Anda di halaman 1dari 68

THE BUREAU OF NAVAL PERSONNEL INFORMATION BULLETIN

MARCH 1957 Nav-Pers-0 NUMBER 482

VICE ADMIRAL JAMES 1. HOLLOWAY, Jr., USN


The Chief of Naval Personnel
REAR ADMIRAL K. CRAIG, USN
The Deputy Chief of Naval Personnel
CAPTAIN 0. D. FINNIGAN, Jr., USN
Assistant Chief for Morale Services

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Impact of Missiles on Ships .................................... 6


..
Airborne Missiles .................................................... 11
New Jobs for Sea-Going 'Missileers' ...................... 12
The Zooming History of Navy's Missiles ................ 18
Picture Story of How the Navy Guided
Missile Developed Its Present Shape .................. 20
Davy Jones' Locker Stocks Missiles Too ................ 24
A Report on the World's First Guided
Missile Ships ........................................................ 26
Test Centers Keep Missiles on the Go .................... 30
Centerspread Chart: Guided Missile Navy
Methods of Missile Guidance .............................. 32
Missiles a la Mugu .................................................. 34
A Rocket Is a Missile Without Brains .................... 38
Navy's Viking Is a Record Breaker ........................ 41
Project Vanguard:
Birth of the Earth Satellite ................................ 42
Servicescope: Guided Missile Goings-on in
the Other Services .............................................. 48
Schools and Courses for Missileers ........................ 50
Study Guides for Guided Missileman Ratings ........ 53
The Word ................................................................ 54
Bulletin Board .......................................................... 56
Guided Missile Orientation Course for Officers.. 56
Books on Guided Missiles and Rockets .............. 57
Directives in Brief ................................................ 58

CDR F. C. Huntley, USNR, Editor


John A. Oudine, Managing Editor
Associate Editors
G. Vern Blasdell, News
David Rosenberg, Art
Elsa Arthur, Research
French Crawford Smith, Reserve
Don Addor, layout

0 AT LEFT: ALL SET TO GO-Navy's versatile guided missile


Regulus rests i n shipboard launcher at full height for firing.
This surface-to-surface missile can be fired from cruisers,
aircraft carriers and submarines.
0 FRONT COVER: FOR THE 'BIRDS-C. M. Leque, A01, USN,
inserts spotting charge i n Sparrow guided missile prior to
loading operations at NAS Miramar, Californio.
0 CREDITS: All photographs published i n ALL HANDS are offi-
cial Department of Defense Photos unless otherwise designated.
Photos of Polaris on page 21 by AFPS-World Wide.
NAVYS
N 1945 THE ATOMIC BOMB flashed early 1958 uss Galveston (CLG 93)
I upon the world scene in a blaze of is scheduled to rejoin the Fleet after
devastation that made it, by far, the being converted into our first cruiser
most spectacular weapon to come armed with the long-range, surface-
out of World War 11. But, today an- to-air Talos. Polaris, a surface-to-sur-
other weapon which saw its first real face intermediate range ballistic mis-
action in that conflict is getting just sile, should be operational in about
as much attention. five years.
As any Navyman who knows port Tartar, a surface-to-air missile
from starboard will tell you, this is smaller and less expensive than Ter-
the guided missile. And, if youve rier, should soon be ready for use
been reading the newspapers lately, aboard destroyers and in the second-
youre probably aware that the ary batteries of larger ships.
United States is putting millions of Thats quite a lineup, considering
dollars into research and production all the effort that goes into the de-
in this vital field of national defense. velopment of just one successful mis-
Because of that sound investment sile, but as the circus barker used
and a lot of hard work by civilian to say, Thats only the beginning,
scientists and men in uniform, the folks. Thats only the beginning.
U. S. Navy has become the first In the next few years, guided mis-
military service in the world to hold siles will become more and more
a full house in these eerie new important to our national defense-
weapons. and ever-increasing numbers of
As a surface-to-surface missile we Navymen will be affected by this
have Regulus, which has been in revolution in the concept of warfare.
quantity production for several Therefore, it might be a pretty
years. In the surface-to-air category good idea to take a closer look at
we have the Terrier, ready to jump these death-dealing gadgets.
to the nations defense as the arma-
ment of our first guided missile Whats A Guided Missile?
cruisers and destroyers. For air-to- First of all, lets find a definition.
air use we have Sparrow-slung And for that we go to the one
beneath the wings of sleek Navy accepted in OpNav Instruction
fighters like the F3D-2M Skyknight 3020.1A, which calls it an un-
and F7U-3M C u t l a s s a n d Side- manned vehicle moving above the
winder, carried by fighter and attack earths surface, whose trajectory of
squadrons with the Sixth Fleet in the flight path is capable of being
Mediterranean and the Seventh altered by a mechanism within the
Fleet in the Western Pacific. And, vehicle.
as an air-to-surface weapon we have In the book by Nels A. Parson,
Petrel, which can be launched Jr., Guided Missiles in War and
against enemy ships and submarines Peace, a guided missile is referred
by patrol planes far out of range of to as a robot device that can be
the targets antiaircraft fire. directed to a target by commands
Besides these, there are a flock of originating from outside the weapon
other guided missiles on the way. In or by instruments built into it. To
2 ALL HANDS
ASMs are named after sea birds. follow the pattern and neither does
SSMs bear astronomical names. Terrier, for as everyone knows, a
SAMs are named for mythologi- terrier aint nuthin but a hound
dog (or at least a type of dog).
Thus, in air-to-air missiles we What Goes Into A Guided Missile
have Sidewinder, named for a No matter what you call them, all
dzadly rattlesnake of the desert, and guided missiles are made up of four
the harmless-sounding Sparrow. In basic components-the airframe, the
the air-to-surface type theres Petrel, power plant, the guidance and con-
which gets its moniker from the far- trol system and the warhead and
flying, long-winged sea birds some- fuses.
times known as stormy petrels or Airframe has the same meaning
Mother Careys Chickens. among missilemen as it does among
Talos gets its name from Greek aviators. This is the component which
mythology. Talos was a man of brass gives the missile its aerodynamic
given to the king of Crete to guard characteristics, and the part in which
that island, which Talos did by the other components are placed.

M I S S I LE S
walking around the island three times Designing the airframe and finding
the right material from which to
ev?h:;yan SSM name occurs in make it, involves thousands of man-

I
both astronomy and mythology only hours during the research and de-
be truly guided, the craft must be the astronomical name is used. velopment phases of a missiles cre-
capable of changing its course to Polaris, of course, is the North Star, ation. At present, most airframes are
take account of unpredictable factors but Regulus, besides being the name made of aluminum alloys, mag-
or evasive movement of the target. of a star, was a popular name in the nesium or high tensile strength steel,
Control devices and propulsion sys- middle ages for a snake which was but a never-ending search goes on in
tems used in guided missiles are supposed to kill by its hiss. an effort to give the airframe the
found in two other types of robot You cant always judge a missile heat resistance, strength, lightness
craft as well. The first is an early by its name, however. Tartar doesnt and other qualities it requires. Heat
cousin of the guided missile-the
Preset missile that can only maintain SURFACE-TO-AIR Terrier missiles arm GM ships against enemy air attacks.
a predetermined direction, position,
or attitude with respect to a fixed
reference. The conventional naval
torpedo and the German V-1 and
V-2 missiles are examples. The sec-
ond is the remote-controlled pilotless
vehicle which is not built for the
purpose of attacking a target. Drone
aircraft used for reconnaissance and
in antiaircraft target practice, and
space ships of the future, are ex
amples of this type.
By common usage the term
guided missile means a robot craft
that flies through air or space.
These birds are classified by type
according to locqtion of target and
location of launcher. Therefore, a
missile launched from the air (A)
against a target on the sea or earths
surface (S) is called an air-to-sur-
face missile, or in abbreviated form,
an ASM. Similarly, a surface-to-air
missile becomes an SAM, a surface-
to-surface missile is an SSM and an
air-to-air missile is an AAM. In
general usage these four types cover

How They Get Their Names


Usually the Navy follows an in-
formal system in picking the names
for its prize birds:
AAMs are named for reptiles
and winged creatures (except birds

MARCH 1957
resistance is especially important, for
one of the biggest problems now
facing the researchers is that of find-
ing a material able to withstand the
terrific heat generated by the fric-
tion of air moving over the missiles
outer surface,
Naturally, speed is an absolute
essential for a guided missile. If the
bird is an offensive weapon, it must
be able to outrace the planes and
missiles the enemy sends up to inter-
cept it. If its a defensive one, it
must move faster than the planes or
missiles the attacker is using.
The Power Plant
Because of this need for speed
all power plants used in guided mis-
siles are based on some form of the
thermal jet engine-usually a solid
or liquid propellant rocket, a turbojet
or a ramjet.
Each of these power plants has
its own advantages and disadvan-
tages. Since rocket engines carry
their own oxygen, altitude has little
effect on them, so the rocket is the
ideal power plant for use beyond
the earths atmosphere. Rockets also
offer, at least theoretically, the possi-
bility of unlimited speed. However,
their high rate of fuel consumption
and the difficulties involved in steer-
ing a rocket, present problems which
have yet to be solved.
The ramjet has a lower rate of
fuel consumption, and therefore a
longer range, than the rocket, and
it can be run on gasoline or kero-
sene, instead of the expensive and
hard-to-handle fuels used in rockets.
carry television cameras which fur-
nish the operator a picture of what
the missile sees and enable him
to steer the missile accordingly.
In baseline guidance, tech-
niques similar to those used in air-
craft electronic navigation are em-
ployed to direct the missile to its
target. In one example of this group,
based on the same principle as loran,
radio waves are sent out from two
transmitters and the missile follows a
beam formed by the intersections
of the waves.
In homing systems all the guid-
ance equipment is located in the
missile and the missile %homes in
on some illuminating target feature,
such as heat, light, sound or mag-
netic field. The homers can also
direct themselves toward a trans-
mitting radio, radar, or television
station, or they can guide themselves
by radar echoes reflected from the
target. POISED FOR ACTION - An F9F-8 Cougar hovers like a peaceful but alert
That, very, very, briefly covers the hornet, ready to strike in defense if necessary with its Sidewinder stingers.
airframe, the power plant and the
control and guidance system. But
the missiles real reason-for-being is
its fourth component-the warhead
and the impact, proximity or ground-
control fuse which detonates it.
The Punch In A Guided Missile
Eventually, a miss;le might carry
anv of these warheads:
External blast-In which the pres-
sure wave generated by the force of
the exdosion does the damage.
Fragmentation-In which the ex-
plosive force ejects metallic frag-
ments at high ve1ocit;es.
Shaped charge-In which the ex-
plosive force is pointed in one di-
rection and damage is produced
either by the force of the blast or
by framents ejected.
ExDlosive pellet-In which sepa-
rately fused pellets would be ejected
from the warhead to detonate either
on impact with, or after penetration
of, the target.
Nuclear-An atomic missile could
destroy military targets while at the
same time releasing radio-active
elements. An atomic or hydrogen
bomb would be an awesome weapon
even if it were dropped from a
World War I Jenny. But, when
one of these killers can be carried
in a vehicle moving at several thou-
sand miles per hour, its lethal power
is multiplied tremendously.
Keeping that fact in mind, the
Navy is going all-out to help the
United States keep its lead in the UP FROM BELOW-Guided missile submarine USS Tunny (SSG 282) prepared
guided missile field. -Jerry Wolff to launch Regulus from her deck using JATO bottles for initial flying speed.

MARCH 1957 5
MISSILE OF TOMORROW - Regulus II, big brother of the now operational Regulus, is shown in artists conception.

Impact of Missiles on Ships


cc if not amusing,
T IS INTERESTING, afford to abandon to an enemy- year. So changes in our Navy are
Ito note that the introduction of even temporarily. In addition to being made at a regulated pace,
the rifled gun, the torpedo, the aerial that, the power and range of naval converting several older types while
bomb, and atomic weapons were weapons have increased tremen- building a prototype for guided mis-
each accompanied by the prediction dously in recent years. This means siles or nuclear energy, yet the shape
that the surface Navy would become the importance to our survival of of the Navy is being changed as
obsolete. These words, written by maintaining tight control of the surely as the contours of a beach are
an Army officer in a book consider- worlds oceans and denying the seas changed by ocean waves. Yester-
ing the potentialities and effects of to powerful enemy forces-sub- days batteries of rifles are slowly
guided missiles, served to introduce marines, aircraft, long-range missile making way for SSMs-surface-to-
the statement that as these imple- ships-is greater than ever. Nothing surface missiles which can extend
ments of war were developed each is more important to the defense of the area of a ships lethal punch
one was tested against naval ves- the United States than control of the while adding to the accuracy of that
sels, yet the major powers of the seas. punch. Antiaircraft batteries are
world still have sizable surface Fleets The armada of World War I1 ready to acknowledge the superior-
and continue to build more and ships which we have in mothballs or ity of SAMs in defending ships and
better warships. in operation were neither designed shore installations against air attack.
Guided missiles, the Army man nor equipped to meet modem threats Air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles
adds, will change the Navys looks to our national security. CNO points ,have proved themselves worthy of
and actions, but surface Fleets are as out that much of this carrier and installation on the Navys latest air-
important as ever. ADM A. A. Burke, ship equipment has only limited use- craft. Petrel, an air-to-surface missile,
USN, the Chief of Naval Opera- fulness against the weapons which is ready for operational use along
tions, agrees that the shape of ships might be employed in a future war. with many other missiles.
-and of the Navy-will change Admiral Burke adds: What effect are these new arma-
and tells why: That is why we are going in for ment systems likely to have on our
The Navys responsibilities-the missiles. We are installing missiles future men-0-war, in their shape and
things the Navy has to do-have in ships just as fast as we can. Yet, employment? Using the surface-to-
never been greater than they are we dont want to install them too air missile as an example, we find a
today. The United States has treaties fast. We dont want to build a lot of difference of opinion among the ex-
with friends in almost every impor- expensive missiles at one time and perts. Some feel that all our ships
tant overseas area of the world. I then find out we can get better ones. should have adequate air defense, so
find it difficult to visualize any sea We dont want to stock up on every- SAMs should be installed on every
area in the world that we could thing this year and get nothing next vessel which can accommodate the
6 ALL HANDS
weight and afford the space for guid- look much like the submarines which
ance equipment, launchers, missile depend upon older types of arma-
fuels and the missiles themselves; ment. Other standard ship types
others feel that the Navy should have long been adapted to this new
follow the trend toward specialized weapon. The late uss Mississippi
ships-equip ships to fulfill a pri- (AG l28), after long years of ser-
mary mission of air defense. Their vice as a gun platform, gave up
argument: total use of a cruiser or her after turret to assume the role
destroyer type for air defense would of an experimental guided missile
be conducive to most efficient use of launching platform. uss Norton
highly trained guided missile per- Sound (AVM 1) is still serving in a
sonnel-and more efficient AA fire. similar role. uss Boston (CAG 1 )
Of course, the first group retorts that and Canberra (CAG 2) will be fol-
the best way to lose all your eggs is lowed into Fleet service by uss Gal-
to put them in one basket. ueston (CLG 93), LittZe Rock (CL
Medium-range surface-to-surface 92) and several additional cruisers
missiles, because of their size, are -each with a silhouette marked by
not very well fitted for use aboard
ships of destroyer type or smaller. triple guns of an eight-inch turret
The present Regulus Z is being used symbolized naval might. Other
aboard aircraft carriers, cruisers and cruisers have retained the after tur-
submarines without difficulty. The ret, but have been modified to
heavy cruiser uss Los Angeles (CA handle Regulus missiles. Missile-
135), Hancock (CVA 19), and packing aircraft carriers and destroy-
Tunny (SSG 282), for example, are ers are pulling Fleet duty; while
capable of using surface-to-surface others are being modified or built
missiles as well as conventional from scratch.
weapons. Guided missiles will be hitched to
Here it might be noted that Sec- nuclear power in the first cruiser to
retary of the Navy Thomas has said be designed and constructed since
that Forrestabclass carriers are not the end of World War 11. Included
prototypes for any new weapons in the fiscal 1957 shipbuilding pro-
systems, but a logical step in the
development of a proved weapon. TERRIER guided missiles fired from shipboard launchers against enemy
Our present guided missile cruisers aircraft are now operational on Navy ships. Above: air-to-air Sidewinder.
with their supersonic antiaircraft
birds are a similar step in the de-
velopment of combatant vessels.
A submarine fitted with missiles
can move within target range before
surfacing, then rise, fire on a distant
target and drop beneath the waves
again before the enemy knows what
hit him. In comparison with surface
vessels, present-day submarines are
limited in both speed and capacity
-but dont forget uss Nautilus
(SSN 571). In the words of RADM
A. G . Mumma, USN, Chief of Bu-
Ships, she has proved herself so
well that the keels for seven other
nuclear-powered submarines have
already been laid and construction
will soon get under way on seven
more. These planned submarines in-
clude a nuclear-powered guided
missile submarine which will com-
bine, for the first time in a single
ship, the vastly increased stealth and
cruising range provided by nuclear
power together with the incredibly
destructive force of the Navys new
missiles.
Both the Atlantic and Pacific
Fleets now have submarines whose
primary mission is the launching and
control of guided missiles-but they
MARCH 1957
phasis. It is for such purposes as this 712) is helping solve with her sta- with recoilless missiles. Its presence,
that guided missile ships are replac- bilizing fins. Some launchers must however, cuts down on the number
ing todays warcraft, and that mis- be stabilized; for a successful launch- of missiles a ship may carry-and on
siles are replacing guns themselves. ing all of them must grip a missile the weight of launching and
Secretary Thomas recently stated firmly until the moment of firing. handling equipment.
that an arsenal of atomic weapons, Accuracy of fire for a missile- Despite Terrier and Tartar, de-
air-to-air, air-to-ground, and surface- age Navy also demands a more pre- spite jet fighters armed with guided
to-surface, is being fully assimilated. cise navigational system than any missiles and rockets, it will be some
He cautions, however, that missiles now in use, particularly if interme- time before missile systems replace
for the foreseeable future are special- diate range ballistic missiles such as todays antiaircraft fire systems. Yet
purpose weapons. There will be no Polaris are to be successful. uss Secretary Thomas has pointed out
substitute for the versatility of the Compass Island (EAG 153) and that these missiles have already ex-
small piloted aircraft as a general- another merchant-type vessel have tended the surface antiaircraft fire
purpose weapon for attacking the been assigned to work toward a zones through which any attacker
great variety of fixed and moving, solution of this problem. must pass, extended them much
airborne, seaborne, and ground tar- That old devil space remains a wider than the few thousand yards
gets within the naval missions. Only problem, since missiles require they encompassed in World War 11.
the trained pilot on the spot can plenty of room for storage, assembly, While the real shape of tomor-
make the prompt evaluation and testing and launching. Cruisers rows missile Navy is still on the
decision necessary for selecting which have hangars can easily be drawing boards and in the minds of
targets in a fast-moving situation, or adapted and smaller types can be planners, Uncle Sams sea service
when intelligence is inadequate. converted to handle fairly small began its metamorphosis quite some
These special purpose weapons, SAMs. But SSMs, IRBMs, even time ago. Admiral Burke recently
despite their advantages, offer a some SAMs, range in size and explained the situation this way:
number of problems and hazards as weight from that of a 16-inch shell What we are doing right now in
a basic naval weapon. Among these to that of smaller Navy aircraft. And this transition period is modernizing
problems and hazards: ships of WW I1 design are saddled and converting all ships. In addition,
Missile launch and control with weight which was necessary all the new submarines will have
from a rolling ship platform-a when the recoil shock of rifled guns nuclear power-that has paid off.
problem which uss Gyatt (DDG was a consideration, but is in excess All ships-destroyers and bigger-

FRIGATE CLASS guided missile ship with primary mission to destroy air targets engages the enemy in drawing.
will have a guided missile battery
so that they can shoot down planes
SHIPS of the GUIDED MISSILE at 70,000-feet or 80,000-feet alti-
tude-20 miles away. Our electronic
equipment has to be very good.
NAVY We have to do the same thing
with anti-submarine equipment. We
have to get anti-submarine equip-
ment that can detect the submarine
at long ranges. We have to be able
to identify the submarine at long
ranges, and kill him at long ranges
BBG-GUIDED MISSILE CAPITAL SHIP before he kills us. It means air-
Authorized: launched anti-submarine missiles,
None depth charges that will kill sub-
marines at greater ranges, quick
ways for finding a submarine from
an aircraft or from our own subs.
We are in a transition period in
CAG-GUIDED MISSILE HEAVY CRUISER so many things that we dont want
to go all-out in many directions and
Commissioned: literally squander billions of dollars.
Boston (GAG 1 ) So we are keeping the Navy budget
Canberra (GAG 2 ) low. Our budget is austere. For ex-
ample, we have long-range plans
where we plan to build a few sub-
marines each year. Each year
nuclear-powered submarines should
CG(N)-NUCLEAR GUIDED MISSILE CRUISER be a little cheaper and a little bet-
Authorized: ter. We want to get more guided
One missiles each year, a few more
guided missile ships each year, one
aircraft carrier each year-and we
hope this year to start our first
nuclear powered carrier.
CLG -GUIDED MISSILE DDG-GUIDED MISSILE There are many things that affect
LIGHT CRUISER DESTROYER plans for our Navy of the future.
Under Conversion: Commissioned: One of them is the technological
Galveston (CLG 93) Gyatt (DDG 712) progress we are now making. An-
* other big one is dollars. Then, there
is a question of what we can do
A best. We ought to have two or three
DLG-GUIDED MISSILE SSG-GUIDED MISSILE different arrows in our quiver SO
FRIGATE SUBMARINE that no matter what the enemy tries
Under Construction: Commissioned: we can countet him with something
Farra ut (DLG 6) Tunn (SSG 282) effective.
+LG 7) We develop our weapons as fast
d r o (SSG 317) as we can, building them primarily
Mac onou h (DLG 8) Under Construction:
d G 9) Grayback {SSG 574) on the basis of what we need, but
Aut=d: we also take into account what po-
G=(SSG 577) tential enemies are doing. In de-
DLG 10.11, 13, 14, 15
veloping these weapons to defend
ourselves, we do two things. We
build weapons to defend ourselves
.L against our own capabilities, since
we know about our own weapons.
SSG(N)-NUCLEAR GUIDED AVM-GUIDED MISSILE
MISSILE SUBMARINE SHIP We also develop weapons for use
against any other capability that
Under Construction: Commia sioned: other people have been able to de-
Halibut (SSG(N) 587) Norton Sound (AVM 1) vise-our friends, our allies and our
possible enemies.
ADM Burke concludes, We have
* Accurate silhouette not shown. to be able to meet the threat if war
comes, or we will be in big trouble,
world-wide.
-Barney Baugh, JO1, USN.
ALL HANDS
I
FLYING RATTLER-FJ-4 Fury takes deadly Sidewinder up.

Airborne Missiles
F YOU SHOULD get up in the air about guided missiles
I and future air warfare, look around and youll find
that a large field of Navy planes has already taken
the guided missile airborne over the Fleet.
In case these speedy planes should be traveling too
fast for a good look-see, here is a collection of missile-
bearing planes that is just a sample of things to come.
Photos represent fighters, interceptors and patrol
bombers. Under their wings they will carry air-to-air
Sparrow or Sidewinder. Patrol planes like P2V Neptune
are being equipped with the Petrel air-to-surface
guided missile designated primarily for use against

= ships. It can be launched well outside the targets air


defense
.~~ and will find its way home in mite of evasive
~~

action. All these missiles are bperational &th the Fleet.


NAVY MISSILEMEN are highly trained sailors stepping into tomorrows Navy
today. Above: Sparrow is loaded by GFs. Below: GSs roll Regulus at sea.

tt HE NAVY IS JUST NOW crossing


the threshold into a field which
promises to revolutionize navies as
much as did the discovery of gun-

Secretary of the Navy was referring


solely to the field of guided missiles.
Although the Honorable Charles S.
Thomas made that quote within the
uast year, its outdated already.
Thats because the promise of guided
missiles revolutionizing the Navy is
no longer a promise but a proven
fact. If he were to speak about
guided missiles in similar words
today, he would most likely say
that in the field of guided missiles
the Navy has crossed a threshold
which has not only revolutionized
the U.S. Navy, but in years ahead
will undoubtedly do likewise for all
major navies of the world, as well
as all of the branches of the armed

~ - As evidence of this are the many


new types of almost unbelievable
. __ .. ~ weapons and ships-and even a

_ _ .--- -- ALL HANDS


IT TAKES A LOT of knowledge and

new-type Navyman -joining the and advanced mathematics, physics,


Fleet almost daily. electricity, electronics and related
Todays revolutionized Navy sciences-todays Navy of tomor-
boasts of guided missilemen, guided row would be equipped with im-
missile cruisers, destroyers and sub- pressive but useless weapons. Per-
marines. Muster rolls already bear a sonnel are even more important in
sizable number of missiles either in the jet-age Navy than they were in
operation or still in the development the past.
stage. They include the surface-to- Guided missiles are highly com-
susface missiles Regulus I and II and plex weapons. Further, the missiles
Polaris, all capable of being launched testing and maintenance equipment
from submarines; Terrier, Talos and is equally as complex as the missiles
Tartar, the surface-to-air demons, themselves. This calls for a well
which will have cruisers and destroy- trained core of the operating and
ers as their mobile launching plat- maintenance personnel. Accordingly,
forms; the air-to-surface missile enlisted men of a very high caliber
Petrel as well as Sparrow and Side- are being trained more thoroughly
winder, the air-to-air missiles which in a wider variety of skills than in
are already deployed throughout the any other period in the history of
world. sea power.
Todays revolutionized missile However, the sailors of todays
age Navy requires a Navyman who guided missile Navy are more than
is highly motivated as well as edu- just operators and repair men.
cated to assemble, test, adjust, repair Theyre technicians as well. This
and fire these deadly birds. core of well trained, versatile Navy-
Without this type of highly spe- men is built around, but not limited
cialized Navyman-who must have to, the Guided Missileman (GS) and
a thorough understanding of basic Aviation Guided Missileman (GF)

MARCH I957
ever, as these birdmen, whether
GS or GF, are basically concerned
with the extremely complex internal
guidance and control systems of the
missile. This entails a lot of elec-
tronics. So much, that the GS and
GF are occupied almost on a full-
time basis with electronics instead
of pushing around missiles, loading
and firing them as most people be-
lieve. In fact, the missilemen have
little or no connection with the more
colorful or thrilling Buck Rogers
phases of missile operations. Their
primary job is to assemble, test,
align, adjust and repair all of the
missiles internal components. This
involves further electronics work,
just as the operation and repair of all
missile testing equipment does. It
ON TARGET-Missilemen launch Regulus, (SSM), guided missile from launcher
all adds up to the GS and GF acting
aboard USS Randolph (CVA 15). New type weapon has created new rating. as a specialized electronics tech-
nician, who has a tremendous future.
In addition to the internal com-
ponents of the missile, GSs and GFs
supervise the handling and stowage
of missile sections and components;
maintain work logs and electronic
equipment histories; and record test
data and prepare reports concern-
ing missile electrical and electronic
equipment.
Although the missilemens primary
concern is with the internal guidance
and control system, they also have
the over-all supervisory responsi-
bility of assembling and replacing
all other components of the missile.
As you most likely know, these com-
ponents consist of the air frame.
power plant, warhead and fuse, in
addition to the missiles guidance
and control system.
The airframe is the principal
structural component of the missile.
The various appendages, such as
MISSILEMEN COMING UP-Missile and launcher ride elevator to flight deck. wings and tail surfaces attached to
Below: Work begins on hangar deck where Regulus is rigged for flight. the airframe, together form the con-
figuration of the missile. These wing
and tail surfaces change the course
and elevation of the missile in ilight
and maintain its fight altitudes.
The elevators control pitch, the rud-
der controls yaw and the ailerons
control roll.
These control surfaces take dif-
ferent forms, shapes and positions
depending on the type of missile
to which they are attached. For
example, a subsonic missile like
Regulus Z may have quite conven-
tional wings and tail surfaces. It
may be the latest in streamlined
weapons. Supersonic missiles like
Temer are often more radical in
design and use wings resembling
ALL HANDS
fins. Supersonic airfoils (wing and
tail surfaces) must have a sharp
leading (front) edge on the wings
whereas the subsonic airfoils have
a relatively blunt leading edge. This
difference is necessary because of
the shock waves that occur in super-
sonic flight.
Encased in the airframe and lo-
cated in the stern of a guided mis-
sile is a jet-type power plant, which
consists of either a jet or rocket
motor. Although there are two sepa-
rate means of propulsion, both the
jet and rocket motors operate on the
same principle. Jet propulsion plants
are divided into two main classes-
mechanical and thermal.
Mechanical jet motors rely on
some mechanical device, such as a
pump, for the force to accelerate
the working fluid to its exhaust
velocity. Thermal jet motors rely on
heat energy for the force to accel-
erate the working fluid. The heat
energy is supplied by a chemical
reaction, usually an oxidation proc- SPARROW SHOOTERS-Aviation guided missilemen keep the missiles firing
ess. Thermal jets have been used from Navy planes. Here circuit check is made on missile in jet's launcher.
extensively in guided missiles and
most likely will continue to be used
in the future.
A rocket motor is a thermal jet
motor that contains within itself all
of the elements necessary for a
chemical reaction to generate large
trolumes of high-temperature, high-
pressure gases. Its operation is inde-
pendent of the surrounding medium.
Atmospheric thermal jets, on the
other hand, utilize the oxygen con-
tent of the earth's atmosphere in the
chemical reaction which takes place
in the combustion chamber. In other
words, they do not contain within
themselves all of the necessary ele-
ments for a chemical reaction
Therefore, they are limited to op-
eration in the earth's atmosphere.
Rockets are classified according to
the state of propellant used. The
two main classes of rockets are solid- BIRDMAN'S BIRDMEN-Air-to-air guided missiles are rolled out to planes
propellant and liquid-propellant.
Most Navy guided missiles utilizing and raised to wing launchers of Cutlass jets of VA 86 at NAS Oceana, Va.
rocket motors are of the solid-pro-
pellant type.
In addition to the rocket motor,
other types of thermal jet motors
consist of turbojets, pulse jets and
ramjets. Each has operating char-
acteristics which differ rather widely
from one another. Because of widely
diverse requirements based upon the
guidance system, launching system,
size and speed of the missile, each
type of jet engine has a definite
application. Therefore, no one type
MARCH 1957
NEOPHYTE MISSILEMEN - Basic guided missile trainees receive instruction in electronic circuits for guided missiles.

is the ideal guided missile power The responsibility for installing missile before firing, and give con-
plant. the explosive components in a mis- trol to the missile during its initial
The operation, installation and sile is shared by Gunners Mates, period of motion. This is done by
maintenance of the missiles propul- Torpedomans Mates and Aviation setting the missile at the proper
sion or power plant does not fall Ordnancemen. The GMs and TMs angle and aiming it in the direction
within the scope of the GS or GF share the surface-to-surface and sur- of flight.
ratings. This is where the Aviation face-to-air missiles, while the ADs All of which brings us back to the
Machinists Mate and Engineman rat- are in charge of the air-to-air and missiles guidance and control sys-
ings come into the guided missile air-to-surface missiles. Torpedomen tems that have presented problems
picture. The ADS are concerned with team up with the ADs to service greater than most in the history of
the propulsion systems of all missiles warheads and fuses in the air-to- military research and development.
while the ENS deal only with the underwater missile Petrel. These components consist of all the
Regulus missiles. The AOs, GMs and TMs are also items necessary for predicting the
The warhead is the missiles pay- responsible for the stowage and missiles flight path, sensing devi-
load and the actual reason for the shipping of the missiles warheads, ations from this path, calculating the
guided missiles existence. The type as well as fuses, detonators, boosters kind and amount of corrections
of target for which the missile is and rocket motors. In addition, these needed to return a new predicted
designed is the factor which deter- ratings usually do the work in con- path, translating the corrections into
mines the type of warhead a missile nection with setting the missile on orders, delivering the orders to the
will use. (For a description of the its launcher. The launchers are control equipment, translating the
warheads and fuses see page 5 . ) mechanical structures that orient a orders into aerodynamic forces and
monitoring the entire system.
Once a guided missile is launched,
it comes under the command of
Fire Control Technician (FT) and
Aviation Fire Control Technician
( A Q ) . They operate and maintain
all of the missiles external control
equipment while the GSs and GFs
take care of the internal control and
guidance systems within the missile.
The two guided missileman rat-
ings are among the newest in the
Navys over-all enlisted rating struc-
MORE TO MISSILES than meets the eye. Top: Course a t NAS Jacksonville ture: Establishment Of the GS and
GF ratings was avproved by the
passes the word on new Sidewinder. Bottom: Students shown Regulus missile. Secretarv of the Navv on 23 Tan
HERES NOT A PERSON in the world et, and the manned aircraft. Certa
Twho can lay claim to having in- of todays medium and long-ranged use
vented the guided missile. It is an guided missiles show clearly the pre- guided missiles.
instrument of warfare that just dominant influence of the latter an- The Navy itself has been in the
came about in stages, then sud- cestor, and these have been called busii
denly achieved a state of develop- pilotless aircraft. some time, although 5

ment where it promised a potential However, a much larger number, have realized it. As early as World
far beyond that of other types of including some large and many small War I, the US. Navy had developed
missiles. Years of work in the chem- guided missiles are much more another wor
istry labs, engineering shops, on the closely related to the artillery rocket sile. Although succes,
drafting boards, by mathematicians, than to the airplane. In some cases the Navys aerial torpedo became
and countless of other professionals, the two original types of character- lost in the secrecy of World War I
have combined to give us the guided istics have been so interwoven
missile. to produce a new combination in enemy.
Like mountain streams growing which it is quite difficult to say This guided missile was descr
into rivers and feeding the oceans, which of the two original ancestors as . . .an automatic aerial torpedo,
the guided missile has evolved from have the predominating influence. a passengerless aeroplane, capable

a vast flow of basic research in A third type of missile, the tor- of flying a desired distance on a
widely divergent fields, each inde- pedo, developed during the Civil course, true and predetermined, and
pendent and probably unknown to War, is classified by many as the of descending to ea&
one another. When these streams of worlds first guided missile. It was ing a heavy charge upon impact. ...
research were all put together, they during this time that the gyroscope Research, development and field
provided the essentials of todays was used in an attempt to control tests of these passengerless aero-
guided missile. that torpedo, but the gyros available planes - which were radio-con-
If you want to go all the way back at that time were so inaccurate that trolled and looked like a biplane -
in history, you might say that mis- all attempts failed. But who is to were carried out at a secret airfield
siles, as such, came into being during deny the fact that the sound-homing on Long Island. Approximately 100
the days of the cavemen. Caveman torpedo of World War I1 is not
Hatfield aimed a rock at Caveman true guided missile? into the Atlantic Ocean and a good
McCoy. Loosely speaking, that rock The rocket, more closely associ- number of direct hits were made on
was one of the predecessors of the ated in the mind of the general targets up to 96 miles away. They
guided missile. public as one of the forerunners of caiiied 1000 pounds of TNT.
But up to the fairly recent past todays guided missile, has been in Research in the field of guided
all missiles-like that rock-had one use since before the days of Wan Hu missiles continued slowly after the
major deficiency-they did not al- in the fifteenth century. (see box, end of WW I because of a lack of
ways hit the intended target. The page 58). Rockets brought home the interest, lack of funds, and the primi-
solution to this is really quite simple: fact that unless man found a way tive state of electronics.
alter the path of the missile while to guide them, he would never be In the 1920s BuAer was experi-
its in flight so that it will strike able to utilize fully their high speed menting with radio-controlled air-
what you want. This proved to be and long range. craft. These early experiments, how-
much easier said than done. But it was only in the early 1900s eve1
The guided missile, as we know it that Dr. Robert H. Goddard, of greatest of disadvantages: not only
today, can be thought of generally Clark University in Worcester, Mass., the lack of funds, but poor instru-
as descending from two original fore- set down the principles of rocketry, mentation facilities, lack of space,
bears, the ballistic or artillery rock- including the problems of stabili- and hazards to their personnel.
18 ALL HANDS
Missiles
Despite this, it was around 1923
when the first drone (an unmanned
airborne vehicle) was successfully
flown at the Naval Proving Grounds,
Dahlgren, Va. This early effort led
to the development of the target
drone for antiaircraft practice. A
logical next step would be to add
bomb loads to the drones and drive
them into enemy targets. (This was
done in World War I1 when assault
drones played their first role in
combat.)
During the O OS, the majority of
the research work in the field was
performed by American and German
civilian rocket societies. The ex-
change of information and research
data between these groups greatly
aided the ushering in of the guided
missile era.
It is the Germans who are credited
with launching the first actual guided
missile attack during wartime. In
August 1943, a British convoy was
steaming through the Bay of Biscay,
vigilant for enemy submarines and
aircraft. The lookout on one of the
ships saw what appeared to be a
small fighter come out of a turn di-
rectly toward the ship at incredible
speed. Antiaircraft guns were quick-
ly brought to bear on it but because
of the objects small size and tre-
mendous speed, the guns were in-
effective against it.
As it approached close to the ship,
this aircraft which the lookout had
spotted didnt pull out of the dive
in the familiar dive-bomber fashion
but continued on its course until it ON TARGET-Bat, guided glide bomb of WW II, heads for target ship.
hit the ship and exploded. Center: Regulus tested in ship-board launching. Below: USS Mississippi (EAG
It had been too small to carry a 128), whose last service to Fleet was testing missiles, fires Terrier from stern.
pilot and it had no visible means of
propulsion. It executed a turn and
unerringly attacked its target. Later,
it was learned that this was actually
a radio-controlled guide bomb,
launched and controlled from a Ger-
man airplane.
This incident is said to have
marked the opening of modern
guided missile warfare. Here, in the
Bay of Biscay-less than a decade
and a half ago-for the first time in
the history of warfare, a radio-con-
trolled guided missile was used.
Navy experimentation with drones
of the 1920s was also to be demon-
strated in battle during World War
11. The Bureau of Aeronautics pro-
duced a unit in 1943 and called it
MARCH I957
an assault drone. The news of the ing missile. It carried a bomb the Radiation Laboratory at the
job the drone did against the enemy mounted in a glider type of air frame Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
was lost in the welter of wartime which was equipped with a radar nology. The theme of the meeting
headlines. transmitter and receiver to give di- had been the bombing through
These drones, or guided missiles rectional correction, and a gyroscope overcast problem. At this confer-
if you will, were launched against stabilizing unit. It also had a servo- ence, Dr. David Briggs made a sug-
Japanese installations at Rabaul in mechanism to move the control sur- gestion concerning the possibility of
1943 with fairly good results, consid- face on the wing. The complete unit using radar systems in connection
ering their infant stage of develop- was suspended beneath a wing or with a glide bomb. Research had
ment at the time. Named the TDR, the fuselage of the parent plane. been underway for some time on
each drone was controlled by the The idea for the Bat missile had such newly discovered principles as
command system from a parent air- come about in early 1942 at a con- radar homing, aerodynamics and
craft and each carried a television ference between scientists and tech- control of glide bombs. Combining
unit. A receiver in the mother plane nicians from BuOrd and the men at these various discoveries ended in
showed the operator what his missile
was pointing at until the final mo-
ment of impact. Picture Story of How the Navy Guided
At the same time the U.S. Navy
was working on the Bat, said to be WW I Aerial Torpedo Rason (Guided Bomb)
the first fully automatic guided mis-
sile to be used successfully in com-
bat by any nation. It was launched
from Navy planes and directed by
radar to targets miles away. It
destroyed many tons of Japanese
combatant and merchant shipping
during the last year of the war.
This missile was a low-angle-of-
flight, self-contained, airborne hom-

Bat Gargoyle Katydid

I Loon Lark Firebee

I Petrel Regulus Sidewinder

I 20 ALL HANDS
AXIS EFFORTS in missile field during WW II had great influence on missile Point Mugu, some 80 miles north of
development in U.S. Above: Nazi air-to-air guided missile designed to Los Angeles, was established as the
down Allied bombers had just gone into production when war ended. Navys Air Missile Test Center (see
Below: Baka 22, Japanese suicide bomb used on ships, guided by pilot.
page 34). This was one of the first
guided missile test and evaluation
centers ever established.
The earliest missile project under-
taken by this station was testing of
the KUW-1 Loon. This was the
Navy version of the well-known Ger-
man missile V-1 or buzz bomb. The
German models of the V-1 were not
true guided missiles since they flew
a pre-set course which could not
be altered after launching. The ver-
sions tested at Pt. Mugu incorpo-
of the work and production in fuses, shaped charges, warhead frag- rated radar and radio guidance.
guided missiles is research. A promi- mentation and damage probability, Other early missiles with which
nent physicist, who has worked with upper-air combustion and interplane- the Pilotless Aircraft Unit (as it was
guided missiles for many years, com- tary navigation. then called) worked included Little
piled an offhand list showing that Research and development in Joe, Gorgon and Gargoyle. Little Joe
missiles development involves re- guided missiles sustained its mo- and Gargoyle were pioneering efforts
search problems in such fields as mentum after the close of World in the missile field and never did
aerodynamics, combustion, propel- War I1 since efforts up to then reach the operational stage. How-
lants, gyros, servo-mechanisms, radar, clearly indicated that only the sur- ever the glide bomb Bat, a successor
electronic components, radiowave face of this vast field had been to Gargoyle, was put into operation
propagation, telemetering, proximity scratched. Late in World War 11, in the latter months of WW 11.
Gorgon was another development
GORGON IV experimental guided missile is hauled back on board mother of the Gargoyle but incorporated a
jet engine for propulsion and tele-
ship after flight during studies of ram-jet engines used as missile power plants.
vision for guidance. This missile is
believed to have been the first of
the more modern type of air-to-air
missiles typified today by missiles of
the Sparrow family.
Little Joe was designed for
launching from land or shipboard
sites against aircraft. It was de-
veloped primarily for use against
the Japanese kamikaze and baka
bombs but never did see action.
Other missile projects in which
NAMTC has played a role include
Lark and Regulus. Lark project was
concluded in 1952 and Regulus is
now in operation.
ALL HANDS
Some miles to the east of Mugu
is another vitally important Navy
activity, the Naval Ordnance Test
Station, Inyokern, Calif., better
known as China Lake. The scientists
and engineers here have been work-
ing for years, testing, evaluating and
developing rockets of all sorts.
One of the results of their work
has been the development of a five-
inch rocket with a small guidance
unit. Since this air-to-air missile was
born in the desert and is quite
deadly, it was named Sidewinder.
Many other firsts in missile de-
velopment are credited to the Navy.
As Rear Admiral James S. Russell,
USN, Chief of BuAer, recently
pointed out, The Lark was the first
surface-to-air missile known to have
destroyed a target aircraft; the
Sparrow I was the first all-weather
air-to-air missile system to become
operational; and the Regulus I was
the first ship-launched, surface-to-
Davy Jones Locker Stocks
T HISGS HAVE BEES happening down marines carrying deadly long-range
in the realm of Davy Jones that guided missiles through the waters
have caused him to sit up and take below. uss Tunny (SSG 282), shown
notice. It was bad enough (he on these pages loading and firing her
thought) when Navymen began to missiles, and uss Barbero (SSG 317)
sail through his domain in large tin are already with the Fleet. Two
fish but now Davys sense of secu- more, uss Crayback (SSG 574) and
rity is shook to its roots by the uss Growler (SSG 577), are being
sight of atomic powered and guided converted to join these undersea
missile submarines slicing through missile masters.
his watery world. Tunny and Rarbero carry the
In addition to the guided missile Regulus missile in round watertight
ships that Navy has working topside hangars on their decks just aft of
there is a growing group of sub- the conning tower. In a matter of

CANNED MISSILES - USS Tunny (SSG 282) takes aboard her missile might, Regulus,

ALL HANDS
USS BOSTON (CAG l), Navys first
guided missile cruiser, heads out to
sea, Terrier missiles poised on stern.

the considerations which had to be


weighed by BuShips are indications
of the shape of ships to come.
Those guided missile ships now
in commission have undergone an
extensive face-lifting to enable them
to carry their new loads. They must
have enough space for storage, for
assembly, for testing and for launch-
ing their missiles. Each missile, for
example, requires from 250 to 1000
cubic feet for storage.
Various ships are scheduled to
receive missile equipment in the next
few years. Some will be of the port-
able type; most will involve major
permanent ship conversions.
Where the portable missile instal-
lation is used, major structural
changes will be unnecessary. In-
stallation can be made without dis-

A Report on the Worlds First Guided


HE TERMS lock on, track and launch mental ship Norton Sound (AVM 1) turbing other armament, and launch-
Tare not a part of the normal lan- -will soon be obsolete, but these ers can be removed with equal ease.
guage of most Navymen, but to the names will live for .years to come. However, it is still necessary to pro-
Navys new breed of men, of which The same goes for the guided mis- vide weight compensation for the
the guided missileman is representa- sile submarines, uss Tunny (SSG missile installation.
tive, theyre familiar, everyday terms. 282) and Barber0 (SSG 317)-dis- Most of the electronics checkout
They describe three steps in launch- cussed on page 24. They do not equipment needed for these port-
ing missiles on board the growing have spectacular dimensions, nor do able installations is placed aboard in
Fleet of guided missile ships they have the glamor of Forrestal portable vans, eliminating the need
Theres quite a story behind each or Nautilus, but they carry within for stowing this gear on the ship
one. The roster of the present guided them the promise of the future. as individual items.
missile surface ships-the two cruis- There were plenty of problems On the other hand, a major ship
ers, uss Boston (CAG 1) and connected with the guided missile conversion is necessary for perma-
Canberra (CAG 2 ) , the destroyer ship conversions as discussed in the nent missile launchers. This means a -
Gyutt (DDG 712) and the experi- article beginning on page 6, and long shipyard session. Here, actual
structural changes must be made to
give the needed weight compensa-
tion and allow space for the launch-
ing equipment. The vast amount of
electronics gear that must go into
these permanent conversions also
makes it necessary to remove some
of the old in favor of the new.
Here are some of the problems
peculiar to guided missile conver-
sion:
Whether fixed or portable, the
launchers must be stable and must
be able to grip the missiles firmly
to prevent damage and give split-
second release at the instant of firing.
All of the fuels used for the
missiles are fire hazards and some HIGH TEST - Navy surface-to-surface guided missile roars off its launching
are toxic. For the first time several platform on a test flight using JATO rocket bottles to speed its getaway.
explosives are handled in one maga-
zine. This means new arrangements
and new handling procedures. tender, Norton Sound was launched (CAG 1) and uss Canberra
The deck below the launcher 28 Nov 1943. In early 1945, she (CAG 2 ) .
must be stable enough to withstand earned her first engagement star for uss Boston is the sixth Navy ship
the heat of the jet blast. If an acci- the assault and occupation of Oki- to bear that name. She was launched
dent or misfire occurs, the ship has nawa. For her support in the Third 26 Aug 1942, as a Baltimore class
Fleet operations against Japan she cruiser and saw World War II serv-
earned her second star. (She also ice with Task Force 58 at Eniwetok

Missile Ships earned eligibility for the Navy Occu-


pation Service Medal, Asia, and the
China Service Medal Extended.)
Atoll, Marshall Islands, for which
she was awarded the Asiatic-Pacific
Campaign Medal. She later took part
to be capable of absorbing shock. Known as the sea-going labora- in the first raid on the Palaus and
Testing and developing missiles tory after her conversion from AV the Western Carolines, then saw
aboard ship is the only sure-fire way to AVM (Guided Missile Ship), service in Western New Guinea, the
to get better missiles, as has been Norton Sound has carried out ex- Marianas, Western Caroline Islands,
proved in the conversion of two periments with a number of guided Leyte, Luzon, Iwo Jima, and Japan.
heavy cruisers, a destroyer and a missiles and rockets. She first fired She was awarded the Navy Occu-
seaplane tender. the Loon, then the Aerobee, Terrier pation Service Medal, Asia, and 10
Heres a brief rundown on four of and later the Regulus. Below deck, engagement stars with the Asiatic-
the ships playing a big role in the Norton Sound has equipment that Pacific Campaign Medal.
new Guided Missile Navy. approaches the status of a labora- In 1946, she was taken out of
uss Norton Sound (AVM 1) is one tory. Topside, her launchers and commission in the Pacific Reserve
of the first ships converted to handle special equipment have handled the Fleet at Bremerton, Washington.
and launch guided missiles. Viking and many other missiles. Boston was later ordered to New
The first ship designed and built Further guided missile testing is York for conversion and in Novem-
from the keel up as a seaplane being continued with uss Boston ber 1955 was recommissioned as the

FORMER SEAPLANE TENDER USS Nor on Sound (AVM 1) now has the unusual job of seagoing guided missile lab.
USS GYATT (DDG 712) cruises Atlantic. Right: Regulus SSM guided

first surface-to-air guided missile USS Gyaft (DDG 712), the Navys These conversions stand as only
cruiser. Her length is 673; she is guided missile destroyer, recommis- a few in the Navys missile Fleet.
armed with six eight-inchers, 10 five- sioned on 3 Dec 1956 as a 390- The Navy, in its program for fiscal
inchers, and antiaircraft guns in ad- foot destroyer with a weapon equal year 1957, is following the proven
dition to Terrier missile launchers. to that installed in a 45,000-ton method of solving missile problems
uss Canberra, another World War ship, was originally commissioned by trial installation and tests. Among
I1 veteran with a guided missile on 2 Ju1 1945 as D D 712. other Navy ships scheduled for new
future, is also a Baltimore class Gyatt operated with the Atlantic construction or conversion in the
cruiser. She was launched as CA 70 Fleet for 10 years until she reported 1957 budget are CLGs, DLGs and
on 19 Apr 1943. to Boston on 1 NDV 1955, for de- DDGs.
She saw action in Western New commissioning and conversion as a The Navys guided missile force
Guinea, the Marianas, Western Caro- guided missile ship. may also count on additional
line Islands, Hollandia and Leyte. Profiting by tests and experiments strength through such ships as uss
As a result of the Leyte Operation on other missile ships, Gyutt is the Hancock (CVA 19), Midway (CVA
Canberru was forced to return to only ship of her class sporting a 41), Helena (CA 75), Los Angeles
Boston for repairs and then joined Terrier launcher. (CA 135), Macon (CA 132), and
the Mothball Fleet at Bremerton She is also the first of the destroyer others. Although these ships are not
(carrying seven stars on her Asiatic- force of giant killers to have sta- included in the guided missile cate-
Pacific Campaign Medal). bilizing fins to give more accurate gory, they are known to be capable
In 1952, Canberra went to New firepower. of launching missiles.
York for conversion and, in June of Another important first for Gyatt Thus its plain to see that guided
that year, was recommissioned as the is her use of the horizontal stowage missiles are slated to play an in-
second surface-to-air guided missile of missiles on a revolving circular creasingly important role in the
cruiser, CAG 2, with a battery of magazine. This allows for more Navys shape of ships to come.
Terrier launchers. efficiency of missile-handling. -Charles A. Robertson
Test Centers Keep Missiles on the Go
HERE DO GUIDED MISSILES come the instifhion, subject to Bureau Facility was established by BuOrd
W from? Who does the research approval. with base facilities at White Sands.
and development? The answer be- On the other hand, BuAer follows The Navy has also sponsored addi-
comes a little complicated. the policy of decentralization of tional base facilities which include
In the Navy Department, the assignment of projects directly to the missile assembly, machine shops,
responsibility is borne by three manufacturers. storage, BOQs, access roads and
Bureaus-the Research and Devel- Several ranges have been set up launching facilities for Aerobee and
opment Division of BuOrd, the by the Department of Defense for Viking (which are upper air research
Guided Missile Division of BuAer, testing guided missiles and all of vehicles) and surface-to-air missiles.
and the Shipbuilding and Ship Main- these ranges have an elaborate net- Instruments for observation ex-
tenance Division as well as the work of instruments to observe the tend for about 45 miles up range of
Electronics Division of BuShips. action of the various missiles. Many the launching site, sufficient to pro-
The Bureau of Ordnance and the differences exist in the individual vide adequate coverage for missiles
Bureau of Aeronautics approach the setups of these ranges because each traveling the entire range of about
problems they face quite differently. has different problems to investigate. 100 miles. Tests are conducted on:
BuOrd problems are referred to edu- Heres a brief summary of the Vertically fired missiles;
cational and scientific institutions more prominent: Missiles which reach altitudes of
or to Ordnance Laboratories. BuOrd Whife Sands Proving Grounds- more than 60,000 feet;
may, for example, award a contract This is located about 25 miles east Surface-to-surface missiles with
to one of these agencies to determine of Las Cruces, New Mexico, is ad- ranges of from 25 to 70 miles.
feasibility of and to develop a certain ministered by the Armys Ordnance 0 Holloman Air Force Base, also
kind of missile, offering them a more Corps, and staffed by Army and located in New Mexico not far from
or less free hand in the necessary Navy personnel. White Sands Proving Ground, is the
research. The actual work is done by The Naval Ordnance Missile Test only guided missile test range at
which no naval personnel are sta-
OUT OF THIS WORLD-Navys Viking rocket undergoes adjustments prior tioned. It is administered and staffed
by Air Force personnel. The firing
to launching during high-altitude tests at White Sands Proving Ground. range is the same acreage as that
used by White Sands and permits
testing to ranges of some 50 miles.
Holloman tests four types of mis-
siles: surface-to-surface, surface-to-
air, air-to-air and air-to-surface.
Poinf Mugu, Calif., officially
designated as the Naval Air Missile
Test Center, is described in some
detail on pages 34 to 37 of this issue.
Point Mugu, located on the shore
of the Pacific Ocean about 60 miles
northwest of Los Angeles, was se-
lected as the site for the Center
because of its favorable year-round
climate, the availability of a deep
and extensive ocean area for a test
range, and offshore islands for in-
strumentation stations.
The mission of the U.S. Naval Air
Missile Test Center, Point Mugu, is
to test and evaluate guided missiles,
their components and related weapon
systems; to operate aerodynamic test
equipment as required; to provide
initial training for specified person-
nel and nucleus Fleet units in the
preparation, maintenance and opera-
tion of new guided missiles; and to
provide technical services support
for Fleet Activities designated to
assist NAMTC in the performance
of the basic test and evaluation
mission.
Missiles are fired seaward from
the shore or are launched from or
ALL HANDS
CHINA LAKE Naval Ordnance Test Station has job of checking missiles. It is located in the California desert area.

near San Nicolas Island. Types and for telemetering. Emplace- to the beach. Chincoteague is the
tested are: air-to-air, surface-to- ments and launchers for various Navys principal facility for testing
surface, surface-to-air and air-to- types of missiles have been con- air-to-surface missiles.
surface. structed. Details of China Lake may Pafrick Air Force Base, Cape
China lake, Calif., known in- be found on pages 59-63 of the Canaveral, Fla., is the long range
formally as NOTS, or Naval Ord- March 1956 issue of ALL HANDS. proving ground for the Armed
nance Test Station, is a completely Chincoteague, Vu., is the site Forces. The Navy currently main-
equipped research and development of the Naval Aviation Ordnance Test tains a small Naval Unit for liaison
test station for various types of ord- Station. Administered by BuOrd, it purposes at this activity. By mutual
nance material, especially rockets was originally established to provide agreement between the governments
and guided missiles. It is staffed by a location on the East Coast where of the United Kingdom, the Ba-
highly skilled scientific and technical tests of aviation ordnance could be hamas and the United States, instru-
personnel to carry out research, de- made, but the mission of the station ment stations have been located on
velopment and testing in a broad has since been extended to include various islands within the Bahamas
field of interest to ordnance appli- guided missile tests. to detect a missiles passage. The
cation. The land range consists of a entire range is under visual and
One range is used primarily for one-by-five-mile strip about five radar inspection during test flights to
guided missiles. It covers a pie- miles from the station and the range avoid the possibility of missiles col-
shaped sector of about 25 degrees can only be reached by boat. There liding with aircraft or landing within
extending about 35 miles. The range is a sea range operating area 50 the vicinity of any surface craft.
offers a complete system of com- miles east of the station over the Should the controls fail, the missile
munications and is equipped for open sea. In addition, there is a is destroyed in the air before leaving
radar, optical, and Doppler tracking; 16-mile sea range extending parallel the safe range area.

CHINCOTEAGUE SAILORS at Aviation Ordnance Test station send Regulus off on a guided cruise over Atlantic.
The Easily-Installed Turbo-Jet Regulus Is a
Huge Surface-to-Surface Guided Missile.

Sporrow Missile Is an Air-to-Air Weapon That


Is o Powerful Deterrent Against Planes.

Petrel, Designed for Use Against Enemy Ships,


Is Equipped With a Self-Homing Device.

Prepared by ALL HANDS Magazine


Navy Tulos I s a Supersonic Surface-to-Air
Missile That I s More Effective Than Terrier.

Sidewinder Is a Simple, Inexpensive Yet


Highly Effective Air-to-Air Missile.

Slim, Needle-Nosed Terrier Is a Supersonic


Guided Missile Used Against Aircraft.

March 1957
MISSILES a la MUGU
The outcome of any future en- food, a test center for one of the sites throughout the country, the
gagement may very well depend most efficient and deadly weapons Naval Air Missile Test Center
upon the operation of one of thou- man has yet devised-the guided (NAMTC) was established here in
sands of minute parts in the weapon missile. October 1946.
of the future-the guided missile. Until some 10 years ago, Pt. In the years following the estab-
Pt. Mugu, Naval Air Missile T e d Mugu was still a swampy stretch of lishment of NAMTC, the area has
Center, makes sure that it will work tideland. Today, Cabrillos quiet grown from a few huts scattered on
right the first time. beach is seared, day after day, by the beach to a modern city covering
RADATION HAS IT THAT, some 415 great blasts of flame and smoke as more than a thousand acres. Pt.
Tyears ago a sea-weary Spaniard, missiles streak seaward from Pt. Mugu itself covers some 4234 acres.
Juan Cabrillo by name, made a land- Mugus launching pads. As one of During the 10 years since
fall in a charming lagoon on the the Navys guided missile test cen- NAMTC was officially established,
California coast about 55 miles north ters, comparable to the USAF Mis- the facility has conducted thousands
of present day Los Angeles. As sile Test Center at Cocoa, Fla., and of experiments and tests on guided
almost every later historical refer- the Armys White Sands Proving missiles and pilotless aircraft and,
ence explains, the current residents, Ground in New Mexico, Mugu has in addition, has developed a well
the Chumash Indians promptly the mission of testing and evaluating organized test center for some of the
named the site Mugu (Place of guided missiles and their com- most advanced missiles in the na-
Landing). ponents. tions defense arsenal. Now a
The lagoon is gone today and so is The test center was originally $55,000,000 establishment, it con-
Cabrillo and his Indians. Were Cab- planned during World War 11, when sists of clusters of buildings, hangars,
rill0 to succeed in passing the Pt. the Navy realized that the weapons and field equipment, and supports
Mugu security guard he would find, then under development would re- the 540-foot, 14,800-ton Norton
instead of his half-naked savages liv-quire extensive areas of land and Sound based at nearby Port
ing in mdd huts, roving the moun- water for proving grounds. After Hueneme.
tains. and combing the beaches for considerable exploration of various Because the testing conducted by
the Center requires vast areas over
HIGH TEST - Navy surface-to-surface guided missile roars off its launching water, some 11,000 square miles of
platform on a test flight using JATO rocket bottles to speed its getaway. the adjoining Pacific Ocean have
become a part of the facility.
During the course of this develop-
ment, NAMTC acquired 14,000
acres of land on San Nicolas Island,
60 miles southwest of the Center.
The offshore station on this island
has its own airstrip and technical
facilities. Other smaller parcels of
land-all contributing to the testing
operations-have become a part of
the facility. These include 40 acres
on Laguna Peak, 57 acres on Santa
Cruz Island, and five acres on Santa
Rosa Island.
Several of these islands are
equipped with radar, optical and
photographic gear so that a con-
tinuous record may be obtained of
a missiles course once it has been
launched. The island tracking facili-
ties are also used by uss Norton
Sound (AVM 1) and submarines
such as Tunny (SSG 282).
At Point Mugu, the Navy tests
guided missiles such as Regulus, a
missile that is fired from a launching
site on the ground or aboard a ship
or submarine, and intended to hit
another surface target; Terrier, a
surface-to-air missile, and Sparrow,
an air-to-air guided missile.
Facilities for missile testing in-
clude the main site at Point Mugu,
ALL HANDS
Responsibility for the test and Center, home of the Seabees, is at
evaluation of guided missiles and Port Hueneme, seven miles up the
t h e i r c o m p o n e n t s i s t h a t of coast where ships and small craft of
NAMTCs Test and Evaluation fa- various kinds are based.
cility, which is composed of five The Navys extensive and well
technical departments. All are di- organized facilities at NAMTC not
rectly involved in, and responsible only serve and advance the work of
for, the testing activities of the military groups but they also aid the
center. work of a number of contractors
Actual flight testing of guided who are involved with military
missiles and pilotless target aircraft problems.
is conducted by one or another of In addition to the industrial con-
the three missile divisions of the tractors at NAMTC, there are groups
Missile Test Department. such as the Engineering Center of
A typical flight test program usu- the University of Southern Cali-
ally consists of an evaluation of the fornia. The 55 people of this unit
missiles remote control equipment, work in the Aerodynamic Test Divi-
peformance characteristics, flotation sion. The supersonic wind tunnel at
capabilities and over-all suitability NAMTC was designed by the engi-
for Navy use. neering unit from USC. Other mis-
A group of civilian engineering sile-connected work contributes to
personnel is assigned to the Missile the advancement of young profes-
Division to assist the Navy in this sional people who comprise the
evaluation. group.
NAMTCs nerve center, in so far Reserve officer training goes for-
as missile operations are concerned, ward at NAMTC as it does in many
is the Flight Test Control Area. Here another naval facility or organiza-
can be found the instruments used tion. A unique Reserve training unit,
for the final checkout of the missile known as BARTU 777 of the Bureau
on the launching platform; firing of Aeronautics, trains on a regular
sequence timers; instruments that schedule.
plant in engine test pit. Below: Film record the data pouring in from There are more than 30 members
shot during missile tests is developed. tracking stations; computers and in the unit, and combined they
analyzers used in reducing the mass represent an approximate aggregate
of data down to the exact perform- of 300 years in formal engineering
ance characteristic desired; and spe- and technical education as well as
cial destructor controls to blow the 400 years of Reserve duty in naval
missile to pieces should it edge out- aviation.
side the limits of the range. ONE OF THE MORE UNUSUAL fea-
In a specially designed room at tures of Pt. Mugu-from the view-
Point Mugu, a huge $3,000,000 elec- point of its history, the job it
tronic marvel that can perform ap- performs, and type of duty for
proximately six million mathematical Navymen-is windswept and barren
operations in five minutes running San Nicolas Island.
time is used by NAMTC personnel Bucking the waves and wind be-
to work out equations and problems yond the Santa Barbara Channel
that would take an average mathe- about GO miles off the Pt. Mugu coast,
matician at least four years to com- this island and its larger neighbor,
plete. Santa Cruz, are important links in
The device checks itself 10 times the Naval Air Missile Test Centers
for accuracy before producing an range instrumentation chain. In fact,
answer. the presence of the islands greatly
Additional Navy facilities have influenced the selection of Point
joined the Point Mugu official com- Mugu as a possible site for the test
munity. In September 1948, the center.
Naval Air Facility was expanded San Nicolas, nine miles long and
and in the following years estab- averaging three miles wide, is OC-
lished as the Naval Air Station, cupied solely by the Navy. Years ago
Point Mugu. remnants of the tribe of Chumash
The mission of the Naval Air Indians eked out an existence there,
Station is to assist and support crews but the last few members of the
in the testing of missiles and certain tribe were removed to the mainland
types of aircraft. in 1835. From that year until the
Other military activities in the NAMTC was established in 1946
area also contribute their services. the island was visited only by fisher-
The Naval Construction Battalion men, sealers, sheep herders and a
ALL HANDS
TURRET CAMERAS follow path of test missile, recording its performance. Ri

few scientists looking for Indian hill billy music has been in operation beaching operation unsafe and de-
artifacts. for several years. lays the arrival of materials, some-
Today the island is laced with a Keeping the men on this outpost times for several days.
maze of electronic networks. The supplied with the essentials of life In spite of the sometimes primi-
of aircraft competes with fie and with equipment with which to tive living conditions and frequent
howling of the wind and the inha& work is the primary job of the Island bad weather, morale on the island
tants spend their time recording the Facilities Department. is unusually high. Those who dont
antics of guided missiles or support- The bulk of the islands needs is take to the isolation or lack of privacy
ing the recorders. supplied by boat, primarily LSUs, usually dont stay long, and as a re-
Navymen are assigned to San which must be beached for unload- sult the islanders who remain are as
Nick for three to six months, but jng* cheerful and easy-going a group as
many of them find that they like the Rough weather often makes the can be found in the Navy.
place and request extensions which
are usually granted. Since activities
on the island are part of the NAMTC
mainland operations and the island
itself is part of Ventura County,
(since 1872), Navymen receive no
extra pay for sea duty.
In regard to facilities, San Nick
appears much as the main Center
did a few years ago. Most of the
buildings are temporary, but a con-
stant maintenance program, carried
on in the face of almost continually
adverse weather conditions, keeps
them relatively shipshape. A few
patches of lawn have been at-
tempted, but with more hope than
success.
During the past few years a num-
ber of permanent, modem structures
have been erected.
Most of these are technical facili-
ties, but a new concrete barracks has
recently been completed and an im-
pressive galley and messhall which
features much glass and a lusty,
seldom silent radio with a mania for
MARCH 1957
ROCKET REVIVAL in WW I I brought air-to-ground rockets like these. Right:
High-flying Navy research rocket, Aerobee, takes off to explore the sky.

other rocket craft were forced to military journals knew what they
withdraw without accomplishing \\-ere talking about, for in World
their missions. However, their fire War I1 the rocket came back into
made such an impression on Francis its own with a bang (or at least a
Scott Key that the rockets red swoosh). The lightweight bazooka
glare, the bombs bursting in air and its rocket projectile enabled in-
are now pcrmanently recorded in fantrymen to knock out tanks. The
our National Anthem. U. S. Navy used rocket-launching
British success with rockets led landing craft (LSMRs) in the inva-
the armies of other nations to follow sions of North Africa, Sicily, Italy,
suit, making the rocket a popular Normandy, southern France, Cape
Gloucester, Kwajalein, Eniwetok,
Saipan, Guam, the Palaus, the
Philippines, Borneo and Okinawa.
In addition, since the rocket of-
weapon for several decades. Then fered a maximum of firepower with
about 1850, with the adoption of a minimum of added weight-and
rifled artillery, rockets went out of no recoil-it was soon adopted for
style. By 1900 they were consid- aerial armament. The first air-
ered obsolete almost everywhere, launched U. s. rockets were little
and as late as 1942, the Encyclo- more than adaptations of the ba-
paedia Britannica referred to the zooka, but by wars end Navy planes
importance of rockets in modern were blasting the enemy with Tiny
warfare with these words: Tim, an 11.75-inch rocket which
The idea of a missile propelled weighed 1,288 pounds and had a
on the rocket principle, however, 500-pound, s e m i - a r m o r p i e r c i n g
will not down and is revived from bomb for a warhead. Another im-
time to time for discussion by con- portant use of rockets in aviation
tributors to military journals. was JATO (Jet Assisted Take-Off),
Evidently the contributors to which enabled heavily-loaded planes

LATEST ROCKET SHIP, the inshore fire support ship USS Carronade (IFS 1)
looks sawed off but she is larger and has greater fire power than the LSMR.

_ c ~ . I * - _ - _ : _ I
Birth of the Earth
Closely associated with the rocket the three-stage launching vehicle,
and guided missile programs dis- the launching, the initial radio track-
cussed on the preceding pages is the ing of the earth satellite and the
story of the man-made satellite. Here operation of some of the tracking
is the stoy and the Navy$ role in it: stations.
OME TIME DURING the 18-month It is anticipated that when the
period beginning next July 1, a globe reaches its destined height, it
huge, three-stage rocket will take off will be traveling about the earth at
from a point in the United States some 18,000 miles per hour, fast
and head for up. One of the most enough so that it will make a revolu-
ambitious undertakings yet to be tion about the earth approximately
conceived by man, Project Vanguard every 90 minutes. No one knows
will simply throw a small metal exactly how long it will stay in its
globe some 200 or 300 miles into orbit, nor the precise shape and alti-
space. This, and similar later efforts, tude of the orbit, since all this will
will be the culmination of many con- be determined by the speed, altitude
tributions made by the U.S. armed and orientation of the rocket when
forces and scientific institutions to the satellite is finally separated from
the International Geophysical Year. it. However, so long as it maintains
(For more on IGY, see May 1956 its orbit around the earth, it will be,
issue of ALL HANDS,pp. 2-6.) literally, a miniature satelIite broad-
Vanguard is the name assigned to casting information about itself and
the Department of Defense portion its environment to observers back on
of the earth satellite program. The earth.
program is conducted on a three- What will it do? Whats the point
service basis with Navy management of the whole thing?
through the Chief of Naval Re- The main point is to find out
search. Responsibility for the techni- whats up there besides a bunch of
caI program rests with the Naval widely spaced nothing. Inside the
Research Laboratory. This includes shell of the satellite will be a tiny

HEAVENS ABOVE - Viking, shown below at Patterson AFB Vanguard test,


and Aerobee (left) will take satellite UP throuah the first and second stages.
af ellif e
"Minitrack" and telemetering traris-
mitter, batteries, and as many scien-
tific instruments as can be efficiently
included. These will record the tem-
perature of the satellite as it travels
through space, measure the intensity
of the sun's ultra-violet rays, count
the number and the erosion effects
of the micro-meteors striking the
satellite, and reveal other secrets of
the region just above the atmosphere.
These data will be telemetered to
a series of special high-powered
receiving stations on earth.
Scientists hope to learn something
about certain light waves which can-
not be studied on the ground as they
do not penetrate the earth's atmos-
phere. This should tell them more
about the sun and solar physics-
what makes the sun tick, how it pro-
vides energy, the effect of sun-spots
in long-range communications, what
makes the weather on earth so
changeable, and similar problems.
Visual plotting and radio tracking
of the satellite will enable man to
measure the bulge of the.earth at
the equator and perhaps learn many
other facts about the size and shape
of the earth. It will permit measure-
ments of the uniformity of the
earth's crust, and provide much more
accurate data on distances, permit-
ting more accurate mapping.
The Buck Rogers contingent also
hopes to learn a lot about meteors
-among other things, whether or
not it would be safe to launch large
manned satellites farther out into
space.
After the first satellite is success-
fully launched, later ones may carry
other types of instruments for addi-
tional data. It is hoped to learn more
about cosmic rays, the earth's mag-
netic field, and other data about
astrophysics-the physics of the
universe.
When it takes off, the 21.5-pound
ball, which will be approximately
20 inches in diameter, will be carried
by an 11-ton 72-foot-long, finless
three-stage launching rocket. The
first stage of the rocket, which is
about two-thirds of the entire assem-
bly, will push up to about 35 miles
in something, over two minutes.
This first stage will be a modified
and improved version of the earlier
Viking rocket. It will have no fins,
since the rocket's direction will be
MARCH 1957
hours after sunset and before sun- to intercept the satellite on its orbit, ing and to carry scientific instru-
rise, assuming that weather condi- in fair weather or foul, any hour of ments, and yet be light-every
tions permit visibility and that the the day or night. The satellite is ounce is important. Yet the design
observer has previous knowledge of expected to make one revolution must be sufficiently sturdy to pro-
when the satellite will pass within around the earth approximately tect the scientific devices inside

search Laboratory. Known as Mini- tempt to probe the fringe of outer stand the extremes of temperature
track, this method uses a miniature space, so necessary before man him- in its orbit, as well as to resist the
radio transmitter in the satellite self can hope to attempt the big pitting action of micro meteorites-
which radiates a continuous signal to jump. The effort raises innumerable so-called meteor dust.
sensitive receiving equipment on the problems which must be answered The amount and kind of instru-
ground. This method also aids opti- before this first satellite can be ments to be included in this first
cal tracking, by furnishing estimated launched. satellite are other areas in which
satellite position predictions, but re- The satellite itself must be suffi- problems must be solved and com-
quires a line of observing stations ciently large to permit optical track- promises agreed upon. Subject to
HOLES ARE DRILLED in finished half of the sphere. Right: Supporting inner structure is readied for installing.

weight and space restrictions, On the scientific side, it means sac- bs greatly increased. This is a field
enough instruments must be sent rifice in terms of the useful payload that places great demands upon
aloft to do as much scientific work which the first satellite will carry. everyone's knowledge and calcula-
as is possible. Vanguard's job is to A fraction of its weight-perhaps tiom of probable performance. Much
put into an orbit an object capable one-fourth-will consist of scientific money is involved. If all of this
of doing work of importance to as research instrumentation and its money and all of this effort were
many scientific fields as possible. power supply. The remainder will risked on one shot, everyone con-
The first satellite cannot complete- be devoted to structure, a tracking cerned would always be faced with
ly satisfy the men in each field-it transmitter, power supply, and pos- the desire to make one more calcu-
cannot do all the things they would sibly turn-on equipment. lation, one more adjustment or one
like to see done. The Vanguard tech- Several rockets will be built more test flight before firing, in order
nical program must result in a satel- in connection with the program to be more certain of success. In
lite that will be workable, yet scien- because, to be reasonably certain of such circumstances, Vanguard might
tifically useful. successfully putting a satellite into never get off the ground.
On the technical side, this means an orbit, we must have more than To complete the job on time, every
sacrifices in terms of accepting a one shot available in our loclier. step of the program must be marked
certain minimum size and weight, If only one attempt were to be by bold, confident engineering in
with resultant engineering problems. made, the chances of failure would which we are prepared to take the
not known exactly, some telescopic
magnification, such as 7x50 binocu-
lars would almost be a necessity
and observations of the satellite
should not be attempted until the
sun is 5 below the horizon.)
When the rocket and its satellite
payload are ready to launch, and all
of the launching facilities and track- WLOCITY 25,oOO FT/SEC\
ing equipment and stations are in ALTITUDE 200-400 MILES
readiness, the launch vehicle will RANGE 1500 MILES
TIME 10 WIN AFTER
fire the satellite up into its orbit. !AUHGHIIG
The satellites orbit probably will
be elliptical, rather than circular.
The point of nearest approach (the
perigee) will be about 200 to 300
miles from the earth, and apogee-
the most distant point in the orbit UP IN THE AIR - Diagram above shows stages and path of rockets carry-
-will be from 800 to 1500 miles ing satellite to orbit. Below: Drawing shows three-stage launching rocket.
out.
The problem of guidance, to en-
sure that the satellite is projected
horizontally into its orbit, is especial-
ly difficult. If the angle of projection
is too high or too low, perigee will
be too close to the earth and the
satellite will dip into the denser
portions of the atmosphere and dis-
integrate before it has made enough
revolutions to be of any value. The
angle of projection should not devi-
ate by more than a few degrees from
the horizontal for a launching alti-
tude of 300 miles.
If it misses by more than this, the
perigee altitude will be roughly half
of the launching height, which
would cause the satellite to dip well
into the denser parts of the atmos-
phere and cut short its life. The
guidance system must therefore be
designed to ensure an error of no
more than a few degrees in the angle
of projection into the orbit. satellite enters the denser atmos- The lifetime may be several days,
The consequences of missing the phere, it is expected to disintegrate or weeks, months, or even years,
planned orbit, which are fairly seri- harmlessly in the same manner as a depending upon what is up there
ous in terms of the satellites lifetime, meteorite, because of intense heat and upon the degree of precision
would also pose difficult problems of and probable mechanical collapse. attained in the launching.
tracking. The satellite will transit
different areas of the earth on each MINITRACK TRANSMITTER will send signals from the earth satellite to track-
revolution. If a revolution is com- ing stations on the ground. Transmitter was designed at Naval Research Lab.
pleted in 90 minutes, as it is now
contemplated, the earth will have
completed roughly one-eighteenth of
its daily rotation during this time, so
that the satellite will appear at a
different longitude for the same lati-
tude on its next trip.
Although the portion of the at-
mosphere through which the orbit
will pass is extremely thin (just how
thin is one of the facts that the satel-
lite may establish), the cumulative
effect of the drag of this thin air
will be enough to bring the satellite
gradually closer to the earth. As the
MARCH I957 47
sRv~csco
P
Brief news items about other branches of the armed services. Further developments by the Army include: Nike,
named after the Greek goddess of victory, which is the
Amys first supersonic antiaircraft guided missile de-
signed to intercept and destroy the enemy target regard-
less of evasive action. Nike guided missile installations
are now spread throughout the United States as an
inner ring of defense for industrial, highly populated
and strategic areas. Nike is a liquid-fueled supersonic
antiaircraft missile about 20 feet long and about one
foot in diameter, with two sets of fins for guidance and
steering. The missile and booster weigh more than one
ton.
Speed, range, altitude and lethality of Nike are
classified. Fired from an almost vertical position, Nike
can meet an attack from any direction. There are eight
OFF IT GOES - The Air Forces long-range strategic launchers in each Nike battery, which is operated by
a crew of approximately 100 men. Personnel are trained
guided missile, SM-62 Snark, takes off on a test flight. at the Antiaircraft and Guided Missile School, Fort
Bliss, Texas.
* * * The improved Nike B is capable of dealing with high
I N THUMBING THROUGH this special issue of ALL HANDS, performance aircraft.
you may get the impression we are suggesting that Corporal, equipped with either an atomic or con-
only the Navy is using guided missiles. Not at all. ventional type warhead, is capable of engaging targets
Weve emphasized Navy guided missiles because this far beyond the ranges of artillery or the new 280mm
publication is written primarily for naval personnel. gun.
However, make no mistake, the Army and Air Force The weapon gives the field commander great fire-
are equally active. power on the battlefield and enables him to strike
selected targets deep in enemy rear areas. Corporal
Heres a brief unclassified rundown on their guided follows a ballistic trajectory in its flight to the target.
missile arsenal: Weather and visibility conditions place no restriction on
* * * the use of the weapon. Motive power is supplied by a
powerful rocket motor. The missile travels through space
ARMY at several times the speed of sound. A Corporal battalion
has 250 men. Each battalion has two batteries-a firing
ON 16 APR 1946, the first American-fired V-2 rocket battery and a service battery. There are three launchers
was shot into the air above the New Mexico desert at to a battalion. Corporal battalions have been stationed
the Armys White SandsTroving Ground to conduct in Europe.
research in the field of rockets and guided missiles. By Redstone Missile is another in the Army family. The
February 1949, Army scientists had combined the V-2 first U. S . Army unit to fire the Armys Redstone missile
rocket and an experimental liquid fuel, high-altitude was announced in March 1956. The Army uses surface-
rocket known as the WAC Corporal. This two-stage to-surface artillery missile units armed with Redstone
rocket, nicknamed Bumper attained the highest altitude and other Army missiles to extend and supplement the
ever reached by any man-made object-250 miles up range and firepower of artillery cannon. Redstone is the
and traveling at a speed of 5000 miles an hour. largest surface-to-surface ballistic guided missile suc-
cessfully fired in this country. It is named for the place
FOR THE BIRDMEN-Supersonic Falcon guided missile for of its development, the Armys Redstone Arsenal at
USAP interceptor pilots can down maneuvering bombers.
Huntsville, Ala.
Among the latest additions to the Armys arsenal are
the Lacrosse, surface-to-surface guided missile, and
Dart, an antitank guided missile.
These represent the better known guided missiles,
but by no means give the whole picture of Army missile
development.
* * *
AIR FORCE

Matador (TM-61A), a tactical missile of subsonic


speed, received its first flight in December 1950. It
has a wingspan of 28.7 feet, length of 39.6 feet. Ground-
launched by a rocket booster from a roadable launcher,
it is powered by a jet engine (J-33-A-37), controlled
electronically in flight by ground personnel, and is
capable of delivering conventional or nuclear weapons
48 A l l HANDS
several hundred miles. Matador squadrons are already
stationed in Germany and Orlando, Florida. A later
version, the TM-61B, is longer and faster and has
greater range and improved guidance system. It has
been tested in successful launching at Holloman Air
Development Center, New Mexico.
Falcon (GAR-1) is a guided aircraft rocket of super-
sonic speed under development since 1947; it was test-
fired in 1951. Production was ordered in 1955 and it
became operational in March, 1956. Falcon, which
weighs slightly over 100 pounds and is approximately
six feet long, is powered by solid rocket propellant
and electronically fired and guided. Designed for under
wing or pod installations, it can be carried in quantity
by intercepter aircraft, launched miles from target, and
automatically home on target. During its test period,
it knocked down target planes without carrying explo-
sive warhead.
Snark (SM-62), a long-range strategic missile, is a
winged pilotless bomber powered by a turbo-jet engine,
and is the first U. S. long-range missile to be test-flown.
It is considered to have range, accuracy and load-
carrying capabilities as good as ballistic missile types.
Navaho (SM-64), another long-range strategic mis-
sile, is rocket-launched and air-breathing. It is consid-
ered to have range, accuracy and load carrying capabili-
ties as good as ballistic missile types,
Rascal (GAM-63), a long-range guided missile, is a
rocket-powered pilotless bomber designed to be carried
by strategic bombers and released miles from its objec-
tive to proceed at high speed to target.
Bomarc (IM-99) is a long-range intercepter guided
missile of supersonic speed. Successful experimental
launchings at Patrick Air Force Base are now a regular
part of the development program. A pilotless guided
missile, it is launched from the ground and designed to
seek out and destroy enemy aircraft at great distances
from its launching site.
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, including the Atlas
and Titan ICBM, are now under development. Many
of the major components and sub-systems are similar
for the ICBM-IRBM. This is expected to accelerate
their development and greatly reduce the overall cost
of the ICBM-IRBM program.
weeks). This course provides in-
struction regarding testing, align-
ment, adjustment, replacement and
repair of the internal guidance and
control components of the Regulus
missile and its test equipment. It
also covers handling, stowage, test
and preparation of Regulus sections
and components, associated test
equipment; handling and launching
equipment; safety precautions; rec-
ords and reports.
Personnel Eligible - Graduates
of the Guided Missileman, Class
A Course; GS convertees upon
completion of basic electronics train-
ing and other petty officers of the
GS rating. Must be on active duty
with 18 months voluntary obligated
service, and be assigned or sched-
uled for assignment to Regulus
guided missile billets. Secret clear-

-
* TERRIER GS CLASS C - (12
weeks). The scope for this course
is the same as for the Regulus, Class
C School outlined above, except
ALL HANDS
directed primarily at the technical
qualifications for GF3, also covers
the minimum factors required for
advancement to GF2.
This six-month course provides
training in connection with the
fundamentals of electronics; MHF,
VHF, and UHF transmitter theory;
radar fundamentals; gyros, synchros
and servo mechanisms; orientation
in aviation guided missiles.
Personnel Eligible-All Navy and
Marine Corps male enlisted person-
nel having: 36 months obligated
service; combined GCT and ARI
score of 115, with a minimum score
of 50 on each, and a MECH score
of 55; graduated from Class P
Aviation Fundamentals School (Elec-
PASSING THE WORD-Naval Reserve officers are keeping up with
tronics Occupational Group) or
equivalent knowledge; normal color
Vavys missiles through orientation course at NOL, White Oak, Md. perception and hearing. Confidential
clearance required.
Reservists Study Guided Missiles CLASS C AIR LAUNCHED
GUIDED MISSILES IGeneral) MAIN-
Reserve officers on inactive duty BuOrd courses include Guided TENANCE COURSE- (Enlisted)-23
are staying on top of guided missile Missile Indoctrination, a two-week weeks. Provides selected candidates
developments through specialized course given at the Guided Missile with the theoretical and practical
training courses offered in various School, Pomona, Calif., a similar knowledge required for the main-
parts of the country. course of one weeks duration at tenance of air launched guided
Dam Neck, Va., and the two-week missiles.
A course in Guided Missile Ori- BuOrd Guided Missile Course, Successful completion of this
entation is now underway at the Washington, D. C. course qualifies the student for
Naval Ordnance Laboratory, as change in rating to Aviation Guided
part of the Naval Reserve Officers Missileman. The curriculum offered
School program. covers the fundamentals of gyro-
The course, which is classified scopes and guidance systems, com-
confidential, includes aerody- ponents and theory of Sparrow mis-
namics, propulsion, guidance meth- siles and related test equipment.
ods, principles of ballistics missiles Personnel Eligible-ATANs with
and the tactical employment of one year of duty with the fleet or
guided missiles. ATs in pay grade E-4 and above. In
addition, other personnel in Group
Among the individual missiles IX ratings who have successfully
under study are Regulus, Talos, completed the preliminary electronic
Sidewinder, Tartar and Terrier. training for rate conversion in ac-
Missile installations in such ships cordance with BuPers Inst. 1440.13.
as uss Galveston (CLG 93), now Two years obligated service and a
being converted to a guided missile Secret clearance is required.
ship, and uss Canberra (CAG 2 ) CLASS 0 AIR LAUNCHED
are also part of the guided missile GUIDED MISSILES (General) MAIN-
curriculum. TENANCE COURSE-( Officers)-23
The course is serving as a pilot weeks.
for courses to be offered in the This school provides selected of-
NROS program starting in the ficers with the theoretical and prac-
1957-58 school year. NROS courses tical knowledge required for the
provide college-level training in maintenance of Air Launched
both general and technical subjects. Guided Missiles.
Personnel Eligible-All officers on
Most courses are divided into active duty having an adequate
two semesters of 20 drills each. electronics background who are cur-
The Bureau of Ordnance also rently serving in or slated for assign-
offers guided missile training to ment to an air-launched guided mis-
qualified R~~~~~ officers during RESERVE MISSILE course includes sile billet. Secret clearance required.
active duty for training periods. study of GM installations on ship. OPNAV Inst. 1510.1F sets forth re-
quirements.
52 ALL HANDS
F YOU ARE INTERESTED in advanc- erences and also with the one or
I ing in rate or changing to one of more qualifications to which it per-
the giuded missile ratings, (either tains. Another section contains a list
Guided Missileman (GS) or Avia- of the reference books needed. The
tion Guided Missileman (GF), per- third section covers advancement.
haps the wisest move you can make Below you will find a list of the
would be to ask your division officer publications to be used and studied
for a copy of the pertinent Study in preparing for advancement exams.
Guide. There are three issued for The manuals listed are those used
each rating-P03, P02, and PO1 by examining authorities in prepar-
and Chief. Based upon the Manual ing questions for service-wide com-
of Qualifications for Advancement in petitive examinations, although in
Rating ( NavPers 18068, Rev.), each practically all cases only parts of
one tells what you must study for the books listed will apply to a par-
advancement in your chosen field. ticular rate. As you know, men try-
One section of each study guide ing for the higher grades in a rating
consists of a table listing the major are expected to know all the material
that involve AT(B) School attend-

THE WORD ance, should make an attempt to


complete all of the items in either
Group I or 11.
These lists are primarily intended
Frank, Authentic Advance Information for candidates to the AT(B) School,
but are equally important if you are
On Policy-Straight from Headquarters waiting assignment to the various
schools under the GS, GF and AQ
NUCLEAR WEAPONS MAN - A Group Il-Navy Training Courses
conversion programs.
major change in the enlisted rating (1) Essentials of Mathematics for Elec- 0 ANNAPOLIS STADIUM - Con-

structure has taken place with the tronics Technicians, NavPers 10093A struction of a Navy-Marine Corps
establishment of the Nuclear Weap- (2) Advanced Mathematics for Elecfron- memorial stadium at the Naval
ics Technicians, NavPers 10094 Academy, Annapolis, Md., begins
ons Man (NW) general service
(3) Basic Elecfricity, NavPers 10086 this spring as a memorial to every-
rating.
(4) Basic Electronics, NavPers 10087 one serving today in the Navy and
This newest rating in the enlisted
rating structure is based upon the These courses are not intended as Marine Corps as well as those who
urgent needs of the special weapons a substitute for the advanced elec- have earlier served.
program. At present, this program is tronics training given at the AT(B) The stadium will be built with
manned by ETs, EMS, GMs, AOs, School but are recommended so you private funds. More than a million
IMs, MRs, MEs, AKs, YNs and will have the fundamental knowl- dollars has already been accumulated
similar ratings. edge required and they will further in a memorial stadium fund and con-
The new rating, as approved by serve as a means of re-establishing struction will be started with this
the Secretary of the Navy, will pro- good study habits. money. To raise the amount required
vide personnel qualified in the elec- ATs in pay grade E-5 and above to complete the stadium the NavaI
trical and mechanical maintenance should complete as many as pos- Academy Athletic Association has
of nuclear weapons. The highly sible, with a minimum of two, of been receiving voluntary contribu-
technical electronic maintenance as- the Navy Training Courses listed in tions.
sociated with nuclear weapons, how- Group 11, particularly items (1) and While no solicitation of funds
ever, will not be a duty of the new (2). within the meaning of SecNav Inst.
rating, but will be performed by an Personnel in other ratings, such as 5340.1A will be made, voluntary
appropriate existing rating. ALs or other prospective enrollees contributions may be accepted and
By the establishment of a rating in any of the conversion programs sent directly to the Treasurer, Naval
to fit the special weapons program, Academy Athletic Association, An-
personnel in the program will be napolis, Md. Names of ships and
given definite recognition, and pro- stations contributing will be recorded
vided with a clear path of advance- on bronze plaques at the stadium.
ment. ALs MAY CHANGE RATE TO RM
It is expected that interim quali- -Although the Aviation Electronics-
fications for advancement in rating man (AL) rating is being disestab-
will be published by Chief of Naval lished, some ALs apparently do not
Personnel directives. Final qualifica- desire to make the scheduled con-
tions will be published in a forth- version to Aviation Electronics Tech-
coming change to the Manual of nician (AT).
Qualifications for Advancement in If you are an AL and do not
Rating (NavPers 18068, Revised). desire-or cannot qualify for-the
ADVANCE STUDY FOR AT(B) AT conversion, you may be assigned
SCHOOL - If you are awaiting as- to a radioman (RM) billet for em-
ployment directly in the performance
signment to the Aviation Electronics
Technicians Class B School, you of communications duties. Since the
will find it extremely beneficial if qualifications for AL and RM are
you take any or all of the following similar in many respects, it is felt
courses before reporting to the that this procedure w ill permit you
school: to qualify for RM before the AL
rating is terminated. For men in pay
Group I-Enlisted Correspondence Courses
grade E-6 and below, this on-the-
(1) Mathematics, Vol. 1, NavPers 91219
job training also offers an excellent
(2) Mathematics, Vol. 2, NavPers 91220
(3) Electricity, NavPers 91 225
opportunity for advancement.
(4) Electronics Technician 3, NavPers
Once assigned to a radioman bil-
91373-1 let, you may request a change in
15) Electronics Technician 2, Vol. 1, rating (in accordance with BuFers
NavPers 91 374-1 Inst. 1440.5B) as soon as you be-
(6) Elednonics Technician 2, Vol. 2, come qualified in RM duties. If you
NavPers 91 375 meet all qualifications except the
PASS THIS COPY ON - Dont take off with this magazine . . . This issue is intended for nine other readers.

54 ALL HANDS
speed requirements of the CW per- consult the current USAFI catalog,
formance tests (transmitting and re- in which prerequisites are suggested
ceiving), the Chief of Naval Per- under each course description.
sonnel will consider requests for a The I & E officer in each ship and
delay in meeting the RM perform- station has been requested to coop-
ance test speed requirements. erate with your division officer in
Commanding officers have been making the material available.
requested to report to the Chief of
Naval Personnel on the progress be- EXAMS FOR TEMPORARY OFFI-
ing made by each of the 50 ALs CERS - It is planned to introduce
who are being ordered to duty in written examinations for USN tem-
large communication activities. The porary officers in fiscal year 1958,
commanding officer will report after with the first examinations to be
each man has completed six months given for those selected for promo-
duty at the station. tion in that year.
STUDY GUIDE FOR FUTURE OFFI- A forthcoming revision of BuPers
CERS - Do you have your eye on Inst. 1416.1B will prescribe specific
possible officerstatus? If so, in BuPers procedures for these examinations,
Inst. 1560.12 you will find a list of including phasing of examina-
recommended study material which tions and exemptions. (Instruction
will be of interest to you. 1416.1B is concerned with the de-
It is, in the words of the instruc- termination of professional fitness
tion, recommended for review for for promotion of officers. At present,
the examination administered to in- temporary officersare exempted from
service personnel nominated for the requirements.)
appointment to commissioned status BuPers Inst. 1416.3 sets forth a
under the Integration Program, the study plan for the guidance of tem-
Limited Duty Officer Program, and porary officers in their selection of
the WarrantOfficerProgram (W-1) . courses which will prepare them for
The Navy tests and correspond- higher grades. BuPers Notice 1416
ence courses listed will prove useful (11 Dec 1956) which announces the
review materials for those naval introduction of written examinations
knowledge questions included in for temporary officers, also urges
part 2 of the examination-and the each officer affected to develop him-
USAFI self-teaching materials, cor- self through self study, using Instruc-
respondence courses and examina- tion 1416.3 as a guide, both in prep-
tions cover the educational require- aration for examinations and to earn
ments contained in part 3. exemptions within specified fields
In each instance, you should corresponding to his category.
choose either self-teaching material EMERGENCY RATING CHANGES
or correspondence courses depending -The emergency service ratings of
on how thoroughly you need to re- Boilerman G (Shipboard Boilerman)
view. If you find you need more and Boilerman R (Boiler Repair-
background knowledge before study- man) will be dropped from the en-
ing the courses listed, you should listed rating structure, according to
BuPers Notice 1223 of 31 Dec 1956.
Seawolf at Sea Directives setting forth the pro-
On Nuclear Power cedure for effecting the changes have
uss Seawolf (SS ( N ) 575), sec- not yet been published. Until they
ond of the Navys nuclear sub- are promulgated, personnel holding
marines, is currently undergoing the affected ratings will continue to
builders trials, including submer- advance in those ratings, and will
gence tests, and is now operating not be changed from one rating to
at sea on nuclear power. another.
The submarines trials were de- Elimination of the two ratings was
layed several months by trouble approved by the Secretary of the
with her heat transfer system, Navy after a study of findings pre-
which uses liquid sodium as an sented by the Permanent Board for
agent, instead of the pressurized Review of the Enlisted Rating Struc-
water used in uss Nautilus ture. The board is responsible for
(SS(N) 571). The failures, the study and evaluation of all
which first occurred last August, recommendations for new ratings
have been overcome by repairs and all recommendations for the
and modifications, including by- elimination of ratings which no
passing of the steam superheater. longer provide for the most effective
use of naval manpower.
IARCH 1957
Guided Missile Orientation Books on Guided Missiles and
Courses for Officers Held Rockets Sent to Ships, Stations
At Norfolk and Sun Diego By library Services Branch
To familiarize senior officers of Many aspects of the fields of
the Fleet and shore commands with guided missiles and rocket research
the functioning, capabilities and are classified; however there are sev-
limitations of guided missiles, the eral books on these subjects which
Fleet Training Centers at Norfolk, have been made available by the
Va., and San Diego, Calif., are con- Library Services Branch of the
ducting a series of Guided Missile Bureau to many ship and station
Orientation Courses. libraries. Here are some of them.
Attendance at both courses is
limited to officers of the rank of LT, Guided Missiles in W a r and Peace,
USN, (CAPT, USMC), and above. by Nels A. Parson, Jr., is a good one
Since these courses are intended to But you may never get another chance I with which to start. Here, youll find
acquaint senior officers with the de- go down in naval history. a semi-technical briefing which cov-
velopments in guided missile war- ers the importance of this latest of
fare, a technical background is not Naval Personnel (Pers C1235). A weapons and explains its purpose as
required. However in order to obtain schedule of the convening dates and well as its construction. There is an
the maximum benefits from the quotas for each class is published in explanation of air-to-surface, air-to-
Guided Missile Orientation Courses, enclosure (2) of BuPers Notice 1540 air, surface-to-air and surface-to-
it is desirable that students be grad- of 4 Dec 1956. surface missiles, as well as the anti-
uates of the Special Weapons Orien- Requests for quotas to the five- missile guided missile developments.
tation or Employment Courses be- day course (C380) at San Diego The aerodynamics, guidance and
fore they attend. should be directed to. the Chief of propulsion are described, and war-
There is a quota for 24 students Naval Personnel (Pers C1235) or fare use by the Navy, Air Force and
for each of the nine classes (GMO Commander Training Command, Army is discussed. This survey of
28 through 35) scheduled from 26 U. S. Pacific Fleet. Classes at San bullets with brains makes it pos-
Mar through 19 Nov 1957. Of that Diego convene on the first Monday sible for any Navyman to learn how
number 19 students are assigned of each month. they work-and why.
through fixed quotas assigned to Personnel attending the Guided
designated commands while the re- Missile Orientation Course at Nor- The historical angle, and the men
maining five are assigned from folk should hold a Top Secret clear- who made rocket and missile history,
BuPers controlled activities through ance, while a Secret clearance is re- may be found in The M e n Behind the
individual requests to the Chief of quired for the San Diego course. Space Rockets, by Heinz Gartman, a
well known expert on rocket re-
search.
Learning How To Air Launch Guided Missiles The development is described by
It takes more than instinct and assure the best opportunities for means of Hermann Ganswindt, the
a willing heart to make a good study. disregarded fanatic who produced
guided missileman. The Air The Air Launched Guided Mis- the first realistic plan for a space
Launched Guided Missile branch sile branch presents a 23-week ship; Tsiolkovski, the obscure Rus-
of the Naval Air Weapons Systems course in three phases of instruc- sian schoolmaster who bequeathed
School at Jacksonville, Fla., is tion. Phase I includes instruction his research work to the Communist
typical of the schools which pro- on basic missile electronics, servo- Party; Robert H. Goddard, the
vide the necessary training. mechanics M theory, gyroscopes, American professor who designed
Commissioned in 1953, this hydraulics and guidance systems. the first liquid-propelled rocket;
school, the first of its kind in naval Phase I1 teaches the operation of Herman Oberth, the pioneer of
history, has supplied more than missile test equipment, component German rocket research, who is now
500 highly qualified officers and tests of missile sections, and com- at work in America; and, says Gart-
enlisted personnel since its found- ponent repair. man, perhaps the most brilliant of
ing. Phase I11 covers over-all systems them all, Wemher von Braun, who
In the complex and technical test of the missiles and the systems was chief designer of the V-2.
field of guided missiles, the in- test equipment. The Viking Rocket Story, by Milton
structors are the most highly quali- Upon completion of the course, W. Rosen, tells how the largest
fied technicians that its possible to graduates are qualified to test, American rocket to explore the upper
obtain within the Navy-and the maintain, operate, and repair mis-
atmosphere was conceived, how it
level of training demands students siles and their associated test
was designed, built and launched. If
of the same caliber. Small classes equipment.
you read the book, youll learn that

56 ALL HANDS
Viking isnt just one rocket, its a
series. The book tells of the prob-
lems, frustrations, and triumphs ac-
companying the launching of each, Target Drones
Through skillful presentation, youll The shiny red propeller-driven miniature
come to know the men who build planes which have served as targets for
and fire each rocket, will see the much of the Navys antiaircraft fire i n
rocket through their eyes and share recent years are making way for a bright
their experiences. new brother- target drone whose turbo-
Rocket Pioneers, by Beryl Williams jet engine affords near-sonic speed and
and Samuel Epstein, is a rocket of altitudes approaching 40,000 feet. A tar-
another color. It provides an inter- get drone, incidentally, is defined as a
national roundup of the men of the remotely controlled, self-propelled airborne
last 150 years whose imagination target system, and i s designated b y the
letters KD; conventional planes, (such as
and foresight glimpsed an era of the World War II F6F) which have been
transportation possible for all men converted for use as remotely controlled
in the years to come. targets, do not share the designation.
In his own way, each of these Known as the Firebee, or KDA-1, the
men contributed to such rockets as
Viking and Vanguard, as well as to
new drone is a logical step i n the develop-
ment of an idea which dates from World
w.
rockets of the future. War 1. The military potential of automati- snappy red KD2R-3 and KD6D-1 or KD6D-2,
It begins with Sir William Con- cally controlled aircraft was recognized as conventional propeller-driven target drones
greve, who astounded the military early as 1914, when the Germans are which have been pulling duty with the
known to have shown an interest i n them. Fleet for the past 10 years or so.
men of Napoleans time with a war
In our counlry, the Naval Research Labora- But prop-driven aircraft-even target
rocket that was the forerunner of
tory and Bureau of Aeronautics i n the drones-havent much chance against the
the present-day bazooka. It tells of early 20s (see page 18) collaborated i n defense systems of a jet age Navy, hence
Tules Verne, who stirred others to the development of radio-controlled air- the need for targets like KDA-1. Fivebee,
dream of ingenious space ships; of craft-ne of our first steps i n the develop- which weighs approximately 1800 pounds,
Tsiolkovsky, who provided the ment of guided missiles. is designed to simulate the maneuvers of
mathematics and basic theories that I n September 1924, the flrst successful piloted jet aircraft. It i s less than half the
led others to the conviction that automatic aircraft flight i n this country was size of a modern fighter, however, with a
space ships would have to be made at Dahlgren, Va., when a pilotless wingspan approaching 12 feet and an
powered by rocket motors. Contribu- seaplane under radio control took off, flew over-all length of approximately 18 feet.
tions by Goddard, Oberth, von around and then landed without mishap. The Firebees may be launched either
The guidance equipment, developed by the from the ground or from a piloted mother
Braun, as well as many others, are
Naval Research Lab, bore many resem- aircraft. A two-stage parachute system i s
also told here.
blances to later German-developed com- used to decelerate the plane from its near-
Men, Rockets, and Spuce Rats, by mand guidance systems. sonic speed and lower it to the surface.
Lloyd Mallan, is slightly off the path By 1935 a project was undertaken to This system operates automafically i n case
of this months theme, but if you convert obsolete planes into radio-controlled of a hit, loss of radio contact, engine
liked the volumes earlier named, drones for use as antiaircraft gunnery failure or on command from the operator.
youll like this one. Jaunty, respect- targets. USS Ranger (CV41, in 1938, had KDA-1s automatic pilot setup i s some-
ful and conversational in style, it the honor of being the first Fleet unit to what similar to those used in earlier KDs,
tells in considerable detail of the flre against one of these drones, simulating with command control signals being initi-
testing and actual construction being a high-altitude bombing attack. ated manually at a remote control box.
carried out by the Air Force and Since this introduction, target aircraft, These are received by a unit i n the drone
either drone conversions of regular aircraft which translates the signals into action.
private concerns in connection with
or specially designed small planes. have Closing the guidance loop is a radar
government laboratories. White undergone many improvements and have plotting board which gives a continuous
Sands Proving Grounds, the Aerobee, become indispensable to Fleet training. display of plan-posifion and altitude of
the amazing deceleration and ac- Most sailors today are familiar with the the drone.
celeration tests endured by Col.
Stapp, and the research balloons
(earlier described in ALL HANDS)
are highlights of some of the chap-
ters. They all add up to a fairly well von Braun, and Exploring Mars, by lievable description of a trip into
rounded view of present and future Robert S. Richardson, are t w o ex- outer space, how rocket travel may
space flights. Possibilities of actual amples. be achieved, and how to plot a
space flights are discussed in the last Exploration, for instance, is a course to Mars and the moon. The
chapter. blueprint for actual travel laid out author provides astronomers answers
The Vanguard satellite is a mere with such precision and confidence to questions concerning the life, cli-
childs step to the space travel boys that youre inclined to reach for a mate and physical conditions of
who almost convince you that a time table. It discusses specifications Mars, and tells you how you can
jaunt to the moon or Mars is just of the ship, selection and training locate it in the sky. Youll have to
around the corner. The Exploration of of crew members, and actual details apply for your own reservations for
Mars, by Willy Ley and Wernher of the trip. Exploring provides a be- the trip.
MARCH 1957
--_-

Other missile and rocket volumes DIRECTIVES IN BRIEF


available at your ship or station This listing i s intended to serve only for
QUIZ AWEIGH ANSWERS
library include: Satellite, by Eric general information and as an index of QUlZ AWEIGH IS ON PAGE 55
Bergaust and W. Beller; a some- current Alnavs and NavActs as well as
1. (a) Terrier.
what technical volume entitled Aero- current BuPers Instructions, BuPers Notices,
2. (b) Surface-to-air missile.
dynamics Propulsion Structures, by E. and SecNav Instructions that apply to most
3. (c) Regulus.
A. Bonney and others, which is one ships and stations. Many instructions and
4. (c) It could be fitted with landing
of a series under the general title of notices are not qf general interest and
gear and used many times over.
Principles of Guided Missile De- hence w i l l not be carried in this section.
5. (a) Sidewinder
sign; Rocket Propulsion, by Eric Since BuPers Notices are arranged accord- 6. (b) Was developed in the desert and
ing to their group number and have no
Burgess; and Frontier to Space, also has the sting of a rattler.
consecutive number h t h i n the group, their
by Burgess; Rockets and Missiles: date of issue is included also for identi-
Past and Future, by Caidin; Skyrockef- fication purposes. Personnel interested i n
ing into the Unknown, by Charles I. tion boards which recommend USP
specific directives should consult Alnavs,
Coombs; V-2, by Walter Dornberger; NavActs, Instructions and Notices for com-
and USNR officers for promotion to
Development of the Guided Missile, plete details before taking action.
the grade of captain, Civil Engineer
by Gatland; Rockets and Guided Corps; lieutenant commander, Medi-
Missiles, by John Humphries; and
Alnavs cal Corps, Supply Corps, Chaplain
Rocket Propulsion Elements, by George No. 67 - Announced approval Corps, Civil Engineer Corps, Dental
P. Sutton. by the President of reports of selec- Corps, Medical Service Corps, Nurse
Corps; lieutenant, Line, Supply
Corps, Chaplain Corps, Civil Engi-
neer Corps, Medical Service Corps
and Nurse Corps.
No. 1 - Announced change to
The First Rockets Article C-9801, BuPers Manual,
Contrary to common knowledge and be-
which is concerned with notification
lief, the concepts pertaining to rockets and
of aviation casualty.
guided missiles are far from new. I n fact, No. 2 - Announced early con-
theyre ancient. struction of a Navy-Marine Corps
History reveals that as early as 3000 Memorial Stadium at the Naval
B.C., the Chinese first used rockets. They Academy, Annapolis.
were propelled by black powder and very No. 3 - Announced certain Navy
similar to the skyrockets we use today on
publicity features during January.
the Fourth of July. The Chinese also used
them for celebrations and festivals.
No. 4 - Promulgated a basic
Rockets were first used as a weapon of change in the LDO procurement
war about 1232 A.D. When defending the program.
city of Pein-King, the Chinese attached No. 5 -
Stated that certain com-
arrows to rockets and used them not only panies operating within the state of
as a weapon but as incendiaries. Alabama and who were engaged in
News of the rockets spread fast and the sale of automobile insurance had
during the 13th and 14th Century history
been placed in receivership and
recorded a number of occasions during stabilize them i n flight. As a result, the
which they were used throughout Europe. British immediately started a detailed study
policies cancelled.
The idea of manned rocket flights i s also into the development of an artillery rocket. Instructions
Far from new. As far back as the 15th The outcome was such a success that they
Century the Chinese had their own Captain greatly influenced the results of the Napole- No. 1133.4A - Restates instruc-
Video-named Wan-Hu, who attempted onic Wars and the War of 1812. tions permitting USN personnel who
the first human rocket flight. He attached In 1846, William Hale, a U. S. inventor, so desire to be discharged within
47 rockets to a chair, secured two kites to developed the flrst stickless rocket. These one year of their normal expiration
its sides and then strapped himself in. As early rockets had three curved vanes which of enlistment for the purpose of
47 coolies lighted the rockets at the same caused them to rotate like an artillery shell. immediate reenlistment.
They came in two size-ix and twelve
time, the Chinese scholar and scientists No. 1440.20 - Outlines proce-
disappared i n a cloud of flame and smoke. pounds-and had a range of 2200 yards.
During the year a rocket battery was formed
dures for changing rating from Tele-
History does not record the results of the
flight, as Wan-Hu has not been seen or at Ft. Monroe, Va., and by 1847 ten more
man to Radioman or Yeoman.
heard of since. batteries had been organized. These units No. 1520.4B - Requests applica-
Interest in rockets as a weapon of war were abolished shortly thereafter as inter- tions from USN and USNR officers
continued to spread and b y the early est i n rockets began to lag when rifle and of unrestricted line or LDO cate-
1790s Indian troops used over a hundred cannon companies proved to have increased gories, other than aviation, for officer
thousand of them against the British, They accuracy during the Mexican War. Rockets deep sea diving training.
weighed from six to eight pounds, were came back into the foreground later, and
No, 1560.12-Recommends study
made out of an iron tube and had a wire today play an increasingly important role,
material for personnel who wish to
fltted with a 10-foot bamboo pole to as pointed out i n the article on page 38.
plan a program of study in prepara-
tion for the exam administered those
nominated for commissioned Status.

58 ALL HANDS
In the preceding pages, ALL HANDS has attempted to describe, within its limitations of
time a n d space, what guided missiles are and how they are likely to affect every
man in the N a v y today a n d tomorrow. As you have seen in the historical summary
on pages 18 through 23, guided missiles a n d their ancestors are not nearly so recent
as most of us think. Why the sudden interest in these new weapons today? Below,
youll find a n indication of the trend of thinking on the part of N a v y planners.

This unclassified material, somewhat condensed and re- impracticable, our present and near-future attack tech-
vised for easier reading, has been made available as a niques involving aircraft.
special supplement through the cozwesy of Guided A decade of heavy expenditures and development
Missiles Division, Office of DCNO (Air). Major por- effort has gone into the creation of our nations guided
tions of this report have appeared in the official Navy missile potential. That potential is now in hand. It offers
pablication Combat Readiness. the only known solution to our two basic requirements.
ON THE BASIS OF THE JOB to be done, the Navys At the same time, the Navy does not claim that guided
missiles will replace all types of guns for all types of
guided missile program is concerned with two
fundamental requirements: targets or for all types of wars. The Navy does not
0 To provide a Fleet air defense adequate to support predict that they will eliminate the need for aircraft.
naval operations in the face of strong enemy oppositon. It does not maintain that completely new strategies and
0 To provide our air, surface, and submarine striking tactics must be devised. But, the Navy does want to be
forces with the capability of attack, utilizing the vast sure that its forces are properly equipped with missiles
surfaces of the ocean areas and ready to be employed in and that its strategic and tactical concepts are responsive
the face of strong enemy defense. to the potentials of these instruments.
These requirements stem from three simple realities: THE MISSILE-as we know it today-is not considered
0 The gun is rapidly approaching obsolescence as a the ultimate weapon. It has its limitations. It raises
fully effective air defense weapon. the questions of electronic jamming; the possible future
0 International trends require that we view with con- altitude and speed capabilities of aircraft targets with
cern plans that depend on certain foreign bases. which defensive missiles must contend; and, foY the
0 In time, a competent enemy can be expected to offensive missiles, the issue of whether nuclear warheads
develop defenses that will nullify, or make economically will be used in all types of wars.

MAdCH I957 59
- -
THE F3H2M Demon is capable of carrying the dis- requirements. The missiles, -however, are adaptable to
armingly graceful Sparrow air-to-air guided missiles. land-based use. A U. S. Marine Corps mobile Terrier
system has been developed. The Talos land-based system
However, the Navy is firmly committed to converting has been under development for the Air Force for
its guided missile potential into its Fleet capability; for some time.
it is recognized that the missiles, as such, represent no Terrier is launched with an auxiliary solid-rocket
capability whatsoever. That capability lies only in the booster. After completing its job, the booster separates
operating forces-the ships, submarines, aircraft and from the missile. The missiles solid-rocket sustainer is
men who will use the missiles. The process of equipping then ignited and maintains the missile at speed. Terrier
the operating forces with missiles has just begun. The is a beam-rider; the same radar which tracks the target
next four or five years will see the Navy so equipped also supplies the beam which the missile rides to that
both offensively and defensively, to a considerable extent. target.
The operating forces during this period will perform The missiles brain determines the direction and
an important role in perfecting these weapons and distance of the missile from beam center and tells the
techniques. control system to apply-the aerodynamic corrections to
As noted earlier, one of our two
bring the missile back to beam center and on to the
target.
The Operational Development Force has completed
a service evaluation of Terrier, and the first Terrier ships
have joined the Fleet. uss Boston (CAG 1) and
Canberra (CAG 2 ) have been converted to guided
missile ships through replacement of the after 8-inch
turrets by two twin Terrier launchers, together with their
magazines and fire control systems.
The fiscal year 1956 Shipbuilding and Conversion
Program contained three new construction DLGs-
5,300-ton frigates with one twin Terrier launcher each.
Additional cruiser conversions and new DLGs are
scheduled for later shipbuilding and conversion pro-
grams. However, it will be quite some time before
every task group can boast an adequate quota of Terrier
defenders.
THE NEXT OF OUR SAM missiles to be operational
will be,the Talos. Talos is a long-range missile and
provides tremendous killing power in its role in Fleet
air defense. It operates out into ranges at present reached
only by interceptors, and is going to exert a big impact
on Fleet operations.
The first Talos ship was in the fiscal year 1956 Ship-
building and Conversion Program as a conversion of
uss Galveston and should be operational in fiscal year
1958. One twin-launcher and missile magazine will be
installed aft. Additional cruiser conversions are planned
and the first nuclear-powered cruiser is slated for a full
Talos capability.
The third missile of the team is the newest 2nd
smallest-the Tartar, which is a blood-brother of the
improved Terrier. It offers savings in technical effort,
capability-the ability to hit targets at altitudes above
or below the launchng aircraft.
With the capabilities of these weapons, there is little
reason to question their adoption as primary armament
for OUT fighters. These air-to-air missiles should give us
an extremely effective Fleet air defense-real defense
in depth.
THE PROJECTS mentioned so far relate to air defense.

missiles that meet the requirements:


0 Air-to-Surface (ASM)-These may be used from
either carrier- or land-based aircraft.
0 Surface-to-Surface (SSM)-These may be used
from either surface ships or submarines.
Before the guided missile era, an attack by aircraft
could be accomplished with reasonable success and with
relatively low losses. Today, however, it must be assumed
that a potential enemy will be equipped with defensive
guided missiles reasonably similar to our own. This is
inclined to discourage bombing and torpedo-delivery
techniques. The more powerful the enemys defense, the
greater the need for accurate attack from a distance.
This is the role of the air-to-surface missile.
In the air-to-surface category, the Navy has several This brings us to the surface-to-surface category.
active weapon projects. Here, the Navy can make a significant contribution. If
However, developments in this field rapidly approachanother global conflict develops, first-choice targets of
a point of diminishing returns, particularly when re- the enemy will presumably be our land-based retaliatory
strictions on the size- and weight-carrying capacity offorces, both in the United States and oyerseas. Those
Navy attack aircraft are considered. A point is reachedforces which are established on foreign land bases may
where it becomes more practical and economical to be more vulnerable to enemy surprise attack. Naval
attack missile forces, however, because of their mobility,
launch missiles from the surface, rather than carry them
part of the distance by aircraft. and their ability to cover the worlds oceans, give us a
tremendousoffensive capabilGy against
the enemy, a capability that defies not
EVEN SUCH thinking machines as guided missiles depend on manpower. only defense but attack.
Here crew jockeys Sparrow into wing launcher of Cutlass iet fighter.
HE SURFACE-TO-SURFACE MISSILI!
Tlends itself to use by either surface
ship or submarine. It is use by the
submarine, however, that may pay
the greater dividends. With almost
no supporting forces, individual
guided missile submarines can op-
erate in the face of strong defense
in widely dispersed areas. In theory,
at least, this appears an ideal way of
keeping our potential enemy contin-
ually on the alert.
Before discussing the separate
Navy surface-to-surface programs,
several factors should be considered:
0 Surface-to-surface missiles of in-
termediate or long range are capable
of carrying nuclear warheads.
Guided missiles carrying nuclear
warheads are primarily deterrent 01
all-out war weapons.
The very nature of a cold war
calls for this type of weapon, ready
for use now.
The possibility of an indefinite
cold war not only means that we
A l l HANDS
The United States Navy
Guardian of Our Country
The United States Novy is responsible for
maintaining control of the sea and i s a
ready force on wotch at home and overseas,
copoble of strong oction to preserve the
REMEMBER THE STORY about the factory-worker who left the peace or of instant offensive oction to win
in war.
plant every night pushing a wheelbarrow full of straw? The It i s upon the mointenonce of this control
thot our countrys glorious future depends.
guard at the gate was naturally suspicious so, time after time The United States Novy exists to make it so.
he searched the straw for company property, but he never We Serve with Honor
managed to find any. Finally, his curiosity got the best of him Tradition valor and victory are the Navys
heritage from the post. To these may be
and he stopped the worker and said, Listen, I know youve added dedication, discipline and vigilance as
the watchwords of the present and future.
been swiping something, and Im sure it isnt straw. But, 111 At home or an distant stations, we serve
promise not to report you if youll only let me know what it is. with pride, confident in the respect of our
country, our shipmates, and our families:.
Okay, confided the worker, since you promise not to tell, Our responsibilities sober us; our adversities
strengthen us.
Ill let you in on the secret-Ive been taking wheelbarrows. Service to God and Country is our special
Well, back in December 56, we carried a one-page photo privilege. We serve with honor.
story on Ice Bound Animals, which we called a photo- The Future of the Navy
The Novy will olwoys employ new weapons,
new techni ues and greater power to protect
and defen! the United States on the sea,
under the sea, and in the air.
.. . Now and in the future, control of the sea
gives the United States her greatest advon-
toge for the mointenonce of peace and for
victory in war. Mobility, surprise, dispersal
ond offensive power are the keynotes of the
new Navy. The roots of the Novy lie in o
strong belief in the future, in continued dedi-
cation to our tasks, and in reflection on our
heritage from the past. Never hove our OP-
portunities and our responsibilities been
greater.

graphic zoo of frosty critters captured by alert Navy photogs


as their ship made passage through Arctic or Antarctic waters. the Bureau of Naval Per-
A l l UANVS sonnel Information Bulletin,
One of these frosty critters-a porpoise-was shown leap- with anoroval of the Bureau of the Budget on
ing in the air to accept a fish from a man in whites. 23 Juie 1955, i s published monthly by the
Bureau of Novo1 Personnel for the information
This started a flood of letters, and also a letter of Floods and interest of the novo1 service as o whole.
Opinions expressed are not necessarily those
-CWO R. J. Flood, USN, that is-who addressed his to the of the Novy Department. Reference to regula-
Associate Editor, Nature-Faking Department. He pointed out tions, orders and directives i s for information
only and does not by publication herein con-
that the animal shown does not frequent polar water, that it is stitute authority for oction. All original moterial
a bottle-nosed porpoise residing in the outdoor aquarium at may be reprinted as desired if proper credit
i s given ALL HANDS. Original articles ?f gen-
Marineland, Fla., and that the man feeding it is not a Navyman, eral interest may be forwarded to the Edltor.
but a civilian attendant dressed in a sailor suit. DISTRIBUTION: By Section B-3203 of the Bureau
of Naval Personnel Manual, the Bureau directs
Mr. Flood was right on all counts but one-technically the thot appropriate steps be token to insure that all
critter isnt a porpoise-its a dolphin. Most of our other critics hands hove quick and convenient access to this
magazine, and indicates thot distribution should
overlooked that mistake too. be effected on the basis of one copy far each
10 officers and enlisted personnel to accomplish
So, hats off to the Nature-Faking Department. You did the purpose of the magazine.
manage to heist one wheelbarrow anyway. The Bureau invites requests for additional

* * * copies as necessary to comply with the bosic


directive. This magazine i s intended for all
hands and commanding officers should take
necessary steps to make it available accordingly.
We have a note from our Editor-in-Charge-of-Credit-Where- The Bureou should be kept informed of
changes in the number of copies required.
Credit-Is-Due. He tells us that it might be well to credit the The Bureau should also be advised if the full
Bureaus chief photographer, Walt Seewald, and his associates, number of copies i s not received regulurly.
Normally copies for Novy activities ore dis-
for their loyal and unflagging assistance to ALL HANDSMaga- tributed only to those on the Stondord Navy
Distribution List in the expectation thot such
zine. Mr. Seewald, it is, who processes pictures taken by staff activities will make further distribution os neces-
members on field trips, who sets up and photographs rush jobs sary; where special circumstances worrant send-
ing direct to sub-activities the Bureau should
for our art departments illustrations and for photos for the be informed.
Distribution to Marine Corps personnel is
magazine. One for instance, for instance, is the back cover effected by the Commandant U. S. Morine Corps.
of this issue. Mr. Seewald did it as he has done so many other Requests from Marine Activities should be ad-
dressed to the Commondant.
fine ones. The people in the picture, incidentally, are: CAPT J. PERSONAL COPIES: This magazine i s far sale by
A. Obermeyer, USN, CO of the naval unit at Massachusetts Insti- Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 20 cents
tute of Technology, and ENS J. T. Tidwell, USNR, who portray per copy; subscription price $2.25 o year, do-
the oath-taking at commissioning-the oath to defend the mestic (including FPO and APO addresses for
overseas moil); $3.00. foreign. Remittances
Constitution of the United States against all enemies, domestic should be mode direct to the Superintendent of
or foreign-the oath of an officer of the U. S. Navy. Documents. Subscriptions are accepted for one
year only.

AT RIGHT: FLYING SNAKES -


Guided Missileman Third Class C. C.
Regg, USN, and F. D. Adair, AN, USN,
push Sidewinders toward FJ-3 fighter of
Squadron VF 143 at Naval Air Station
Miramar, California.

64 ALL HANDS
1 W I L L SUPPORT AND DEFEND
THE C O N S T I T U T I O N OF THE U N I T E D STATES