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Dialectology

This is one of the criteria used in the study of dialects, or dialectology, to distinguish between two different
dialects of the same language (whose speakers can usually understand each other) and two different
languages (whose speakers cant usually understand each other). This is not the only, or the most reliable,
way of identifying dialects, but it is helpful in establishing the fact that each different dialect, like each
language, is equally worthy of analysis.
Q Is there a relationship between one's language and one's social
identity?

The language one uses often reflects one's social identity and
education, for example: dropping the initial h in words like house can
indicate a lower socioeconomic background. On the other hand,
pronouncing the letter r in the city of New York is considered as a
prestigious feature, but the opposite is true in London.
Q How do language changes spread?

1- from group to group: changes spread like waves in different


directions, and social factors such as age, gender, status and social
group affect the rates and directions of change.

2- from style to style: from more formal to more casual, from one
individual to another, from one social group to another, and from one
word to another.

- Lexical diffusion: the change from one word's vowel to another, the
sound change begins in one word and later on in another, etc

Reasons for language change:

1- Social status and language change: members of the group with


most social status, for example, tend to introduce changes into a speech
community from neighboring communities which have greater status
and prestige in their eyes.

2- Gender and change: differences in women's and men's speech are a


source of variation which can result in linguistic change.
3- Interaction and language change: interaction and contact between
people is crucial in providing the channels for linguistic change (social
networks).

4- The influence of the media: some researcher belief that media has a
great influence on people's speech patterns and new forms.

Q What are conversation maxims?

Paul Grice formulated four maxims of cooperative talk:

1- Quantity: say as much as but no more than necessary

2- Quality: do not say what you believe to be false, or that for which
you lack evidence

3- Relation: be relevant

4- Manner: be clear, unambiguous, brief and orderly

Regional dialect

A variation in speaking a language associated with place and it is an


easy way of observing variety in language. It is very dstinctive local
variety. It is reflected in the differences in pronuncaton, in the choice
and forms of words, and in syntax.