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2/12/2017 LightingArrester|ElectricalNotes&Articles

ElectricalNotes&Articles

SharingAbstracts,NotesonvariousElectricalEngineeringTopics.

LightingArrester

MARCH30,2011 51COMMENTS(HTTPS://ELECTRICALNOTES.WORDPRESS.COM/2011/03/30/LIGHTING
ARRESTER/#COMMENTS)

LightingandVoltageSurge

Lightningcancreatevoltagesurgesinseveralofthefollowingways.Lightningcanscoreadirecthitonyourhouse.Itcanstrike
theoverheadpowerlinewhichentersyourhouse,oramainpowerlinethatisblocksawayfromyourhome.Lightningcanstrike
branchcircuitrywiringinthewallsofyourhouse.Lightningcanstrikeanobjectnearyourhomesuchasatreeortheground
itselfandcauseasurge.Voltagesurgescanbecreatedbycloudtocloudlightningnearyourhome.Ahighlychargedcloud
whichpassesoveryourhomecanalsoinduceavoltagesurge.
Voltagesurgescanalsobecausedbystandardonandoswitchingactivitiesoflargeelectricmotorsorpiecesofequipment.
Thesesurgescanbecreatedbyaneighbor,orbyabusinessormanufacturingfacilitysomedistancefromyourhouse.These
surgesareinsidiousandforthemostpartaresilent.Theycanoccurwithlileornowarning.

MethodtoSuppressLightingandVoltageSurge:

Whenavoltagesurgeiscreated,itwantstoequalizeitselfanditwantstodoitasquicklyaspossible.Thesethingsseemtohave
verylilepatience.Thesurgeswilldowhateverittakestoequalizeorneutralizethemselves,evenifitmeansshortcircuitingall
ofyourelectronicequipment.
Themethodofprovidingmaximumprotectionforequipmentisquitesimple.Createapathwayforthevoltagesurge(electricity)
togettoandintothegroundoutsideyourhouseasquicklyaspossible.Thisisnot,inmostcases,adiculttask.
Therststepissimple.Createanexcellentgroundingsystemforyourhouseholdelectricalsystem.Thevastmajorityofhomes
donothaveanexcellentgroundingsystem.Manyhomeshaveasinglegroundingrodand/orametallicundergroundwaterpipe
whicharepartoftheelectricalgroundingsystem.Inmostcases,thisisinadequate.Thereasonissomewhateasytoexplain.
Imaginepuingatwoinchrehoseintoyourkitchensinkandopeningthenozzletothefullonposition.Idoubtthatthedrain
inyoursinkcouldhandleallofthewater.Yourgroundingsystemwouldreactinthesamewaytoamassivevoltagesurge.Just
asthewaterjumpsoutofthesink,theelectricityjumpsfromthegroundingsystemandlooksforplacestogo.Frequentlyitlooks
forthemicrochipsinyourelectronicdevices.Theyareaneasytarget.Theyoerapathofleastresistance.
Voltagesurgeswanttobedirectedtothegroundingsystem,andwhentheydo,theywanttogetintothegroundaroundyour
houseinahurry.Youcanachievethisbydrivingnumerousgroundingrodsintovirginsoilaroundyourhouse.Theserods
shouldbeULapprovedandconnectedbyacontinuousheavysolidcopperwirewhichisweldedtoeachgroundingrod.This
solidcopperwirebeginsonthegroundingbarinsideofyourelectricalpanelandterminatesatthelastgroundingrod.Avoid
usingclampsifatallpossible.Overtime,theconnectionattheclampcancorrodeorbecomeloosecreatingtremendous
resistance.Thiswillactasaroadblocktotheelectricitytryingtogetintothegroundaroundyourhome.
Thegroundingrodsshouldbeatleasttenfeetapartfromoneanother.Theyshouldbelocatedinsoilwhichreadilyaccepts
electricity.Moistclaysoilsareverydesirable.Rocky,sandy,orsoilswithgravelgenerallyhavehighresistancefactors.Electricity
hasatoughtimedissipatingintothem.Resistancereadingsshouldbeintherangeof10to30ohms.Thelowerthebeer.
Thesecondstepinhouseholdsurgeprotectionistoinstallalightningarresterinsideofyourelectricservicepanel.Thesedevices
canbeextremelyeectiveininterceptinglargevoltagesurgeswhichtravelintheelectricpowerlines.Thesedevicescapturethe
voltagesurgesandbleedthemotothegroundingwirewhichwejustspokeof.Ifforsomereasonyoudonothavealarge
enoughgroundingwire,orenoughgroundrods,thearrestercannotdoitsjob.Itmustbeabletosendthesurgequicklytothe
groundoutsideofyourhouse.Almosteverymanufacturerofcircuitbreakersmakesonetotinsidetheirpanel.Theycanbe
installedbyahomeownerwhoisexperiencedindealingwithhighvoltagepanels.Ifyoudonothavethiscapability,havean
experiencedelectricianinstallitforyou.
Thenalstepintheprotectionplanistoinstallpointofusesurgesuppressiondevices.Oftenyouwillseethesecalledtransient
voltagesurgesuppressors.Theseareyourlastlineofdefense.Theyarecapableofonlystoppingtheleftovervoltagesurge
whichgotpastthegroundingsystemandthelightningarrester.Theycannotprotectyourelectronicdevicesbythemselves.They
mustbeusedinconjunctionwiththegroundingsystemandthelightningarresters.Donotbelulledintoafalsesenseofsecurity
ifyoumerelyuseoneofthesedevices!

Thepointofusesurgesuppressiondevicesareavailableinvariouslevelsofquality.Somearemuchbeerthanothers.What
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Thepointofusesurgesuppressiondevicesareavailableinvariouslevelsofquality.Somearemuchbeerthanothers.What
setsthemapartareseveralthings.Generallyspeaking,youlooktoseehowfasttheirresponsetimeis.Thisisoftenreferredtoas
clampingspeed.Also,looktoseehowhighofavoltagesurgetheywillsuppress.Makesurethatthedevicehasa500volt
maximumULratedsuppressionlevel.Checktoseeifithasanindicator,eithervisualoraudio,whichletsyouknowifitisnot
working.Thebeerunitsoerboth,incaseyouinstallthedeviceoutofsight.Checktoseeifitoersavarietyofmodeswith
respecttoprotection.Forexample,doesthedeviceoerprotectionforsurgeswhichoccurbetweenthehotandneutral,between
hotandground,aswellasbetweenneutralandground.Thereisadierence!Checktoseeifitmonitorsthenormalsinewaves
ofregularhouseholdcurrent.Surgescancauseirregularitiesinthesewavepaerns.Goodtransientsurgesuppressiondevices
devourthesevoltagespikes.Finally,checkthejoulerating.Aempttolocateadevicewhichhasajouleratingof140orhigher.
Electricalsupplyhousesoftenarethebestplacetolookforthesehighqualitydevices.
Somedevicescanalsoprotectyourphoneequipmentatthesametime.Thisisveryimportantforthoseindividualswhohave
computermodems.Massivevoltagesurgescancomeacrossphonelinesaswell.Thesesurgescanenteryourcomputerthrough
thetelephoneline!Dontforgettoprotectthislineaswell.Also,besurethetelephonegroundwireistiedtotheupgraded
electricalgroundingsystem.

Whatisasurgearrester?

Surgearrestersaredevicesthathelppreventdamagetoapparatusduetohighvoltages.Thearresterprovidesalowimpedance
pathtogroundforthecurrentfromalightningstrikeortransientvoltageandthenrestorestoanormaloperatingconditions.
Asurgearrestermaybecomparedtoareliefvalveonaboilerorhotwaterheater.Itwillreleasehighpressureuntilanormal
operatingconditionisreached.Whenthepressureisreturnedtonormal,thesafetyvalveisreadyforthenextoperation.
Whenahighvoltage(greaterthanthenormallinevoltage)existsontheline,thearresterimmediatelyfurnishesapathtoground
andthuslimitsanddrainsotheexcessvoltage.Thearrestermustprovidethisreliefandthenpreventanyfurtherowof
currenttoground.Thearresterhastwofunctions;itmustprovideapointinthecircuitatwhichanovervoltagepulsecanpassto
groundandsecond,topreventanyfollowupcurrentfromowingtoground.

Causesofovervoltages

Internalcauses
Externalcauses

Internalcauses

Switchingsurge
Insulationfailure
Arcingground
Resonance
Switchingsurge:Theovervoltagesproducedonthepowersystemduetoswitchingareknownasswitchingsurge.
Insulationfailure:Themostcommoncaseofinsulationfailureinapowersystemisthegroundingofconductors(i.e.insulation
failurebetweenlineandearth)whichmaycauseovervoltageinthesystem.
Arcingground:Thephenomenonofintermientarctakingplaceinlinetogroundfaultofa3phasesystemwithconsequent
productionoftransientsisknownasarcingground.
Resonance:Itoccursinanelectricalsystemwheninductivereactanceofthecircuitbecomesequaltocapacitivereactance.under
resonance,theimpedanceofthecircuitisequaltoresistanceofthecircuitandthep.fisunity.

Typesoflightningstrokes

Directstroke
Indirectstroke

(1)Directstroke

Indirectstroke,thelightningdischargeisdirectlyfromthecloudtothesubjectequipment.Fromtheline,thecurrentpathmay
beovertheinsulatordownthepoletotheground.

(2)Indirectstroke

Indirectstrokeresultsfromtheelectrostaticallyinducedchargesontheconductorsduetothepresenceofchargeclouds.

Harmfuleectsoflightning

Thetravelingwavesproducedduetolightningwillshaertheinsulators.
Ifthetravelingwaveshitthewindingsofatransformerorgeneratoritmaycauseconsiderabledamage.

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Protectionagainstlightning

Dierenttypesofprotectivedevicesare:
Earthingscreen
Overheadgroundwires
Lightningarresters

(1)TheEarthingscreen

Thepowerstation&substationcanbeprotectedagainstdirectlightningstrokesbyprovidingearthingscreens.
Onoccurrenceofdirectstrokeonthestation,screenprovidesalowresistancepathbywhichlightningsurgesareconductedto
ground.
Limitation:
Itdoesnotprovideprotectionagainstthetravelingwaveswhichmayreachtheequipmentsinthestation.

(2)Overheadgroundwires

Itisthemosteectivewayofprovidingprotectiontotransmissionlinesagainstdirectlightningstrokes.
Itprovidesdampingeectonanydisturbancetravelingalongthelinesasitactsasashortcircuitedsecondary.
Limitation:
Itrequiresadditionalcost.
Thereisapossibilityofitsbreakingandfallingacrossthelineconductors,therebycausingashortcircuitfault.

(3)LightningArresters

Itisaprotectivedevicewhichconductsthehighvoltagesurgeonthepowersystemtoground
Theearthingscreenandgroundwiresfailtoprovideprotectionagainsttravelingwaves.Thelightningarresterprovides
protectionagainstsurges.

ACPowerSurgeArrester

Type1SurgeProtectors

Type1surgeprotectorsaredesignedtobeinstalledwhereadirectlightningstrikeriskishigh,especiallywhenthebuildingis
equippedwithexternallightningprotectionsystem(LPSorlightningrod).
InthissituationIEC6164311standardsrequiretheClassItesttobeappliedtosurgeprotectors:thistestischaracterizedbythe
injectionof10/350simpulsecurrentinordertosimulatethedirectlightningstrikeconsequence.ThereforetheseType1surge
protectorsmustbeespeciallypowerfultoconductthishighenergyimpulsecurrent.

Type2surgeprotectors

Type2surgeprotectorsaredesignedtobeinstalledatthebeginningoftheinstallation,inthemainswitchboard,orcloseto
sensitiveterminals,oninstallationswithoutLPS(lightningrods).
TheseprotectorsaretestedfollowingtheClassIItestfromIEC6164311basedon8/20simpulsecurrentinjection.

Type3surgeprotectors

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Incaseofverysensitiveorremoteequipment,secondarystageofsurgeprotectorsisrequired:theselowenergySPDscouldbe
Type2orType3.Type3SPDsaretestedwithacombinationwaveform(1,2/50s8/20s)followingClassIIItest.

TypesofLightningArrestorsaccordingtoClass:

1.StationClass

Stationclassarrestorsaretypicallyusedinelectricalpowerstationsorsubstationsandotherhighvoltagestructuresandareas.
Thesearrestorsprotectagainstbothlightningandovervoltages,whentheelectricaldevicehasmorecurrentinthesystemthanit
isdesignedtohandle.
Thesearrestorsaredesignedtoprotectequipmentabovethe20mVArange.

2.IntermediateClass

Likestationclassarrestors,intermediateclassarrestorsprotectagainstsurgesfromlightningandovervoltages,butaredesigned
tobeusedinmediumvoltageequipmentareas,suchaselectricalutilitystations,substations,transformersorothersubstation
equipment.
Thesearrestorsaredesignedforuseonequipmentintherangeof1to20mVA.

3.DistributionClass

Distributionclassarrestorsaremostcommonlyfoundontransformers,bothdrytypeandliquidlled.
Thesearrestorsarefoundonequipmentratedat1000kVAorless.
Thesearrestorsaresometimesfoundonexposedlinesthathavedirectconnectionstorotatingmachines.

4.SecondaryClass

Secondaryclasslightningarrestorsaredesignedtoprotectmosthomesandbusinessesfromlightningstrikes,andarerequired
bymostelectricalcodes,accordingto,Inc.,anelectricalpowerprotectioncompany.
Thesearrestorscausehighvoltageoveragestoground,thoughtheydonotshortalltheovervoltagefromasurge.Secondary
classarrestorsoertheleastamountofprotectiontoelectricalsystems,andtypicallydonotprotectsolidstatetechnology,or
anythingthathasamicroprocessor.

ChoosingtherightACPowerSurgeArrester

ACpowersurgeprotectorsisdesignedtocoverallpossiblecongurationsinlowvoltageinstallations.Theyareavailablein
manyversions,whichdierin:
Typeortestclass(1,2or3)
Operatingvoltage(Uc)
ACnetworkconguration(Single/3Phase)
Dischargecurrents(Iimp,Imax,In)
Protectionlevel(Up)
Protectiontechnology(varistors,gastubevaristor,lter)
Features(redundancy,dierentialmode,plugin,remotesignaling).
Thesurgeprotectionselectionmustbedonefollowingthelocalelectricalcoderequirements(i.e.:minimumratingforIn)and
specicconditions(i.e.:highlightningdensity).

WorkingPrincipleofLA:

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Theearthingscreenandgroundwirescanwellprotecttheelectricalsystemagainstdirectlightningstrokesbuttheyfailto
provideprotectionagainsttravelingwaves,whichmayreachtheterminalapparatus.Thelightningarrestersorsurgediverts
provideprotectionagainstsuchsurges.Alightningarresterorasurgedivertedisaprotectivedevice,whichconductsthehigh
voltagesurgesonthepowersystemtotheground.
Theearthingscreenandgroundwirescanwellprotecttheelectricalsystemagainstdirectlightningstrokesbuttheyfailto
provideprotectionagainsttravelingwaves,whichmayreachtheterminalapparatus.Thelightningarrestersorsurgediverters
provideprotectionagainstsuchsurges.Alightningarresterorasurgedivertedisaprotectivedevice,whichconductsthehigh
voltagesurgesonthepowersystemtotheground.

(hps://electricalnotes.les.wordpress.com/2011/03/19.png)

Figshowsthebasicformofasurgediverter.Itconsistsofasparkgapinserieswithanonlinearresistor.Oneendofthediverter
isconnectedtotheterminaloftheequipmenttobeprotectedandtheotherendiseectivelygrounded.Thelengthofthegapis
sosetthatnormalvoltageisnotenoughtocauseanarcbutadangerouslyhighvoltagewillbreakdowntheairinsulationand
formanarc.Thepropertyofthenonlinearresistanceisthatitsresistanceincreasesasthevoltage(orcurrent)increasesandvice
versa.Thisisclearfromthevolt/ampcharacteristicoftheresistorshowninFig
Theactionofthelightningarresterorsurgediverterisasunder:
(i)Undernormaloperation,thelightningarresterisothelinei.e.itconductsnocurrenttoearthorthegapisnonconducting
(ii)Ontheoccurrenceofovervoltage,theairinsulationacrossthegapbreaksdownandanarcisformedprovidingalow
resistancepathforthesurgetotheground.Inthisway,theexcesschargeonthelineduetothesurgeisharmlesslyconducted
throughthearrestertothegroundinsteadofbeingsentbackovertheline.
(iii)Itisworthwhiletomentionthefunctionofnonlinearresistorintheoperationofarrester.Asthegapsparksoverduetoover
voltage,thearcwouldbeashortcircuitonthepowersystemandmaycausepowerfollowcurrentinthearrester.Sincethe
characteristicoftheresistoristooerlowresistancetohighvoltage(orcurrent),itgivestheeectofshortcircuit.Afterthesurge
isover,theresistoroershighresistancetomakethegapnonconducting.

TypeofLAforOutdoorApplications:

Thereareseveraltypesoflightningarrestersingeneraluse.Theydieronlyinconstructionaldetailsbutoperateonthesame
principle,providinglowresistancepathforthesurgestotheround.
1.Rodarrester
2.Horngaparrester
3.Multigaparrester
4.Expulsiontypelightningarrester
5.Valvetypelightningarrester

(1)RodGapArrester

Itisaverysimpletypeofdiverterandconsistsoftwo1.5cmrods,whicharebentatrightangleswithagapinbetweenasshown
inFig.
Onerodisconnectedtothelinecircuitandtheotherrodisconnectedtoearth.Thedistancebetweengapandinsulator(i.e.
distanceP)mustnotbelessthanonethirdofthegaplengthsothatthearcmaynotreachtheinsulatoranddamageit.Generally,
thegaplengthissoadjustedthatbreakdownshouldoccurat80%ofsparkvoltageinordertoavoidcascadingofverysteep
wavefrontsacrosstheinsulators.
Thestringofinsulatorsforanoverheadlineonthebushingoftransformerhasfrequentlyarodgapacrossit.Fig8showstherod
gapacrossthebushingofatransformer.Undernormaloperatingconditions,thegapremainsnonconducting.Ontheoccurrence
ofahighvoltagesurgeontheline,thegapsparksoverandthesurgecurrentisconductedtoearth.Inthiswayexcesschargeon
thelineduetothesurgeisharmlesslyconductedtoearth

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(hps://electricalnotes.les.wordpress.com/2011/03/29.png)Limitations:

(i)Afterthesurgeisover,thearcinthegapismaintainedbythenormalsupplyvoltage,leadingtoshortcircuitonthesystem.

(ii)Therodsmaymeltorgetdamagedduetoexcessiveheatproducedbythearc.

(iii)Theclimaticconditions(e.g.rain,humidity,temperatureetc.)aecttheperformanceofrodgaparrester.

(iv)Thepolarityofthefthesurgealsoaectstheperformanceofthisarrester.

Duetotheabovelimitations,therodgaparresterisonlyusedasabackupprotectionincaseofmainarresters.

(2)HornGapArrester:

Figshowsthehorngaparrester.ItconsistsofahornshapedmetalrodsAandBseparatedbyasmallairgap.Thehornsareso
constructedthatdistancebetweenthemgraduallyincreasestowardsthetopasshown.
Thehornsaremountedonporcelaininsulators.OneendofhornisconnectedtothelinethrougharesistanceandchokecoilL
whiletheotherendiseectivelygrounded.
TheresistanceRhelpsinlimitingthefollowcurrenttoasmallvalue.Thechokecoilissodesignedthatitoerssmallreactanceat
normalpowerfrequencybutaveryhighreactanceattransientfrequency.Thusthechokedoesnotallowthetransientstoenter
theapparatustobeprotected.
Thegapbetweenthehornsissoadjustedthatnormalsupplyvoltageisnotenoughtocauseanarcacrossthegap.

(hps://electricalnotes.les.wordpress.com/2011/03/3.png)

Undernormalconditions,thegapisnonconductingi.e.normalsupplyvoltageisinsucienttoinitiatethearcbetweenthegap.
Ontheoccurrenceofanovervoltage,sparkovertakesplaceacrossthesmallgapG.Theheatedairaroundthearcandthe
magneticeectofthearccausethearctotravelupthegap.Thearcmovesprogressivelyintopositions1,2and3.
Atsomepositionofthearc(position3),thedistancemaybetoogreatforthevoltagetomaintainthearc;consequently,thearcis
extinguished.Theexcesschargeonthelineisthusconductedthroughthearrestertotheground.

(3)MultiGapArrester:

Figshowsthemultigaparrester.Itconsistsofaseriesofmetallic(generallyalloyofzinc)cylindersinsulatedfromoneanother
andseparatedbysmallintervalsofairgaps.Therstcylinder(i.e.A)intheseriesisconnectedtothelineandtheotherstothe
groundthroughaseriesresistance.Theseriesresistancelimitsthepowerarc.Bytheinclusionofseriesresistance,thedegreeof
protectionagainsttravelingwavesisreduced.
Inordertoovercomethisdiculty,someofthegaps(BtoCinFig)areshuntedbyresistance.Undernormalconditions,the
pointBisatearthpotentialandthenormalsupplyvoltageisunabletobreakdowntheseriesgaps.Ontheoccurrenceanover
voltage,thebreakdownofseriesgapsAtoBoccurs.
TheheavycurrentafterbreakdownwillchoosethestraightthroughpathtoearthviatheshuntedgapsBandC,insteadofthe
alternativepaththroughtheshuntresistance.

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(hps://electricalnotes.les.wordpress.com/2011/03/5.png)

Hencethesurgeisover,thearcsBtoCgooutandanypowercurrentfollowingthesurgeislimitedbythetworesistances(shunt
resistanceandseriesresistance)whicharenowinseries.ThecurrentistoosmalltomaintainthearcsinthegapsAtoBand
normalconditionsarerestored.Sucharresterscanbeemployedwheresystemvoltagedoesnotexceed33kV.

(4)ExpulsionTypeArrester:

Thistypeofarresterisalsocalledprotectortubeandiscommonlyusedonsystemoperatingatvoltagesupto33kV.Figshows
theessentialpartsofanexpulsiontypelightningarrester.
ItessentiallyconsistsofarodgapAAinserieswithasecondgapenclosedwithinthebertube.Thegapinthebertubeis
formedbytwoelectrodes.Theupperelectrodeisconnectedtorodgapandthelowerelectrodetotheearth.Oneexpulsion
arresterisplacedundereachlineconductor.Figshowstheinstallationofexpulsionarresteronanoverheadline.

(hps://electricalnotes.les.wordpress.com/2011/03/6.png)

Ontheoccurrenceofanovervoltageontheline,theseriesgapAAspannedandanarcisstuckbetweentheelectrodesinthe
tube.Theheatofthearcvaporizessomeoftheberoftubewallsresultingintheproductionofneutralgas.Inanextremelyshort
time,thegasbuildsuphighpressureandisexpelledthroughthelowerelectrode,whichishollow.Asthegasleavesthetube
violentlyitcarriesawayionizedairaroundthearc.Thisdeionizingeectisgenerallysostrongthatthearcgoesoutatacurrent
zeroandwillnotbereestablished.

Advantages:

(i)Theyarenotveryexpensive.

(ii)Theyareimprovedformofrodgaparrestersastheyblocktheowofpowerfrequencyfollowcurrents

(iii)Theycanbeeasilyinstalled.

Limitations:

(i)Anexpulsiontypearrestercanperformonlylimitednumberofoperationsasduringeachoperationsomeofthebermaterial
isusedup.

(ii)Thistypeofarrestercannotbemountedonenclosedequipmentduetodischargeofgasesduringoperation.

(iii)Duetothepoorvolt/amcharacteristicofthearrester,itisnotsuitableforprotectionofexpensiveequipment

(5)ValveTypeArrester:

Valvetypearrestersincorporatenonlinearresistorsandareextensivelyusedonsystems,operatingathighvoltages.Figshows
thevariouspartsofavalvetypearrester.Itconsistsoftwoassemblies(i)seriessparkgapsand(ii)nonlinearresistordiscsin
series.Thenonlinearelementsareconnectedinserieswiththesparkgaps.Boththeassembliesareaccommodatedintight
porcelaincontainer.
Thesparkgapisamultipleassemblyconsistingofanumberofidenticalsparkgapsinseries.Eachgapconsistsoftwoelectrodes
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Thesparkgapisamultipleassemblyconsistingofanumberofidenticalsparkgapsinseries.Eachgapconsistsoftwoelectrodes
withxedgapspacing.Thevoltagedistributionacrossthegapislineraisedbymeansofadditionalresistanceelementscalled
gradingresistorsacrossthegap.Thespacingoftheseriesgapsissuchthatitwillwithstandthenormalcircuitvoltage.However
anovervoltagewillcausethegaptobreakdowncausingthesurgecurrenttogroundviathenonlinearresistors.
Thenonlinearresistordiscsaremadeofinorganiccompoundsuchasthyriteormetrosil.Thesediscsareconnectedinseries.
Thenonlinearresistorshavethepropertyofoeringahighresistancetocurrentowwhennormalsystemvoltageisapplied,
butalowresistancetotheowofhighsurgecurrents.Inotherwords,theresistanceofthesenonlinearelementsdecreaseswith
theincreaseincurrentthroughthemandviceversa.

(hps://electricalnotes.les.wordpress.com/2011/03/7.png)Working.

Undernormalconditions,thenormalsystemvoltageisinsucienttocausethebreakdownofairgapassembly.Onthe
occurrenceofanovervoltage,thebreakdownoftheseriessparkgaptakesplaceandthesurgecurrentisconductedtoearthvia
thenonlinearresistors.Sincethemagnitudeofsurgecurrentisverylarge,thenonlinearelementswilloeraverylow
resistancetothepassageofsurge.Theresultisthatthesurgewillrapidlygotoearthinsteadofbeingsentbackovertheline.
Whenthesurgeisover,thenonlinearresistorsassumehighresistancetostoptheowofcurrent.

(6)Siliconcarbidearresters:

Agreatnumberofsiliconcarbidearrestersarestillinservice.Thesiliconcarbidearresterhassomeunusualelectrical
characteristics.Ithasaveryhighresistancetolowvoltage,butaverylowresistancetohighvoltage.
Whenlightningstrikesoratransientvoltageoccursonthesystem,thereisasuddenriseinvoltageandcurrent.Thesilicon
carbideresistancebreaksdownallowingthecurrenttobeconductedtoground.Afterthesurgehaspassed,theresistanceofthe
siliconcarbideblocksincreasesallowingnormaloperation.
Thesiliconcarbidearresterusesnonlinearresistorsmadeofbondedsiliconcarbideplacedinserieswithgaps.Thefunctionof
thegapsistoisolatetheresistorsfromthenormalsteadystatesystemvoltage.Onemajordrawbackisthegapsrequireelaborate
designtoensureconsistentsparkoverlevelandpositiveclearing(resealing)afterasurgepasses.Itshouldberecognizedthat
overaperiodofoperationsthatmeltedparticlesofcoppermightformwhichcouldleadtoareductionofthebreakdownvoltage
duetothepinpointeect.Overaperiodoftime,thearrestergapwillbreakdownatsmallovervoltagesorevenatnormal
operatingvoltages.Extremecareshouldbetakenonarrestersthathavefailedbuttheoverpressurereliefvalvedidnotoperate.
Thispressuremaycausethearresterto

(7)MetalOxideArrestor:

TheMOVarresteristhearresterusuallyinstalledtoday
Themetaloxidearrestersarewithoutgaps,unliketheSICarrester.Thisgaplessdesigneliminatesthehighheatassociated
withthearcingdischarges.
TheMOVarresterhastwovoltagerating:dutycycleandmaximumcontinuousoperatingvoltage,unlikethesiliconcarbidethat
justhasthedutycyclerating.Ametaloxidesurgearresterutilizingzincoxideblocksprovidesthebestperformance,assurge
voltageconductionstartsandstopspromptlyataprecisevoltagelevel,therebyimprovingsystemprotection.Failureisreduced,
asthereisnoairgapcontaminationpossibility;butthereisalwaysasmallvalueofleakagecurrentpresentatoperating
frequency.
Itisimportantforthetestpersonneltobeawarethatwhenametaloxidearresterisdisconnectedfromanenergizedlineasmall
amountofstaticchargecanberetainedbythearrester.Asasafetyprecaution,thetestershouldinstallatemporarygroundto
dischargeanystoredenergy.
Dutycyclerating:ThesiliconcarbideandMOVarresterhaveadutycycleratinginKV,whichisdeterminedbydutycycle
testing.DutycycletestingofanarresterisperformedbysubjectinganarrestertoanACrmsvoltageequaltoitsratingfor24
minutes.Duringwhichthearrestermustbeabletowithstandlightningsurgesat1minuteintervals.
Maximumcontinuousoperatingvoltagerating:TheMCOVratingisusually80to90%ofthedutycyclerating.

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InstallationofLA:

Thearrestershouldbeconnectedtogroundtoalowresistanceforeectivedischargeofthesurgecurrent.
Thearrestershouldbemountedclosetotheequipmenttobeprotected&connectedwithshortestpossibleleadonboththeline
&groundsidetoreducetheinductiveeectsoftheleadswhiledischarginglargesurgecurrent.

MaintenanceofLA:

Cleaningtheoutsideofthearresterhousing.
Thelineshouldbedeenergizedbeforehandlingthearrester.
Theearthconnectionshouldbecheckedperiodically.
Torecordthereadingsofthesurgecounter.
Thelineleadissecurelyfastenedtothelineconductorandarrester
Thegroundleadissecurelyfastenedtothearresterterminalandground.

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AboutJignesh.Parmar
JigneshParmarhascompletedM.Tech(PowerSystemControl),B.E(Electrical)fromGujaratUniversity.Hehasmorethan13years
experienceinPowerTransmissionPowerDistributionElectricalenergytheftdetectionElectricalMaintenanceElectrical
Projects(PlanningDesigningcoordinationExecution).HeisPresentlyassociatewithoneoftheleadingbusinessgroupasaDeputy
ManageratAhmedabad,India.HeisFreelancerProgrammerofAdvanceExcelanddesignusefulExcelSheetsofElectrical
EngineeringasperIS,NEC,IEC,IEEEcodes.HeistechnicalAuthorforElectricalMirrorandElectricalIndiaMagazines.Heis
TechnicalBloggerandFamiliarwithEnglish,Hindi,Gujarati,Frenchlanguages.HewantstoSharehisexperience&knowledgeand
helptechnicalenthusiaststondsuitablesolutionsandupdatingthemselvesonvariousEngineeringTopics.

51ResponsestoLightingArrester

sanjaysays:
April4,2011at5:03pm
DearSir,
Thankyouverymuchforthevaluableinformationaboutelectricalengineering.
Sir,
PleasegiveustipsonPaneldesigning(MCC,PCC).

sanjay

Reply
shaileshraisays:
September30,2011at2:50pm
verygoodnotes.shaileshrai

Reply
kathiresankrishnamoorthysays:
April19,2011at5:31am

pleaseinformushowtoinstallalightingarrestertoadistributiontransformerandtheconnectiondiagram.
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2011/03/30/lightingarrester/ 9/14
2/12/2017 LightingArrester|ElectricalNotes&Articles
pleaseinformushowtoinstallalightingarrestertoadistributiontransformerandtheconnectiondiagram.
pleasetellushowtoearththearresterwithdiagram

Reply
SyedSaifAhmedsays:
May23,2011at12:23pm
Youareverygr8sir
thankyouverymuch..forinformationwhichismuchusefultous

Reply
michaelsays:
June7,2011at12:18pm
HI,
Yournotes,ihavendthimverygood.keepitup.

Reply
S.Balamurugansays:
June16,2011at4:58pm
DearMr.Jignesh.Parmar

IneedchecklistforLightningArrester.Doyouhaveanychecklistforthatmeanskindlysendthebelowmailid.Awaitingyour
reply.

Regards,

S.Balamurugan.

Reply
ZulfeqarAlisays:
July13,2011at11:56am
DearSir,

Yourarticlesareveryusefullindailylife.ThanksforSharingthisgreatinformation.

NowIwanttoknowthatwhenlightningoccursliveconductorisshortcircuitedthroughLAatthattimelinewilltripornot?

Pleaseexplain.

AliZ

Reply
jamalsays:
August16,2011at10:28pm
dearsir;
thankyouforthisgreatexplanation.
IwanttoKnowthedierenceBetweenInandImaxfortheSPD
andwheniamsayingthattheratingfortheSPDforexample50KAthisisfortheInorfortheImax.
thanksalot.
jamal

Reply
VivekDeshmukhsays:
September10,2011at9:56am
DearSir,

Manythanksfortheinfo.Myquestionisisthereanyformulaformeasuringthedistancebetweenthearrestorandthe
transformer?

Iwouldlikeareplysir.

bestregards

Vivek.

Reply
Rakeshsharmasays:
September12,2011at11:45am
yournotesisverygood.
Thanks,

Reply
DipaliSangalesays:
July11,2012at1:14pm

RespectedSir,
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2011/03/30/lightingarrester/ 10/14
2/12/2017 LightingArrester|ElectricalNotes&Articles
RespectedSir,
Reallygoodsnotesofyours
Thankyousomuchsir

Reply
abdillahishabansays:
November15,2012at11:47am
ineedtoworkwithyousothaticangetmorefromyou

Reply
Jignesh.Parmarsays:
November15,2012at4:51pm
NotgeingyourPoint!!!!

Reply
gauravthaesays:
December19,2012at6:25pm
clearexplainationsuperbnotesyoushouldconsiderwritingbookssir.

Reply
viviandsouzasays:
January14,2013at8:27am
howtondresistanceoflightningarrester

Reply
veerabhadraraosays:
January30,2013at10:35am
excellentinformation

Reply
AnilGajananChaudharisays:
March6,2013at12:38pm
DearJignesh,
MycompanyhaveBigfuelstoragetank.Thesetankaremountedongroundlevel.Theheightofthetankisaround15meterand
diameteris20meter.Thesetanksareelectricallycontinuous.Thesetankshavexedtyperoof.Andtankareproperlygrounded.
Thetankthicknessatthetopis6.5mmanditisgraduallyincreasingatboomandatboom,thicknessis13.6mm.Mycompany
havesuch8nos.oftanksofthesamedimension.
Wehavetoprovidelightingarresterforthesetank.CanyoupltellmewearersitisnecessarytoinstalllightingArrestertothese
tank?
PlsendmeAmericanPetroleumInstitute545(API545)specicationforprotectionofbigoilstoragetank.

Reply
Paulsays:
May17,2013at1:34pm
ThanksaLot,theinformationwasreallyhelpful.

Reply
kuldeepsays:
June4,2013at5:34am
excellntsnotes.simplelanguageeasytoundrstand

Reply
Pankajbhaisays:
July20,2013at2:04pm
DearJigneshbhai
Thanksalotforyourelectricalnotesleadstoknoladge.
Pl.mailmetocalculatenooflightingarrestarforbuildingheightxmeter,parameterymeter
P.M.trivedi

Reply
PravinMalisays:
August29,2013at8:12am
Whyour66kvsubstaionL.A.sratingsare6okvnota66kv?Pleasesirgivemereply.iamrejectininterviewtomorrowdueto
thisquestion.

Reply
SanatBiswassays:
September21,2013at4:30am
Verygoodinformaticsarticle.ButIamsearchingfortechnicalspecicationintermsofvoltage,current,physicaldimension,
makeforalightningarresterwhichisusedtoprotectelectricalequipmentindomestic/industrialhighrisebuilding.Ifyouhave
anydetailsofsupplierspleasegivemetheirphonenumbers.

Reply
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2011/03/30/lightingarrester/ 11/14
2/12/2017 LightingArrester|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Reply
Sipenangkalpetir.comsays:
September28,2013at6:30am
Happentobesurngonlineoverthreehourstoday,yeIneverfoundany
interestingarticlelikeyours.Itspreyworthenooughinmysituation.
Forme,ifallwebmastersanddbloggersmadegoodcontentwhileyouudid,
theonlineworldisgoingtobeadditionalusefulthhaneverbefore.

Reply
Reysays:
January14,2014at5:58pm
Sir,iwouldliketoaskwhyisitthatfora13.8kVsystem,a12kVLAisusedandfurtherawayfromtheline,a10kVLAisbeing
utilized.

Reply
venkatsays:
January26,2014at4:26pm
Thankyouverymuchsir

Reply
says:
August4,2014at4:07pm
Verygoodnotesthankyou

Reply
Nicklagatsays:
August13,2014at5:00pm
verygoodexplanation,continuewithagoodwork

Reply
solomonsays:
November8,2014at1:22pm
plscanthunderarrestorincreasecurrent,whenyouhavelowcurrentinyourhouse

Reply
concordioc.matuodsays:
November10,2014at8:26am
Wehaveamediumvoltagepowerplant,isitpossibleandsafetoinstallalightningarresterwithanairterminalinstalledat
higherthanotherairterminalwiredinsulateddirecttothegroundwellforthereasonwhenlightningstrikesitdessipatedirectly
totheground.Anothersecondaryairterminalerectedatperimeterroofbuildinginterconnectedembeddedgroundingto
buildingrebarstomachine,generatorequipmentgrounding,.

Reply
sprajasays:
December10,2014at3:58pm
WhywhensurgeoccursinliveconductorisshortcircuitedthroughLAdoesntcauseanydamagetoLAoranytripinbreaker?

Reply
prashantsays:
December19,2014at7:29am
sir,TypesofLAaccordingtocongurationonly???

Reply
moekosays:
January6,2015at9:12am
greadnotebro

Reply
Mayurparmarsays:
April1,2015at4:04pm
SirwhywearechoosenlowvoltageofLAsizefromthatlinevoltageandgivecalculationofthat.

Reply
kefenisays:
May11,2015at1:53pm
Niceexplanation!

Reply
SudhirSharmasays:
June16,2015at11:57am
HowmuchcoversaLAorsurgeprotectoronbuildingifatallbuildinghasoneLAthanthereisneedofinthevicinty

Reply
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2011/03/30/lightingarrester/ 12/14
2/12/2017 LightingArrester|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Reply
nareshsays:
July16,2015at1:50pm
nycnotes

Reply
RakeshSheysays:
August14,2015at5:23am
RespectedSir,
Iamnewtothiseld.IneedinformationonHTpanelboardservicing.Iwouldpleasureifyoucouldsendmethedetails.

Thanks.
waitingforyourreplyonmyemail.

Reply
sgurumoorthisays:
August28,2015at4:46am
if66kvcableboxisprovidedonthetransformerprimary,canweavoidLA

Reply
sarojsays:
September2,2015at6:45am
dearsir,
iwanttoknowthespecicationfortheearthingconnectionofLAtoground
plzsendanydocumenturhavingwithelectricalspecication

Reply
SunilKumarsays:
December7,2015at3:17am
dearsir

iwanttoknowthevaluemesheringdetailsofexternallightningarrestoranditearths

Reply
deepaksays:
January23,2016at4:10pm
DearSir,
Duringasurge,aMetaloxide(ZnO)surgearresteroeralowresistancepathforsurgeandnallythesurgegonetoground.
Pleaseclarifythatafterthepassageofthatsurgethesurgearresteragainrestoreitsoriginalpositionthatisopencircuittoground
orstillremainasclosed???.
Inotherwordspleaseclearthatafteroerthegroundpathtosurgewehavetoreplacethesurgear
esterasitpermanentlyworkingasclosedswitchaftersurge??

Reply
electricalyadav1992says:
February29,2016at9:40am
Dearsir
IntheaboveLectureyouhavementionedaboutmultigap(seriesgap)Lightningarrestercanyouadvicemearethereany
specicstandardstobefollowedoranymethodsforcalculationsfordesigningthelengthofgapinbetweentwo(Zinc)cylinders,
forexampleletsassumethelightningarresterisdesignedfor11or33kV.

Reply
chamindaSriLankasays:
March18,2016at4:29am
Youareconcludeexcellentdataonlightingarrestersanditsapplication.
Igainveryusefulinformationfromthisarticle.
Thanksverymuchforyou

Reply
RaymondParbiesays:
March21,2016at9:16am
Yourinformationbenecial,butIwanttounderstandonething,isitsafetobondthelightningarresterandthehouseearthing
together?

Reply
NguyenTriTinhsays:
March23,2016at7:35am
DearSirs:
inourelectricsystemhavemanyLAtypeUHSZn0in10KAclass1IEC600994ofCooperbrandandinstalledAug.2013,in
Oct.2015thethunderdirectedintolineandcutonephase.wewanttoreplaceallLAonthepowernetwork,howabout
regulationregardingtoreplaceLAordoyouhaveregulationreplacingLAifitusedoverthanthreeyears?.

Pleasehelpmeifyouhave,pleasesendmeacordingtoEmail:lamthuyemc@gmail.com.
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2011/03/30/lightingarrester/ 13/14
2/12/2017 LightingArrester|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Pleasehelpmeifyouhave,pleasesendmeacordingtoEmail:lamthuyemc@gmail.com.
Thankandbestregards.
TrTinh

Reply
AungaungNaingsays:
May21,2016at6:51pm
DearSir,
IwannagetthedataofSiCarrestersfor66KVline.PleasetellmehowicangetthisdatasbecauseiambeingThesisfor
PerformancecomparisonofSiCandZnOarrestersfor66kVline.
Myemailisagagnaing1@gmail.com

Reply
Manindersinghsays:
May31,2016at6:43am
Verynice

Reply
hashimsays:
June3,2016at5:56pm
copiedfromthebooks.chand..stillgoodeorts

Reply
ManmathJagannathGujarsays:
July27,2016at7:37am
Dearsir
Iamworkingat22OKvSubstaion.iwantdetailsinformationoflightingarresterforehvitsselectioncriteriaforvoltage,
construction,property,rawmaterialdetailsalsoitsworkingundernormalcondition&abnormalcondition.wearefacingfor
moreleakagecurrentproblemcanhelpinthismaer.myemailid:gujarmanmath@gmail.com

Reply
nishantsinghsays:
August4,2016at1:58pm
Dearsir

CanyouPleasetellmetheImpulse1.2/50u.swithstandlevelandpowerfrequencywithstandlevelof9kV5kALightning
arrester.

Reply
NiranjanKumar,Dy.SE(E)says:
August27,2016at4:12am
Sir,Iworkinongcltdandwanttoinstalllightningarresterfornaturalgascollectingstationareaandalsoforwarehouseareafor
theprotectionofequipments.kindlysuggestthetypeofarrester.

Reply

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