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Review of Related Literature

I. Citrus fruits as conductors of electricity in an economical way

Because of the rising cost of fuel which results in more expensive

electricity costs, researchers have never stopped looking for an alternative
method of producing electricity. The experiments performed by the early
physicists have led to the emergence of the electrical equipment we use today.
George Johnstone Stoney introduced the word "electron" in 1891, followed by
Reginald Fessenden's invention of the "electrolight dector" or vacuum tube in
1901. In 1909 Roger Millikan, Nobel Prize winner, proved that Stoney's
electrons did exist, and were related to atoms. Leading to the modern electronics
of today, was the invention of the transistor by William Shockley, Jr., and John
Barden, Jr., U.S. physicists of the 1950s. The evolution of computer, cell phones,
iPods, and iPhones are all a result of the early physicists progressively

With our economy today, many people are using fuel. So as a way to
save more peoples money, working on this alternative way of getting electricity
in citric acid would be of a great idea.

But on the contrary, fruits containing ascorbic acid in the production of

electricity would not be feasible since the amount of electricity generated by
each fruit or vegetable was so minimal. The huge amount of fruit or vegetables
required to generate electricity for commercial purposes would not make sense
economically. (

II. How does the fruit battery works

Batteries are comprised of two different metals suspended in an acidic

solution. With the Fruit-Power Battery, the two metals are zinc and copper. The
zinc is in the galvanization on the nails, and the pennies are actually copper-
plated zinc. The acid comes from the citric acid inside each lemon.

The two metal components are electrodes, the parts of a battery where
electrical current enters and leaves the battery. With a zinc and copper setup, the
electron flow is out of the penny (copper) and into the nail (zinc) through the
acidic juice inside the lemon. In the exchange of electrons between the zinc and
the copper over the acid bridge, copper accepts two electrons from zinc which
accounts for the current.
Once the Fruit-Power Battery is connected to the LED, youve
completed a circuit. As the electrical current passes through the LED, it
powers the LED and then passes back through all of the lemons before getting
to the LED again. By the way, an LED is polar sensitive. That means an LED
will glow only if the current is flowing through it in the right direction. If you
hook up the LED and it doesnt glow, switch the alligator clips attached to its
legs. That should do it.

III. Study Of Copper Applications And Effects Of Copper

Oxidation In Microelectronic Package

Low cost, high thermal and electric conductivity, easy fabricating and
joining, and wide range of attainable mechanical properties have made copper
as one of main materials for lead frames, interconnection wires, foils for flexible
circuits, heat sinks, and traces in PWB in electronic packaging. However, unlike
aluminum oxide, the copper oxide layer is not self-protect so the copper is
readily oxidized. Copper oxidation is considered as a serious reliability problem
in microelectronic package. It produces cracks at Cu-Al interface on the copper
interconnection wire, causes delimitation between the copper lead frames die
pad and molding compound, and induces poor adhesion between the copper
lead frames and molding compound.

IV. Copper

Copper has a cubic crystal structure. It is the particular variation (face

centered cubic) that gives it it's extreme ductility so that you can bend a wire
into really sharp curves. Aluminum, silver, and gold among others have the
same crystal structure. Bending a copper wire work hardens it which introduces
defects known as dislocations into the structure. These defects interfere with
further deformation and make the copper hard and strong so it is not easily
repent. This is why copper is so good for bonsai - it bends easily the first time,
but then holds its shape. Aluminum work hardens less than copper while gold
barely work hardens at all.