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1.

ABSTRACT

This experiment,naming Refrigeration Unit contains four experiments,which is the

first one is determination of power input,heat output and coefficient of performance. The

second experiment is, the production of heat pump performance curves over a range of source

and delivery temperature. Next, experiment 3 is the production of vapour compression cycle

on p-h diagram and energy balance study and the last is experiment 4 which is the production

of heat pump performance curves over a range of evaporating and condensation temperature.

This experiment carried out using SOLTEQ Mechanical Heat Pump (Model HE:165).

The objectives of the first experiment is to determine the power input, heat ouput and

coefficient of performance of a vapour compression heat pump system using the formula

given. While the objectives for the second experiment is to produce the performance of heat

pump over a range of source and delivery temperatures. Next, the objectives for the third

experiment is to plot the vapour compression cycle on the p-h diagram and compare with the

ideal cycle and to perform energy balances for the condenser and compressor. Lastly, the

forth experiments objectives is to plot the performance of heat pump over a range of

evaporating and condensation temperatures which are the saturation temperature at

condensing pressure.

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2.INTRODUCTION

The apparatus for experiment Refrigeration Unit is the Solteq Mechanical Heat Pump

(Model HE:165). This apparatus has been designed to provide users with a practical and

quantitative demonstration of a vapour cycle. Furthermore, refrigerators and heat pumps both

apply the vapour compression cycle, although the applications of these machines differ, the

components are essentially the same.

In addition, this refrigeration unit also able to demonstrate the result or effect when the

flow rate of cooling water is adjusted to a certain percent. This will allow the study of the

performance curve and efficiency of refrigeration unit with respect to the varying flow rates

and other manipulating variables. Moreover, this apparatus will also help in the study of the

energy balance study as in the experiment 3. This apparatus is equipped with control valves

for the cooling water flow rate, pressure, temperature and compressor power output display

which will make it easier to conduct the experiments with the accurate data display.

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3.OBJECTIVES

EXPERIMENT 1:

1) To determine the power input, heat output and coefficient of performance of a vapour

compression heat pump system.

EXPERIMENT 2:

1) To produce the performance of heat pump over a range of source and delivery

temperatures.

EXPERIMENT 3:

1) To plot the vapour compression cycle on the p-h diagram and compare with the ideal cycle.

2) To perform energy balance for the condenser and compressor.

EXPERIMENT 4:

1) To plot the performance of heat pump over a range of evaporating and condensation

temperatures which are the saturation temperature at condensing pressure.

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4.THEORY

Refrigerators and heat pumps are devices that absorb heat at low temperature and

reject heat at higher temperature. Both refrigerators and heat pumps operate in the same way

using a reversed heat engine cycle, but are labeled separately according to their purpose. In

addition, a heat pump is a mechanism that absorbs heat from waste source or surrounding to

produce valuable heat on a higher temperature level than that of the heat source. While,

refrigerators or air conditioners are devices that used to maintain a temperature below

ambient.

Most of the heat pumps or refrigerators operate on the principle of the vapour

compression cycle. In this cycle, the circulating substance is physically separated from the

heat source and heat delivery, and is cycling in a close stream, therefore called closed cycle.

In this process, it is started with evaporator which is the heat is extracted from the heat source

to boil the circulating substance. Next, the circulating substance is compressed by the

compressor, raising its pressure and temperature. Then, heat is delivered to the condenser and

the pressure of the circulating substance (working fluid) is reduced back to the evaporator

condition in the throttling valve as in the figure below,

DIRECTED HEAT
OUT

ELECTRICITY CONDENSER

EXPANSION
COMPRESSOR
VALVE

MOTOR

EVAPORATOR

WASTE HEAT IN

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The usual measure performance that are being used in refrigerators and heat pumps is

the coefficient of performance. The coefficient of performance, COP is the ratio of heat

output to the amount of energy input of a heat pump. COP consists of COP for refrigerators

and COP for heat pumps.

,
=
,

,
=
,

Formula for converting the cooling water flowrate and refrigerant flowrate is as follows:

(%)
, = 5
100%

(%)
, = 1.26
100%

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5.APPARATUS

SOLTEQ Mechanical Heat Pump (Model: HE165)

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6.PROCEDURE

GENERAL START-UP

1. Unit and instruments were checked and are in proper condition.

2. Water source and drain was connected,water supply was fully open and the cooling water

flowrate was set to 1.0 LPM.

3. The drain hose at the condensate collector was connected.

4. The power supply was connected, main power and main switch was switched on at the

control panel.

5. The refrigeration compressor was switched on. The unit was ready for experiment as soon

as temperature and pressure were constant.

GENERAL SHUT-DOWN

1. The compressor was switched off, followed by main switch and poer supply.

2. The water supply was closed and there were no water left running.

EXPERIMENT 1: DETERMINATION OF POWER INPUT,HEAT OUTPUT AND

COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE.

1. The general start-up precedures was performed.

2. The water flowrate was adjusted to 40%.

3. The system was allowed to run for 15 minutes.

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4. All necessary readings was recorded into the experimental data sheet.

EXPERIMENT 2: PRODUCTION OF HEAT PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES

OVER A RANGE OF SOURCE AND DELIVERY TEMPERATURE.

1. The general start-up procedures was performed.

2. The cooling water flowrate was adjusted to 80%.

3. The system was allowed to run for 15 minutes.

4. All necessary readings was recorded into experimental data sheet.

5. The experiment with reducing water flowrate was repeated so that the cooling water outlet

temperature increases about 3.

6. The similar steps was repeated until the compressor delivery pressure reached around 14.0

bars.

7. This experiment may be repeated at different ambient temperature.

EXPERIMENT 3: PRODUCTION OF VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE ON P-H

DIAGRAMAND ENERGY BALANCE STUDY.

1. The general start-up procedures was performed.

2. The cooling water flowrate was adjusted to 40% and the system was allowed to run for 15

minutes.

3. All necessary readings was recorded into the experimental data sheet.

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EXPERIMENT 4: PRODUCTION OF HEAT PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES

OVER A RANGE OF EVAPORATING TEMPERATURE.

1. The general start-up procedures was performed.

2. The cooling water flowrate was adjusted to 80%.

3. The system was allowed to run for 15 minutes.

4. All necessary readings was recorded into the experimental data sheet.

5. The experiment with reducing water flowrate was repeated so that the compressor delivery

pressure increases by about 0.6 bars. The evaporating temperature (TT4) was maintained by

covering the part of the evaporator for the purpose of lowering the evaporating load.

6. The similar steps was repeated with water flowrate not less than 20%. The compressor

delivery pressure was ensured that does not exceed 14.0 bars.

7. This experiment may be repeated another constant evaporating temperature (TT4).

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7.RESULTS

EXPERIMENT 1: DETERMINATION OF POWER INPUT, HEAT OUTPUT AND

COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE

Cooling Water Flow Rate, % 39.4

FT1

Cooling Water Inlet 30.9

Temperature, TT5

Cooling Water Outlet 32.1

Temperature, TT6

Compressor Power Input W 162.0

EXPERIMENT 2: PRODUCTION OF HEAT PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES

OVER A RANGE OF SOURCE AND DELIVERY TEMPERATURES

Test 1 2 3

Cooling Water Flowrate, FT1 % 67.4 39.9 20.6

Cooling Water Inlet Temperature, TT5 31.4 31.5 31.6

Cooling Water Outlet Temperature, TT6 32.4 32.3 32.4

Compressor Power Input W 163.0 164.0 165.0

COPhp - 0.847 0.674 0.669

Heat Out W 138.072 110.458 110.458

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EXPERIMENT 3: PRODUCTION OF VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE ON P-H

DIAGRAM AND ENERGY BALANCE STUDY

Refrigerant Flow Rate, FT2 % 61.6

Refrigerant Pressure (low), P1 Bar(abs) 2.0

Refrigerant Pressure (high), P2 Bar(abs) 7.1

Refrigerant Temperature, TT1 30.5

Refrigerant Temperature, TT2 80.6

Refrigerant Temperature, TT3 32.3

Refrigerant Temperature, TT4 26.8

Cooling Water Flowrate, FT1 % 40.1

Cooling Water Inlet Temperature, TT5 31.3

Cooling Water Inlet Temperature, TT6 32.8

Compressor Power Input W 163.0

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EXPERIMENT 4: PRODUCTION OF HEAT PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES

OVER A RANGE OF EVAPORATING AND CONDENSATION TEMPERATURES

Test 1 2

Refrigerant Flowrate, FT2 % 61.7 61.7

Refrigerant Pressure (low), P1 Bar(abs) 2.0 2.0

Refrigerant Pressure (high), P2 Bar(abs) 7.1 7.1

Refrigerant Temperature, TT1 30.5 30.5

Refrigerant Temperature, TT2 81.0 81.9

Refrigerant Temperature, TT3 31.8 32.3

Refrigerant Temperature, TT4 26.6 26.7

Compressor Power Input W 163.0 163.0

Coefficient of performance - 1.10 1.16

Heat delivered W 495.7 560

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8.CALCULATION

EXPERIMENT 1

%
() = 5
100%

= 1.97

= ( )( )( )

1.97 13 1 1000
=( 3
)(4.184 )(32.1 30.9)
1000 60 .

= .

(30.9 30)(146.64 125.74)


= + 125.74
35 30


= 129.502

(32.1 300(146.64 125.74)


= + 125.74
35 30


= 134.518

165.69
=
163

= .

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Heat Pump (Coefficient of Performance) Vs
Temperature of Water Delivered
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5 Heat Pump (Coefficient of
Performance) Vs
0.4 Temperature of Water
0.3 Delivered
0.2
0.1
0
31.9 31.9 32.4

The graph of heat pump (COP) vs temperature of water delivered is decreased when the

temperature is increased.

Heat Pump(Heat Delivered) Vs Temperature


of Water Delivered
160

140

120

100
Heat Pump(Heat Delivered)
80
Vs Tempersture of water
60 delivered

40

20

0
31.9 31.9 32.4

The graph of heat delivered(heat output) vs temperature of water delivered is decreased when

the temperature is increased.

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Heat Pump(Power Input) Vs Temperature of
Water Delivered
165.5

165

164.5

164
Heat Pump(Power Input) Vs
163.5 Temperature of Water
Delivered
163

162.5

162
31.9 31.9 32.4

The graph of heat pump(power input) vs temperature of water delivered is increased along

with the temperature.

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EXPERIMENT 3

Find H1,H2,H3,H4 using interpolation from superheated R-134a table.

Temp Enthalpy (21) (21)


= (31)
(31)

30 266.71 (21)(31)
2 = + 1
(31)

30.5 X2
1 = 266.95/
32 267.67

Temp Enthalpy (2 1) (2 1)
=
(3 1) (3 1)
80 280.63
(2 1)(3 1)
2 = + 1
(3 1)
80.6 X2

2 = 280.50/
85 279.51

Temp Enthalpy (2 1) (2 1)
=
(3 1) (3 1)
32 267.67
(2 1)(3 1)
2 = + 1
(3 1)
32.3 X2

3 = 267.81/
34 268.61

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Temp Enthalpy (2 1) (2 1)
=
(3 1) (3 1)
26 264.73
(2 1)(3 1)
2 = + 1
(3 1)
26.8 X2

4 = 265.13/
28 265.73

Condenser Energy Balance

61.6%
= 1.26
100%

= 0.7762

0.7762 13 1 1000 0.013


( )( )( )( )=
1000 60 3

= 3 4

= (0.013)(267.81) (0.013)(261.53)


= 0.08164

Compressor Energy Balance

= (2 1 )

= (0.013)(280.50 266.95)


= 0.17615

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From the value that calculated, p-h diagram can be constructed

h
Pressure

(kJ/kg) (Mpa)

266.95 0.8

280.50 2.9

267.81 0.8

265.13 0.8

p-h diagram
3.5

2.5

Series 1
1.5

0.5

0
266.95 280.5 267.81 265.13

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EXPERIMENT 4

Heat Pump(COP) Vs Condensing Temperature


1.17
1.16
1.15
1.14
1.13
1.12 Heat Pump(COP) Vs
Condensing Temperature
1.11
1.1
1.09
1.08
1.07
81 81.9

Heat Pump(Heat Delivered) Vs Condensing


Temperature
580

560

540

520 Heat Pump(Heat Delivered)


Vs Condensing Temperature
500

480

460
81 81.9

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Heat Pump(Compressor Power Input) Vs
Condensing Temperature
180
160
140
120
100 Heat Pump(Compressor
80 Power Input) Vs Condensing
Temperature
60
40
20
0
81 81.9

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9.DISCUSSIONS

The first experiment was conducted to determine the power input, heat output and

coefficient of performance of a vapour compession heat pump system at the water flowrate of

40%. The cooling water flow rate, FT 1 is displayed on percentages, thus, the formula given

must use in order to convert it in litre per minute, LPM. After 15 minutes, the data is collected

and calculated. The reading temperature of cooling water inlet and outlet are 30.9 and 32.1 C

respectively.The power input that has been obtained is 162W. Next, heat output obtained by

using the formula given is 165.69W and the coefficient of performance obtained is 1.023.

For the second experiment, the same step as the first experiment was repeated at

different cooling water flow rate which is at 60%, 40% and 20%. From the experiment, the

power input for the heat pump is different for each water flow rate, which are, 163kJ/s,

164kJ/s and 165kJ/s respectively. The power input varies as the cooling water flow rate

decreases. The same method was used to calculate the rate of heat transfer and the coefficient

of performance (COP) for the heat pump. The COP calculated for cooling water flow rate at

60%, 40% and 20% is 0.847, 0.674 and 0.669 respectively. The COP of heat pump decreases

as the cooling water flow rate decreases.

In the third experiment, the change in pressure and temperature for refrigerant R-134A

after passing condenser and compressor was recorded. The enthalpy was calculated using

interpolation to calculate the change of enthalpy at compressor and condenser. At the

compressor the superheated refrigerant was compressed and the enthalpy calculated is

266.95kJ/kg and 280.50kJ/kg respectively. The R-134A enters the compressor superheated

then compressed at constant entropy the leaves as superheated. The refrigerant then enter and

leave the condenser.The pressure is constant because the condenser undergoes the heat

rejection process at constant pressure. The enthalpy is 267.81/kg and 265.13kJ/kg

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respectively. The enthalpy was slightly decreased because at the condenser, the heat energy is

released to surrounding cause the heat energy in the refrigerant to drop.

Last experiment, the same step as the first and second experiment was repeated at

different cooling water flow rate which is at 60%, 40% and 20%. From the experiment, the

power input for the heat pump is same for each water flow rate, which are, 163kJ/s. The same

method was used to calculate the rate of heat transfer and the coefficient of performance

(COP) for the heat pump. The COP calculated for cooling water flow rate at 60%, 40% and

20% is 1.10, 1.16 respectively. The COP of heat pump decreases as the cooling water flow

rate decreases.

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10.CONCLUSIONS.

For overall, all of the experiment was succesfully conducted and the result was

obtained and calculated. The objective of the first experiment is to determine the power input,

heat output and coefficient of performance of a vapour compression heat pump system. The

value of power input, heat output and coefficient of performance is obtained and calculated

successfully. Thus, the objective of this experiment is achieved.

For the second and third experiment, both have an objective which can be achieved

depending on the graph. As stated in the discussion part, the graph shows that the coefficient

of performances falls between the heat output and power input at the beginning and falls

below the value of power input at the end of experiment. Based on the theory, Coefficient of

Performance is stated as the ratio of the heat removed in the heated space to the heat energy

equivalent of the energy supplied to the compressor. The COPH should maintain in between

both heat output and power input in order for the heat pump to cycle efficiently. Thus, it can

be concluded that the experiment only achieved the objective of showing the performance

curves but not theoretically.

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11.RECOMMENDATIONS

As the experiment ended, few recommendations that have been obtained when

conducting this refrigeration unit experiment. The first one is, before conducting the

experiment, students need to consult it with the technician to have a clear image of this

experiments plus how to handle the appratus with care. Next, the general start-up procedures

need to be performed all the steps in order to run the experiment smoothly without any error.

The general shut-down procedures need to be taken care to ensure the other students when

using the experiment can using the apparatus in a good conditon.

Furthermore, the water supply must in high flowrate as it may effect the result.

Moreover, students need to ensure the equipment to warm up around 15 minutes according to

the procedure to adjust its condition to operating state. Lastly, while running the experiment,

if some technical problems occur,students need to directly ask the technician to overcome the

problems.

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12.REFERENCES

1. Chemical Engineering Laboratory Manual. (CGE 536), Faculty of Chemical Engineering,

UiTM Shah Alam.

2. Heat Pump Performance, n.d, http://inspectapedia.com/aircond/Heat_Pump_COP.php,

17 March 2015.

3. Yunus A. Cengel, Micheal A. Boles Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach

,McGraw-Hill Book Company, 7th edition 2011.

4. http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/heat-pump-systems

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13.APPENDICES

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