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Chapter 1


Kung nais mong matayo ng lipunan, magtayo ka muna ng daang bakal, dahil kung saan

tumatawid ang riles nito, doon rin dadaan ang pagbabago. (Kara David, 2016)

Concept of Transportation

The concept of transportation can be defined primarily through its basic definition,

which is the ability to bring something from one place to the other. The most primitive way of

doing so and probably practiced in a daily basis is through simple carrying and walking to the

target destination. However, this becomes a predicament with larger bulks that need to be

transported simultaneously. Humanity started using animals and carriages with wheels as a

solution. Animals that could carry heavier loads were able to drag carriages much faster than

a long human could. The industrial era was one of the most disruptive ages in human history.

It has brought about mechanized transport vehicles that do not rely on biological capacity to

transport products. Ships and airplanes have exploited other ecological environments (sea and

the atmosphere) to transport goods of varying sizes and weights, while railways were

developed to utilize terrestrial travel. Whenever a railway traverses a certain point, its vicinity

develops and urbanizes. If the early civilizations determine their dwelling area through the

availability of supplies (mainly water), the industrial age society, through the railway which

had the ability to transport bulks of goods displaced the old practice, developed their towns

based on the railway right of way.

People realized that it is far more convenient to locate transportation vehicles in the

same place where they can procure the services of long distance travelling. Longer travel

routes demanded certain points where short travels and long travels could diverge and

synchronize their departure and arrival schedules. Most cities have evolved separate land-

based, air and, in some cases, waterborne transport over the years, and their very separateness

may have been their salvation in the face of organization, responsibility and physical

constraints. But now, with transport coming of age, that separation is being replaced by

joined-up thinking and transport authorities can exploit interchange opportunities. (Blow,


Transportation and Economics

Mass transportation allowed bringing goods that could not be found in other areas of

the country. Plantations usually require large land areas and are located outside the Metro. It

also allowed comfortable living conditions in suburban areas, away from the serious ambiance

of the work environment, and on the other hand, purely dedicated areas for industrial

production. However, the corresponding expense of transportation is also affecting the market

price of these goods. Cheaper shipping fees means a proportionally cheaper market value. The

more expensive the travel service, the more expensive the product is. This worked

mutualistically. Both the source and its receiver (the source of the goods and the

terminal/location receiving the goods) benefit economically; making the transport facility or

at least the development near it, a one stop shop for trade and commerce.

Transportation and Tourism

Transportation, especially terminals allows exploration of areas nearby and the

entertainment of large densities of visitors. Transport hubs act as a gateway to the city or its

host region; the high density of locals vouching for its services give visitors and tourists a

glimpse of the social fabric of the city. Such transport facilities also provide shops wherein

visitors and tourists could purchase souvenirs or remembrances of the place. Japans tourist

merchandise shops within the station serves as an excellent example of the feasibility of this.

In Hong Kong, interchanges provide tourists a glimpse of the efficiency of public

transportation in the country, making their MTR business model one of the most sought out

when studying the feasibility of train network projects. Meanwhile in Taiwan, they utilize the

architectural design by making each train station in Taipei a destination for tourists. You can

stamp a booklet with a rubber stamp illustrating the design of the station; like a passport.

Transportation and the Philippine Society

10th fastest growing economy in the world. The Republic of the Philippines, is

expected to advance between 6.5% to 7.5% (World Bank, 2016). Like other Asian economies,

we have reached a state of urbanization wherein mobility and transportation has become a

crucial factor to the quality of life, and the fabric of economic activity in the country. However,

unlike the said nations, we are lacking in transportation infrastructure and technology. In fact,

according to a study made by (Numbeo, 2016), a cost of living-data analyst, based in Serbia,

Manila ranks 10th with the worst traffic in the world; Mumbai, India being the first. Manila,

because of its traffic issues, loses 2.4 billion pesos daily. The same study also cautioned the

nation that we are expected to lose 6 billion pesos by 2030 if we are not to alleviate the said

heavy traffic issue. MRT-3 and even PNR trains exceed their crush capacity because of the

ever-increasing demand to the service. While there are multiple solutions that could answer

this issue such as decongestion of Manila through regional urbanization, it is still crucial that

the government invests heavily in infrastructure especially in quality transportation facilities.

In the decades when we neglected our infra while our neighbors rapidly built up theirs, we

lost out on competitiveness. For an archipelagic country, poor infrastructure is debilitating

(Dominguez, 2017)

Background and Nature of the Project

Tutuban Center

In the 25th of June 1875, the Spanish King, Alfonso XII, promulgated a royal decree

wherein the office of Inspector of Public Works of the Philippine Islands must map out a

railway system plan for the island of Luzon. Five months later, Don Eduardo Lopez Navarro

presented the Memoria Sobre el Plan General de Ferrocarriles en la Isla de Luzn (Report on

the General Railroad Plan on the Island of Luzon) and was approved shortly after, then being

the pioneering railroad in Asia. In 1887, Don Carlos E. Bertodano who was representing the

Manila Railroad Company, began the construction of the Tutuban Station and the construction

of the Manila-Dagupan Railroad.

The construction of the Tutuban station sparked even greater economic opportunities in

this area of Tondo, Manila. Most merchants were convinced of the convenience of its

proximity to the Pasig River and the Tutuban Central Station, making it a drop-off center for

goods and services. Tutuban comes from tubaan, or a place where you can make coconut

wine or tuba. To date, Tutuban is still a thriving area for cheap goods and merchandizes, bulk

buying- attracting both tourists and locals with its commerciality (Entrepreneur Philippines,

2011). The land ownership of Tutuban is primarily handled by both Prime Orion Philippines

Inc. (POPI) and Ayala Land Inc. (ALI).

Prime Orion Philippines Inc. and Ayala Land Inc.

Tutuban Properties is a subsidiary of the POPI Group, and was a public company through

the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE). In 2015, ALI was able to procure most of the

outstanding shares of Tutuban Properties making ALI the major shareholder of the said

company. In January 2017, Mr. Jose Emmanuel Jalandoni disclosed in their annual

shareholder meeting that together with ALI, they are planning and pressing to redevelop its

22-hectare Tutuban Land area into a large-scale mixed-use community with the introduction

of various establishments such as a museum, dormitories, schools, hospitals, and office and

commercial areas. In addition, they hoped to reach a gross leasable area (GLA) of 200,000

sqm. from its current 50,000 sqm in the succeeding years of operation. (Jalandoni, 2017)

Philippine National Railways

The Philippine National Railways have been around for more than a hundred years, but

the quality of service says otherwise. Once, it traversed Region I: La Union, to Region V:

Bicol. Illegal settlement along the right of way, improper maintenance, natural disasters have

led to this substandard service. Although the performance and quality of travel falls to the

responsibility of the vehicle & the route, stations and terminals have their own responsibility

to passengers. Facilitation and accommodation is the primary concern of such structures. The

new PNR Station will house 3 train networks: The LRT Extension to Cavite, NSCR, and the

North-South Long Haul.


The PNRs operation begins at 5:00am to 7:00pm daily, having ridership peak periods

during 6:00am, 11:00am, 3:00pm, and 7:00pm. Historically, as seen below, starting from the

year 2001, the number of passengers dropped steadily until the year 2008. The sudden

acceleration after the said year was due to the procurement of new rolling stocks in 2009. Since

then, the annual passenger traffic has steadily increased.


Fig. 1.1 Annual Passenger Traffic from 2001 to 2014

The average daily ridership of the PNR railway network is approximately 70,000. As seen

below, Tutuban Station and Alabang Station have the highest passenger ridership among the

other stations of PNR. The Tutuban Station was planned to be the grand central station of the

North South Commuter Rail (NSCR) while the Alabang Station will continue to extend and

operate towards Bicol- re-utilizing the old right of way of PNR.

Fig. 1.2 Daily Passenger Ridership of each PNR Station from Tutuban to Alabang 2014


DOTr Sec. Arthur P. Tugade in the ground marking of the Malolos Station- PNR

North Line last June 2017, defined interoperability as the interconnection between all

transportation networks operating in the nation. The LRT Line 2 will extend both its ends:

to Masinag and to Manila Port. DOTr, through the FOI site,, also aims to

revitalize the old PNR ROW through the NSCR, and another northern line connecting the

new Clark Green City (CGC) and Clark International Airport to NCR. This means that the

Tutuban Station shall begin to diversify the demographic of its passengers, and increasing

the traffic impact of the station.

There is a great deal of opportunity for the Philippine National Railways to reclaim

its credibility as a transport service provider, and the Philippines to join Asian countries in

its ability to effectively provide this basic social service. The redevelopment project of POPI

and ALI brings even more catchment for the Tutuban Station, and simultaneously

diversifying its possible users and passengers. Ultimately, the success of the Tutuban Station

as an interchange greatly depends on its ability to provide its primary purpose: to address

the circulation of both pedestrian and vehicular circulation for a smooth transfer.

What are Transportation Hubs

Transport Hubs or Interchange Hubs essentially are structures that house multiple

modes of transportation. Usually, these hubs are found where vehicles of long distance travel

are located; airports with connecting buses and trains to the city, sometimes with a premium

allocation for private vehicle parking. Transport hubs allow people to switch from one mode

to another with great ease. Workers and employees that reside in suburban areas rely heavily

on vehicles, both public and private, for them to reach their workplace. The massive density

of users started to influence the neighboring establishments and soon, transport hubs became

an essential part of the economic success of its district; and its success heavily lies on factors

that are quantifiable.

Wayfinding and efficiency is fundamental, especially during rush hours. The density

of people going in and out of each vehicular terminal is so massive, that individuals

unfamiliar with the location can easily be lost in the crowd. Transport hubs experience these

density spikes at least ten times a week (twice for each workday, during the morning rush,

and the evening rush) and depending on the location, the projections might be indefinite.

The size of a transport hub is dependent on the location of the site. Ideally, it must be

in places wherein there is a sustainable number of users that will rely on such establishments.

Central Business Districts like Makatis Ayala or Mandaluyong- Ortigas area can sustain

itself with the large workforce going in and out of the city every day and as well as airports

and seaports with the large group of passengers from their respective transport vehicles.

Demographic of users are also a crucial factor to determining the ancillary spaces

provided by the hub. Airport interchanges might cater to tourism-centric spaces such as

merchandise stores, telecommunications and navigation stores, while users of city hubs

might require more of the express service like food stall expresses and stores for quick


There are also unprecedented or projection based factors such as the emergence of

new modes of transportation. This may come out as an actual new type of vehicle such as

the emergence of self-driving cars, or a new enterprise such as Uber and Grab which are

based on the new concept of sharing economy. Whatever this may be, transport hubs must

be able to anticipate the need to house these new modes and the likeliness of market


Statement of the Problem

Commuter Centricity of Transportation Facilities

In a recent study conducted by the Ford Motor Company, 3 out of 10 Filipinos feel

that commuting is the worst part of their day, and 43% of the total respondents feel that

simply, public transportation or commuting is inconvenient. The PNR like other Metro

located railway stations have been built below its actual user capacity. Train cars exceed

their crush capacity, and train stations cannot properly accommodate passengers vouching

for its transport service. Passengers now have no choice but to stretch the queue beyond the

premises of the station enclosure. Purchasing areas feature short queuing lines and the

crowded areas subjects itself to chaos and sometimes, invites crime. A study conducted in

the Tokyo Insitute of Technology, concluded that vigilance is a necessary skill for safe travel

experience. Weather and climate in the country also invites designers to revisit passive

cooling strategies or a hybrid of mechanical ventilation and passive design strategies.

Whatever the case, there is a dire need to improve our transportation facilities.

Lack of Coordination and Accommodation

The LRT-MRT Interchange converges in Taft Avenue. The LRT Line 1 stretches

from end to end of Taft Avenue while MRT Line 3 traverses the length of EDSA. A

passenger could move from one station to the other through a long perplexing walk; lacking

overhead wayfinding signages, confusing pedestrian traffic circulation, and lastly, the

emergence of illegal vendors along the paths pressures passengers to be extremely vigilant

of their belongings, creating a chaotic travel experience for passengers. During rush hours,

there is an intense surge of passengers that the two stations could simply not accommodate.

Queueing lines extend outside the perimeter of the stations, and the connecting walkways

towards a common are which is the Metropoint Mall, contributes to the pedestrian

congestion of the interchange. Meanwhile, bus and jeepney stops are found at the ground

level of these stations. The stops are relatively close to an intersection which creates heavy

congestion when more than two vehicles queue for passengers.

Doroteo Jose- Recto Interchange converges the LRT Line 1 and LRT Line 2 in Tondo.

Compared to the Taft Interchange, the Doroteo Jose-Recto Interchange is no different,

although comparing the width of the connecting bridge walkway, this is far wider. The

walkway also deviates itself from illegal vendors so the station transfer is much smoother.

However, during peak hours, one could still experience the tightness of the space.

The Araneta Center-Cubao Interchange, also requires passengers to traverse a

distance to move between stations, however, the difference among the previously mentioned

interchanges is that there is a required passage through a commercial-retail complex: The

Gateway Mall. The almost required passage may be interpreted as an economic benefit for

the retail complex, but passengers are conveniently welcomed by the well maintained and

well air-conditioned space. Passengers with a more lenient schedule may vouch for the F&B

or simply window shop at the complex. In addition, the retail complex extends its catchment

to residents traversed by the two railways, becoming a common destination. However, in

terms of railway alignment, the walk is still too far apart for the interchange to be convenient.

Lack of Identity and Integration with the Social Fabric

In Taipei Central Station, the grand hall which primarily functions to accommodate

ticket purchasing, secondarily functions as a public assembly area; like an indoor park.

Students, professionals, and families are free to loiter and sit on the floor and enjoy each

others company. F&B stalls and spaces are found around the hall and to really encourage

the use of the hall as a gathering space, these stalls do not offer dining pieces of furniture.

Meanwhile the hall features a skylight that brands the hall as an indoor public gathering

space. There was a relatively good acceptance from the public since the station is successful

in performing its primary purpose.

In its prime, PNR Stations were designed and constructed in Spanish Colonial Style

Architecture. But with neglect and the decrease in demand for rail-based transportation,

these stations are left as unrecognizable remnants of the past. It is even more difficult to

appreciate railway stations as anything more than a necessary inconvenience for cheaper and

faster transport due to its generic aesthetic and ergonomic qualities. The challenge here is to

not only design an interchange hub that functions remarkably, but to also inject ancillary or

secondary purposes and or spaces that compliments to the needs of its users. Aesthetic and

ornamental articulation is subjective, but identity through architectural programming is

grounded in data and evidence.

Democratization of Mass Public Transport

Ultimately, the unacceptably substandard service and facilities of mass public transport lead

more people to procure their own private vehicles instead of relying to the earlier alternative.

This is a domino effect. Road widening projects are implemented almost encouraging people

to buy more private vehicles, and the gridlocks cripple both public and private road based

vehicles. Simply put, the solution is to regain public trust and attract the majority to rely on

mass public transport services, encouraging them to leave their private vehicles or alternatively

not owning one at all.


Travelling as a Communal Experience

Project Goal

To democratize mass public transport by developing a seamless connection to Metro

Manila through a premiere interchange hub using rail-based and road-based mass public


Project Objectives

1. To promote the utilization of public transportation networks, and minimize the reliance

on privately owned motorized vehicles. To design a station that exemplifies the principles

of transport oriented developments such as walkability, human scaling, and injection of

complimentary ancillary spaces

2. To conceive a transport facility that can accommodate both present and future users,

visitors, and passengers. To design a station that can accommodate the increasing number

of users and passengers, as well as its accommodation for vehicles in terminals

3. To exemplify Filipino culture through architecture.

Significance of the Study and Project

Urban multi-modal interchanges can only benefit the community by making public

transport more attractive and therefore more viable at the expense of private transport, as well

as opening commercial and social opportunities by greater throughput. (Blow, 2005)


Multi-modal interchanges encourage the reliance on mass public transport vehicles,


and even more so encouraging recreational methods of transport such as walking and cycling.

The emergence of these transport facilities does not eliminate the negative environmental

impact of transportation since the cost of construction and manufacturing of materials are

prime contributors in CO2 emission. However, increasing the demand for public transportation

attracts users and passengers away from private vehicles. (Edwards, 2011)


For a transport facility to be any more than what it is, it must first be functionally

impressive. In Manila transportation is always underplayed and society has grown used to it.

PNR is one of the key components into reclaiming the trust of the public in providing effective

and efficient railway transport. Architecture fundamentally is to provide a facility that could

accommodate the demands of PNR passengers.


Decrease in private transportation vehicles also decreases congestion in its immediate

vicinity. Interchange facilities also increase the business opportunities of its proximity and

the promotion and investment to exemplary design makes these facilities destinations for

visitors and tourists, yielding even more income.


Fig. 1.3 Key mobility functions model by Scott Browning


Scope and Limitations of the Project

Scope of the Project

The project shall include a conceptual masterplan, and phasing of the project, site

development plan including the details of both softscapes and hardscapes utilized in the


The Grand Central Station will house: three railway networks: LRT-1 Extension,

North South Commuter Rail, and the North and South Long Haul, bus dock terminals, taxi

bays, cars, and non-motorized vehicles. The station shall also include publicly accessible

areas dedicated to transport oriented facilities and ancillary spaces. The administrative

department shall be included as well and other transport operations oriented spaces.

Project Proponents and Funding

The main proponent for the project is the Philippine National Railways, which will

handle the management and operations of the North South Commuter Railways and Long

Haul. The project shall be funded by JICA while sub-constituents may include POPI and


Limitation of the Project

The detailed engineering drawings (DED) and railway alignments shall be based on

the feasibility studies and data presentations made by JICA. Modifications and changes

made specified at the as built shall not affect this projects progression. Information bound

within the feasibility study shall be limited and may be undisclosed in this book. However,

information pertinent to the arrival of space allocation shall be presented.

The Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, Sanitary (MEPS) layout presented shall also be

within the detailed limits of architectural drawings. Load computations shall not be included.

Structural design shall be verified by a structural engineer through structural design

principles but will not be calculated.

Definition of Terms and Acronyms

Alignment- horizontal and vertical layouts to describe the line uniformity of the railway.

ALI- Ayala Land Inc.

DED- Detailed Engineering Drawings

DOTr- Department of Transportation

Feeder Transport- Transportation vehicles that brings passengers from an origin point to the

transport hub/ station. Usually jeepneys, buses, cabs, or private vehicles

FS- Feasibility Study

Green Design- Design methodologies that minimizes environmental impact. Most likely

measurable through LEED and Berde Certification and through the application of the

Philippine Green Building Code

JICA- Japanese International Cooperation Agency, developmental assistance from Japan

LRT- Light Rail Transit

POPI- Prime Orion Philippines Inc.

Passive Design- Design methodologies that maximizes the environmental or natural

conditions of the site. Often this refers to utilization of sunlight, wind flow direction, natural

runoff, etc.

PNR- Philippine National Railways

Right of Way- The legal right, established by usage or grant, to pass along a specific route

through grounds or property belonging to another.

Rolling Stock- Any rail based vehicle