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11/20/2017 Info - Bridge Engineering - Northern Architecture

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Last Updated on Fri, 19 May 2017 | Bridge Engineering

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load. A grillage is a structure of rigidly connected longitudinal and transverse


beams each with a bending and tor-sional stiffness. At each junction of beams,
the corresponding deflection and slope compatibility equations can be set up.
The general availability of high-speed computers has enabled the development
of efficient grillage analyses. The method of analysis involves idealisation of the
bridge deck through its representation as a plane grillage of discrete
interconnected beams. Although the method is necessarily approximate, it has First Quebec Bridge Collapse

the great advantage of almost complete generality. At the joints of the grillage
any normal form of restraint to movement may be applied so that any support Reviews
condition may be represented. Simply supported, built-in, continuous, discrete Wind Energy DIY Guide
column support conditions, elastic foundation, etc. may all be represented Urban Survival Secrets Terrorist

without any difficulty. The plan form of the deck presents no real problems.
Based on extensive investigations, West (1971) has made recommendations, on Popular Articles
the use of grillage analysis for bridge decks. Problems Plastic Crosssection
Ebooks httpwwwhabitareseoee Frank
There are basically three steps in the analysis procedure when analysing a Various Victorian Residences circa

bridge deck using grillage approach. These are (1) idealisation of the physical The Sun Natural Light
Example 83 Propped Cantilever
deck into an equivalent grillage, (2) mathematical analysis of the grillage and
Geometry In Architecture Analysing
(3) interpretation of the results and their use in the design of the deck. The Tucson Mountain House Arizona
following sections deal with the methods of idealisation and they are based on Structural Degreesof Freedom
Brazil Builds History Modern
the recommendations by West (1971).
Home in Snow Country Japanese
Grillage idealisation of slab structure Project Use Green Design
From stylistic restoration to
Grillage method of analysis, pioneered by Lightfoot and Sawko (1959) Sound Stages Sound Transmission
represents the deck by an equivalent grillage of beams as shown in Figure 54. Image Simply Support Beam With
Moment Distribution Rigid Jointed
For purposes of analysis, the dispersed bending and torsional stiffnesses in
every region of the slab are assumed to be concentrated in the nearest
Categories
equivalent beam. The longitudinal stiffnesses of the slabs are concentrated in
Erosion Control
the longitudinal beams, and the transverse stiffnesses in the transverse beams.
Space Requirements
Ideally the beam stiffnesses should be such that when the prototype slab and its Masonry Structures
equivalent grillage are subjected to identical loads, the two structures should Concrete Structures
Interior Designers
deflect identically and the moments, shear forces and torsions in any grillage
Bridge Engineering
beam should equal the corresponding resultants of the stresses on the cross- Structural Engineer
section of the part of the slab the beam represents. There are, however, some Steel Structures
shortcomings one has to compromise with, since the grillage is an approximate Sound Transmission
Climate Control
model of the real structure. First, the equilibrium of any element of the slab
Architectural Detailing
requires that the torques are identical in orthogonal directions and also that the Building Maintenance
twist is the same in orthogonal directions. In the equivalent grillage, satisfaction Contemporary Architecture
Building Innovations
of the above depends upon the type of mesh (fine or coarse); it has been found
Architecture Rendering
that this condition is satisfied only when the grillage is sufficiently fine. Even so, Structural Analysis
it is often found that a coarse mesh is adequate for design purposes. Second, Housing Project
the moment in any grillage Landscape Architecture
Planning Construction
Figure 54 Grillage idealisation of a slab deck Portable House
Earthquake Engineering
beam is only proportional to the curvature along its length, while in the Gothic Architecture
prototype slab the moment in any direction depends on the curvatures, both in Design Process
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that direction as well as in the orthogonal direction. Bending stresses deduced
American Architecture
from grillage results for distributed moments have, however, been shown to be Water Resources
sufficiently accurate for most design purposes. Urban Design
Gothic Architecture
Landscape Architecture

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It is common to have the deck in this type of structure wider than the span. A Reinforced Concrete
Landscape Architecture
choice of nine longitudinal beams and five transverse beams is recommended
Master Architecture
for bridge decks consisting of slabs. Each of the beams will, therefore, be of Building Codes
rectangular cross-section, having its width equal to width of the beam (or the Classic Houses
span of deck chosen). The second moment of area and torsional inertia for the Seaside Architecture
Japanese Gardens
beam cross-section can be determined in the usual way. Torsional inertia of a
Water Management
rectangular section is calculated as C = kbt3 in which b is the length of the long Construction Drawings
side of the cross-section, t the length of the short side and k a factor depending Ecological Design
Sport Architecture
on the bt ratio. The value of k can be obtained from any book on elasticity (e.g.
Frame Construction
Timoshenko and Goodier, 1970) and it is taken as 1/3 for bt ratios of more Laminated Glass
than 10. Wood Construction
Colonial Architecture
Example 1 Landscape Design
Resisting System
Consider a reinforced concrete slab 20 m long, 12 m wide and 1 m deep. The
Steel Construction
reinforcement is assumed to be the same order of magnitude in the longitudinal Spiral Stairs
and transverse directions and hence the slab may be taken as isotropic. The Royal Academy
proposed layout of the grillage consists of five longitudinal members and eight Interior Design
Allplan Tutorial
transverse members as shown in Figure 55. Widths of the longitudinal and
Classical Architecture
transverse members are, respectively, 3 m and 2.86 m. The second moment of Energy Efficiency
area and torsion constant per unit width of the grillage member are calculated Solar Architecture
Home Design
as:
Health Care Design
per metre width of the grillage member cx = Cy = 1.03/6 = 0.167 Ancient Egyptian
Urban Studies
per metre width of the grillage member City Making
Visual Experience
For internal grillage members in the longitudinal direction, with 3 m width: Emergency Preparedness
Master Architecture
For edge members in the longitudinal direction:
Property Development
Landscape Park
Values of I and C for transverse members are calculated similarly and the
Glass Structures
grillage analysis can be carried out. Sensory Garden
Japanese Architecture
A shear-key deck can be represented by the grillage with longitudinal members
Underfloor Heating
coincident with the centrelines of the beams of the prototype. Each longitudinal Country Houses
grillage member has transverse outriggers which are stiff. The shear keys are Japanese Architecture

represented by the pinned joints between the outriggers of adjacent beams. Earthbag Building
Riding Arena Design
More detailed treatment of this subject may be found in the book Bridge Deck
Research Buildings
Behaviour by Hambly (1991). Green Design
National Buildings
Beam and slab decks Travel Architecture
Selection of a suitable grillage mesh for a beam-and-slab deck depends upon Frank Lloyd Wright
Interior Color
the structural behaviour of a particular deck rather than on a set of rules. Figure
Erosion Control
56 shows four examples of suitable grillage arrangements for four different Central Heating
types of deck (Cusens and Pama, 1975). The deck shown in Figure 56(a) is Ancient Monuments
Institute Technology
virtually a grid of longitudinal and transverse beams. The grillage simulates the
Critical Design
prototype closely by having its members coincident with the centre-
Green Buildings
Renewable Energy
90 www.icemanuals.com
Furniture Making
lines of the prototypes beams. For the deck given in Figure 56(b), it is Stainless Steel
Botanical Terms
convenient and physically reasonable to place longitudinal grillage members
Garden Ornaments
coincident with the centrelines of the prototype's beams. With no mid-span Fulfilled Nihilism
transverse diaphragms, the spacing of transverse grillage members is somewhat Public Housing
Naval Architecture
arbitrary. Where there is a diaphragm in the prototype such as over a support,
Indian Architecture
then a grillage member should be coincident. In a deck with contiguous beams Fumita Design
spaced very closely as shown in Figure 56(c) it becomes unmanageable to Museum Projects
assume grillage beam members coincident with all beams. Therefore, it is Seismic Forces
Rainwater Harvesting
expedient to represent more than one beam by each longitudinal grillage
Urban Projects
member. It should also be noted that it is generally unwise to use a single Architectural Design
grillage member to represent two beams of markedly different stiffnesses. The Victorian Woodworks

deck in Figure 56(d) has large beams with the deck slab forming a significant

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11/20/2017 Info - Bridge Engineering - Northern Architecture

fraction of the distance between the centrelines. The longitudinal beams are
then best represented as slabs with two longitudinal members per beam.

The general form of construction for the beam and slab shown in Figure 57 is to
have relatively few (ten or lower) longitudinal beams at 1.5-2.5m spacing
connected by a top slab. There will invariably be transverse diaphragms at the
support as well as within the span. The exception in this structural form is the
use of inverted T-beams with top slab only; these will be placed closer together
and there will therefore be no more longitudinal beams. The natural choice of
longitudinal grillage beams for the I-beam decks is to have them coincident with
the physical beams. However, when considering inverted T-beam decks, if there
are many more than nine physical beams these should be replaced by about
nine equally spaced grillage beams positioned such that the centrelines of the
edge grillage beams are coincident with the centrelines of the edge physical
beams. It is recommended that the number of beams should be an odd number.
Should the physical edge beams be different from the internal ones, they must
be replaced by grillage beams of equivalent stiffness and the internal uniform
section should be treated as above but with a reduced number of beams. If the
deck is extremely wide and is formed from many physical beams it may be
necessary to increase the number of longitudinal grillage beams so that, as a
general rule, one grillage beam does not replace more than two physical beams.

The next step is to determine the inertia for the beams. For the longitudinal
beams the moment of inertia, I can be calculated for a section consisting of a
physical beam and its associated width of top slab. It is recommended by West
(1971) that it can be proportioned to all the grillage beams as (I x number of
physical beams)/number of grillage beams. The torsional inertia of the beam
cross-section is determined by idealising it as a section consisting of a number
of rectangles. The total inertia of the section can be considered to be the sum of
the inertias of the individual rectangles. The torsional inertia for an individual
rectangle can be obtained in the same way as that explained in the case of slab
structure.

The transverse grillage beams within the span are considered to consist of the
diaphragm plus the slab. Another alternative - such as considering a top slab of
width corresponding to the width of a transverse grillage beam - is also
recommended by West (1971). The torsional inertia of such sections may then
be obtained as for an I section or a plain slab. It should, however, be ensured
that the torsional stiffness used in the analysis is truly representative of the
physical beam.

Example 2
West (1971) suggests a simple grillage arrangement for a bridge structure
consisting of I-beams with in situ concrete top slab as shown in Figure 57. The
actual structure of 25 m span and 17 m width consists of nine precast I-beams
at 2 m spacing, in situ reinforced concrete slab and in situ post-tensioned
abutment diaphragms. It is proposed to choose the longitudinal beams to
coincide with the physical beams, i.e. nine beams of equal stiffness with the
inertias calculated as for an internal beam with 2 m width of top slab. Using a
ratio of 1.5:1 the spacing of transverse beams should be approximately 3 m.
Nine beams at 3.125 m spacing are chosen in the transverse direction. The
internal beams are rectangular in section, each of 3.125 m width, while the
abutment beams are assumed to be of L-beams consisting of a full diaphragm
concrete section, with 1.56 m slab.

If the above structure consists, in addition to post-tensioned abutments, of


prestressed diaphragms positioned

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11/20/2017 Info - Bridge Engineering - Northern Architecture

(b) Inverted T-beam deck

Figure 57 Grid-type structures at quarter points, it is proposed that five


transverse beams coincident with the physical beams can be used. The three
internal beams are T-beams with 6.25 m of top slab, and the abutment
diaphragms are L-beams with 3.125m of top slab.

A grillage beam of MoT/C&CA standard beam M7 with top slab only as shown in
Figure 58(a) can be idealised as a section consisting of rectangles as shown in
Figure 58(b) for the purpose of torsional inertia calculations. The total-inertia
can be considered to be the sum of the inertias of the individual rectangles as
follows:

J = 0.3 x 1603 x 1000 x 0.5 = 0.614 x 109mm4 J2 = 0.294 x 753 x 400 =


0.050 x 109mm4 J3 = 0.292 x 1603 x 815 = 0.975 x 109mm4

J4 = 0.292 x 185J x 950 = 1.756 x 109mm' The total inertia,

J = (0.614 + 0.05 + 0.975 + 1.756) x 109 = 3.395 x 109 mm4

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