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# Assignment #1

## Modeling of a four story shear frame

The structural system of Fig.1 represents a shear frame model of a building with a tuned mass
damper on its top story. The frame vibrates under the presence of earthquake excitation. Table 1
provides numerical values for the structural properties of the associated elements.

1 100 200000

2 80 150000

TMD 8 30000

## Figure 1: The shear frame structure wit the tuned

mass damper on top.

1) Construct the free body diagram and derive the corresponding equation of motion for every
degree-of-freedom. Then bring the derived system of equations in the following matrix form

() + () = () (1)

## and provide full description of the associated vectors/matrices.

2) Use MATLABs ode45 function (Runge Kutta method) in order to numerically obtain the
undamped structural response (displacements/velocities/accelerations) to the accelerogram of
the El Centro earthquake [ElCentro.mat file 1st column corresponds to time, 2nd column to
the earthquake].
3) Calculate the natural frequencies (in Hz) and the mode shapes of the structure. Normalize
each mode shape with respect to the element with the maximum absolute value. Plot the
normalized mode shapes (Hint: use MATLAB function eig).
4) Assume that the system is characterized by proportional Rayleigh damping
= +
where and are the mass and stiffness matrices of Eq.1, respectively. Calculate and so
that the first two vibration modes of the frame without the tuned mass damper retain 2%
modal damping. Which are the modal damping values for the combined structure?
5) Form the matrices A, B, C and D of the systems state space representation and create the
corresponding system model in MATLAB [command ss(A,B,C,D)]. Select all displacements,
velocities and accelerations as the output of your state space model.
6) Use MATLAB function lsim to simulate the state space model and obtain the damped
structural response under the same excitation of step 2. Comment on the differences between
the structural responses calculated at step 2 to those calculated here.
7) Apply the Laplace transform and derive qualitative expressions for the transfer functions ()
between the horizontal relative accelerations of each degree-of-freedom and the ground
acceleration.
8) Apply the tf MATLAB command to the state-space model of step 5 and derive the transfer
functions of step 7. Which are the roots of the denominator of each H()? Are these roots
stable? [roots and pzmap MATLAB commands].
9) Use the bodeplot MATLAB command and obtain the Frequency Response Functions (FRFs)
for the quantities of steps 7-8. Make sure that the x-axis of the FRFs is in Hz, the magnitude
units in dB and the phase units in degrees.
10) Using the plotted FRFs, identify the frequencies at which the amplitudes of the responses are
(i) equal to the amplitude of the excitation, (i) one order of magnitude smaller than the one of
the excitation, and (iii) one order of magnitude larger than the one of the excitation.
11) Use amplitude graphs of the FRFs and the half power method in order to calculate the natural
frequencies and the damping ratios of the system and compare with those obtained at steps 3-
4. Comment on the results.
12) Submit your m-code electronically to chatzi@ibk.baug.ethz.ch along with a short report on the
steps and appropriate figures. Use YOURNAME-IMSS-ASSIGMENT 1 as mail subject.