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UJIAN TENGAH SEMESTER SOSIOLOGI PERTANIAN (BA3104)

SEMESTER I 2017/2018

Hari/Tanggal Waktu pengumpulan Lokasi pengumpulan Sifat ujian Dosen Mata Kuliah

: Selasa/10 Oktober 2017 : Kamis/12 Oktober 2017 pukul 16.00 : Ruang Tata Usaha Prodi Rekayasa Pertanian : Buka Buku / Take home : Dr. Angga Dwiartama & Dr. Mulyaningrum

/ Take home : Dr. Angga Dwiartama & Dr. Mulyaningrum Penjelasan tata cara pelaksanaan ujian 1.

Penjelasan tata cara pelaksanaan ujian

1. Di lembar soal ini, disediakan 4 pertanyaan (A, B, C dan D), masing-masing menanggapi artikel

di Media Massa terkait dengan Berita di Sektor Pertanian.

2. Kerjakan ujian ini di kertas Ujian yang disediakan. Jawaban diharapkan cukup singkat, jelas, padat dan menjawab pertanyaan yang ditanyakan.

3. Selalu sertakan referensi ilmiah dalam menjawab pertanyaan yang diberikan! Setiap referensi yang dirujuk harus disertakan di dalam bagian Daftar Pustaka.

4. Lembar jawaban ujian dikumpulkan ke Kantor Tata Usaha Program Studi Rekayasa Pertanian selambat-lambatnya hari Kamis, tanggal 12 Oktober 2017 pukul 16.00. Lembar jawaban ujian yang dikumpulkan setelah waktu tersebut tidak akan diterima. Selamat mengerjakan!

A. [Materi: Sosiologi Pertanian] Anda telah memahami peran Sosiologi dalam membantu

memberikan gambaran tentang bagaimana struktur masyarakat pertanian (dan masyarakat

secara umum) terbangun dari perubahan-perubahan di sektor pertanian. Berdasarkan dua berita

di bawah ini, deskripsikan apa yang akan terjadi dengan (1) masyarakat pertanian di pedesaan

dan (2) masyarakat konsumen di perkotaan dalam 20-30 tahun dari sekarang!

B. [Materi: Interaksi Sosial] Berdasarkan berita di bawah ini, secara diagramatis, gambarkan

suatu Sosiogram yang menjelaskan aktor-aktor apa saja yang akan terbangun di sektor pertanian

saat ini dan bagaimana hubungan mereka satu sama lain (jelaskan bentuk-bentuk interaksi sosial

yang terbangun)!

Diminati orang kaya, pertanian diyakini jadi penggerak ekonomi RI

Liputan6.com Jakarta (17/07/17), Pertanian dinilai akan menjadi sektor yang mampu berkontribusi paling besar terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi Indonesia. Hal ini mengingat sektor ini mampu menyerap hingga ratusan juta tenaga kerja.

meski dalam kondisi krisis ekonomi.

Sektor ini mampu terus tumbuh positif

"Dalam kurun waktu perjalanan Indonesia, kita alami situasi krisis dan kritis. Saat sektor lain tumbuh negatif, pertanian selalu tumbuh positif. Tapi dari pengalaman kita, belum bisa yakinkan bahwa pertanian penggerak ekonomi nasional. Kita masih bertumpu pada sektor lain untuk tumbuhkan ekonomi," ujar dia di Kantor Kementan, Jakarta, Senin (17/7/2017).

Meski demikian, lanjut Hari, pihaknya yakin jika ke depannya pertanian bisa menjadi motor utama penggerak ekonomi nasional. Hingga saat ini, pertanian mampu menyerap 100 juta tenaga kerja.

"Kita harus yakin pertanian bisa jadi tumpuan penggerak ekonomi. Orang-orang kaya mana (di Indonesia) yang tidak punya bisnis di sektor pertanian. Di sisi lain, ada sekitar 100 juta jiwa masyarakat Indonesia pada sektor ini. Meski sektor yang seolah termarjinalkan, tetapi petani kita kuat. Mereka tidak sekolah, tapi bisa siapkan pangan bagi Indonesia," jelas dia.

Selain itu, petani Indonesia mampu mengungguli petani Thailand dalam hal produksi padi. Saat ini, rata-rata produksi padi Indonesia telah mencapai 5,5 ton per hektare (ha), sedangkan Thailand masih sekitar 3-4 ton per ha.

"Saat ini padi kita rata-rata 5,5 ton per ha, Thailand 3-4 ton per ha, yang katanya selalu mereka lebih maju dari kita," tandas dia.

Bidang Pertanian Bakal Dominasi Tren Startup Indonesia 2017

Liputan6.com, Jakarta (06/06/17) - Indonesia adalah salah satu negara dengan pertumbuhan startup cukup masif. Pada 2016, startup Tanah Air diramaikan oleh sektor e-Commerce dan FinTech (Financial Technology). Pada tahun ini, tren startup Indonesia tak hanya akan berkutat pada dua bidang itu.

"2017, tren startup di Indonesia akan bergerak ke bidang agrikultur. Banyak startup anak bangsa yang hadir dengan konsep agriculture tech untuk memangkas kemelut yang menggurita

Th N x D v

Telkomsel saat mengisi sesi diskusi Startup Ngabuburit di FX Jakarta, Senin (5/6/2017).

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Steve menerangkan, sektor pertanian dan perkebunan di Indonesia sangat butuh dukungan teknologi. Tahun ini dianggap menjadi momen penggebrak agar startup dengan misi serupa bisa bangkit. Salah satu startup jebolan The NextDev yang bergerak di bidang agrikultur adalah Habibi Garden. Misinya membawa Internet of Things (IoT) pertanian presisi yang dapat meningkatkan produktivitas, mengurangi biaya, dan meminimalisasi kemungkinan gagal tanam.

Selain Habibi Garden, The NextDev juga membawa Kostoom dan Juru Parkir, yang merupakan pemenang The NextDev 2016. Kostoom adalah layanan jahit online dengan konsep ekonomi berbagi, yang bertujuan untuk memberdayakan dan menghubungkan individu, desainer, dan pengusaha fashion dengan penjahit rumahan.

Sementara Juru Parkir merupakan startup dengan produk berupa sistem rekam data transaksi parkir berbasis aplikasi mobile yang diintegrasikan dengan cloud server untuk menghasilkan laporan real-time.

Diskusi Startup Ngabuburit bertemakan "Be Startup Make Something People Need" ini dihelat oleh Technologue.id bersama XL Axiata dan Telkomsel. Acara dihadiri oleh para pelaku startup dan digital industry enthusiast, venture capital, operator telekomunikasi, perusahaan bidang Device, Network, and Application (DNA), hingga pemerintah Kota Jakarta yang mewakili pihak pemerintah selaku stakeholder besar di industri ini.

C. [Materi: pengantar sosiologi] Jelaskan dalam kerangka sosiologi, (1) apa yang mendasari fenomena di dalam berita di bawah ini? Dan (2) apa konsekuensi fenomena ini terhadap sektor pertanian secara umum?

D. [Materi: culture and society] Masih terkait dengan berita di bawah ini, apakah Indonesia akan mengalami hal serupa? Jelaskan alasannya!

Death on the Farm

Newsweek.com (4/10/14), On January 21, 2010, a cold, clear day, Dean Pierson woke up early, as usual. The 59-year-old put on a pair of blue jeans and a hooded coat before the sun was up, then went to his barn, turned on the lights, closed all the doors and windows, powered off the fans and cranked up the volume on the radio. He then shot each of his milking cows with a .22-

caliber N1 carbine rifle, about 51 of them, between their horns and eyes, hitting their brains and killing them instantly. Pierson then sat down in a wooden chair with an upholstered seat, pulled

a ski mask over his face, picked up a 12-gauge pump-action shotgun and shot himself once in the

chest.Around 9 or 9:30, a truck driver from the Agri-Mark co-op arrived to collect milk from Pierson's tanks. The driver saw a note attached to the barn door warning whoever found it not to enter and to call the police. He called his dispatcher, who called Pierson's milk inspector, who telephoned Bill Kiernan, the farmer next door.

Kiernan sent his grown son, Walter, and an employee to check on their neighbor. On the way to the barn, Walter ran into Dean's mother, Pauline, who lived on the farm and happened to be out walking down the road. The two of them entered through the side door while the employee went through the back. Walter spotted Pierson first. Behind the blood-soaked chair, on a narrow wooden desk attached to the wall, were two notes written on yellow cards used to tag cows. One of them had words and phrases written like bullet points: Lonely. Discouraged. Overwhelmed. No hope. Can't go on. Danger to my family. Worn out. The kids are so talented. Gwynne you are

a good person. The other note simply said, So sorry. The state police arrived shortly after 1 p.m.

"It was perfectly quiet, no rattling around of cows in their stalls," recalls investigator Kelly Taylor. George Beneke, a veterinarian, came dressed in coveralls and boots and brought a stethoscope to determine which cows were dead, although he didn't need it. By that time the cows

were bloated, and they had all fallen backward in identical positions. "He was pretty efficient," Beneke says of Pierson. "He knew how to kill a cow."

For decades, farmers across the country have been dying by suicide at higher rates than the general population. The exact numbers are hard to determine, mainly because suicides by farmers are under-reported (they may get mislabeled as hunting or tractor accidents, advocates for prevention say) and because the exact definition of a farmer is elusive.People started talking about farmer suicide during the 1980s farm crisis. By the 1960s, technical innovations had made farming easier, and farmers were expanding operations by taking out loans. But the 1980s brought two droughts, a national economy in trouble and a government ban on grain exports to the Soviet Union. Farmers started defaulting on their loans, and by 1985, 250 farms closed every hour. That economic undertow sucked down farms and the people who put their lives into them. Male farmers became four times more likely to kill themselves than male non-farmers, reports showed. "In the West, the guys were jumping off silos," says Leonard Freeborn, a horse farmer and agricultural consultant.

Since that crisis, the suicide rate for male farmers has remained high: just under two times that of the general population. And this isn't just a problem in the U.S.; it's an international crisis. India has had more than 270,000 farmer suicides since 1995. In France, a farmer dies by suicide every two days. In China, farmers are killing themselves to protest the government's seizing of their land for urbanization. In Ireland, the number of suicides jumped following an unusually wet winter in 2012 that resulted in trouble growing hay for animal feed. In the U.K., the farmer suicide rate went up by 10 times during the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in 2001, when the government required farmers to slaughter their animals. And in Australia, the rate is at an all-time high following two years of drought. Robert Fetsch, a retired professor of human development and family studies at Colorado State University, says there are profound social reasons farmers are reluctant to seek help. "Farmers are extremely self-sufficient and independent," he says, "and tend to work around whatever they have, because they are so determined to keep moving."

One factor disputed among agricultural and mental health professionals is the connection between pesticides and depression. A group of researchers published studies on the neurological effects of pesticide exposure in 2002 and 2008. Lorrann Stallones, one of those researchers and

a psychology professor at Colorado State University, says she and her colleagues found that farmers who had significant contact with pesticides developed physical symptoms like fatigue, numbness, headaches and blurred vision, as well as psychological symptoms like anxiety, irritability, difficulty concentrating and depression. Those maladies are known to be caused by pesticides interfering with an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter that affects mood and stress responses."A lot of farmers are very familiar with the pesticides, so they sort of take it for granted," Stallones says. "It's an invisible kind of thing, so if you can't actually feel it, taste it, touch it, you might not believe it's an issue."

Not everyone is sold on the link between pesticides and depression. "I don't think there's firm data on that yet," says Jill Harkavy-Friedman, senior director of research at the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. A greater contributor to suicide in rural areas, she says, is the easy access to guns. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, most suicides in America involve firearms, and more than half of all firearm deaths every year involve suicide. Harkavy-Friedman points to a 1998 study published in The British Journal of Psychiatry that showed the most common means of farmer suicide in England and Wales from 1981 to 1988 was guns. Following firearm legislation in 1989 that reduced access to guns, the total number of farmer suicides went down.That's good news in Britain, but not much help in America, says agricultural consultant Leonard Freeborn. "I don't think you're ever gonna find a farm without a gun [here]."

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