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Table of Contents
1. NTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 4
1.1 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) ......................................................4
1.2 KENYA GOVERNMENT CBET POLICY .....................................................................................4
1.2.2 GUIDING PRINCIPLES............................................................................................................. 4
1.2.3 Best Practice and Global Trends in TVET .............................................................................. 5
1.2.4 Desired Situation of TVET in Kenya ....................................................................................... 6
1.2.5 Best Practice and Global Trends in TVET .............................................................................. 6
1.2.6 The CBET Curriculum ............................................................................................................. 7
1.2.7 The Kenya National Qualifications Authority ........................................................................ 7
1.2.8 Important Policy Statements to Remember ......................................................................... 7
2. COMPETENCY-BASED EDUCATION AND TRAINING (CBT) ....................................................................... 8
2.1 Historical background of CBET .............................................................................................9
2.2 Concept and Understanding of Competency Based Training (CBT) in TVET ............. 10
2.3 Objectives of CBET ............................................................................................................ 10
2.4 Benefits of CBET ................................................................................................................ 11
2.5 Planning and Developing CBET ........................................................................................... 11
2.6 Competency Based Training (CBT) ...................................................................................... 11
2.7 Structure of Competency Based Training............................................................................ 12
2.8 Objective of a Competency Based Qualification ................................................................. 12
2.9 Workplace Experience Learning ......................................................................................... 13
2.10 Why Competency-based Training is better than other Conventional Methods .................... 13
3. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................................... 14
3.1 The Meaning and Importance of Curriculum Development ..14
3.2 Curriculum Development ....................................................................................................... 14
3.3 Importance of Curriculum Development............................................................................... 14
3.4 Phases of Curriculum Development ..................................................................................... 14
4. COMPETENCY-BASED CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT ....................................................................... 16
4.1 Conceptual Framework for Competency-Based Curriculum ................................................ 16
4.2 Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC) Development Process ..................................... 17

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4.2.1 Training Needs Assessment.............................................................................................. 18
4.2.2 National Occupational Standards ....................................................................................... 19
4.2.3 The Process of Developing the National Occupational Standards...................................... 20
4.2.4 DACUM Process .................................................................................................................. 20
4.2.5 Standard Task Analysis Form .............................................................................................. 22
4.2.6 Curriculum Development in CBET ....................................................................................... 23
4.2.7 Procedures for Developing Training Curriculum ........................................................... 23
4.2.8 Procedures for Developing Learning Materials .............................................................. 24
4.2.9 Development of Competency Based Assessment Tools ..................................................... 25
4.2.10 The Principles of Using Assessment Tools .......................................................................... 26
4.2.11 The Rules of Evidence ......................................................................................................... 26
4.2.12 Types of Assessment ......................................................................................................... 27
4.2.13 Commonly Used Assessment Methods ...................................................................... 28
4.2.14 Procedures for Designing and Developing Competency Assessment Tools ........................ 28
4.3 Competency Based Curriculum Delivery ............................................................................. 29
4.3.1 The Teaching and Learning Process in CBET Approach ...................................................... 29
4.3.2 Program Delivery using the CBET Approach ....................................................................... 30
4.3.3 Facilitation Methods Used for CBET Programs ................................................................... 31
4.3.4 Training Delivery of Competency Based Curriculum .......................................................... 31
4.3.5 Adult Learning ..................................................................................................................... 32
4.4 Competency Based Assessment (CBA) ................................................................................ 33
4.4.1 Benefits of Competency Based Assessment ....................................................................... 34
4.4.2 The Principles of Competency Based Assessment .............................................................. 34
4.4.3 Assessor checklist................................................................................................................ 35
4.4.4 Assessment Requirements .................................................................................................. 35
4.4.5 Evidence .............................................................................................................................. 36
4.4.6 Implementing the Principles of Assessment ....................................................................... 36
4.4.7 Implementing the Rules of Evidence .................................................................................. 37
4.4.8 Validation of Assessment .................................................................................................... 38
4.4.9 Assessment Guidelines ....................................................................................................... 39
4.4.10 Methods and Processes of Assessment .............................................................................. 40
4.4.11 Formative and Summative Assessment .............................................................................. 40

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4.4.12 Assessment Methods and Instruments .............................................................................. 41
4.4.13 Why assessment?................................................................................................................ 41
4.4.14 Procedures for Competence Assessment ........................................................................... 43
4.4.15 Guide to Assist Assessors to Plan for Assessments ........................................................ 44
4.5 Competence Certification Process ...................................................................................... 45
4.5.1 Summary of the CBET Process ............................................................................................ 45
4.5.2 Competence Certification ................................................................................................... 46
4.5.3 Certification in CBET System ............................................................................................... 46
4.5.4 National Qualifications........................................................................................................ 49
4.5.5 Types of Qualifications ........................................................................................................ 49
4.5.6 Procedure for Certification ................................................................................................. 49
4.5.7 Guidelines for Certification ................................................................................................. 50
4.5.8 Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) .................................................................................... 50
4.5.9 Procedure for Conducting Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) .......................................... 50
4.5.10 Alignment of Existing Qualifications ................................................................................... 51
4.5.11 Procedures for Planning, Organizing and Conducting Competence Based Training.51
4.5.12 Procedures for Planning Assessment Activities and Processes..................................... 56
4.6 Required Employability Skills by All Trainers ...................................................................... 56

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1.1 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
Skills are vital for poverty reduction, economic recovery and sustainable development. As a
consequence, policy attention to technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is
increasing worldwide.

TVET comprises formal, non-formal and informal learning for the world of work. Young
people, women and men learn knowledge and skills from basic to advanced levels across a
wide range of institutional and work settings and in diverse socio-economic contexts. TVET
plays the role of developing more equitable and sustainable societies; developing TVET
should be a top priority in the quest to build inclusive and greener societies and tackle global
unemployment. Across the world, governments and the private sector are realizing the
importance of TVET for sustainable and equitable development. Many new policies have
been introduced aimed at improving the image of TVET and, most importantly, enhancing its

A rethinking of the nature and roles of TVET in contributing to more equitable and
sustainable patterns of human development is now underway. This rethinking marks a shift
in focus from short-term to longer-term development needs, from expansion of systems to
their transformation, and from contributing to economic growth to an added concern for
social equity. The solution to all these is to adapt the Competency Based Education and
Training (CBET) approach to learning in the TVET system.


1.2.1 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Policy
a) VISION-Skilled and employable human resource that is responsive to national needs
and global competitiveness
b) MISSION-To provide inclusive, flexible and equitable TVET responsive to the
requirements of the national economy and global competitiveness
c) GOAL-To develop an effectively coordinated and harmonized TVET system that is
capable of producing quality skilled human resource, with the right attitude and
values as required for growth and prosperity of the various sectors of the economy
by 2030.


This policy promotes the Governments endeavours to operate within the following
a) Access and equity Every Kenyan has a right to access quality and relevant
education and training. The policy shall therefore create an enabling environment,
opportunities and mechanisms to provide opportunities to those seeking to pursue
quality technical training at all levels.
b) Inclusivity and respect for cultural and social diversity - National values shall be
respected and promoted in all TVET institutions and this includes principles and in
particular paying greater attention to trainees with disability, human dignity, equity,
equality and protection of marginalized societies.

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c) Quality and Relevance Emphasis shall be placed on demand driven training. This
principle shall promote technical performance thresholds, professionalism,
knowledge and qualification needed in the various sectors of the economy.
d) National integration- Structures, employment opportunities, occupational
standards and development prospects within TVET shall be made available and
accessible to all Kenyans.
e) Life-long Learning- The training will be designed to operate within a framework of
open-ended and flexible structures in the context of lifelong education and facilitate
the achievement of the MDG on training for all. The principle of continuing training
shall aim for improvement of professional qualifications and updating of knowledge,
skills and understanding.
f) Collaboration and Partnerships TVET sector will aim at creating an enabling
environment for promoting public-private partnerships and for enhancing
investment in technical training
g) Information and communication sharing TVET sector will aim at promoting
integration of information and marketing of training opportunities through ICT-
mediated channels and systems.
h) Integrity and Ethical Practice: TVET sector will aim at providing leadership
structures and organs based on integrity and ethical practices to promote the servant
leadership principles of respect for human rights and fairness for the people.
i) Competitiveness meeting the needs of local and global labour markets
j) Culture of technology transfer and adoption of new and emerging technologies for
use in productive systems leading to employment creation
k) Sustainability of training: Institutions will always strive to optimize the quality of
training outputs and outcomes, delivery and funding while ensuring perpetuation
and prudent utilization of available resources.

TVET policy is based on National Development Agenda and in particular Vision 2030.
a) Focused on; providing skills that meet the needs of the workplace as well as self-
b) hands-on skills are premised on the principle; education and training for the
workplace. TVET will therefore be provided for the purpose of guaranteeing human
and economic development. Thus the outcomes of TVET must be human resources fit
and ready for the job market.
c) TVET is responsible for the construction, maintenance and operation of
infrastructure in all sectors.
d) TVET graduates are responsible for service delivery and production of goods in all
e) It is essential therefore that TVET graduates possess the right attitudes to work, have
the right core values and can be relied upon to deliver at the workplace. Entrenching
soft skills in TVET is of paramount importance. Thus integrity, ethics, professionalism
and accountability must underpin these skills.

1.2.3 Best Practice and Global Trends in TVET

a) A well-defined and articulated policy for TVET
b) Clearly articulated mechanisms for assuring access and equity in TVET
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c) An incentivized environment that makes TVET vibrant with good facilities and well
trained trainers
d) Well organized institutions and Training processes
e) TVET -sector policy aligned to National development goals
f) Strong partnership between industry and TVET institutions
g) Good accessibility of reliable information and knowledge resources for TVET
h) Effective transition system of well-organized and diversified pathways that connect
TVET sector and the world of work; and higher education
i) Sustainable financing mechanisms for TVET

1.2.4 Desired Situation of TVET in Kenya

Efforts will be channelled in order to achieve the overall objective of TVET; to transform
training into a system that effectively provides relevant and adequate skills for industrial
and economic development identified in the Vision 2030. TVET will therefore require a
major transformation as follows:
a) Re-align TVET programmes to National goals and market needs
b) Devolve and decentralize TVET training to counties to provide equal opportunities
for all
c) *Entrench competency-based modular training methods
d) *Develop competence-based assessment and skills verification with the involvement
of institutions and industry
e) Reform governance and management of the TVET Sector and institutions
f) Expand available TVET opportunities for more access- a national TVET System with
clear vertical and horizontal mobility
g) Employ affirmative action to increase equity
h) Assure the quality of delivery of programmes both internally and externally

1.2.5 Best Practice and Global Trends in TVET

There are some notable practices that characterize the current situation in TVET globally
that may qualify as best practice and hence influence the formation of policy for Kenya. These
include policy objectives and direction as follows:
a) The policy objectives will provide a framework for development of TVET which will
achieve two main paradigm shifts;
i) The shift from time-bound, standard curriculum-based training to flexible,
competency-based education and training (CBET), and
ii) The shift from supplyled training to demand-driven enrolment.
b) These shall be achieved by reforming the pedagogical model and methods of learning
while promoting the involvement and participation of industry in both the design, and
delivery and assessment of TVET skills and competencies.
c) The proposed two paradigm shifts will achieve the following five main objectives:

Objective 1 Providing relevant skills for industrial and economic development

Objective 2 a) Introduction of CBET to enable TVET graduates acquire skills,
knowledge and right attitudes to perform jobs to the required standard.

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b) Establishment of TVET centres of specialization that are fully equipped
with state of the art training facilities and well trained staff to offer
training programmes that are of national importance
c) Reforming apprenticeship system to allow TVET graduates to work and
d) Encouraging entrepreneurship in all TVET programmes to promote for
Objective 3 Improving access, equity and employability
Objective 4 Integrating informal economy workers in order to provide them with skills,
innovation and knowledge to improve their enterprise performance
Objective 5 Harmonize education and training Qualifications

1.2.6 The CBET Curriculum

a) The CBET approach was recommended by Sessional Paper No. 14 of 2012
b) CBET is a mode of training where emphasis is placed on the acquisition of
competence in performing skills
c) Competence is the ability to do or work according to set standards.
d) It involves training individuals to be able to perform to the standards required in
e) It is designed to meet the demands of industry and business.
f) It targets individuals from formal and informal sector, including those currently
educated and trained who need to upgrade their competencies.

1.2.7 The Kenya National Qualifications Authority

a) Established by the Kenya National Qualifications Framework Act, 2014
b) Will harmonize all qualifications
c) Will ensure that all Kenyan qualifications are nationally and internationally
d) Within NQF, there shall be TVET qualifications with the levels of Certificates, Diploma,
Higher Diploma and Degree as well as short courses/ modules which can all be
quantified in terms of learning hours.
e) TVET CDACC in collaboration with TVETA will work with KNQFA to develop
descriptors which will enable qualifications to be considered for accreditation.

1.2.8 Important Policy Statements to Remember

a) In accordance with the Constitution of Kenya 2010, the Government will ensure
access and equity in TVET. Specifically, government will pursue policy of attaining
and sustaining a Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of 30% in TVET. These GER will be
pursued at all levels, namely; Nationally, at County and Constituency levels and in
addition it will be the yard stick for equity with respect to gender, persons with
disability, minority and marginalised groups.
b) Expanding Geographical Provision to have at least one Vocational Training Centre
(VTC) at constituency level, at least one Technical College (TC) at county level,
Technical Teachers Training College (TTC), National Polytechnics (NPs) and

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Technical Universities (TUs) with provision for each of these setting up campuses in
underserved locations according to demand.
c) In Kenya, the quality of training differs greatly from institution to institution largely
due to lack of uniform quality assurance measures. Quality must be assured in all
aspects of the new skills development system from design to delivery.
d) Making training delivery flexible through CBET curriculum, incorporating print-
based delivery, variety of electronic technologies and others such as distance
education or eLearning to enhance student and teacher access to learning and skill-
acquisition resources.
e) Establishment of the TVET Curriculum Development Assessment and Certification
Council as a key step in implementation of the CBET Curriculum. The council shall
carry out the following functions;
i) Prepare syllabuses for the training institutions examination, assessment and
competence certification
ii) make rules with respect to such examination/assessment awards and
iii) arrange and coordinate competence assessment and verification and issue
certificates to candidates who satisfy competence assessment requirements
iv) Promote recognition of its competence assessment awards in foreign
v) Promote and carry out research relating to its examinations/assessments and


CBET is an approach to Vocational Education and Training (VET), in which skills, knowledge
and attitudes are specified in order to define, steer and help to achieve competence
standards, mostly within a kind of national qualifications framework. Competency can be
understood as the specification of knowledge and skill and the application of that knowledge
and skill to the standard of performance expected in the workplace.

Consequently, CBET itself may be described as training which is performance- and

standards-based and related to realistic workplace practices. It is focused on what learners
can do rather than on the courses they have done

This definition places the focus of CBET on outcomes measured against industry standards
rather than on courses based on institutional arrangements (classes in schools, e.g., or
apprenticeships) where individual achievements are normally valued against others.
Outcome orientation places emphasis on new forms of assessment.

Recognition or Accreditation of Prior Learning (RPL/APL), mainly through work

experience, is another essential tool to ensure the relevance and transferability of skills and
knowledge as well as to lead people back into learning.

Competency-based curricula consist of workplace-oriented and performance-based

modules or units of competence that can be accumulated to a vocational qualification.
Delivery of CBET can be designed individually by learners, teachers and trainers, which allow
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a self-paced mode independent from courses. However, a modular and self-paced approach
to curricula and delivery is not necessary, although it is very compatible with CBET.

The definition of CBET, therefore, summarizes its characteristics as follows:

A way of approaching (vocational) training that places primary emphasis on what a person
can do as a result of training (the outcome), and as such represents a shift away from an
emphasis on the process involved in training (the inputs). It is concerned with training to
industry specific standards rather than an individuals achievement relative to others in the

2.1 Historical background of CBET

Competency-based Education and Training (CBET) can be traced back to the education of
primary and vocational teachers in the USA in the 1970s. Poor learning in vocational
education programs was the reason for applying new principles to teacher education.
Teaching should be based on the role requirements and standards of the behaviour of
effective teachers. The National Center for Research in Vocational Education at Ohio State
University started research on performance-based vocational teacher education in 1969.
Over a period of ten years 100 performance-based modules for vocational education were
developed, which were supplemented by modules for adult and special education. In 1977,
some 23 states had implemented performance-based vocational teacher education and in
the late 1980s the concept shaped many programs of vocational education and training
Despite scepticism from the very beginning, CBET gradually entered the context of VET in
the UK, Australia and New Zealand. Several other countries are currently copying the concept
of CBET by re-inventing or reforming their VET systems. Many hopes lie on CBET
respectively because it is an outcome-based approach and is seen as a major driver,
incentive and motivator of learning where the role of individuals is rated higher than that
of teachers, government or other stakeholders. Therefore, CBET has both a didactical
dimension (competences and qualifications) and a political and social dimension (pathways
and opportunities for learning).

Consequently, CBET itself may be described as training which is performance- and

standards based and related to realistic workplace practices; It is focused on what learners
can do rather than on the courses they have done.

This definition places the focus of CBET on outcomes measured against industry standards
rather than on courses based on institutional arrangements (classes in schools, e.g., or
apprenticeships) where individual achievements are normally valued against others.
Outcome orientation places emphasis on new forms of assessment. Recognition or
Accreditation of Prior Learning (RPL/APL), mainly through work experience, is another
essential tool to ensure the relevance and transferability of skills and knowledge as well as
to lead people back into learning.

Competency-based curricula consist of workplace oriented and performance-based modules

or units of competence that can be accumulated to a vocational qualification. Delivery of
CBET can be designed individually by learners, teachers and trainers, which allow a self-
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paced mode independent from courses. However, a modular and self-paced approach to
curricula and delivery is not necessary, although it is very compatible with CBET.

A definition of CBET stated by the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry in 1992
summarizes its characteristics as follows: A way of approaching (vocational) training that
places primary emphasis on what a person can do as a result of training (the outcome), and
as such represents a shift away from an emphasis on the process involved in training (the
inputs). It is concerned with training to industry specific standards rather than an
individuals achievement relative to others in the group

2.2 Concept and Understanding of Competency Based Training (CBT) in TVET

The success of TVET in any developing country can be considered a key indicator of the
countrys advancement in development. Any country that evolved into a technological
advanced one, TVET must have played an active and vital role as skilled manpower would
have been required, also to enable its sustainability.

Competency based training (CBT) places emphasis on what a person can do in the workplace
as a result of completing a program of training. The emphasis in CBT is on "performing"
rather than just "knowing". A competency-based training system includes more than just
training courses related to job performance. It identifies the level of competence required
for different levels of performance within a given work function. Progress within a CBT
program is not based on time. An important characteristic of CBT is that it is focused not only
on the actual jobs that are required in the workplace, but also the ability to transfer and apply
skills, knowledge and attitudes to new situations and environments.

2.3 Objectives of CBET

CBET aims at preparing learners more effectively for real workplaces, which means that the
acquisition of competences takes into account the requirements of companies and industry.
Furthermore, CBET should enable employees not only to increase their knowledge and skills
at the workplace but also to gain nationally accredited certificates for workplace-based
learning. The self-paced and flexible structure of CBET programs should encourage learners
to become responsible for their individual learning process. The modular structure allows
for individual combinations of competences limited only by certain packaging rules which
refer to accredited national vocational qualifications.

The objectives of nationally endorsed competence standards as the core of CBET are on the
one hand to transform the requirements of industry and enterprises into the world of
learning. On the other hand, standards shall provide transparency of competences
underlying vocational qualifications.

Thus, for a successful implementation of CBET it is important to understand that CBET is a

new approach and different to traditional course-based teaching and training. Furthermore
it is important for teachers and trainers to be well informed about the concept and prepared
for its realization. Assessment plays a major role in the new concept and the requirements
for appropriate assessment procedures must be made clear to assessors as well as teachers
and trainers.
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2.4 Benefits of CBET
a) Learners will achieve competencies required in the performance of their jobs,
b) Learners build confidence as they succeed in mastering specific competencies,
c) Learners receive a transcript or list of the competencies they have achieved,
d) Training time is used more efficiently and effectively as the trainer is a facilitator of
learning as opposed to a provider of information,
e) More training time is devoted to working with learners individually or in small groups as
opposed to presenting lectures, and
f) More training time is devoted to evaluating each learners ability to perform essential job

2.5 Planning and Developing CBET

The design of CBET programs requires careful planning and continuous monitoring of
development steps. The first step is to define competency standards by translating work-
based requirements into nationally endorsed industry standards. This requires experts in
relevant occupational fields who are able to depict essential work activities, tasks and
functions with respect to a specific competency profile. The methods applied can either be
DACUM or functional analysis. Furthermore, the forms of delivery and assessment need to
be specified in accordance with the respective training provider. Thus, the learning
environment of workplaces or training providers must be defined and resources and
learning materials obtained.

Information on assessment requirements and procedures must be distributed to learners

and trainers by registered assessors. The organization and management of CBET programs
has to be efficient to assure the quality of outcomes and learning processes.

2.6 Competency Based Training (CBT)

It is training designed around a person or persons competency. Competency is the
knowledge, skills and attitude to complete specific tasks. This can be derived from previous
training, work and/or life experience. It can, and will create relevance and consistency in
your training programs and it can build strong Quality relationships, and generate teamwork
within the workplace.

Competency based training is focused on outcomes, which is the general difference from
traditional training. Traditional training focuses on teaching someone a new skill or set of
skills, with no relevance on what the students already know, or how they best learn. Focusing
on the outcome can improve overall morale within the organization, and increase
productivity and efficiency. It lets the organization know that the management team places
value on what skills their employees already have.

Competency based training has been around for many years and is used in many industries,
such as business, and government positions. It allows the learner to demonstrate their
abilities, and to expand on those abilities in a positive environment. It allows the company
to facilitate an organizational change by improving the individuals performance, and their
ability to consistently perform their required tasks. This can change the whole dynamic of
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an organization, how it works, and streamlining the productivity of the employees.
Employees gain confidence as they achieve mastery of their skills, and become more efficient
in their use of time; Confidence = Productivity. Thus the organization learns its employees
skills, tasks, and knowledge, and uses this information to begin to fill in the gaps, based on
its desired outcome.

The following table summarizes the differences between the two cultures:
Competency-based training Occupation-based training
National qualifications Recognized training occupations
National qualification standards or Training ordinances and syllabuses
training packages
Profiles can be shaped by individuals Individuals have to complete whole course
and can only go for standardized profiles
Importance of outcomes Importance of inputs (institutions,
Modular structure Holistic structure
Certification of individual modules Certification of whole occupation
Wide range of accreditation of prior Few regulations of accreditation of prior
learning or informal learning (formal) learning or occupational

2.7 Structure of Competency Based Training

There are five essential elements of a CBT system:
a) Competencies to be achieved are carefully identified, verified and made public in
b) Criteria to be used in assessing achievement and the conditions under which
achievement will be assessed are explicitly stated and made public in advance,
c) The instructional program provides for the individual development and evaluation of
each of the competencies specified,
d) Assessment of competency takes the learners knowledge and attitudes into account but
requires actual performance of the competency as the primary source of evidence, and
e) Learners progress through the instructional program at their own rate by demonstrating
the attainment of the specified competencies.

2.8 Objective of a Competency Based Qualification

The objectives are as follows:
a) Set clear standards which can be measured,
b) Develop competent individuals with transferable skills,
c) Link education and training to skills needed by employers,
d) Provide an objective quality assured system which will have the confidence of all users,
i.e. learners, educational establishments and employers,
e) Develop individuals potential fully, and
f) Promote the concept of lifelong learning.

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There are different CBT models with different countries that use CBT mode of training. The
differences are mainly in terminologies, processes for the development of programs and in
assessment methods. However, the characteristics, structure and objectives of CBT are the
same for all models. Therefore, care should be taken when adopting any CBET model, taking
into consideration the stage of development, the size of the target industry, funds available
for TVET implementation and the TVET Institutions-Industry linkages.

2.9 Workplace Experience Learning

One critical component of the CBT program is internship or attachment which is referred to
as Workplace Experience Learning. The purpose of the workplace experience is to provide
opportunities for the CBT learner to develop planning, organizational, interpersonal and
problem solving skills, self-awareness and technical competencies through workplace
experience in real work role situations with a limited degree of facilitator support.

The CBT Workplace Experience Learning is structured differently from the traditional
industrial attachment thereby giving all the CBT students an opportunity to undergo this
exercise which gives them practical experiences relevant to the skills they have learnt. The
students are not only placed in organizations relevant to their workplace skills but they also
undergo supervised practical training. Hence the CBT workplace experience is a far better
way of training competent graduates than the traditional education industrial attachment.
This is because, the CBT workplace experience is better structured and in view of that the
CBT students have a better attitude towards work and they know what to expect in real work

2.10 Why Competency-based Training is better than other Conventional Methods

Competency-based training is the preferred method for skills development in the workplace.
Competency-based training differs from traditional training and it is a better approach and
surpasses more conventional methods because of the following five main reasons:
a) Competency-based training targets skill gaps: Traditional training is often generic,
rather than targeted toward specific skill development. Many traditional training
programs have vague learning objectives. This results in training that fails to improve job
b) Competency-based training is performance-based: This means that it focuses on
performance of skills, rather than just the acquisition of knowledge. Many traditional
training programs provide huge amounts of information but fail to offer the skill practice
needed to change performance.
c) Competency-based training requires that learners take responsibility for their own
learning: Learners are partners in assessing their skill gaps and in selecting the best ways
for them to bridge those gaps. Traditional training is often planned by the instructor with
little or no input from the learner. When learners are engaged in their own learning, they
are more likely to improve their skills.
d) Competency-based training builds the training capacity of the organization, by
providing skill-based training programs customized for the job and workplace trainers
who act as mentors and coaches. In traditional training, the role of the instructor is
typically restricted to that of an expert within a classroom setting. With competency-

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based training, the workplace trainers coaching and mentoring role continues on an
ongoing basis within the workplace.
e) Competency-based training is customized to meet the specific requirements of your
organization and its employees. Rarely will generic, off-the-shelf training programs
meet the skill development needs of your organization. As a result, off-the-shelf programs
often yield disappointing results. Implementing customized, competency-based training
programs is the best way to ensure a positive return on investment on training

3.1 The Meaning and Importance of Curriculum Development
A curriculum is considered the heart of any learning institution which means that schools
and other learning institutions (TVET institutions, Universities, etc.,) cannot exist without a
curriculum. With its importance in formal education, curriculum has become a dynamic
process due to the changes that occur in our society. Therefore, in its broadest sense,
curriculum refers to the total learning experiences of individuals not only in school, but in
society as well.

3.2 Curriculum Development

Curriculum development is defined as planned, purposeful, progressive, and systematic
process in order to create positive improvements in the educational system. Every time there
are changes or developments happening around the world, the school curricula are affected.
There is a need to update them in order to address the societys needs.

3.3 Importance of Curriculum Development

Curriculum development has a broad scope because it is not only about the school, the
learners and the teachers. It is also about the development of a society in general. In todays
knowledge economy, curriculum development plays a vital role in improving the economy
of a country. It also provides answers or solutions to the worlds pressing conditions and
problems, such as environment, politics, socio-economics, and other issues on poverty,
climate change and sustainable development.

There must be a chain of developmental process to develop a society. First, the school
curriculum particularly in higher education must be developed to preserve the countrys
national identity and to ensure its economys growth and stability. The countrys economy
can improve the peoples way of life through curriculum development; and in order to
develop it, curriculum experts or specialists should work hand in hand with the lawmakers,
the local government officials, such as governors, mayors, and others; the business
communities and industries; and stakeholders to set implementing rules and policies for
educational reforms.

3.4 Phases of Curriculum Development

A curriculum is a sequence of content units arranged in such a way that the learning of such
a unit may be accomplished as a single act, provided the capabilities described by specified
prior units in the sequence have already been mastered.

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There are five main phases of curriculum development:
a) Preparation phase this phase includes the following:
i) Prerequisites to the training
ii) Training needs
iii) Job descriptions
iv) Occupational profile
v) Task analysis
vi) Educational and training objectives

b) Development phase - this phase includes the following:

i) Listing of unit titles
ii) Identification of Learning Outcomes
iii) Development of leaning materials
iv) Development of learning strategies
v) Development of practical exercises
vi) Listing of related knowledge
vii) Listing of tools and equipment

c) Implementation phase - this phase includes the following:

i) Organization of teaching and learning environment
ii) Selection of instructional strategies
iii) Analysis of student performance with respect to set objectives and competency
iv) Identification of deficiencies on the curriculum
v) Recommendation of changes

d) Evaluation phase this phase includes the following:

i) Comparison of trainee performance to competency standards
ii) Conduct internal evaluation of program by trainees
iii) Obtain views from trainers/instructors
iv) Obtain confidential reviews from experts and employers
v) Collate inputs and synthesize them

e) Curriculum Revision/Review phase this is the last phase of curriculum development

which leads to Curriculum Revision or Review. Every curriculum has a shelve life and it is
necessary to review curriculum in order to realign it to the changing demands and
development (i.e., Omission of key information, Changes in technology, Changes in approach
of the content, etc.,). The Curriculum review should be an organized process in order to yield
the intended result. It is important to have a committee consist of Teachers/trainers that
have taught the unit/module, other teachers in the same occupational area, Occupational job
experts, Curriculum Development experts, industry representatives and other stakeholders.
The review process should look at:
i) duration of the units,
ii) aim of the units,
iii) Unit content
iv) learning Outcomes, and
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v) Outcome assessment criteria.


Competency-Based Curriculum is purely and simply a teaching and learning strategy. A
teaching and learning strategy is in turn conceived as being a series of goal-oriented
activities of procedures to be carried out by trainers/teachers/instructors with respect to
trainees and in the context of a syllabus or a body of subject matter.

4.1 Conceptual Framework for Competency-Based Curriculum

Competency-based education and training approach is a major shift in apportioning
responsibility for the design and implementation of teaching and learning in the classroom.
Whereas the traditional curriculum is a completely centralized function, the new curriculum
divides the responsibility for development and implementation between the Government
(through established Government entities e.g., TVET CDACC and TVETA) and training
institutions. The Government formulates policies, Government entities develop and
implement educational and training standards, and the institutions are responsible for
translating the standards into a meaningful syllabus and instruction at the classroom level.
The purpose is to provide the opportunity for nationally developed standards to be adapted
to local community needs. This approach reflects current educational and training practices
of the industrialized countries and if implemented properly, will improve dramatically
Kenyas educational and training system.

CBET coupled with decentralization provide the twin forces designed to improve and assure
the quality of education and training in Kenya. However, in the past attempts at reform,
insufficient resources have been available to rollout the reform to all parts of the country.
Although well publicized, past reform efforts have been less effective because they lacked
appropriate planning and resources allocation as well as lack of understanding about how
the new reform should work. Consequently, appropriate structures and processes were not
established to support reform. If not handled properly, CBET may result in a similar
diminution in effectiveness.

Competency (knowledge, skills and attitudes) may be defined as the ability to do a particular
activity to a prescribed standard emphasizing what people can do rather than what they
know. As a model for curriculum design and delivery, the approach is typically one, which
controls and assesses learning through establishing preset objectives and outcomes, which
might relate to skills, attitudes or values. The following diagram provides a model for the
development of a competency-based approach to curriculum and instruction.

Model for Competency-Based Education and Training

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The technique for constructing a competency-based program involves backwards planning
and asks the question, what do students need to learn to become successful citizen. The
question is answered by convening meetings of stakeholders from the fields of business,
industry, and politics, social, cultural and environmental sectors to define the criteria for
success. These become external standards for success. Educators/trainers then take this
information and convert it to learning outcomes or specific statements of behavior that
students must perform that demonstrate learning which becomes the educational
standards as well as defining when these standards should be mastered.

With CBET performance standards are created; standards indicate the level of performance
acceptable, and with standards of performance, it is possible to create a curriculum and the
means to assess student performance related to the curriculum. Curriculum is defined as the
planned subject matter content and skills to be presented to students.

The standards also provide a framework for creating assessments. Assessment is much
broader than testing. Whereas multiple choice tests, true/false, matching and other types of test
items may be useful in measuring lower order learning, knowledge and some skills, other types
of assessments such as report writing, presentations, debates, group problem solving are useful
in determining higher order learning which demonstrates that students know when and how to
use knowledge and skills in critical and creative ways to solve problems. What is key here is that
assessments are aligned with the curriculum which, in turn, is aligned to the standards, and
that they measure learning in terms of how students perform using, as much as possible, a real
world situation as possible.

To ensure that curriculum and assessment are implemented properly, educators must
consider developing appropriate instructional materials to support learning activities
including textbooks, workbooks, charts, three-dimensional models, simulations, and many
other items. In addition, teachers/trainers will need to be trained in how to use the new
materials since the methodology of competency-based curriculum requires shifting from
teacher-centered to student-centered approaches (this is the retraining of trainers and
hence professional development).

4.2 Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC) Development Process

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A Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC) Development process is longer than the traditional
curriculum development process. The processes followed in developing a competency-based
curriculum (CBC) up to graduation of students/trainees are as follows:
a) Training Needs Assessment (TNA)
b) The Development of Occupational Standards (OS)
c) The Development of the Curriculum
d) The Development of Assessment Tools
e) The Delivery of the Curriculum (teaching and training)
f) Competency-Based Assessment (CBA)
g) Competency Certification


a) Introduction
i) Training is a performance improvement tool which is needed when employees do
not perform up to a certain standard or at an expected level of performance.
ii) The difference between the actual level of job performance and the expected level
of job performance indicates a need for training.
iii) The identification of a gap between actual and expected performance is the first
step in curriculum development.

b) Definition of Training Needs Assessment (TNA)

i) This is an assessment process that serves as a diagnostic tool for determining what
training should take place.
ii) It is a survey that gathers data to determine what training should be developed to
help individuals and organization accomplish their goals and objectives.
iii) It is an assessment that looks into workers current competencies for the purpose
of identifying any gaps that should be addressed through training.
iv) It further considers future employment trends and identifies any future
competency gaps that may emerge and addresses them through training.

c) Importance of TNA in Curriculum Development

i) A successful training needs assessment should identify those who need training
and what kind of training is needed.
ii) TNA enables one to:
o Identify performance goals and the competencies needed by the workforce
to achieve those goals, and
o Identify gaps in training in existing training programs
o Helps direct training resources to areas of greatest priority.

d) Role of TNA in Curriculum Development

TNA is carried out by the Curriculum Development Initiator; Carrying out a TNA is the first
step in the process of Curriculum Development. TNA helps in:
i) Identifying the gap between current and required levels of knowledge, skills and
attitude (competency) in the workplace (function).
ii) Identify in general terms, what the content of training should be (broad picture).
iii) The specific content will be identified by the Occupational Standards.
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iv) Forms the foundation of a training plan.
v) Provides a baseline for the evaluation of a training plan.
vi) Ensures that appropriate and relevant training is delivered.

4.2.2 National Occupational Standards

Occupational standards are precise descriptions of what an individual is expected to be
able to do in his/her work role. They are defined in terms of ideal benchmarks against which
competence is assessed and certification granted.
National Occupational Standards (NOS) specify the standard of performance an individual
must achieve when carrying out a function in the workplace, together with the knowledge
and understanding they need to meet that standard consistently. Essentially NOS are
benchmarks of good practice. Each NOS defines one key function in a job role. Each NOS must
be a concise and readable document, usually consisting of no more than five or six pages
(some are only one or two). In their essential form, NOS describe functions, standards of
performance and knowledge/understanding.
NOS are occupational because they define all the key functions someone should be able to
carry out in an occupation for example, farming, management, policing, or production
engineering. Because they describe occupational functions, we design NOS by analyzing an
area of work, mainly using the input of employers and others who have a close interest in
the occupation practitioners, professional bodies, trade associations and trade unions,
where relevant. NOS are standards because they describe not just the essential things that
people in an occupation must be able to do, but also cover the outcomes they must achieve.
NOS are also standards because they represent a consensus view amongst a variety of
employers that they describe best practice.

National occupational standards must:

a) Identify the main roles and responsibilities within a defined occupational area.
b) Take the form of units based on the occupational roles and responsibilities identified.
There are a number of different categories of units: these are mandatory, optional,
additional, and common units:
i) Mandatory units - Mandatory units are those which are considered essential
for all candidates to achieve if they are to perform effectively in an occupation.
ii) Optional units - Optional units can be used to provide flexibility and breadth
to the occupational competence and can be developed to form clusters.
iii) Additional units - Additional units can be developed to reflect particular
specialisms in an occupation or for reasons of career or professional
iv) Common units - Common units are national occupational standards which
describe competences found in two or more occupational areas.
c) Show the outcomes of competent performance including the essential knowledge and
understanding required.
d) Show the standard of occupational competence to be reached for the stated outcomes.
In this context competence means the ability to apply knowledge, understanding,
practical and thinking skills to achieve effective performance, to the standards
required in employment. This includes solving problems and being sufficiently
flexible to meet changing demands.
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e) include relevant technical, planning and problem solving skills, the ability to work
with others, the ability to apply knowledge and understanding and other skills which
will enhance flexibility in employment and promotional opportunities; ensure that
the competence is broad enough to give flexibility in employment and be capable of
adaptation to meet new and emerging occupational patterns.
f) Include any statutory or legal obligations.
g) Include any health and safety requirement.
h) Include any relevant environmental aspects which are critical to competence.
i) include any relevant occupational characteristics which are ethical, creative or value
j) Be written in plain language and in a format which is easily understood by those who
will use the standards.
k) Be free from any overt or covert discrimination against an individual either in the
wording or content.
l) provide a satisfactory basis for assessment
m) Meet the needs and have the support of all significant groups of employers and
potential users.
n) Reflect best employment practice, benchmarked against international standards
where appropriate.

The development of National Occupational Standards and learning tools are industry-driven
initiatives. Occupational standards are developed in cooperation with employers with the
sole purpose to identify and describe working activities in the occupation and the necessary
knowledge, abilities and skills for giving a response to the employers demands.

4.2.3 The Process of Developing the National Occupational Standards

DACUM, which, is an acronym for Developing A Curriculum is used for the job, and/or
occupational analysis that is widely used in the development of Occupational Standards
(OS). The DACUM analysis workshop involves a trained DACUM facilitator and a committee
of 5-12 expert workers from the position, occupation, or other area of analysis. The profile
chart that results from the usual two-day workshop is a detailed and graphic portrayal of the
duties and tasks performed by the workers involved.
a) Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) is a process that incorporates the use of a focus
group in a facilitated process to capture the major duties and related tasks included
in an occupation, as well as, the necessary knowledge, skills, and
b) The final result is an occupational profile presented in a chart format, which describes
a job in terms of specific duties and tasks that competent workers must perform.
c) This is followed by a validation of the occupational profile and the task analysis
d) The validated occupational profile and analyzed tasks can then be used to develop a

4.2.4 DACUM Process

Step One: Training needs assessment
This is done to identify skill gaps/needs and opportunities in the market.

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Step two: Initial Occupational Profile
a) In the DACUM process, high-performing expert workers analyze their own job. These
skilled workers identify the duties and tasks that make up their job. Under the
direction of a neutral facilitator, the panel analyzes their job-related tasks while using
a modified brainstorming process.
b) The final result is an occupational standard presented in a chart format, which
describes a job in terms of specific duties and tasks that competent workers must
perform. During the process, tasks are also sequenced and ranked based on:
i) Criticality: Essential and/or most important components of a job
ii) Most time consuming: Tasks that consume the majority of the workers time
iii) New worker training needs: Tasks that should be included in introductory
training programs
iv) Veteran worker training needs: Tasks that should be included in veteran
training programs

Steps Three: Validation Process

a) The occupational standards is validated and vetted through various methods.
b) A peer-review process is utilized in a validation workshop to review the initial
c) Once peer reviewed, the profile can then be analyzed through a management review,
allowing the management team to synthesize what the workers said, with what they
expect and believe the job should encompass.

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4.2.5 Standard Task Analysis Form
Duty: _______________ Date: __________________ Recorder: ____________________Task: _______________ Content experts: __________
Steps Performance Tools, Related Safety Worker Decisions CUES Errors
(required to Standards(Obse Equipment, knowledge and concerns behaviors (Identify the (Identify the (indicate
perform the rvable and Materials skills (math, (attitudes decisions the data needed) what will
task) Measurable and science, important to worker must happen)
criteria) Supplies language, worker make)
needed technology) success)
List all the How well must What tools What technical What What What What guides What will
steps each step of this are unique knowledge is safety attitudes or decisions for the happen
necessary in task be to the required to precaution worker traits must a decisions for when the
performing performed? performance perform s need to are worker each step of wrong
this task Do the steps of each step individual steps be important to make while the task (i.e., decision is
What do you have be of this task? or the task as a observed performing performing what cues or made?
do first to get performed in a What whole? when each step of individual information What errors
started? given sequence? equipment, What skills are performin this task steps or the is available)? (safety,
What do you If so, what is the materials needed? g each step successfully? task as a How do you quality) are
do next? prescribed and supplies What specific of this Does the whole? know when possible in
What else do sequence? are needed? science-related task? worker have What to begin and performing
you do? What degree of What tools principles, rules What to interact decisions end a task? this task?
Do you have a tolerance is are or concepts hazards or with others? will result in Does Can
choice of how acceptable? necessary in apply? accidents Co-workers? success paperwork equipment
to conduct the What qualities the training What specific might be Customers? versus signal the be damaged
task? (If there must the final situation in mathematical encounter failure, in a need to or
is more than product order for the concepts, skills ed while satisfied start/end a customers
one acceptable possess? trainee to or functions performin versus a task? If so, lost? Can the
sequence, list How does the learn the apply? g this task? dissatisfied what is the cost of
all) customer/super task? What Are there any customer or signal? service be
How do you visor judge the equipment, terms, codes, employer? Does an increased
know when quality of the materials organizational Does the instrument because of
you have performance? and supplies or functional worker signal the inefficient
finished the What are the are relationships decide when need to methods or
task? acceptable necessary? that need to be the service start/end a material
performance known to or product task? If so, wastage?
time limits? perform the meets what is the
task? quality signal?

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4.2.6 Curriculum Development in CBET
Once the occupation standards have been validated, a task analysis can be conducted to further
define the job. The validated OS can then be used to develop a competency based curriculum. The
curriculum design shall broadly define the nature and scope of the TVET curriculum. The
curriculum design shall state the Level of program, Duration of the program shall be as determined
by KNQA, Program pattern- regular, part-time, on job, Credits equivalency, Entry behaviour
(Occupational or Academic competence), Mode of delivery, Evaluation and assessment of
competence, Certification, and Minimum training equipment and materials and their

The draft competency based curriculum is then evaluated by the Council and the relevant Sector
Skills Advisory Committee (SSAC). The draft competency based curriculum is subjected to a
stakeholders workshop for validation before it is either approved for implementation, or revised
before implementation, or rejected altogether.

A Competency based Curriculum is dynamic and should be under constant review. The curriculum
shall therefore be subjected to review at least once in every five years or as may be required by
legislation or other statutory provisions or industry (depending on industry needs).

4.2.7 Procedures for Developing Training Curriculum

These procedures are required to develop, modify/customize training curriculum; they include those
required for establishing training requirements, identifying the learner, developing, and modifying,
customizing and finalizing training curriculum.
1. Establish 1.1 Stakeholders are identified and consulted to establish training aims
training need and requirements
requirements 1.2 Training requirements are identified using appropriate methods and
1.3 Training Regulations or other relevant specifications on which to base
the learning program are identified, accessed and confirmed
1.4 Potential employment markets and career opportunities for training
participants are recorded and documented
2. Identify the 2.1 Potential learners are identified
learner profile 2.2 Profiles of learners on entry to the course are developed
2.3 Language and literacy requirements of the learner are determined
according to profiles
3. Develop course 3.1 Competency standard is analyzed
design 3.2 Units of competency and modules are clearly identified
3.3 The relationship between units of competence/modules and outcomes
is documented
3.4 Course entry and exit points are linked to occupational and educational
3.5 Prerequisites for the course and for specific units/modules within the
course are identified and documented
3.6 The delivery strategies and assessment methods are determined
3.7 Trainers qualification to implement the course is specified

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4. Develop 4.1 Competency standards/other relevant specifications are analyzed and
training interpreted to determine specific learning objectives/outcomes/goals
curriculum 4.2 Competencies to be acquired by the leaner are clearly specified
units/modules 4.3 Modules of instructions are developed/ modified according to needs
and procedures.
4.4 Learning outcomes and assessment criteria are established according
to procedures
4.5 Resources required to support the training curriculum are identified.
4.6 Training curriculum is designed based on the requirements of the
competency standards
5. Finalize 5.1 Training curriculum is validated with other persons
training 5.2 Finalized curriculum document is submitted to appropriate personnel

After the curriculum has been developed training materials and assessment tools are next
developed to support the curriculum.

4.2.8 Procedures for Developing Learning Materials

These procedures are required to develop training materials including print, mock-up/simulator and
models; they include those required for research and interpret the learning material requirements,
design the learning material and plan the content, develop the learning material content, review
learning material prior to implementation, evaluate the design and development process of
instructional materials.
Element Performance Criteria
1. Analyze the 1.1 The brief, focus and type of learning materials is clarified with the
learning client
materials 1.2 The likely target audience/s, their learning needs and the
requirements learning environment for the resource are researched
1.3 Characteristics of the learners/end users of the learning resource
are identified
1.4 Existing information which may be relevant is gathered, collated and
1.5 Ethical and legal considerations are identified and acted upon
1.6 A development work plan is written and documented
1.7 Broad time frames, possible costs and logistics of the learning
materials are considered
2. Design the 2.1 A range of design options is generated using a variety of principles
learning and techniques
materials 2.2 Design concepts are established, taking into consideration process,
material, quantity, cost and outcome requirement
2.3 Time is taken to reflect on the designs, identifying the implications of
2.4 The diversity of learners/end users and their learning styles are
researched and embedded into the design specifications
2.5 An outline or prototype for the learning resource is developed and
confirmed with the client
2.6 Relevant personnel are identified to support the development phase,
if needed
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Element Performance Criteria
3. Develop the 3.1 Content and content specification is developed in accordance with the
content of the agreed design
learning 3.2 The learning materials content is broken into manageable
materials chunks/segments of learning and sequenced according to learning
principles and techniques
3.3 Existing learning materials are accessed and modified /customized to
suit the learning purposes and audience
3.4 New, relevant and engaging learning activities and related learning
materials are developed and documented, based on application of
learning principles
3.5 Text is clear, concise, grammatically correct and appropriate for the
intended audience/s
3.6 The resource is formatted using an appropriate style guide
3.7 Visuals are relevant, instructive and appropriate for the intended
3.8 Mechanisms for reviewing work in progress are established
3.9 Modifications are made to the design and/or content, to address
changes in project parameters
3.10 Prototype systems and components are developed in accordance with
the agreed design
3.11 Mock-up /simulators plan and specification is developed and
confirmed with the client
3.12 Relevant personnel are identified to support the development phase,
if needed
3.13 Manual for prototype, model/simulator is developed
4. Review/test 4.1 Content of the developed materials is checked against content
learning specifications
materials 4.2 Text, format and visual design are checked for clarity and focus
4.3 Relevant personnel are identified and support is sought for the review
and validation
4.4 An external review is conducted using appropriate methods, and
feedback is incorporated
4.5 Final draft is reviewed against the brief and other relevant criteria
prior to delivery to the client
5. Evaluate the 5.1 The design and development process is reviewed against appropriate
design and evaluation criteria
development 5.2 Time is taken to reflect and identify areas for improvement
process 5.3 Identified improvements are documented for future projects

4.2.9 Development of Competency Based Assessment Tools

Assessment tools, also called evidence-gathering tools, contain both the instrument and the
instructions for gathering and interpreting evidence in an assessment process. They are materials
that enable a trainer or assessor to collect evidence using his/her chosen assessment method.
Assessment tools are the instruments and procedures used to gather and interpret evidence of
a) The instrument is the activity or specific questions used to assess competence by the
assessment method selected. An assessment instrument may be supported by a profile of

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acceptable performance and the decision-making rules or guidelines to be used by
b) Procedures are the information or instructions given to the candidate and the assessor
about how the assessment is to be conducted and recorded.

4.2.10 The Principles of Using Assessment Tools

When developing assessment tools, you need to ensure that the principles of assessment are met.
The assessment principles require that assessment is valid, reliable, flexible and fair.
a) Validity refers to the extent to which the interpretation and use of an assessment outcome
can be supported by evidence. An assessment is valid if the assessment methods and
materials reflect the elements, performance criteria and critical aspects of evidence in the
evidence guide of the unit(s) of competency, and if the assessment outcome is fully
supported by the evidence gathered.
b) Reliability refers to the degree of consistency and accuracy of the assessment outcomes.
That is, the extent to which the assessment will provide similar outcomes for candidates
with equal competence at different times or places, regardless of the assessor conducting
the assessment.
c) Flexibility refers to the opportunity for a candidate to negotiate certain aspects of their
assessment (for example, timing) with their assessor. All candidates should be fully
informed (for example, through an Assessment Plan) of the purpose of assessment, the
assessment criteria, methods and tools used, and the context and timing of the assessment.
d) Fair assessment does not disadvantage particular candidates or groups of candidates. This
may mean that assessment methods are adjusted for particular candidates (such as people
with disabilities or cultural differences) to ensure that the method does not disadvantage
them because of their situation. An assessment should not place unnecessary demands on
candidates that may prevent a candidate from demonstrating competence (for example, an
assessment should not demand a higher level of English language or literacy than that
which is required to perform to the workplace standard outlined in the competencies being

4.2.11 The Rules of Evidence

Well-designed assessment tools will help to ensure that the evidence collected is:
i) Valid: there is a clear relationship between the evidence requirements of the unit of
competency and the evidence on which the assessment judgment is made
ii) Sufficient: the performance criteria and evidence guide are addressed; competency
over a period of time is demonstrated; all dimensions of competency are addressed;
competency in different contexts is demonstrated
iii) Current: the evidence demonstrates the candidates current knowledge and skills
iv) Authentic: it can be verified that the evidence is the candidates own work.
Assessment strategies and tools need to be developed in consultation with industry
and should be tested on an appropriate sample of candidates.

a) Four steps to quality assessment tools

The quality of an assessment tool will depend heavily on the time and effort that goes into the
research and development phases of its construction, and the ongoing testing and refining of
prototypes. There are four simple steps in the design process:
a) Step One Familiarize yourself with the mandatory requirements of the assessment

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b) Step Two Use your understanding of the specified competencies to choose appropriate
assessment method/s.
c) Step Three Get down to business and devise the assessment tool/s.
d) Step Four Trial and refine your tools, to help you maximize confidence that the tool/s can
be used flexibly and assist you to make valid, reliable and fair judgments.

In summary, the following four-step process will assist you to design assessment tools that
produce quality outcomes:
i) Plan:
o Step one clarify the evidence requirement
o Step two Choose the most appropriate assessment methods
ii) Act: Step Three - Design and develop the assessment tools
iii) Reflect: Step Four - Trial and refine the tools

b) Fit for purpose

Your assessment tool gives shape and form to your chosen assessment method. It must, therefore,
be fit for purpose, which means you need to ask yourself which tool is needed to most effectively
and efficiently support your chosen assessment method. Particular attention should be paid to the
language, literacy and numeracy skill level of the candidates and the requirements of the units of
competency when designing your tools. It is a requirement of any qualification framework that:
a) assessment materials are consistent with the requirements of the Training Program and
the training providers training and assessment strategy
b) candidates have timely access to current and accurate records of their participation and
a) Employers (and others), where relevant, are engaged in the development, delivery and
monitoring of training and assessment.

Standardized tools are often a useful option, as they provide a cost-effective starting point from
which assessors can develop their own tools. They are also useful for developing common
understanding amongst groups of assessors. For new assessors, they are important confidence-
building tools.

c) Instructions for candidates and assessors

Instructions for the candidate and the assessor are an integral part of all assessment tools. Your
instructions should respond to questions regarding the what, when, where, how, and why of
assessment processes. You might include suggestions on reasonable adjustment to accommodate
diversity and/or advice on your recording requirements for the assessor/observer.

Competency based assessment is a process where an assessor works with a trainee to collect
evidence of competence, using the benchmarks provided by the unit standards that comprise the
national qualifications. It is not about passing or failing a candidate and evidence collection is more
than just setting a test.

4.2.12 Types of Assessment

a) Diagnostic - Prior to learning, e.g. training needs assessment
b) Formative - During learning, to gauge the learning progress and achievement of learners for
learning (Assessment for learning) does not contribute to final assessment result
c) Continuous - During learning, to gauge the learning acquired for competence/ grading
(Assessment of learning) contributes to final assessment result
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d) Summative - End of learning, to determine competence
e) Skills Recognition - Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)

4.2.13 Commonly Used Assessment Methods

Frequently used competency-based assessment methods may be categorized into four broad

Knowledge-based Assessment Methods

a) Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ)
b) Written Assessment (Short Answers)
c) Projects
d) Portfolio
e) Written Assessment (Reports)
f) Oral Questions

Performance-based Methods
g) Workplace Performance
h) Role-Play / Simulation

Attitudinal Evaluation Methods

i) Observations

4.2.14 Procedures for Designing and Developing Competency Assessment Tools

These procedures are required for developing assessment tools. They include details of the
requirements for determining evidence requirements, selecting appropriate assessment methods,
preparing assessment tools, and validating assessment tools in accordance with the relevant
Assessment Guidelines.

Elements Performance Criteria

1. Establish 1.1 Competency standards are identified which describe the work activities to
evidence be assessed.
requirements 1.2 Relevant unit(s) of competency are read and interpreted to identify the
required evidence.
1.3 Evidence requirements are identified which show full coverage and
consistent performance of the relevant work activities.
2. Determine 2.1 Identify target group of candidates, purposes of assessment tool, and
focus of the contexts in which the tool will be used
assessment tool 2.2 Access relevant benchmarks for assessment and interpret them to
establish evidence required to demonstrate competence
2.3 Identify, access and interpret organizational, legal and ethical
requirements and relevant contextualization guidelines
2.4 Identify other related documentation to inform assessment tool
3. Establish 3.1 Suitable assessment methods are identified that are consistent with the
suitable evidence requirements and the advice provided in the Evidence Guide
assessment and relevant Assessment Guidelines.
methods 3.2 Assessment methods are selected which are appropriate for the
competency being assessed, and in line with the purpose and
assessment context.
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4. Design 4.1 Select assessment methods that support the collection of defined evidence,
assessment tool taking into account the context in which the assessment will take place and
meeting the principles of assessment
4.2 Enable candidates to show or support their claim for recognition of current
competency through selected assessment methods
4.3 Consider different assessment instruments for the selected assessment
methods to generate options for collection of evidence
4.4 Consider how the assessment instruments will be administered
5. Develop 5.1 Develop specific assessment instruments that address the evidence to
assessment tool be collected
5.2 Define and document clear and specific procedures instructing assessor and
candidate on the administration and use of the instruments
5.3 Consider requirements of assessment system policies and procedures and
address storage and retrieval needs, and review, evaluation and version control
procedures as part of this process
6. Prepare 6.1 Assessment tools are prepared in accordance with the advice provided in
assessment the relevant Assessment Guidelines.
tools 6.2 Clear and concise written instructions and materials are prepared for the
assessor and the candidate which accurately describe the assessment
6.3 Assessment tools are checked for validity, fairness, safety and cost
7. Review and 7.1 Check draft assessment tools against evaluation criteria and amend as
trial assessment required
tool 7.2 Trial assessment tools to validate content and applicability
7.3 Collect and document feedback from relevant people involved in trialing
7.4 Make amendments to final tool based on analysis of feedback
7.5 Appropriately format and file finalized assessment tool according to
assessment system policies and procedures and organizational, legal and
ethical requirements
8. Validate 8.1 Draft assessment tools are checked against evaluation criteria and
assessment amended, when necessary
tools 8.2 Assessment tools are pilot tested with a small sample of assessors and
industry practitioners.
8.3 Information gathered through the validation are analyzed to establish
any changes that maybe required.
8.4 Assessment tools are finalized incorporating suggested changes as

4.3 Competency Based Curriculum Delivery

4.3.1 The Teaching and Learning Process in CBET Approach
Competency-based instruction is designed around the inductive and experiential instruction and
outcomes. This demands a different type of approach to teaching and learning. The new
competency-based curriculum not only addresses the cognitive domain but a much wider scope
in terms of the affective domain of teaching and learning. This forces schools and teachers to
rethink the way instruction should be delivered to students.
To date, in Kenya, teachers have tended to opt for traditional teaching methods. Traditional
teaching is defined as teacher-centered, using direct instruction, typically using lectures,
discussions, textbooks and worksheets; this is termed classical teaching. It comprises the lecture
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method followed by a whole-class question and answer method. Sometimes there is a group
discussion. Kenyan teachers have long been exposed to the deductive way of teaching, which is
highly teacher directed.
The new CBET curriculum standards demand a very different approach to instruction from
trainers/teachers. The CBET approach demands that the teaching and learning process is more
Interactive, inspirational, challenging, motivating the students, to actively participate and
providing sufficient space for the initiative, creativity and independence. Curriculum guidelines
also call on trainers/teachers to use a variety of methods in their teaching, such as small group
work, discussion and practical activities. This clearly will have an impact on the way that
trainers/teachers think about their daily lessons.
Two issues need to be addressed concerning textbooks. Trainers/Teachers need to be trained on
how to use a textbook as one of many instructional tools rather than following it in sequence. There
is a strong need for providing training in how to develop instructional materials to support the
CBET approach. Thus, CBET training is critical to changing how trainers/teachers plan and
implement teaching/learning in the classroom.
Additionally, publishers need to be trained on the new CBET and how to align future textbooks
with the competencies for various levels/grades. They must be shown how to include active
learning techniques in the exercises and assessments they prepare. They need to be trained on
developing other instructional materials that can be used by trainers/teachers as active learning

4.3.2 Program Delivery using the CBET Approach

CBET is a program whose curriculum development is based on Occupational Standards (OS). This
is to ensure that the problem of skills mismatch, which has been identified by industry as a major
cause of unemployment, is addressed. Therefore, after institutions have consulted with industry
and businesses to generate valid and quality occupational standards, what is known as Learning
Unit Specification is developed for all the courses of the respective programs. This Learning Unit
Specification lays down the Level, Quality and Scope of the performance that must be achieved by
the learner. The standards set out in the Learning Unit Specification (or simply Unit Standard)
must also reflect national standards of achievement which must be appropriate to the target

The Learning Unit Specification has four key elements which set out the standards on which
certification is based:
a) Learning Outcomes: What is expected of the learner to know and be able to do at the end of
the facilitation of the unit,
b) Performance Criteria: What the learner should know and do in order to achieve the specific
learning outcome,
c) Range Statement: Parameters of learning the learner should cover in order to be able to
d) Evidence Requirement: This is the assessment criteria; in CBET assessment is the process of
collecting evidence of learners performance in order to judge whether or not, or the extent
to which the learner has met the performance requirements.

Learning Materials: Learner-centred Learning Materials are developed for the learners from the
unit specification. These detailed training materials are keyed to the competencies to be achieved
and are designed to support the acquisition of knowledge and skills. They are developed in a way
that they encourage the learner to work as independently as possible both out of class and while
in class. The content of these learning materials which includes self-assessment instruments and
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peer assessment/appraisal instrument for learners encourages active participation in learning
through group, pair and whole class interaction.

4.3.3 Facilitation Methods Used for CBET Programs

CBET approach demands a different approach to teaching and even assessment and certification.
This is because conceptually, CBET is different from the traditional system. It is based on defined
competency standards which are industry oriented; it is unit based or modular and it can be
applied to both formal and informal education and training. For these reasons training or teaching
approach requires flexibility. The education and training is more learner-centred (where more
emphasis is placed on the learners role in the learning process) than teacher-centred (where the
teacher has control over what is taught and how the learners are given the information they have
to learn). Though CBET uses both the teacher-centred and the learner-centred approaches, the
emphasis is more on the learner-centred approaches.

The following facilitation methods are employed for the CBET programs:
a) Direct Instruction Method: It is effective when you have to introduce learners to a new
study area or define new concepts and show how they are interrelated or for teaching
factual information. On the other hand, because the method relies mostly on one-way
communication there are limited opportunities to get a feedback on the learners
understanding of what is being taught and it is not possible to teach psychomotor skills
using this method.
b) Discussion Method: Allows learners to share knowledge and ideas thereby motivating
them to achieve more particularly when others respect their contribution. It also helps the
teacher to determine whether the learner understands the content of the lesson. On the
other hand, there is the possibility of straying from the topic under discussion and
dominating learners might influence the group to accept their view.
c) Small Group Method: Pairing is done in such a way that learners help each other to learn
faster than the teacher would have been able to do with the whole class. There may
however be difficulties with the physical arrangement of the classroom and individual
assessment; using group work is difficult.
d) Problem Solving Method: Very popular teaching strategy for CBET. Provides a challenge
to learners; gives them a sense of satisfaction and increases their confidence when they are
able to solve new problems and thus gain new knowledge. It also allows the learner to
develop critical thinking skills and the ability to adapt to new learning situations. It is
however time consuming and because learners sometimes work individually, they may not
learn all the things that they are expected to learn.
e) Research Method: It is used for workshops and laboratory tasks, field experiments, case
studies. It encourages learners to investigate and find answers for themselves and to
critically evaluate information. It however requires a lot of time and careful planning of
research projects for the learner.

4.3.4 Training Delivery of Competency Based Curriculum

The delivery of training should follow the design of the curriculum. Delivery should be guided by
the 10 basic principles of competency-based Education and Training (CBET).
a) The training is based on curriculum developed from the competency standards;
b) Learning is modular in its structure;
c) Training delivery is individualized and self-paced;
d) Training is based on work that must be performed;

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e) Training materials are directly related to the competency standards and the curriculum
f) Assessment is based on the collection of evidence of the performance of work to the
industry required standard;
g) Training is based on both on and off-the-job components;
h) Allows for recognition of prior learning (RPL) or current competencies;
i) Training allows for multiple entry and exit; and
j) Approved training programs are Nationally Accredited

The CBET-TVET system recognizes various types of delivery modes, both on and off-the-job as
long as the learning is driven by the competency standards specified by the industry. The following
training modalities may be adopted when designing training programs:
a) The dual- mode of training delivery is preferred and recommended. Thus programs would
contain both in-school and in-industry training or fieldwork components.
b) Modular/self-paced learning is a competency-based training modality wherein the trainee
is allowed to progress at his/her own pace. The trainer only facilitates the training delivery.
c) Peer teaching/mentoring is a training modality wherein fast learners are given the
opportunity to assist the slow learners.
d) Supervised industry training or on-the-job training is an approach in training designed to
enhance the knowledge and skills of the trainee through actual experience in the workplace
to acquire specific competencies prescribed in the training regulations.

4.3.5 Adult Learning

Important - It is always very important to understand your trainees; their background,
experiences, expectations, etc.; all students/trainees in tertiary institutions are adult, and
therefore, the learning is adult learning in those institutions.

a) Characteristics of Adult learning:

i) Adults are autonomous and self-directed. They need to be free to direct themselves.
ii) Adults have accumulated a foundation of life experiences and knowledge that may include
work-related activities, family responsibilities and previous education. They must see a
reason for something.
iii) Adults are relevancy-oriented. They are practical and want to relate learning and their
iv) As do all learners, adults need to be shown respect. They have wealth of experience they
bring to the training.

b) What Motivates adult learners

i) Social relationships: to make new friends, to meet a need for associations and
ii) External expectations: to comply with instructions from someone else; to fulfill the
expectations or recommendations of someone with formal authority.
iii) Social welfare: to improve ability to serve mankind, prepare for service to the
community, and improve ability to participate in community work.
iv) Personal advancement: to achieve higher status in a job, secure professional
advancement and stay abreast of competitors.
v) Escape/Stimulation: to relieve boredom, provide a break in the routine of home or work
and provide a contrast to other exacting details of life.

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vi) Cognitive interest: to learn for the sake of learning, seek knowledge for its own sake and
to satisfy an inquiring mind

c) Trainers
i) Educators must remember that learning occurs within each individual as a continuing
process throughout life and people learn at different speeds
ii) Positive reinforcement by the instructor can enhance learning, as can proper timing of
the instruction.
iii) Learning results from stimulation of the senses. Instructors should present materials
that stimulate as many senses as possible in order to increase their chances of teaching

d) The audience and the medium

i) Know your audience well
ii) Use the language they understand and that appeals
iii) Use the medium that reaches them all
iv) Message must be clear and concise
v) Use color and size of words that appeal to the eyes
vi) Place the message in appropriate and well attracting place
vii) Design the time appropriate to pass on the message
viii) Remain open to criticism and learn to deal with it
ix) Design well the venue/place of passing on the message
x) Be sensitive to the needs of your audience
xi) Evaluate and review your message from time to time

e) Adult Learners expect

i) Credibility and competence - A speaker who is perceived as competent is perceived as
skilled, experienced, authoritative, reliable and informed.
ii) Trustworthiness - How honest, fair, sincere, friendly, honorable and kind does the
audience find the speaker?
iii) Dynamism - The extent to which an audience perceives the speaker as bold, active,
strong, empathic and assertive. The audiences value behavior as described by these
adjectives. Perhaps when we consider their opposites timid, tired and meek - we can
see why dynamism is attractive.
iv) Organized presenters that are friendly and who understand them.

In summary: Principles of adult learners

i) Adults are internally motivated and self-directed
ii) Adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences
iii) Adults are goal oriented
iv) Adults are relevancy oriented
v) Adults are practical
vi) Adult learners like to be respected

4.4 Competency Based Assessment (CBA)

Competency based assessment is a process where an assessor works with a trainee to collect
evidence of competence, using the benchmarks provided by the unit standards that comprise the
national qualifications.

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To determine whether a learner has imbibed what he or she has learnt, an assessment is organized
for all learners. The assessment is based on the learning outcomes specified in the learning unit
specifications developed for each course. Therefore, in CBET assessment is the process of
collecting evidence of a learners performance, upon which an assessor judges whether or not, or
the extent to which a learner has met the performance requirements of the learning outcome laid
in a particular unit and then making a decision, based on these judgments as to whether a learner
has achieved the learning outcome as a whole or not. In other words, it is the process of measuring
learners skills, knowledge and understanding against the standards (occupational standards) laid
down for a particular unit. If a learner can show, by generating sufficient evidence of their
competence, that they meet the standards, they qualify for that unit.

Therefore CBET assessment measures whether a learner is competent or not competent. It implies
that only two possible outcomes can be the result of the assessment process, i.e. they are
competent (i.e. they can perform what is stated in the standard) or they are not yet competent
(they cannot perform yet what is stated in the standard). The assessment is not designed to
measure a learner who is 30% or 50% or 80% etc. competent. If they do not meet the standards
they develop their skills and knowledge further, after which they are assessed again. The
assessment process includes a variety of approaches to ensure that much emphasis is placed on
a) Observation: Observing the learner while he/she is carrying out the activity,
b) Product: Looking at something a learner has made or done,
c) Questioning: Asking the learner questions that can be answered either verbally or in writing.

It is not about passing or failing a candidate and evidence collection is more than just setting a test.
During a semester a trainee may be required to undertake a series of tasks for assessment
purposes such as assignments, projects, tests, exams or labs. It is the sum of all these assessments
that deems a trainee to be competent (or not).
The unit of progression in a competency based training system, is mastery of knowledge and skills
and is learner focused. Two key components of competency-based training are:
a) Skill a task or group of tasks performed to a specified level of proficiency which typically
involves the manipulation of tools and equipment, or expertise that is knowledge or attitude-
b) Competency a skill performed to a specified standard under specific conditions.
The assessment process should be considered to be part of the learning process identifying gaps
as learning opportunities to develop skills, not failures. It is a collaborative process to be
negotiated with the trainee and not a one-off event that is imposed. In the setting of a training
provider, trainees can be given many opportunities to demonstrate skill and the assessment
process should allow for the capturing and recording of these demonstrations.

4.4.1 Benefits of Competency Based Assessment

Competency based assessment:
a) Allows trainees to build on skills gained in a natural progression within a timeframe.
b) Is part of a constructive and cooperative approach to developing the skills of trainees and it
can identify the training needed to address gaps in competence; and
c) Candidates can gain a nationally recognized qualification.

4.4.2 The Principles of Competency Based Assessment

Assessment needs to abide by the following principles and must be:
a) Current - Assessment should take place within a short time of learning.
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b) Valid - All components that are to be assessment must be assessed. There must be sufficient
evidence to ensure that the candidate meets the competency specified by the current
standard. The candidate must not be asked to provide evidence for or be assessed against
activities that are outside the scope of the unit standard.
c) Reliable - The assessment must be able to stand up to scrutiny. That is, other assessors
should reach the same conclusion. A number of evidence-gathering methods can be used to
ensure consistency.
d) Flexible - There is no single approach to competency based assessment. Evidence can be
collected using different methods, at different times, under a variety of conditions. It must
be responsive to the needs of the situation and the candidate.
e) Fair - Assessment must not discriminate against individuals or groups. Different people and
different situations need different assessment methods and, where necessary, reasonable
adjustments to meet individual requirements must be made.
f) Safe - All work and all assessment must comply with occupational health and safety

4.4.3 Assessor checklist

The following are some of the main assessor checklist:
a) Ensure the purpose of the assessment is clear to you and to those being assessed.
b) Ensure the assessment criteria is explicit and in explained in terms both you and the
candidate clearly understand.
c) Select an integrated assessment approach which combines assessment of attitudes with
other skills used in a particular workplace situation.
d) Consider issues such as relevance, assessment purpose and context, resources, evidence
requirements, critical elements and risk, ease of use, authenticity when deciding on your
assessment approach.
e) Gather evidence based on observation of behaviour over time, rather than based on a
particular event, and from a range of sources.
f) Consider the impact of issues such as culture, gender, disability on a persons ability to
demonstrate and articulate their attitudes and ethics in response to a given situation or
g) Consider potential flaws which could occur that may impact on the assessment.
h) Involve a number of people in the assessment process supervisor/ team leader, manager,
team and so on.
i) Provide opportunities for those being assessed to reflect on their behavior and receive
feedback on behaviour in relation to the core values included in the assessment.
j) Use the results of assessment for constructive feedback and possibly as the basis for a
personal development plan.

4.4.4 Assessment Requirements

Each unit of competency contains assessment requirements grouped into three areas:
a) performance evidence
b) knowledge evidence
c) Assessment conditions.

Performance and knowledge evidence describe what a learner must demonstrate in order to be
considered competent. Assessment conditions describe the conditions under which a learner must
demonstrate this, including any specific requirements for resources, trainers and assessors and
the context for assessment.
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When planning assessment, ensure you address all of the requirements of the unit or module, i.e.,
your assessment activities as a whole must cover every area required. To achieve a competent
result, learners must meet all the requirements of the unit.

4.4.5 Evidence
All the different forms of assessment have one thing in common: the collection of evidence.
Evidence can be defined as: The proof produced by a learner that shows that he/she complies with
the requirements of the criteria of the standard they wish to gain credits for.

Evidence can come from a variety of sources. It is the responsibility of the assessor to ensure that
enough (and the appropriate) evidence has been collected to make an accurate judgment about a
learners competence. Even though the unit standards and qualifications indicate the scope,
context and level for the demonstration of outcomes to be achieved, the assessor has to check the
quality of evidence before making an assessment decision.

4.4.6 Implementing the Principles of Assessment

No matter what assessment pathway or methods you use the principles of fairness, flexibility,
validity and reliability must be met.

a) Fairness
i) At enrolment or prior to commencement of training, make recognition of prior learning
available to all learners. Ensure any required adjustments are made to the training and
assessment program for each learner.
ii) Consider the learners needs in the assessment process and make reasonable adjustments
to accommodate the learner (such as providing oral rather than written assessment).
However, dont compromise the rigour of the assessment process (e.g. if there is a
requirement to complete documentation in a unit of competency, oral assessment would not
be appropriate).
iv) Ensure the learner is fully informed of the assessment process and performance
expectations before undertaking assessment.
v) If a learner is unable to complete the required task to the level described in the
assessment requirements, consider whether they need further training before being
reassessed. Sound enrolment processes will help to identify the needs of learners and
avoid learners being enrolled in a course that they will not be able to complete.
vi) Have an appeals process to provide an avenue for learners to challenge an assessment
decision and to have it reviewed objectively.

b) Flexibility
i) At enrolment or prior to commencement of training, make recognition of prior learning
available to all learners. Ensure any required adjustments are made to the training and
assessment program for that learner.
ii) Take the learner into account in the assessment process, and recognise that they may
already have demonstrated some aspects of the unit through other means. If individual
learners have demonstrated current skills and knowledge, they should not be required
to be reassessed in those areas, unless the previous demonstration of skills or
knowledge is in a significantly different context or environment.

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iii) Use a range of assessment methods to help produce valid decisions and recognise that
learners demonstrate competence in a variety of ways.

c) Validity
i) As part of your assessment, require learners to demonstrate skills and knowledge
across a range of environments and contexts relevant to the unit or module. Assessing
in a variety of contexts shows that the learner is able to apply the skills and knowledge
in other situations, and can apply their knowledge in a practical way.
ii) Ensure that assessment tasks and methods match assessment requirements. For
example, if assessing a practical skill such as keyboarding, questions about how a
keyboard operates may not be valid as this knowledge is not required in order to carry
out the task. Instead, use questions that demonstrate knowledge of why the learner is
doing the task in a particular way.

d) Reliability
i) Make assessment decisions consistently across different learners and different
assessors in the same unit or module.
ii) Have a well-designed assessment system that includes measures to minimize variation
between assessors. The same evidence presented by different learners or to different
assessors should result in the same decision.
iii) Develop evidence criteria (i.e. decision-making rules) to judge the quality of
performance. This will help assessors make consistent judgments about competence.
Evidence criteria could include:
o model answers (where appropriate)
o descriptions of observations needed to assess skills and application of
knowledge in a practical activity.
iv) Benchmarks for practical activities must necessarily be broad enough to allow for
variations in the precise task being undertaken and any variations in the context, but
must include observable behavioursthe behaviours which must be exhibited by the
learner when carrying out the task.

e) Practicability
i) Practicability refers to ensuring that assessments take into account the available
financial resources, facilities, equipment and time.
ii) Assessments that require elaborate arrangements for equipment and facilities, as well
as being costly, will make the assessment system fail.
iii) Where the ideal assessment requires specialized equipment and facilities, such
assessment could be done by means of a simulation or by means of collecting evidence
in the workplace.

In conclusion:
Fairness + Validity + Flexibility + Reliability + Practicability = Credibility

4.4.7 Implementing the Rules of Evidence

The evidence used to make a decision about competence must be valid, sufficient, authentic and

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a) Validity
i) Ensure that evidence is directly related to the competency being assessed.
ii) Ensure there is a direct relationship between the assessment tasks or activities learners
undertake, the evidence presented and the assessment requirements.

b) Sufficiency
i) Gather enough evidence to make a valid judgment of competence or otherwise.
ii) The quantity of evidence may vary between learners. Some may take longer or need to
complete a greater number of tasks to demonstrate competence. Others may, despite
repeated opportunities, not be able to achieve competence.

c) Authenticity
i) Ensure that evidence gathered belongs to the learner being assessed and provides
evidence of that persons skills and knowledge.
ii) Verify that the person you are enrolling, training and assessing is the same person that will
be issued with a qualification or statement of attainment. This can be particularly
challenging if you deliver distance training, including through online methods, where there
are more opportunities for learners to submit the work of others than there are in a
traditional classroom setting. This does not remove your responsibility to verify the
identity of a learner enrolled in a face-to-face course, but it is clearly easier to do this
through direct interaction with the learner. Regardless of the delivery method, you must be
able to demonstrate how you have verified the identity of the learner.
iii) If substantial portions of the evidence submitted are gathered through independent study
(e.g. assignments or projects) rather than direct observation, consider using online systems
to check work submissions for plagiarism and identical content in other submissions.

d) Currency
i) Decide how valid the evidence is, given the time that has passed since the evidence was
generated. Currency is important in determining if a learner is competent. Currency is a
particular risk with recognition of prior learning, as you may be presented with a range of
evidence gathered over a number of years. This does not mean evidence that is not recent
is not valid; however, you must ensure there is sufficient evidence of the persons
competence at the time you make the assessment decision.
ii) You must determine whether the evidence is recent enough to show the learner is
competent at the time you make an assessment decision. For example, a computer
programmer who has 10 years experience but has not been directly involved in hands-on
programming work for the past three years may not have current skills in or knowledge of
contemporary programming methods. However, the programmer may be able to update
their skills and knowledge though a gap training program. This varies to some extent
between industries and, as a person with current industry skills and knowledge, an
assessor is well placed to make this judgement.

4.4.8 Validation of Assessment

Validation is a review of assessment judgments made by the training provider. Validation is
generally conducted after assessment is complete. The process must be undertaken in a systematic
way. Validation may include engagement with industry to confirm the training providers
assessment system:

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a) produces valid assessment judgments
b) Ensures graduates have the skills and knowledge required by industry, as expressed in the
training package or accredited course.

The requirement in the Standards to undertake validation of assessment judgments does not
prohibit the training provider from undertaking similar activities, such as moderation, or any
other process aimed at increasing the quality of assessment. This activity is a quality review and
is not intended to be used to make adjustments or changes to assessment outcomes.

When developing your plan for validation, remember that:

a) Each training product on the training providers scope of registration must undergo
validation at least once every five years.
b) You must ensure your plan allows for validation of at least 50 per cent of the training
products in the first three years of that cycle.
c) You may need to validate certain training products more often where specific risks have
been identified, for example, if the training providers industry consultation identifies areas
of particular risk.

Validation of assessment is normally carried out by an accredited external assessor.

4.4.9 Assessment Guidelines

Design and Moderation of Assessment: The CBA policy states that the design and moderation
of appropriate assessment instruments and tools is a critical step to ensure the credibility of the
assessments, and the integrity of the system

The policy guidelines address the following in terms of assessment:

i) The need for the clarification of the purpose and expectations of assessment in terms of the
candidate within the contexts of the sector and the institutional/provider plan;
ii) The extent to which candidates could be involved in the choice of assessment approaches and
methods, and the appeals process;
iii) The support structures required based on the CBA implementation plan;
iv) The forms, quality and sources of evidence appropriate to the field of learning, level and
v) The assessment process, including a generic approach to RPL assessments;
vi) The assessment methodologies, tools and instruments and valid alternative methods if the
aforementioned are not feasible, and exemplars thereof where possible;
vii) The process whereby the above decisions are arrived at, i.e. by making use of the nested
approach described in the draft Level Descriptors document, particularly in terms of
recognition of equivalence as opposed to direct matching against unit standards and
qualification outcomes; and
viii) The benefits of the nested approach to curriculum development.

ix) It also addresses the moderation and review processes to ensure that the integrity of
qualifications and the system as a whole is protected. This will include moderation and review
o Assessment tools and instruments;
o Assessor guides; and
o Reporting structures.
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4.4.10 Methods and Processes of Assessment
Assessment is a structured process for gathering evidence and making judgments about a
candidates performance in relation to registered national standards and qualifications. This
process involves the candidate and the assessor within a particular context in a transparent and
collaborative manner.

The self-audit tool is shown in the table below:

Action Y N
The purpose of assessment and the expectations of the candidate are clarified
Assessment plans take into account the form, quality and sources of evidence
required (for example performance evidence, knowledge evidence, knowledge
testimony, etc.)
The form and quality of support to be provided to the candidate in preparing for
the assessment are established
The candidate is actively involved in all aspects of the assessment process to
ensure that the assessment is fair and transparent. Possible barriers to fair
assessment are identified and addressed.
Assessment plans indicate a variety of appropriate assessment methods and
instruments to validate diverse types of learning
The choice of assessment methods is fit for purpose and ensures reliable and valid
assessment outcomes.
An appeals process is in place and made known to the candidate.
Assessment instruments and exemplars are developed and moderated in
compliance with the CDACC requirements.
Assessment reports indicate the assessment plan, the evidence presented, the
assessment outcome and recommendations for further action, including
additional training and/or reassessment.
Moderation and review mechanisms are in place, including policies for
verification, evaluation and quality assurance of assessments and assessment

Moderation ensures that people who are being assessed are assessed in a consistent, accurate
and well-designed manner. It ensures that all assessors who assess a particular [set of] unit
standards or qualification, are using comparable assessment methods and are making similar and
consistent judgments about learners performance.

4.4.11 Formative and Summative Assessment

CBET makes use of formative and summative assessments. Formative assessment refers to
assessment that takes place during the process of learning and teaching. Summative assessment
is assessment for making a judgment about achievement. This is carried out when a learner is
ready to be assessed at the end of a program of learning.

Compare the two forms of assessment:

Formative Assessment Summative Assessment
i) Designed to support the teaching and i) At the end of a learning program
learning process (qualification, unit standard, or part
ii) Assists in the planning future learning qualification)
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iii) Diagnoses the learners strength and ii) To determine whether the learner is
weaknesses competent or not yet competent
iv) Provides feedback to the learner on iii) In knowledge and inputs-based systems,
his/her progress this usually occurs after a specified
v) Helps to make decisions on the readiness period of study, e.g. one year
of learners to do a summative assessment iv) In OBET, learner-readiness determines
vi) Is developmental in nature when assessments will take place
vii) Credits/certificates are not awarded v) Is carried out when the assessor and the
learner agree that the learner is ready for

Results initially collected as results for formative assessment, can be used for summative
assessment with the agreement of the learner. This will prevent having to assess outcomes twice.
The organization of the learning program will inform decisions on when summative
assessments can take place, e.g. a learning program can be organized around one outcome or a
set of outcomes, depending on what is appropriate in terms of ensuring learner success.
Summative assessments are administered when a learner has gone through such a program and
s/he is ready to be assessed. On declaration of competence, credit is then given, recorded and

4.4.12 Assessment Methods and Instruments

Assessment methods refer to the activities that an assessor engages in as he or she assesses a
learner and the learners work. Normally these activities are:
i) Observation observing the learner while he/she is carrying out tasks, real or simulated,
as defined in an outcome or outcome statement
ii) Evaluation of a product evaluating something the learner has produced after the task has
been completed
iii) Questioning asking questions orally or in writing which are answered orally or in
writing. The questions could relate to the observation or to the product. This is done to
check the learner understands of why certain activities were carried out or test the
learners ability to work within contexts required in the range statements or in other
contingencies suggested by the assessment criteria. Questioning is also an important
means of establishing the learners underpinning knowledge and understanding.

4.4.13 Why assessment?

The assessor will assess a candidate in order to prove that one:
a) can do the job,
b) can do it in the right way
c) has the skills needed and can use them,
d) knows what is needed to do the job and handle problems,

For the creditability Competency Based Assessment is undertaken by four categories of assessors:
a) Accredited internal assessor (who doubles as a Trainer)
b) External assessor drawn from industry or any other training provider
c) Internal Verifier who is either a head of department in the same institution or any other
senior staff in the same discipline
d) External verifier drawn from the relevant industry

a) Internal Assessor
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An Internal Assessor is a trainer that is accredited by TVET CDACC as assessor with the following
i) acquaints the trainees with relevant skills, knowledge and attitudes as stipulated in the
competency units
ii) assesses the trainees competence
iii) Guides the trainees accordingly
iv) Delivers the competency units using various strategies
v) Agrees on the assessment plan with the candidate
vi) Conducts assessments, judging the evidence and making assessment decisions
vii) Stores the candidates evidences
viii) Compiles a summary of candidates results and maintains a record of the same
ix) Completes checklists and relevant forms to confirm the candidate has demonstrated
competence and completes the required documentation
x) Writes a report to the internal verifier

b) External Assessor
i) TVET CDACC accredited expert in a specific skill area who makes judgment about a
candidates competence.
ii) Assesses a candidate only after recommendation by internal assessor that the candidate is
now ready for external assessment.
iii) Provides feedback to trainee after every assessment through review tool
iv) Reports on the assessment with actions and recommendations in his/her area of expertise
v) Conducts follow up reviews and on-site visits when necessary

c) Internal verifier
i) TVET CDACC accredited expert with a lot of experience in competency assessment
ii) Provides assessors with prompt, accurate and constructive feedback on their assessment
iii) Undertakes an active role in raising and disseminating issues of good practice, consistency
and quality assurance in assessment practice
iv) Ensures that all candidates achievement records and center documentation are completed
in accordance with TVET CDACC requirements
v) Ensures that equal opportunities and anti-discriminatory practices are upheld in the
assessment process
vi) Liaises with assessors, candidates and the external verifier to implement the quality
assurance requirements of the assessment system.
vii) Manages a team of assessors.
viii) Ensures that candidates records and assessment documentation are completed in a
timely manner to allow certification to take place
ix) Maintains up to date records of internal verification and sampling activities and ensuring
that these are available for the external verifier
x) Establishes procedures, advising and supporting assessors to assist them in interpreting
and applying the qualification requirements correctly and consistently

d) External Verifier
i) TVET CDACC accredited expert in a specific skill area from the relevant industry
ii) Ensures that an accredited assessment center maintains the quality standards established
iii) Provides information, advice and support to assessment centers
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iv) Makes verification visits and gives recommendations
v) Monitors and samples trainee assessment evidence
vi) Provides prompt, accurate and constructive feedback to all relevant parties on the
operation of assessment centers systems
vii) Ensures that the policy of equal opportunities, diversity and open access is adhered to
viii) Moderates assessment tools

4.4.14 Procedures for Competence Assessment

Elements Performance Criteria
1. Prepare for 1.1 Interpret assessment plan and confirm organizational, legal and ethical
assessment requirements for conducting assessment with relevant people
1.2 Access and interpret relevant benchmarks for assessment and nominated
assessment tools to confirm the requirements for evidence to be collected
1.3 Arrange identified material and physical resource requirements according to
assessment system policies and procedures
1.4 Organize specialist support required for assessment
1.5 Explain, discuss and agree details of the assessment plan with candidate
2. Gather 2.1 Use agreed assessment methods and instruments to gather, organize and
quality document evidence in a format suitable for determining competence
evidence 2.2 Apply the principles of assessment and rules of evidence in gathering quality
2.3 Determine opportunities for evidence gathering in actual or simulated
activities through consultation with the candidate and relevant personnel
2.4 Determine opportunities for integrated assessment activities and document
any changes to assessment instruments where required
3. Support the 3.1 Guide candidates in gathering their own evidence to support recognition of
candidate prior learning (RPL)
3.2 Use appropriate communication and interpersonal skills to develop a
professional relationship with the candidate that reflects sensitivity to
individual differences and enables two-way feedback
3.3 Make decisions on reasonable adjustments with the candidate, based on
candidates needs and characteristics
3.4 Access required specialist support in accordance with the assessment plan
3.5 Address any Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) risk to person or
equipment immediately
4. Make the 4.1 Examine collected evidence and evaluate it to ensure that it reflects the
assessment evidence required to demonstrate competence
decision 4.2 Use judgment to infer whether competence has been demonstrated, based on
the available evidence
4.3 Make assessment decision in line with agreed assessment procedures and
according to agreed assessment plan
4.4 Provide clear and constructive feedback to candidate regarding the
assessment decision and develop any follow-up action plan required
5. Record and 5.1 Record assessment outcomes promptly and accurately
report the 5.2 Complete and process an assessment report according to agreed assessment
assessment procedures
decision 5.3 Inform other relevant parties of the assessment decision according to
confidentiality conventions

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6. Review the 6.1 Review the assessment process in consultation with relevant people to
assessment improve own future practice
process 6.2 Document and record the review according to relevant assessment system
policies and procedures

4.4.15 Guide to Assist Assessors to Plan for Assessments

Element Activities
1. Plan and Establish the purpose of the assessment
organize an Identify the standards against which the candidate is being
assessment assessed; and determine the assessment policies and procedures
process of the specific organization
Outline the principles of assessment and the rules of evidence
Prepare an assessment plan, including selecting assessment
methods and tools; identifying when and where assessment will
take place; and roles of those involved in the assessment process
Adjust assessment processes in line with the characteristics or
special needs of the candidate
Make assessment arrangements, including communication with
the candidate, venue and time arrangements, organizing any
physical resources required; and record keeping/reporting
2. Assess the Provide a supportive environment for the candidate,
competence demonstrating proficient communication and interpersonal
of a candidate skills
Gather evidence for assessment
Make reasonable adjustments during the assessment process to
meet the needs of the candidate, while maintaining the integrity
of the assessment
Make the assessment decision based on an analysis of the
evidence collected against the required standards
Provide feedback to the candidate regarding the assessment
decision and develop a follow-up action plan, where required
Record and report the assessment decision in accordance with
the policies and procedure of the relevant organization
Review the assessment process in consultation with others, and
using self-reflection skills, and make recommendations for
future changes if required.
3. Develop Determine the relevant standards against which the candidate is
assessment being assessed
tools Select assessment method(s) that meet the needs of the
candidates and the organization seeking to assess
Develop assessment tools that will:

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reflect the principles of assessment
incorporate principles of access and equity
meet the rules of evidence
provide choice, where appropriate
are sequenced to reflect competency development
are user friendly
are practicable
Ensure clear and specific instructions for assessors are included
Take into account storage and retrieval needs of the assessment
Review and trial assessment tools to validate their applicability
4. Review and Prepare for validation by reviewing and analyzing Existing
validate an assessment processes, materials and standards.
assessment Contribute to a validation process through collective discussion,
process analysis and review of assessment processes, plans, methods,
tools and decision making
Make recommendations for change to improve assessment
Make changes to own assessment practices

4.5 Competence Certification Process

4.5.1 Summary of the CBET Process

a) The Curriculum initiator applies to CDACC to develop a curriculum;
b) The Curriculum initiator conducts a Training Needs Assessment (TNA)/Market Scan after
approval by CDACC, and submits the TNA to CDACC;
c) CDACC will request the relevant SSAC to develop Occupational Standards (OS) for the
curriculum; a representative of the initiator will join the SSAC in developing the OS;
d) The completed OS will be submitted by the SSAC to CDACC for evaluation, and if it is ok it
is given to the initiator to start developing the curriculum using accredited curriculum
e) After completing the curriculum development, the curriculum developers will develop the
Assessment Tools for the curriculum (the SSAC will advise the curriculum developers on
the development of assessment tools);
f) The completed curriculum together with the assessment tools will be submitted to CDACC
for evaluation, and if it is ok CDACC will organize for a validation workshop; CDACC will
send copies of the OS, developed curriculum and the assessment tools to the stakeholders
(including the SSAC members and the curriculum developers) two weeks in advance;
g) The validation workshop will be led by the SSAC during the deliberation; the stakeholders
comments will be incorporated in the curriculum by the SSAC and the curriculum
developers supervised by CDACC;
h) The final validated curriculum will be approved and endorsed by CDACC;
i) The approved curriculum together with comments from the validation workshop will be
submitted by CDACC to TVETA for approval to be used by the respective training providers
after having ascertained the training providers have the necessary infrastructure and
human resource to offer the course;
j) CDACC will organize to disseminate the validated and approved curriculum to the public.

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4.5.2 Competence Certification
This is the final part of the CBET process and it is one of the roles of TVET CDACC where CDACC
awards certificates to successful trainees of CBET programs i.e., Certification is the process of
issuing a certificate as evidence of a learner's achievement.

TCDACC certificates are only issued after successful completion of the compulsory and optional
units of a qualification; Testimonials and records of achievements (referred to as Certificate of
Competence) for partial completion of a qualification can be issued to learners or their employers
on request.

4.5.3 Certification in CBET System

The Certification in CBET system is based on Continuous and summative assessments which are
based on the modules of the curricula and assessment of the achievement of learning outcomes
and the knowledge with a final assessment by external verifiers. Continuous assessment will be
done through logbooks whereby both the trainee and trainer (Internal Assessor) sign to indicate
attainment of specific competences. The ssummary of the assessments conducted will be prepared
by the internal verifier using the prescribed format and transmitted to the TVET CDACC by the
external verifiers.

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4.5.4 National Qualifications
a) National qualifications shall be available from registered training providers, who offer
accredited courses.
b) National qualifications shall have internationally recognized characteristics. They shall:
Have a clear purpose.
Be internally coherent.
Recognize broad transferable and generic skills as well as specialized industry
and professional skills.
Be internationally credible.
Specify quality assurance requirements for training delivery and assessment
(unified and impartial).
Specify clearly the competencies to be achieved for the award of the

4.5.5 Types of Qualifications

a) The council shall issue four types of qualifications:
i) Record of Achievement or Certificate of Competence*
ii) National Certificate
iii) National Diploma
iv) National Higher Diploma
b) Record of Achievement
i) Records of Achievements are awarded for those who demonstrate
competence in some but not all of the units of competence forming a National
Certificate or National Diploma.
ii) Records of Achievements are useful as an individual reference for learners and
employees who have yet to attain all the requirements to be awarded a
National qualification.
c) All certificates shall bear the logo of the testing center/training provider, the logo of
the Council and the National emblem.
d) The qualification certificate or record of achievement shall contain the signature of
the Council Secretary and the signature of director/CEO of the testing center/training
e) Trainees shall only be eligible to be issued with Certificates of competence upon
successful completion of clusters of units /modules for any given trade
f) National certificates/qualifications shall only be issued to graduates upon successful
completion of the whole training program.

4.5.6 Procedure for Certification

a) Accredited testing center submits successful candidates application for certification
in prescribed format to the Certification Council.
b) The Council scrutinizes the candidates assessment information to ensure accuracy
and completeness.

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c) The certificate or record of achievement is printed by TVET CDACC and signed by the
Council Secretary and Director/CEO of the testing center.
d) The certificate or record of achievement is issued to the candidate by the testing

4.5.7 Guidelines for Certification

a) Approved training provider shall provide accurate details of the trainee which
includes: name, National Identity Card (NIC) number, qualification code and effective
date of the Certificate and/or Record of Achievement.
NIC number is the key data for traceability of trainee qualification in future;
However Passport number is acceptable in place of NIC number for foreign
b) All certificates and records of achievement shall carry provision for the logo of the
training provider or accredited establishment along with the logo of the Council and
National emblem.
c) The training provider must acknowledge receipt of certificate (s) by signing and
returning the appropriate document to TVET CDACC.
d) All data of certificate holders are stored at the Councils data base.

4.5.8 Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)

a) Recognition of Prior Learning is a process that recognizes a learners current
competencies which may have been achieved through means that include any
combination of formal or non-formal or informal training and education, work
experience or general life experience regardless of where or how the learning took
b) Recognition of uncertified learning may be combined with any formal certification to
enable assessment decisions to be made.
c) The national vocational qualifications system shall recognize prior learning based on
national competency standards and determine the extent to which an individual has
achieved the required competencies for partial or total completion of a national
vocational qualification.
d) CBET Framework Provides RPL only up to certificate levels.
e) A testing center that wishes to conduct RPL assessments shall apply to the Council
with sufficient evidence of staffing, policies and procedures as well as the necessary
infrastructure and resources.

4.5.9 Procedure for Conducting Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)

a) The RPL candidate applies by completing RPL application and forwards to RPL
Coordinator (appointed by the training provider) along with any supporting
b) RPL coordinator assigns an assessor and verifier.
c) RPL coordinator forwards copy of RPL Application and other evidence to Assessor.
d) The assessor contacts candidate to commence assessment process.

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e) The assessor prepares assessment plan.
f) The candidate provides evidence of competence.
g) The assessor assesses candidates evidence against unit(s) requirements and records
h) The assessor provides feedback to candidate on assessment outcome and obtains
signed acknowledgement from the candidate.
i) The assessor returns completed RPL Assessment record book to RPL Coordinator.
j) The RPL coordinator forwards all related documents and records to the verifier
k) The verifier reviews and verifies the assessment decision and forwards the duly
completed form and formats to the Certification Council for issuing the Qualification.

4.5.10 Alignment of Existing Qualifications

One of the major challenges in the operationalization of the CBET Framework is the
alignment of existing non-TVET qualifications against the CBET Framework. These could be
external qualifications offered in other countries or non-TVET qualifications offered in
Kenya. This is important in order to promote a unified TVET system and make the
similarities and differences between the new and old qualifications transparent to learners,
employers and other stakeholders.

The following procedure shall be followed to assess and evaluate qualifications; the analysis
is based on the following criteria:
a) Duration of the training program undertaken by the holder of the respective
qualifications in relation to the credit system of the CBETF
b) Contents of the training programs (syllabus) against the learning outcomes specified
in the relevant units/modules of the CBETF qualifications
c) Method of training delivery
d) Mode of assessment used

4.5.11 Procedures for Planning, Organizing and Conducting Competence Based


a) Procedures for Designing and Developing Learning Strategies

Element Performance Criteria
1. Determine the 1.1 Clarify the purpose of the learning strategy, likely target groups
parameters of the and their learning needs
learning strategy 1.2 Research qualification or other benchmark options for meeting
the likely target group needs and select an appropriate option
1.3 Consult with relevant people to confirm the parameters of the
learning strategy
2. Develop the 2.1 Develop a learning strategy design that reflects the requirements
framework for the of the selected qualification or other benchmark
learning strategy
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Element Performance Criteria
2.2 Analyse industry or organisation documentation to determine
additional and supporting requirements
2.3 Research and analyse options for design, based on likely target
groups, their learning needs and contexts for delivery
2.4 Use appropriate learning theories and instructional design
principles to support the learning strategy design
2.5 Identify and document learning outcomes
2.6 Consult to modify and confirm the framework
2.7 Develop the review process for the learning strategy
3. Devise the content 3.1 Construct content headings from learning outcomes to form an
and structure of the overview of content to be addressed
learning strategy 3.2 Sequence the content to support learning and determine overall
timelines within operating constraints
3.3 Express learning strategy outcomes to reflect both generic and
specific learning outcomes to be achieved
3.4 Identify and document appropriate delivery and assessment
strategies, taking account of the learning parameters, design
framework and learning context
3.5 Identify and document operational requirements
4. Review the learning 4.1 Review the learning strategy in collaboration with relevant
strategy people against specified criteria prior to and post implementation
4.2 Document a post-implementation review process that includes
measures for identifying the effectiveness and quality of the
learning strategy
4.3 Make recommendations based on outcomes of the review
processes, where appropriate, and document these
4.4 Make modifications and document as part of a continuous
improvement strategy

b) Procedures for Planning, Organizing and Delivering Group-Based Learning

Element Performance Criteria
1. Interpret 1.1. Access, read and interpret learning program documentation to
learning determine delivery requirements
environment 1.2. Use available information and documentation to identify group
and delivery and individual learner needs and learner characteristics
requirements 1.3. Identify and assess constraints and risks to delivery
1.4. Confirm personal role and responsibilities in planning and
delivering training with relevant personnel
2. Prepare session 2.1.Refine existing learning objectives according to program
plans requirements and specific needs of individual learners
2.2.Develop session plans and document these for each segment of
the learning program
2.3.Use knowledge of learning principles and theories to generate
ideas for managing session delivery

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Element Performance Criteria
3. Prepare 3.1.Contextualise existing learning materials to meet the needs of the
resources for specific learner group
delivery 3.2.Finalise learning materials and organize facility, technology and
equipment needs in time for delivery of learning sessions
3.3.Confirm overall delivery arrangements with relevant personnel
4. Deliver and 4.1.Conduct each session according to session plan, modified where
facilitate appropriate to meet learner needs
training sessions 4.2.Use the diversity of the group as another resource to support
4.3.Employ a range of delivery methods as training aids to optimize
learner experiences
4.4.Demonstrate effective facilitation skills to ensure effective
participation and group management
5. Support and 5.1.Monitor and document learner progress to ensure outcomes are
monitor learning being achieved and individual learner needs are being met
5.2.Make adjustments to the delivery sessions to reflect specific
needs and circumstances
5.3.Manage inappropriate behaviour to ensure learning can take
5.4.Maintain and store learner records according to organizational

c) Procedures for Designing and Developing Learning Programs

Element Performance Criteria
1. Define 1.1.Clarify purpose and type of learning program with key
parameters of stakeholders
the learning 1.2.Access and confirm the competency standards and other
program training specifications on which to base the learning
1.3.Identify language, literacy and numeracy requirements of the
1.4.Identify and consider characteristics of the target learner
2. Work within 2.1.Access relevant VET policies and frameworks, and apply to
the vocational work practices
education and 2.2.Identify changes to training packages and accredited courses
training (VET) and apply these to program development
policy 2.3.Conduct work according to organisational quality assurance
framework policies and procedures
3. Develop 3.1.Research, develop and document specific subject matter
program content according to agreed design options
content 3.2.Evaluate existing learning resources for content relevance
and quality
3.3.Specify assessment requirements of the learning program

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Element Performance Criteria
4. Design 4.1.Break the learning content into manageable segments and
structure of the document timeframe for each segment
learning 4.2.Determine and confirm delivery strategies and required
program assessment methods and tools
4.3.Document complete learning program in line with
organisational requirements
4.4.Review complete program with key stakeholders and adjust
as required
4.5.Ensure a safe learning progression by analysing risks in the
learning environment and including a risk control plan

d) The Procedures for Designing and Developing Learning Resources

Learning resources are defined as learning materials that have been specifically developed to
address a substantive area of teaching/learning and/or assessment guidance and support.
They are designed to enhance and support the effectiveness of the learning process. They
provide guidance, materials, learning and assessment activities, and relevant information that
address the competencies/learning outcomes to be achieved by the learner.

Learning resources may address a whole Training Package or course qualification or a learning
program. Learning resources may also take the form of existing equipment, physical materials
and physical resources within the learning environment.

Learning resources can take a variety of forms such as facilitation guides, learning
guides/participant resources, assessment materials, workplace resources and text books, and
may be self-paced or instructor-led. While primarily text and print-based, other mediums such
as audio or video learning resources could be developed using this unit. The complexity of the
resource will vary depending on its focus, type, audience and technological medium.

Element Performance Criteria

1 Research and 1.1 The brief, focus and type of learning resource is
interpret the clarified with the client
learning resource 1.2 The likely target audience/s, their learning needs and
requirements the learning environment for the resource are
1.3 The characteristics of the learners/end users of the
learning resource are identified
1.4 Existing information which may be relevant is gathered,
collated and analysed
1.5 Ethical and legal considerations are identified and acted
1.6 A development work plan is written and documented
2 2.1 A range of design options is generated using a variety of
principles and techniques

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Design the learning 2.2 Time is taken to reflect on the designs, identifying the
resource and plan implications of each
the content 2.3 The diversity of learners/end users and their learning
styles are researched and embedded into the design
2.4 An outline or prototype for the learning resource is
developed and confirmed with the client
2.5 The content specifications of the learning product are
analysed and the proposed content is mapped out
2.6 The breadth and depth of the proposed content is
determined, in accordance with the design prototype,
content specifications and financial constraints
2.7 Relevant personnel are identified to support the
development phase, if needed
3 Develop the learning 3.1 Content and content specification is developed in
resource content accordance with the agreed design
3.2 Modifications are made to the design and/or content,
where necessary, to address changes in project
3.3 Mechanisms for reviewing work in progress are
3.4 Text is clear, concise, grammatically correct and
appropriate for the intended audience/s
3.5 Visuals are relevant, instructive and appropriate for the
intended audience/s
3.6 The resource is formatted using an appropriate style
4 Review learning 4.1 Content of the resource is checked to ensure the accuracy
resource prior to and relevance of information against content
implementation specifications
4.2 Text, format and visual design are checked for clarity and
4.3 An external review is conducted using appropriate
methods, and feedback is incorporated where relevant
4.4 Final draft is reviewed against the brief and other relevant
criteria to ensure it meets all requirements prior to
delivery to the client
5 Evaluate the design 5.1 The design and development process is reviewed against
and development appropriate evaluation criteria
process 5.2 Time is taken to reflect and identify areas for
5.3 Identified improvements are documented for future

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4.5.12 Procedures for Planning Assessment Activities and Processes
Element Performance Criteria
1. Determine 1.1 Identify candidate and confirm purposes and context of
assessment approach assessment/RPL with relevant people according to legal,
organisational and ethical requirements
1.2 Identify and access benchmarks for assessment/RPL and any
specific assessment guidelines
2. Prepare the 2.1 Determine evidence and types of evidence needed to
assessment plan demonstrate competence, according to the rules of evidence
2.2 Select assessment methods which will support the collection of
defined evidence, taking into account the context in which the
assessment will take place
2.3 Document all aspects of the assessment plan and confirm with
relevant personnel
3. Develop assessment 3.1 Develop simple assessment instruments to meet target group
instruments needs
3.2 Analyse available assessment instruments for their suitability
for use and modify as required
3.3 Map assessment instruments against unit or course
3.4 Write clear instructions for candidate about the use of the
3.5 Trial draft assessment instruments to validate content and
applicability, and record outcomes

4.6 Required Employability Skills by All Trainers

Employability Requirements include:
Communication interpreting client needs and writing to these
using a range of communication skills, such as listening, questioning,
reading, interpreting and writing documents
writing hazard and incident reports
using effective facilitation and interpersonal skills, including verbal and
non-verbal language that is sensitive to the needs and differences of others
mentoring, coaching and tutoring techniques
Teamwork working with colleagues to compare, review, and evaluate assessment
processes and outcomes
actively participating in assessment validation sessions
managing work relationships and seeking feedback from colleagues and
clients on professional performance
developing and evaluating with others learning programs customized for
individual or group needs

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Problem-solving identifying hazards and assessing risks in the learning environment
using time-management skills in designing learning programs
calculating costs of programs and logistics of delivery, and accessing
appropriate resources
generating a range of options to meet client needs
Initiative and interpreting the learning environment and selecting delivery approaches
enterprise which motivate and engage learners
monitoring and improving work practices to enhance inclusivity and
being creative to meet clients' training needs
applying design skills to develop innovative and flexible cost-effective
Planning and researching, reading, analyzing and interpreting workplace specifications
organizing planning, prioritizing and organizing workflow
interpreting collected evidence and making judgments of competency
documenting action plans and hazard reports
working with clients in developing personal or group learning programs
organizing the human, physical and material resources required for learning
and assessment
Self- working within policy and organizational frameworks
management managing work and work relationships
adhering to ethical and legal responsibilities
taking personal responsibility in the planning, delivery and review of
being a role model for inclusiveness and demonstrating professionalism
examining personal perceptions and attitudes
Learning undertaking self-evaluation and reflection practices
researching information and accessing policies and frameworks to maintain
currency of skills and knowledge
promoting a culture of learning in the workplace
seeking feedback from colleagues
facilitating individual, group-based and work-based learning
Technology using technology to enhance outcomes, including online delivery and
research using the internet
using student information management systems to record assessments
identifying and organizing technology and equipment needs prior to
using a range of software, including presentation packages

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