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DEBRE BERHAN UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
COLLEAGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION
TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
COURSE TITLE:- WATER WORK
CONSTRUCTION
COURSE CODE:- HENG4142
INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT

Name Asmamaw Belay


ID NO 07000694
Section C

Submitted to Instructor: - HABETOM

Submission Date:-01/03/2010 E.C

3. What factors you will keep in mind while


selecting a suitable site for a dam reservoir?

It is almost impossible to select a perfect aidial


reservoir site, but its selection is gided by the
following factors
1, a suitable dam site is available the cost of the
dam is generally a controlling factor in the
selection of a reservoir site .
2; the geological formation for the reservoir
bank walls etc..should be such as to entail
minimum lakege .
3,the geology of the catchment area should be
such as to entail minimum water losses through
absorption and percolation .
4, the site should be such that a deep reservoir if
formed . a deep reservoir is prefered to a shallow
one because of lower land cost per unit of
capacity less evaporation loss and less possibility
of weed growth .
5 , the reservoir site have adequate capacity .
6; Too mach silt laiden tributories should be
avoided as for as possible.
7; the reservoir basin should have a deep narrow
opening in the valley, so that the length of the
dam is minimum.
4. What is mean by a Reservoir? Discuss briefly
the difference types of reservoirs and the purpose
served by each type.
Reservoirs
A reservoir is an artificial lake called man-
made reservoir.
It can be formed by building a dam across a
valley, by excavating the land or by surrounding
a piece of land with dykesand diverting a part of
the river flow into the reservoir. The water is
stored in the reservoir and can be used for
irrigation, hydro-power or as a water source for
domesticor industry use. Man-made reservoirs
are also very effective constructions to control
unexpected floods (see also stormwater
management)
A reservoir is fed by precipitation, rainwater
runoff or from a constant flow of a river. Water
loss can occur due to evaporation (especially in
arid regions) and depending on the reservoir
bottom due to percolation (small reservoirs are
often lined). Sediments from rivers or surface
runoff can reduce the storage volume of a
man-made reservoir significantly (FAO 1992).
Water stored in a valley usually has a higher
level than the valley bottom downstream of the
dam. Because of this difference in level, the
valley can be irrigated by a gravity system or
other distribution systems. Water can be taken
from the reservoir via a concrete or steel pipe.
This pipe connects the reservoir to an
irrigation canal downstream.
A valve is usually located on the upstream end of
the pipe to control the discharge of water into the
canal (FAO 1992). The kinetic energy of
reservoirs is often used to produce electricity (see
also hydropower small-scale and hydropower
large-scale).
Depending upon the purpose served, the
reservoirs may be broadly classified into
four types:
(1) Storage (or conservation) reservoirs,
(2) Flood control reservoirs,
(3) Multipurpose reservoirs,
(4) Distribution reservoirs, and
(5) Balancing reservoirs.
Storage reservoirs are also called conservation
reservoirs
because they are used to conserve water.
Storage reservoirs are constructed to store the
water in the rainy season and to release it later
when the river flow is low.
A flood control reservoir is constructed for the
purpose of flood control. It protects the areas
lying on its downstream side from the damages
due to flood. However, absolute protection from
extreme floods is not economically feasible.
A flood control reservoir reduces the flood
damage, and it is also known as the flood-
mitigation reservoir.
A detention reservoir stores excess water during
floods and releases it after the flood. It is similar
to a storage reservoir but is provided with large
gated spillways and sluiceways to permit
flexibility of operation. The discharge from a
detention reservoir to the downstream channel is
regulated by gates.
A retarding reservoir is provided with spillways
and sluiceways which are ungated. The
maximum combined discharging capacity of all
spillways and sluiceways is limited to the safe-
carrying capacity of the channel downstream.
A multipurpose reservoir is designed and
constructed to serve two or more purposes. In
Ethiopia, most of the reservoirs are designed as
multipurpose reservoirs to store water for
irrigation and hydropower, and also to effect
flood control.
Eg. Koka reservoir
A distribution reservoir is a small storage
reservoir to tide over the peak demand of water
for municipal water supply or irrigation.
The distribution reservoir is helpful in permitting
the pumps to work at a uniform rate.
It stores water during the period of lean demand
and supplies the same during the period of high
6. What is mean by Dam? What are the
difference materials that are commonly
used for dam construction and what are
their comparative advantages and
disadvantages?
What is a dam?
A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious material built
across a river to create a reservoir on its upstream side for
impounding water for various purposes.
These purposes may be irrigation, hydropower, water-supply,
flood control, navigation, fishing and recreation.
A dam and a reservoir are complements of each other.
Dams are generally constructed in the mountainous reach
of the river where the valley is narrow and the foundation is good

Classification of Dams
ACCORDING TO MATERIAL

1. RIGID DAMS and non RIGID DAMS


RIGIDDAMS
a. GRAVITY DAM
External forces resisted weight of dam
Constructed either of masonry or concrete
Masonry Gravity dams small height
Major dams concrete
May be straight or curved in plan
ADVANTAGES
Strong and stable than earth dams
Can be used as overflow spillway
Can be constructed to any height
Least maintenance
Failure not sudden
Deep set sluices can be used
Cheaper in long runt areas of heavy
rainfall Disadvantages
Can be constructed only on Strong
rocks
Initial cost is high
Construction time is longer
Require skille labour
Height can not be increased unless provisions
are made
ARCHDAMS

It IS Adam curved at in plane and carries at major


part of its water load horizontally to the abutments by
arch action.
This part of water load depends Primarily up on the
amount of curvature
Curved in plan action
Water load amount of curvature
Balance water load to foundation
Advantages
Adopted in gorges of length < height
Requires less material
Problems of uplift pressure is less
Disadvantages
Requires skilled labour
Speed of construction is slow
All sites are not possible for this dam
A number of piers divide space number of
spans
To hold water panels placed between piers
Panels flat or arched.
C , B UTTRES DAM
Advantages
Less massive than gravity dam
Extension of height is possible
Concrete volume used is less.
Disadvantages
Skilled labour is needed
More susceptible to damage
d. STEEL DAMS
Consists of framework of steel
No Dams in India
Three dams in USA. One failed due to
underpinning
Two types of steel dams 1. Direct strutted type
2. Cantilever type
Direct strut type load directly to foundation
through struts
Cantilever type Struts anchored into foundation
Advantages
Speedy construction possible
Cheaper then rigid dams
Greater resistance to settlement
Not affected by frost action
Repairing can be done easily
Disadvantages
Lighter can absorb shoocks
Life shorter than concreted dams
Requires constant maintenance
e. TIMBER DAM
Made of timber struts and beams
Temporary dam proper construction 30 to
40 years
Adopted timber is plenty
Types
i) A frame type
ii) Rock filled crib
iii) Beaver type
Advantages
Low initial cost
Suitable for any foundation
Speedy construction
Disadvantages
High maintenance cost
Short life
Small height is only possible
Seepage loss is more

11. How do you classify dams


according to:
a. their use
b. hydraulic design
c. material of construction
Classification of Dams
Based on Function Served
1. STORAGE DAM
Stores water excess supply
Behind dam reservoir
Water irrigation, power etc
Stone type, concrete, earth fill, rock fill types
2. DETENTION DAM
Store water floods releases after flood
Two types one type stored water released
outlet
Second no outlet water seeps lift irrigation is
possible This type also called water spreading
dam
Also used to trap and release sediments called
debris dam.
3. DIVERSION DAMS
Rises the water level
Water to canals, ditches
Small height
No reservoir
Eg : Weir, Barrages
Flood water diverted to Diversion structures
Normal flow diverted to canal
USES - Irrigation, Industrial uses
Debris dams
Coffer dams - a temporary dam constructed
for facilitating construction. It is an enclosure
constructed around a site to exclude water so
that the construction can be done in dry.
Based on Hydraulic Design
1. OVER FLOW DAMS
Surplus discharge carried crest
Crest level lower non over flow dams
Water glides down strong material usage
Generally concrete or masonry
Overflow dam called spillway
At times non overflow and overflow types are
combined
2.NON OVER FLOW DAMS
Top of dam higher level than high flood level
Water not permitted to overtop the dam
Materials rock fill, earth fill, masonry,
concrete
Based on Materials of Construction
Riged and non-Rigid dam
RIGID DAMS
Solid masonry or concrete gravity dam
Arched masonry or concrete dam
Concrete buttress dam
Steel dam
Timber dam
GRAVITY DAM
External forces resisted by the weight of the
dam itself.
it may be Constructed either of masonry or
concrete
Masonry Gravity dams are now a days
constructed of only small height
a gravity dam may be either straight and
curved in plan.
ARCH DAMS
Curved in plan
Carries its part load to the abutments by arch
action
Water load amount of curvature
Balance water load to foundation
BUTTRESS DAM
A number of piers divide space number of
spans
To hold water panels placed between piers
Panels flat or arched

TIMBER DAM
Made of timber struts and beams
Temporary dam proper construction 30 to
40 years
Adopted timber is plenty
Types
i) A frame type
ii) Rock filled crib

STEEL DAMS
Consists of framework of steel
No Dams in India
Three dams in USA. One failed due to
underpinning
Two types of steel dams
1. Direct strutted type
2. Cantilever type
Direct strut type load directly to foundation
through struts
Cantilever type Struts anchored into foundation
NON RIGID DAMS
EARTH DAMS
locally available materials
Moderate height
Materials used in natural state
With modern machinery height greater
ROCK FILL DAM
Rocks of various sizes
Rock fill dam has rock fill at the downstream,
impervious membrane, upstream cut off to check
seepage
12. Discuss the various factors which
govern the selection of a particular type
of dam for a particular project?
the Following are the factors affecting selection
of dam site by dam type.
Topography
Geology and Foundation Conditions
Availability of materials
Spillway size and location
Earth quake zone
Height of the Dam
Road way
Life of the dam
Other factors such as cost of construction and
maintenance, life of dam, aesthetics etc.

1. Topography
Low rolling plains land Earth dam with
separate spillway
A low narrow V shaped valley Arch dam
A narrow stream between high rocky walls
Concrete overflow dam
2. Geology and Foundation Conditions
Foundation of Sound Rock Any dam type
Granite, Gneiss, Schist good for gravity dam
Poor rock Earth dam, rock fill , low concrete
gravity dam
Silt, fine sand foundations problems of
settlement used as foundations for earth dams,
low gravity dams but not rock fill dams
Clay soils problems of settlement earth dams
No gravity or rock fill dams
3. Materials of construction
Cost availability of materials nearby
transportation charges reduced
Sand, Gravel, Crushed stone Concrete Gravity
dam is suitable
Coarse , fine grained soils Earth dam
4. Spillway size and location
If large spillway area needed Overflow
concrete gravity dam
Small spillway capacity earth dam
Large discharges during construction Concrete
gravity dam
No site for spillway Concrete gravity dam
having overflow section
5. Roadway
If roadway needed Earth dam or Gravity dam
6. Length and Height of Dam
Length long, height low earth dam
Small length, height more gravity dam
7. Life of the dam
Concrete and masonry dams very long life
Earth, Rock fill dams Intermediate life
Timber Dams Temporary life
17. Determine :
a. The normal stress;
b. The principal stress;
c. The shear friction factor at base of figure below.

Find the bead of the dam at the bese?

Free body diagram of the object



=
.

X= =40
.

X= =40
.

Types of designati dimansion Force vertical (kn) Force Lever +ve -ve
on horizont
force arm
al (kn) moment moment
Self weight *40*80*24 2/3*40=26.7 1024128
W1 38400

W2 9600 40+5/2=42.5
5*80*24
408000

40+5+7.5/2=48.
W3 7200 75

7.5*40*24
351000

*39*7.5*24 40+5+1/3*7.5= 166725


W4 3510 475

=
=

1/282.5*39*10 1462.5 40+5+2/3+4.5= 73125


Water Pv1 50
pressure

Pv2 7.5*1*10 40+5+7.5/2=48.


75 75 3656.25

ph 32000 1/3*80=26 .67 +20266.25


* *10

= . =1173194 853440

80/3*7.5*10 -2000 45+7.5/2=48.75 97500


Uplift V1
force

45+2/3*7.5=50 10000

V2 *80/3*10*7.5*2 2/3*45=30
-2000

180000
2026634.25

= .
-6000 32000 -1230940
V3
*80/3*10*45
=
stability analysis
case 1 when the reservoir is empty condtoin:
position of resultant from the toe
x= 1/ =1949853/58710=33.2m
it is distance from center (eccentricity b/6=52.5/6=8.75 no
tension developed

E = - =52.5-33.2 = -6.96< fails to the left of center

Normal compressive stress at the toe


.
Pn= (1 ) = ( ( ))=228.77 Kg/
. .
(.
At the heel pn = (1- )= (1- ))=2007.8
. .

Principal stress at the toe


= ph =228.77*(1+ 63.4)=1141.1
Shear stress at the toe
=pn =228.77*tan63.4 =456.84 no shear stress
Case2 when the reservoir full with uplift:

=
= 795694.25/502475=15.84

E = - =52.5/2-15.84 =10.4

Normal compressive stress


at the toe
. (.
pn = (1+ )= (1+ ))=2094.67 Kg/
. .

At the heel
. (.
pn = (1- )= (1- ))=-180.48 Kg/
. .

principal stress at the toe


=pn =2094.67*(1+ 63.4) =16442.8 Kg/
Shear stress at the toe:

=pn =209467* 63.4 =8353 Kn/


Shear friction factor (sff)
+ . . + .
Sff =
=* *

18. Figure shows the section of a concrete gravity dam. Check the
stability of this dam section at the base. Assume any data not given and
needed.

Free body diagram is shown in figer bel


=. = 2/20
= 2 /20 =5.71
(0.5)/

Types of designati dimansion Force vertical (kn) Force Lever +ve -ve
on horizont
force arm
al (kn) moment moment
Self weight *10*20*24 2/3*10=6.7 16008
W1 2400

W2 240 10+5/2=12.5 30000


5*20*24

W3 480
15+1/3*2=15.6
1/2*2*20*24 7 7521.6

= .

*2*18*10 180 15+2/3*2=16.3 2939.4


Water Pv
pressure

ph 1620
*18*18*10
1/3*18=6 9720

+56469
-9720
= . 1620 =

18/3*4*10 -240 13+74/2=15 3600


Uplift V1
force

10000
45+2/3*7.5=50

V2 *18/3*10*4*2 13 +2/3
-240 3760.8
*4=15.67

V3
*18/3*10*1 3381.3
2/3*13=8.67
-390
56469


= 1620 -20462.1
= .

The value of the forces, total vertical and total


horizontal forces, and moments:
Stability analysis of the dam:
When Reservoir is empty condition
The position of resultant force

=
=53529.6/5280 =10.14m
Distance from the center
E=b/2 - =17/2-10.14 =-1.64 the resultant force at left of
the center.
Normal compressive stress at the toe
.
pn = (1+ ) =5280/17(1+6( ))

=130.8kg/m2
At the heel
.
Pn = (1- ) =5280/17(1- 6( )) =490.36 kg/m2

Principal stress at the toe


= pn =130.8*(1+ 63.4)=652.4 kg/m2
Principal stress At the heel
= pn =490.36*(1+ . ) = /

Shear stress at the toe :


=pn =130.8* 63.4) =261.2 Kg/
Shear stress at the heel:
=pn =49036*( 5.71) = 4912.77 Kg/
Case-2
When the reservoir is full condition with uplift

=
=3600.9/4590 =7.8m

E=b/2 - =17/2 7.8 =0.66


Normal compressive stress At the toe:
.
pn = (1+ ) =4590/17(1+6( )) =332.89 kg/m2

at the heel
.
Pn = (1- ) =4590/17(1- 6( )) =207.1 kg/m2

Principal stress at ther toe:


= pn = 332.89*(1+ 63.4)= 1660.4 kg/m2
At the heel:
= pn -p p= 18*10 =180
Shear stress at the toe:
=pn =332.89* 63.4) =1327.5 Kg/
At the heel:
= (pn p) =(207.1-180 )tan =261.2 Kg/
Stability check for the hole dam
Factor of safety against overturning (fso)
+
Fso= =56469/20462.1 =2.75> 1.5 ..ok

Factor of safety against sliding (fss) =0.7


.
fss =
=* =1.98 >1 ok

shear friction factor:


+ .+
sff =
= =16.68 > 4 safe

1 The difference betewn Full reservoir level and


maximum water level and minimum pool level ?

Answer
Full reservoir level (FRL):
The full reservoir level (FRL) is the highest water level to
which the water surface will rise during normal operating
conditions.

Maximum water level (MWL


The maximum water level is the maximum level to which
the water surface will rise when the design flood passes
over the spillway.
Minimum pool level:
The minimum pool level is the lowest level up to which the
water is withdrawn from the reservoir under ordinary
conditions.