers.

Check connectivity between routers.

Task 1: Check connectivity between devices.

Step 1 Check connectivity between hosts and routers.

From the command prompt on PC1, issue the command ping 172.16.3.1 to ping the
FastEthernet0/0 interface on router R1. From the command prompt on PC1 issue the command
ping 172.16.2.1 to ping the Serial0/0/0 interface on router R1. Both pings will succeed because
router R1 is directly connected to PC1. From the command prompt on PC1, issue the command
ping 172.16.2.2 to ping the Serial0/0/0 interface on router R2. This ping will fail because router
R2 is not directly connected to PC1. From PC2 and PC3 ping, the IP addresses of all the router
interfaces and note the results.

Step 2 Check connectivity between routers. From the CLI on router R1 issue the command
ping 172.16.3.10 to ping the FastEthernet interface on PC1. From the CLI on router R1 issue
the command ping 172.16.2.2 to ping the Serial0/0/0 interface on router R2. Both pings will
succeed because router R1 is directly connected to PC1 and interface Serial0/0 on R2 is in the
same subnet as Serial0/0/0 on router R1. From the CLI on router R1 issue the command ping
172.16.1.1 to ping the FastEathernet0/0 interface on router R2. This ping will fail because even
though router R2 is directly connected to router R1 the FastEathernet0/0 interface on router R2
is in a different subnet and the IP routing table on router R1 does not have a route to that
destination. This can be confirmed by issuing the show ip route command on router R1. From
router R2 and router R3 ping the IP addresses of all the router and PC interfaces and note the
results.

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Activity-33

Configure IP Addresses on Router Interfaces

Introduction:

The first step toward enabling a router to forward IP packets is to configure IP information on
the interfaces. This configuration provides access to directly connected networks.

Learning Objectives:

Configure IP information on routers.

Verify the configuration.

Verify Layer 1 and Layer 2 information.

Examine the IP routing table.

Task 1: Configure IP information on routers.

Step 1 Access router R1 and enter global configuration mode.

From the CLI tab, enter the privileged exec mode by issuing the enable command. Enter the
global configuration mode by issuing the command config t.

Step 2 Configure interfaces.

Enter the configuration mode for the first FastEthernet interface by issuing the command
interface fa0/0.

Configure the IP address by issuing the command ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 and
activate the interface with the no shutdown command.

Enter the configuration mode for the first Serial interface by issuing the command interface
s0/0/0.

Configure the IP address by issuing the command ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0.

Configure the clock rate with the clock rate 64000 command and activate the interface.

Step 3 Save the configuration.

Exit the configuration mode by hitting Ctrl+z. Save the configuration by issuing the command
copy run start.

Step 4 Configure routers R2 and R3.

Repeat Steps 1 through 3 for the other two routers using the information in the table above.

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Task 2: Verify the configuration.

Step 1 Verify Layer 1 and Layer 2 information.

On each of the three routers, verify the status of the interfaces by issuing the command show ip
interface brief. Verify the IP address on all of the interfaces and that the interfaces are up and
the line protocol is up.

Step 2 - Examine the IP routing table.

On each of the three routers, examine the IP routing table by issuing the command show ip
route. Notice that the routing table contains information only about directly connected
networks.

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Activity-34

Configure RIP Routing on a Network

Introduction:

In order to reach networks that are not directly connected, additional entries are needed in the
IP routing table. These entries could be configured by the network administrator or learned
dynamically from other routers. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) can be configured to allow
routers to exchange information and learn about remote networks.

Learning Objectives:

Configure RIP on routers.

Verify the configuration.

Examine RIP parameters.

Check connectivity.

Examine the IP routing table.

Task 1: Configure RIP on routers.

Step 1 Access router R1 and enter global configuration mode.

From the CLI tab, enter the privileged exec mode by issuing the enable command. Enter the
global configuration mode by issuing the command config t.

Step 2 Configure RIP.

Enter the router configuration mode by issuing the command router rip.

In router configuration mode, you need to specify the networks that are directly connected to
the router to start the routing process for those networks. There are two networks directly
connected to router R1, 192.168.1.0/24 and 192.168.2.0/24.

Configure the first network by issuing the command network 192.168.1.0.

Configure the second network by issuing the command network 192.168.2.0.

Step 3 Save the configuration.

Exit the configuration mode by hitting Ctrl+z. Save the configuration by issuing the command
copy run start.

Step 4 Configure routers R2 and R3.

Repeat Steps 1 through 3 for the other two routers using the information in the table above.

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Task 2: Verify the configuration.

Step 1 Examine the RIP parameters.

On each of the three routers, examine RIP parameters by issuing the command show ip
protocols.

Step 2 - Examine the IP routing table.

On each of the three routers, examine the IP routing table by issuing the command show ip
route. There should be an entry in the routing table for all five networks.

Step 3 - Check connectivity.

Verify full connectivity by pinging from each PC to the other two PCs. All pings should
succeed.

At the end of this activity your completion rate should be 100%. If the completion rate is not
100%, use the Check Results button and troubleshoot as necessary.

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Activity-35

Configure RIPv2

Learning Objectives

Upgrade the network to RIPv2.

Disable automatic summarization.

Introduction:

RIPv2 is an updated version that supports VLSM and CIDR by carrying subnet mask
information in its routing update packets. The default behavior of RIPv2, however, is to
automatically summarize routes on classful boundaries. In this activity, we will use Packet
Tracer to configure RIPv2 and disable automatic summarization of the network containing
discontiguous subnets. You will then examine the changes in the operation of the network.

Task 1: Upgrade the network to RIPv2.

Step 1. Examine the operation of RIPv1.

On each of the three routers, access the router from the CLI and examine RIP parameters by
issuing the command show ip protocols. Notice the version of the RIP updates being sent and
received.

On each of the three routers, access the router from the CLI and examine the IP routing table by
issuing the command show ip route. Examine the missing routes on R1 and R3 plus the
multiple paths to 172.30.0.0/16 on R2.

Step 2. Configure the routers for RIPv2.

On each of the three routers, enter privileged exec mode, enter global configuration mode, enter
router configuration mode by issuing the command router rip, issue the command version 2,
and exit configuration mode by using Ctrl+z.

On each of the three routers, issue the command clear ip route * to force the routers to rebuild
their routing tables. Wait about a minute for the network to converge.

Step 3. Examine the operation of RIPv2 with automatic summarization.

On each of the three routers, access the router from the CLI and examine RIP parameters by
issuing the command show ip protocols. Notice the version of the RIP updates being sent and
received.

On each of the three routers, access the router from the CLI and examine the IP routing table by
issuing the command show ip route. Notice the missing routes on R1 and R3 plus the multiple
paths to 172.30.0.0/16 on R2 are still there despite the upgrade to RIPv2.

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Access router R2 from the CLI. View routing updates by issuing the command debug ip rip.
Allow the command to run for a few minutes. Notice the updates received from the other
routers and the updates multicast to the other routers. Be sure to issue the command undebug
all to turn off debugging. RIPv2 updates are being sent to the multicast address of 224.0.0.9 (all
RIPv2 routers). We are still receiving updates to the classful network 172.30.0.0/16 from both
of the other routers.

Task 2: Disable automatic summarization.

Step 1. Configure the routers not to automatically summarize routes.

On each of the three routers, enter global configuration mode, enter router configuration mode
by issuing the command router rip, issue the command no auto-summary, and exit
configuration mode by using Ctrl+z. Save the configuration by issuing the command copy run
start.

On each of the three routers, issue the command clear ip route * to force the routers to rebuild
their routing tables. Wait about a minute for the network to converge.

Step 2. Examine the operation of RIPv2 without automatic summarization.

On each of the three routers, access the router from the CLI and examine RIP parameters by
issuing the command show ip protocols. Notice that automatic summarization is not in effect.

On each of the three routers, access the router from the CLI and examine the IP routing table by
issuing the command show ip route. Notice all of the routers have specific routes to all of the
networks in the topology.

Access router R2 from the CLI. View routing updates by issuing the command debug ip rip.
Allow the command to run for a few minutes. Notice the updates received from the other
routers and the updates multicast to the other routers. Be sure to issue the command undebug
all to turn off debugging. Detailed updates for all subnets are sent and received by the router.

Verify that all three routers can ping the FastEthernet interfaces of the other two routers.

Step 3. Examine RIPv2 updates in Simulation mode.

Enter Simulation mode. The Event List Filters is set to show only RIP events.

Click the Auto Capture / Play button. Watch the simulation. When prompted, click the OK
button.

Click the colored boxes in the Info column in the Events List for all of the events. Examine the
PDU information at Layer 3, 4, and 7 to understand the exchange process. Examine the
Inbound and Outbound PDU details to understand the content of the RIPv2 updates.

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