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Since 2003 the Ministry of Education has embarked on major reforms in the
education sector. The reforms in the University sub-sector are aimed at
dealing with the challenges of increased demand, equity, quality, relevance,
financing, staff, student welfare, management and governance. These
challenges call for a paradigm shift in the development of higher education.
To address the above challenges, the Minister for Education appointed the
Taskforce for the Development of the National Strategy for University
Education in February 2006 with the following Terms of Reference (TOR):

To formulate and develop goals, specific objectives, strategies, and specific

targets and outputs in the university education subsector, taking into
account the relevant reports and other sources of information.

The Taskforce interpreted the TOR and developed strategies to address eight
(8) strategic issues, namely: access and equity; quality and relevance;
financing university education; science, technology and innovation; student
and staff welfare; ICT in university education; university linkages and
partnerships; and governance and management. The Taskforce reviewed the
rationale for university education before developing the strategies.

The primary sources of data and information for the environmental analysis
in the development of the strategies included the report of the Public
Universities Inspection Board (PUIB), the diverse experience and detailed
knowledge of the Taskforce members, Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2005, Kenya
Education Sector Support Programme (KESSP) 2005, CHE Report on
University Industry Linkages, Economic Survey 2005, Strategic Plans and
Financial reports of all local universities as well as UNESCO and Internet
resources. In addition, the Taskforce held meetings with stakeholders from
universities, other tertiary institutions, professional associations and boards.
The Taskforce also visited selected universities in the Republic of South Africa
and the United Republic of Tanzania in February and March 2007.

A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis was

conducted for each strategic issue. The Taskforce then identified the goals,
strategic objectives and approaches for each of the eight (8) key areas. The
Taskforce has also developed a detailed logical framework analysis
(logframe) matrix that could be incorporated into each strategic plan of the
universities or the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology and
associated institutions such as the Higher Education Loans Board (HELB) and
the Commission for Higher Education (CHE). Cost estimates for the
implementation of the proposed strategies, projects and activities identified as
essential have also been worked out and are annexed at the end of this

The following sections summarize each of the chapters of the report:

Why University Education

University education seeks not only to generate, transmit, store and retrieve
knowledge but also form persons of virtue and integrity. University
education trains leaders who are expected to be critical, creative and
innovative. Such leaders in training are offered the challenge of actualizing
their potential and transforming society. University education is critical for
socio-economic development. It has the potential to increase social equity and
mobility, social cohesion, productivity and innovation. University education
also encourages society to challenge unethical practices in governance.

Studies in developing and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and

Development (OECD) countries show that high quality university education
transforms individuals and societies in ways that reduce poverty and increase
the global competitiveness of nations. Recent studies also confirm that
university education produces both public and private benefits. On average,
university graduates have better employment prospects and have the
potential to earn higher salaries than non-graduates. The demand for
university education in Kenya is therefore very high.

Evidence from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural

Organization (UNESCO), the World Bank and the OECD studies also shows
that countries that invest heavily in higher education and skills development
derive more economic and social benefits. Enhanced national investment in
university education enables a country to compete in the global market on an
equal footing with other countries. In Kenya, the ability to utilize knowledge
generated from university education could dramatically raise agricultural
productivity, reduce the disease burden, protect the environment, add value
to local resources and the tourism sector, and establish Kenya as a hub for
financial services.

Access and Equity

Kenya has over 130,000 students enrolled in local universities. This translates
into a Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of 3%, which is lower than the 5% GER
for sub-Saharan Africa and 30-87% for OECD countries by 2004. About 50% of
the university students in Kenya are privately sponsored in public or private

The average annual admission in all public universities through the Joint
Admissions Board (JAB) has been about 10,000 students annually since 1992
until 2007 when it was increased to about 16,000. Table 1a shows the declining
percentage of qualified students (students who attained a grade C+ and
above) admitted into the universities between 2000 and 2006.

Table 1a: JAB Admission Trends, 2000/01-2005/06
Academic Year No. Qualified JAB Admissions % Admitted
2000/01 30,666 8,899 29.0
2001/02 40,4471 11,147 27.5
2002/03 42,158 11,046 26.2
2003/04 42,721 10,791 25.3
2004/05 58,218 10,200 17.5
2005/06 68,030 10,000 14.7
Source: CHE, 2006 and JAB

Thus, only 14.7% of the qualified students were admitted through JAB in the
period 2005/2006. The disparity between those students meeting the
minimum university entry requirement and those actually admitted is
increasing and will peak in 2015 when the estimated number of qualified
students will be 230,118. This figure does not include mature entry students,
those who could not be admitted in the previous years, or those who have
attained alternative admission standards through experiential and prior

Currently both public and private universities admit full fee paying students.
It is estimated that only 40% of the qualified students get admitted into local
universities every year. Consequently, many students go to foreign
universities in Australia, India, Malaysia, Uganda, South Africa and OECD
countries. Table 1b shows the high mobility of Kenyan students compared to
other countries in Africa. According to the Taskforce the number of Kenyans
studying abroad is much higher than what is reflected in the table below
taking into consideration Kenyan students in Uganda who are not captured in
the national statistics.

Table 1b: Relative Mobility of Selected University Students in OECD

Country Universities in 2004

Country Number of students abroad Outbound mobility ratio

Kenya 14,123 13
Uganda 2,454 2.8
Tanzania 3,907 9.1
Nigeria 15,139 1.2
South Africa 5,619 0.8
Source: UNESCO 2006

The strategic goal for increasing access to university education is:

To increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio of university students from the 3%

to 10% by 2015.

GER is the ratio of university enrolled age cohort versus the total number of
that cohort in the population. To achieve this strategic goal, there will be need
to increase the number of university students from the current 130,000 to
about 450,000 students by the year 2015. The strategies to be put in place to
accommodate this large number of students will include establishment of new
university colleges in regional areas, with special focus on strategic disciplines
deemed important to the regions. (e.g., rangeland water management for the
Arid and Semi-Arid Lands).

Further strategies for achieving such an increase include establishing an Open

University and new universities, expanding existing Open and Distance
Learning, expanding the capacities of existing universities, and establishing
campus colleges of existing universities in strategic areas as well as upgrading
exiting middle-level colleges to degree-granting institutions without losing
their current mandate. In addition to the above measures there is need to
streamline and fast-track postgraduate programmes in order to increase the
number of PhD holders required for university education and other national

The current system of admission based purely on grades attained at KCSE

promotes meritocracy and transparency. However, it does not necessarily
promote geographical or socio-economic equity of access. For example, direct
entry into competitive professional degree programmes for students from
district secondary schools has been relatively low due to the quality of these
schools. This is further compounded by lack of adequate information on
university education opportunities in remote and rural secondary schools.

The strategic goal for equity in university education is:

To attain equity in university education enrolment that reflects national

diversity by 2015

The strategy is to have gender parity in university enrolment by 2015. This

would require that each course programme has at least 30 percent female
students by 2010. In order to achieve equity in access it is essential to consider
regional and economic disparities based on annual economic surveys
conducted by the Ministry of Planning and National Development.
Consideration should be given to mechanisms of increasing the percentage of
enrolment of female and socio-economically disadvantaged students in
proportion to population distribution and degree of socio-economic
marginalization in the country.
To achieve access and equity in university education the following strategic
objectives shall be implemented:

i. expand open and distance learning;
ii. expansion of capacity of existing public universities;
iii. expansion of existing private universities;
iv. establishment of new universities and colleges;
v. expand postgraduate and International students programmes;
vi. modernize expand and upgrade existing middle-level colleges;
vii. expand and strengthen the HE division of MoE;
viii. coordinate universities admission process;
ix. increase gender parity;
x. increase the enrolment of students with special needs; and
xi. increase the enrolment of socio-economically disadvantaged students.

The following strategies will be pursued:

i. review the enrolment of female students into every university

academic programme to ensure 30 percent female student enrolment
by 2010;
ii. introduction of a Quota Admission System (QAS) which guarantees
places in the universities that are distributed on proportional basis for
regionally and/or socio-economically marginalized students from
areas identified through economic surveys; at least thirty percent of
who should be females. Students from such identified areas who
marginally miss the cut off point for various programmes should be
offered government supported pre-entry upgrading courses of three months
duration, at the end of which those who do well will be allowed to
continue with the appropriate courses and those not meeting the entry
point would be directed to other suitable courses;
iii. increase enrolment of students with special needs through appropriate
out-reach programmes targeting them and/or through pre-entry
programmes supported by the government;
iv. establish the number of students with special needs through the
Ministry of Education which shall communicate the same to the
universities for appropriate action. Similarly, universities need to
improve and establish learning friendly environment for special needs
v. institutionalize and harmonize pathways into university education for
non-direct secondary school leavers e.g. middle level college
graduates, learners with workplace and experiential learning skills and
mature entry needs by reserving at least five percent of admission
places annually. A national qualification framework should be
established within CHE to work out mechanisms for implementation;
vi. the government to provide financial incentives to universities that
enrol students to academic programmes which are in line with national
priority and strategic areas. Universities that meet the national target of
enrolling and graduating more female, special needs and socio-
economically disadvantaged students should also benefit from such

vii. increase the postgraduate student enrolment to at least ten percent
(10%) of the undergraduate enrolment through government grants and
incentives to universities;
viii. provide admission places into the universities for regional and
international students according to programme demand and places;
ix. provide information and create awareness for the new changes
recommended to students and other stakeholders; and
x. establish a national higher education data management system that
will maintain electronic records and profiles of students in Kenyan and
foreign universities. Every university shall be legally required to
submit students data to the Higher Education Data Management

Quality and Relevance

During the environmental analysis phase of strategy development, the
Taskforce learned that although the quality of students continues to improve,
faculty development programmes are lacking and there is a shortage of
doctoral-level lecturers as a result of rapid expansion and brain drain. The
quality of the learning environment in some universities has been declining.
This has had an especially negative effect on undergraduate and graduate
degree programmes in science, engineering and technology.

CHE is the external university quality assurance body set up by the

government. However, its mandate has been confined to the private
universities. Its operations are further constrained by lack of capacity. Even in
the private universities, it has focused mainly on the accreditation of new
universities rather than regular quality assurance. Public universities that
admit over 90% of the students and have more degree programmes do not
have an external quality assurance body. They are autonomous and self-
regulating. The only external quality assurance tool used is the external
examiner. This means that the expansion of the access by public universities
through the development of new degree programmes, satellite campuses or in
partnership with private colleges is unregulated and devoid of external
quality assurance.

The Taskforce has identified factors that significantly contribute to quality

university education. The factors range from students choice and admission,
diversified admission criteria, staff and student ratios, examination process,
demands of industry, quality postgraduate programmes to quality of physical

The strategic goal for quality and relevance of university is:

To improve quality and relevance of learning and research for socio-

economic transformation by 2015

In order to achieve quality and relevance in university education the
following strategic objectives shall be implemented:

i. establish and/or strengthen admission mechanisms to ensure that

quality students are admitted into universities bearing in mind past
marginalization, geographical and socioeconomic disadvantages;
ii. develop and/or strengthen mechanisms that allow students to pursue
courses of their choice for which they qualify;
iii. produce high calibre, well prepared, and suitable graduates with
requisite knowledge, skills, competencies, and right values, attitudes
and integrity;
iv. improve the retention and graduation rates of university students and
strengthen graduate education;
v. develop student academic support systems and monitor progress of
vi. recruit, develop, and retain qualified academic staff who are holders of
Ph.D. or equivalent in all disciplines;
vii. increase the quantity and quality of research output;
viii. provide sufficient teaching facilities, equipment and materials;
ix. provide a modern learning environment of a high standard;
x. review the curriculum to make it current and relevant;
xi. establish and/or strengthen internal quality assurance mechanisms;
xii. strengthen and re-structure CHE to be the quality assurance body for
all institutions of higher learning; and
xiii. provide incentives to institutions that demonstrate improved quality.

The following are some of the strategies:

i. drafting of a comprehensive Universities Act to incorporate all
players in Higher Education;
ii. restructuring and strengthening of the Commission for Higher
Education to undertake accreditation of all higher education
iii. establishment of mechanisms that encourage universities to enforce
their existing quality mechanisms and also develop new and effective
iv. establishment of a Review and Harmonization Committee to be
assisted by an external consultant in order to enhance objectivity;
v. development of admissions criteria that is sensitive to the diversity
of potential students and that recognizes prior learning and experience;
vi. development of monitoring and evaluation systems to ensure
adherence to the set standards; and
vii. involvement of professional associations and bodies in quality
assurance and control of graduate programmes.

Financing of University Education

Currently public universities receive most of the funding from the
government. Due to increased demand this is no longer sufficient. Some

universities are raising substantial finances from income generating activities.
The management of the additional funds generated through income
generating activities is not transparent and there are no clear policy
guidelines for appropriation. At present, about eighty percent (80%) of
government capitation to public universities goes to pay emoluments leaving
only twenty percent (20%) for Operations and Maintenance (O & M). The
non-salary budget is allocated to the various competing expenditure items of
the university without necessarily determining the various needs on the basis
of ab initio budgeting.

Private universities fund themselves through tuition fees and they are run as
not-for-profit trusts. They do not receive any direct benefits from the
government. They can however, apply for tax waivers on some imported
equipment. Private universities play a role in providing university education
as a public good and therefore should be assisted to meet their goals and
aspirations through land allocation or state guaranteed loans.

Implementation of all strategies identified will require additional sources of

funding. The Taskforce has identified university funding sources as the
government, the household, the private sector, market financial instruments
like university education bonds, guaranteed loans, university education
insurance fund, endowment funds and income generating activities as
indicated in the financing model (Fig. 1.1a).

In order for these funding strategies to be implemented effectively it is

necessary to establish a National Research Foundation (NRF) and restructure

Kenya has no centralized body that mobilizes and manages research funds
and activities. Experience from South Africa and all OECD and other
developing countries demonstrate that it is more efficient to manage research
activities through a centralized body. The strategy shall be to establish NRF of
Kenya. Its responsibilities shall be to: mobilize resources from public and
private sector; disburse funds; and coordinate and promote the national
research agenda.

HELB currently gives loans and bursaries to undergraduate students. It also

gives loans and scholarships to postgraduate students. In order to improve
management of funds it is proposed that the Board be strengthened to
undertake the following additional responsibilities:

i. disburse institutional loans and grants for capital development;

ii. receive annual reccurent capitation grants from government and
disburse the same to universities;
iii. manage funds for infrastructure development;
iv. spearhead establishment of a National University Education
Endowment Fund and National University Insurance Fund; and
v. mobilize additional funds for supporting needy students.

In order to enhance the capacity for recovering loans and facilitating the
migration of individual students loans across institutions, the strategy of
using Personal Identification Number (PIN) System shall be introduced for
the identification of students in consultation with the Kenya Revenue
Authority. In addition, HELB shall establish an Education Smart Card
System (voucher system) that incorporates the student PIN for all financial
transactions related to university education.

In order to improve access, equity and quality in the development of human

resources from marginalized areas and communities of Kenya, it is
recommended that affirmative action targeting those in need be implemented
through tailored means tested financial assistance. This should include loans,
grants and scholarships. Grants and scholarships should be used only to
advance policy directions for access, quality, equity and/or development of
human resources for strategic national needs.

The strategic goal for university funding is:

To establish reliable, diversified and sustainable and accountable

mechanisms for financing university education.

The following strategic objectives shall be pursued to achieve the financing

i. review and implement the unit cost as a basis for funding public
universities in Kenya and establish guidelines for objective
determination of the unit cost based on zero budgeting principle;
ii. mobilize sufficient funds, internally and externally, to implement the
strategic reforms;
iii. establish diversified, reliable and sustainable sources of financing
university education;
iv. develop a sustainable model for supporting students and for funding
specific academic, capital and human resource development projects in
the university sub-sector;
v. establish a suitable framework and an autonomous national agency for
raising and distributing research funds (NRF).

The following are some of the strategies:

i. develop mechanisms to maximize funding from sources in
proposed financing model;
ii. use the student per capita expenditure (the unit cost) in each degree
programme as the basis for determining the appropriate funding
iii. restructure HELB to enable it become a broad-based funding

iv. Establish Education Smart card for management of transaction of
education loans, scholarships and other funds given to students.
v. identify strategic academic and capital development programmes
for Government funding;
vi. identify strategic areas in human resource development for
Government support;
vii. establish a National Research Foundation;
viii. establish a National Higher Education Endowment Fund by
reserving 1% of VAT income annually to the fund;
ix. mobilize financial support from private sector, industry, alumni
and individuals; and
x. universities to establish budget lines for maintenance of assets and

Figure 1.1a Proposed Kenyan Model for Financing University Education, Sources and Pathways.
Funding sources Recipients
Managing/ Intermediary
Bodies Beneficiaries


Government Educ. Bonds, Higher Education Government
IDA Researchers Employers
Professional Academies Individuals
HELB Communities


Financial institutions

Private Sector
National Research Research
Foundation Institutes

Kenya Education Insurance Fund

Income Generating Activities

Student and Staff Welfare
Students form an important pillar of any university therefore their welfare should be
a matter of priority. A combination of factors has traditionally impacted negatively
on student welfare. These include: frequent students and lecturers strikes; political
interference; delay in student admission through JAB; and eventual lack
employment opportunities and low remuneration for graduates. Other problems
facing students include: inadequate catering, accommodation and recreational
facilities; inefficient registration and orientation processes; lack of adapted facilities
for students with special needs.

The strategic goal of this strategic objective is:

To improve retention, well-being, and productivity of university students.

The following strategic objectives identified shall be implemented for the

improvement of student welfare in universities:

i. streamlining the admission process by decentralising JAB to ensure that

quality students are admitted appropriately in an equitable manner;
ii. improving students financing for retention and completion;
iii. improving advising, guidance and counselling services provided for
iv. improving planning and performance of student registration and
orientation process;
v. improving catering, accommodation and recreation facilities; and
vi. improving the learning, teaching and research environment.

The following are some of the strategies:

i. streamline admission process to ensure that quality students are admitted
appropriately in an equitable manner;
ii. streamline the process of identification of needy students and appropriate
levels of financial assistance award(s);
iii. improve the flow of communication and information to and from students;
iv. develop and implement student welfare policies (sexual harassment, drug
and substance abuse, unprofessional academic practices, civic responsibility).
v. enhance and develop flexible student catering, accommodation and
recreation policy
vi. provide adequate library, lecture, laboratory, tutorial rooms, ICT facilities,

Kenyan universities have highly trained and skilled persons who develop, create
and transmit knowledge. A number of them also carry out administrative and
managerial duties. Although the welfare of the academic and administrative staff
has undergone significant improvement in the past few years, there are areas that
still require further attention.
The hiring and deployment of staff should be seen to be transparent and fair with
clear and competitive terms of service. Critical challenges in the working
environment include lack of IT compliant offices, inadequate learning teaching
materials and facilities as well as heavy teaching loads that limit time for research
and consultation. Other staff welfare challenges include lack of institutionalized IPR
regimes, limited opportunities to participate in faculty exchange programmes, and
deteriorating university working culture and ethical norms.

The strategic goal for the improvement of the staff welfare is:

Improve retention, well-being and productivity of staff in universities.

The strategic objective is, improvement of staff welfare in universities.

In order to achieve the strategic goal the following key strategies are recommended:
i. recruit, motivate and retain highly qualified staff;
ii. the deliberate selection and training of managers in human resource
management and the employment of qualified human resource managers;
iii. expand and regularly maintain infrastructure;
iv. source for extra funds to help in the organization, attendance and facilitation
of locally organized and international staff development programmes;
v. develop guidelines for giving incentives to academic staff who publish
papers, supervise students, engage in research as well as participate in
community service;
vi. develop clear guidelines on the handling and safeguarding of confidential
material with respect to third parties;
vii. institutionalize deliberate measures to ensure the respect of IPR for both the
academic staff and universities; and
viii. provide attractive tax-free tuition waivers for family members of staff.

Science, Technology and Innovation

Universities are critical drivers of innovation systems. The establishment of strong
innovation systems allows countries to assimilate and adapt global knowledge for
local needs and to create new knowledge. Countries that have strong innovation
systems have excellent performance in university science and technology
programmes. New global indicator for development has been tied to investment in
science technology and innovation by a country. For example, newly industrialized
countries like Brazil, China, India and South Korea have invested heavily in science
and technology education.

An indicator that expresses the progress a university or country is making is the

number of doctoral graduates per year. Given the Kenyan population, the number of
PhD graduates produced by Kenyan universities is insufficient for them to stand a
chance of advancing innovations.

There are various systems required in an innovation driven economy. One of these
includes the identification of platform technologies. At the same time there is need to
focus on some of the fastest growing areas of enterprise such as Small and Medium
Enterprises (SMEs), service industries, financial and monetary services, education,
eco-tourism, African cultural artefacts and art and human health. At present there is
a disjoint between the natural and social sciences. In order to improve the university-
private sector-government linkages and partnerships, it is critical that social and
human sciences education programmes, research and publications be strengthened
at the university level.

The PUIB Report (2006) states that universities in Kenya need to align their degree
programmes to the needs of the strategic sectors of the economy. The report
identified the following key strategic areas: agricultural technologies; water and
sanitation technologies; medical and health sciences and technologies; infrastructure
technologies; energy; culture and development; and peace, human security and
development. Other areas include software and hardware industries and services
that will be required as ICT penetration in business, government and households
increase in Kenya and Africa. The country also needs to focus more on
biotechnology, nanotechnology, genomics and new materials sciences.

Strategic goal of Science, Technology and Innovation is:

To create a culture of knowledge generation, adaptation, application and

innovation in Kenyan universities.

The establishment of structured and functional policy and advisory bodies would
greatly enhance the creation of a science, technology and innovation culture. Table
6.1 indicates the proposed policy bodies that should be established.

The following are strategic objectives:

i. improve ScTI governance at all levels;
ii. enhance innovation systems; and
iii. increase investment in ScTI

The following are some of the strategies to be implemented:

i. to put in place a national and institutional policy framework for Science,

Technology and Innovation;
ii. strengthen national IPR strategies;
iii. promote Technology clusters;
iv. develop business incubation systems;
v. increase the percentage of ScTI student population in all universities;
vi. strengthen doctoral Science and Technology education research programmes;
vii. integrate the teaching of science, math, and ICT in all undergraduate degree
programmes, especially humanities and social sciences;

viii. increase Basic Expenditure in Research and Development (BERD) as a % of
GDP in line with the Abuja Declaration on Science and Technology of 1%
target; and
ix. stimulate venture capital activity

Information and Communication Technology in University Education

Information and communication technology infrastructure is one of the four pillars
of the emerging knowledge economy. It is therefore not possible to develop a
national innovation system without a well-developed ICT infrastructure that would
support high usage levels by students and lecturers. An ICT infrastructure is also
essential for achieving increased access levels and achieving the quality university
education. The use of IT systems in the management of universities is also necessary
for achieving the university education financing strategies.

There is a mismatch between the Kenyan university ICT degree programmes and the
requirements of the market. In order to meet the national needs the university ICT
programmes should be reviewed and strengthened.

Apart from being used in teaching, learning, research and management, ICT is an
integral part of ScTI. The Taskforce therefore defined the strategic goal of ICT in
university education as follows:

To integrate ICT into university education and increase ICT innovation and
research output of Kenyan universities.

Some of the strategic objectives that will be used to achieve this strategic goal

i. developing institutional ICT policies and strategic plans;

ii. strengthening the ICT human capacity in all universities;
iii. networking all university campuses and providing basic applications for
learning and management; and
iv. increasing the quality of the national ICT human capacity in areas of focus

The following are some of the strategies to be implemented;

i. develop institutional ICT policies;

ii. develop/review and implement ICT strategic plans;
iii. develop policy and strategy on open content development in universities
iv. establish competitive scheme of service for ICT professional staff;
v. network all university campuses;
vi. allocate sufficient financial resources to the ICT department to support the
ICT strategic plans;
vii. partner with KENET and other licensed network operators to roll out
broadband national infrastructure to every university;

viii. collaborate with other universities to obtain government support for local
access and interconnection infrastructure;
ix. train faculty members on content development and delivery;
x. develop e-learning content for degree and continuing education programmes
xi. establish high quality ICT centres of excellence undertaking cutting-edge

To effectively achieve integration, universities must prioritize investment in modern,

efficient and appropriate ICT infrastructure. Reduction in overall cost may be
achieved by ICT centres forming networks that share the cost of equipment and
services which at the moment universities find prohibitive. The government should
assist through a one-off investment and waivers of fees and licenses of ICT
infrastructure. All these strategies require heavy investment in campus ICT
infrastructure and systems as well as a broadband national internet infrastructure.

University Linkages and Partnerships

University Linkages and Partnerships in Kenya exist but lack structured agreements
and do not fully exploit the existing opportunities.
The Taskforce identified seven types of linkages and partnerships, namely:
i. University-industry;
ii. University-university;
iii. University-research institutes;
iv. University-middle-level colleges ;
v. University-international organizations;
vi. University-community; and
vii. University-relevant professional and regulatory bodies.

Well-structured linkages and partnerships provide opportunities for universities to:

undertake joint procurement of expensive research equipment; carry out
collaborative research; mobilize research funding; provide exposure to state of the
art technology to university students and staff through exchange programmes;
maintain relevance of training programmes to the needs of industry; enhance
internships and industrial attachments and employment opportunities for university
students; and enhance dissemination of research findings and innovation and
integrate community service into university programmes.

The strategic goal for linkages and partnerships is:

Develop strong university linkages and partnerships that enhance mutual

learning, research and innovation.

Strategic objectives are to:

i. establish operational policy environment for university-industry linkages

and partnerships;

ii. promote university linkages and partnerships with relevant professional and
regulatory bodies;
iii. develop and strengthen university-university linkages and partnerships;
iv. promote university-research institute linkages and partnerships;
v. promote university- middle-level college linkages and partnerships;
vi. promote university-international/multinational organization linkages and
partnerships; and
vii. strengthen university-community linkages and partnerships.

The following are some of the strategies to be implemented

i. establish a national policy on university-industry collaborative research;
ii. develop policies university-industry innovation clusters and/or technology
iii. promote and operationalise knowledge creation through joint research,
contract research, and comprehensive collaboration agreements;
iv. promote knowledge transfer through journals, papers, books, conference
v. Promote faculty and student internships and exchanges with local and
international companies as well as student/faculty internships and
vi. promote linkages with international universities to enhance knowledge and
technology acquisition;
vii. strengthen the national research and education network to support
collaboration among Kenyan universities;
viii. establish collaborative programmes with United Nations organizations like
UNEP, UNESCO, WHO, UNIDO and other similar organizations;
ix. integrate community service and university degree programmes; and
x. promote co-curricula activities that engage local communities

Governance and Management of University Education

Effective and efficient governance and management of universities has a direct
bearing on the overall quality of the institutions. Universities, both public and
private, have specific responsibilities and are expected to be accountable to their
clients especially in ensuring the provision of quality service, teaching, training and
research in national strategic areas.

The public universities are established by specific Acts of Parliament that are not in
harmony with the Universities Act Cap 210B that created CHE and provided for
establishment of private universities.

Rapid expansion in the university education sector has necessitated comprehensive

review of the legal framework governing the various categories of universities (The
Kamunge Taskforce of 2007)). Harmonized umbrella legislation will eliminate
unethical institutional rivalry and promote partnerships among universities.
Experience from countries such as South Africa and Tanzania indicates that a
harmonized legal framework leads to enhanced stakeholder satisfaction. The current

governance and management bodies are too large to be efficient. The composition
and functions of university governance bodies need to be redefined, streamlined and
made open to stakeholder scrutiny.

Good governance requires planning for and ensuring continuity in human resource
development based on a clear understanding of the requisite competencies and skills
for all units of the university. The ability to forecast future needs and plan for new
development of the economy is also important. Every university should, therefore,
establish a strong planning division with representation at the highest level.

The strategic goal on governance and management is:

Enhance governance and management for efficiency and effectiveness of universities

and their contribution to Kenya's socio-economic development.

In order to achieve the strategic goal the following strategies shall be implemented:

i. restructuring of public universities governance bodies;

ii. rationalize and mainstream the functions of the
Congregations/Courts, and the Chancellor in universities;
iii. review the accreditation standards for governance and management;
iv. review the human resource requirements and policies and implement
as appropriate;
v. review the financial management systems and implement appropriate
vi. review universities planning systems and implement reforms;
vii. establish high quality, reliable and timely information and
communication systems;
viii. establish efficient and effective management systems;
ix. improve documentation and records of governing bodies; and
x. improve decision making process of governing bodies.

The following are some of the strategies to be implemented:

i. restructuring of public universities' governance structure;
ii. rationalize and mainstream the functions of the Congregation / Court and the
Chancellor in universities;
iii. review the accreditation standards for Governance and Management
iv. Review the human resource requirements and policies and implement as
v. review the financial management system and implement appropriate reforms;
vi. review university planning system and implement appropriate reforms;
vii. establish high quality, reliable and timely information and communication
viii. establish efficient and effective management structures;
ix. improve documentation and records of governing bodies;
x. improve decision- making processes of governing bodies.



University education seeks not only to generate, transmit, store and retrieve
knowledge but also to form persons of virtue and integrity. According to Paulo
Freire, education should train leaders who are critical, creative and innovative. Such
leaders in training are offered the challenge of actualizing their potential and
transforming society. The university therefore assists students in developing skills
that help them learn from the past, examine the present and plan for the future.

The Kenyan university education system is therefore called upon to examine several
factors that seem to drive basic social institutions in order to suggest ways in which
education will deliberately engineer these factors to produce favourable results in
the broader economic, political, recreational and cultural domains. Kenyan
university graduates should be strategically positioned to meaningfully engage in
nation building and actively participate in international affairs. At the same time
they should be encouraged to celebrate the nobility and uniqueness of their cultural
heritage diversity.

High quality university education transforms individuals and societies in ways that
reduce poverty and increase the global competitiveness of nations. It is true that
many developing countries, including Kenya, have given priority to primary and
secondary education at the expense of tertiary education. However, recent studies
confirm that university education produces both public and private benefits. Some
of the reasons in support of higher education include the following.

i. Universities promote peace, security and national cohesion. Without peace

and security social and economic development of a country cannot be
achieved. For this reason the Task Force has identified peace and conflict
resolution as one of the critical strategic areas. Universities can promote peace
and security by reviewing and expanding their programmes in this area.
Universities can also promote peace and security by making deliberate efforts
by cultivating a culture of peace within their institutions. In times of conflict,
university faculty should also effectively contribute to conflict resolution
process. A project to review the actual needs in terms of qualified faculty and
number required to be trained in this particular area should be conducted.
ii. Private benefits of university education include better employment prospects,
higher salaries, ability to understand complex social and political issues, and a
higher social status. These benefits often result in a better quality of life.
Kenyans value university education and sacrifice their resources to provide
education opportunities at this level.
iii. Universities promote social and economic development. Evidence from
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) studies
shows that countries that invest heavily in education and skills benefit
economically and socially from that choice (Andreas Schleicher, The

Economics of knowledge). India with a per capita GDP of only $3,100
(measured in terms of purchasing-power parity), a literacy rate of only 65%
and with a 65% rural population is a leading source of computer software in
the world. Indias knowledge-based exports are expected to surpass $50
billion by 2010 (Nilekani in Newsweek 2006).
iv. University education can provide solutions to social problems such as food
security, health problems and epidemic diseases. Indias ability to harness
and utilize knowledge to solve common societal problems such as increase in
agricultural production is attributed to its governments huge investments in
world-class higher education institutions and universities that are relevant,
competitive and meritocratic (Dalman and Utz, India and the Knowledge
Economy]. Examples of such institutions include the Indian Institutes of
Technology, Indian Institutes of Management, Indian Institute of Science, and
the Indian Regional Engineering Colleges.
v. A recent paper analyzing the impact of higher education training and life long
learning on economic development concludes that improving access and
quality of higher education coupled with life-long learning improve the
prospects for developing knowledge economy. (Dalman, The Impact of
Higher Education Training and Lifelong Learning on Economic

A comparison of performance between Ghana and South Korea in terms of GDP

per capita growth from 1960 to 2000 showed a marked difference of over 12% by
2001. This was due to South Koreas higher investment levels in education,
particularly university education which created human capital and knowledge

Countries that have made impressive expansion in student enrolments at the

tertiary level have tended to reflect a relatively rapid growth in their economies.
Mauritius which had an enrolment ratio of 15% at the tertiary level in 2005, had a
per capita GDP of US$ 12,800 in ppp terms. By comparison, Tanzania which had
an enrolment ration of only 1% had a per capita GDP of only US$ 700. Although
Mauritius population is 1/30 that of Tanzania (table 1.1), its enrolment numbers
are 50% those of Tanzania. The comparative figures for Kenya during the same
period are 3% enrolment ration and US$ 1034 in ppp.

Table 1.1: Comparison of Higher Education Enrolment and Economic Growth
between Mauritius and Tanzania

Country Tertiary Enrolment Ratio Population Per Capita

(000,000) Income (PPP)
1985 2005
Mauritius 1% 15% 1/30 US$12,800
Tanzania 1% 1% 30 US$700
Source: David Bloom, Higher Education and Economic Development in Africa (2006)

In Kenya, the ability to use knowledge could dramatically enhance the agricultural
sector by increasing production and adding value to primary products. Food
security could be enhanced through the development of Kenyas Arid and Semi Arid
Lands (ASAL), the tourism sector could be enhanced by diversifying the products,
mining and the services sectors could be fully exploited with the provision of
appropriate manpower. Kenya is well placed within the region for development into
a financial and manufacturing hub.

Since 1970, Kenya has made tremendous progress in university education compared
to other East African countries. The total student enrolment in Kenyan universities
in 2005 was 91,541 (Economic Survey, 2005). About 90% of the students are enrolled
in the seven public universities and the rest in private universities. In addition to the
students enrolled in Kenyan universities in the year 2004, there were 14,123 Kenyan
students enrolled in tertiary institutions in foreign countries with the majority in top
five countries being: USA, 7,381; the United Kingdom (UK), 3083; Australia, 1,115;
India, 521; and Canada, 341) (UNESCO, 2006). Many Kenyan students also study in
other foreign universities such as those South Africa, Uganda and Tanzania.

Fifty five percent (55%) of the 81,491 students enrolled in 2005 in the Kenyan public
universities were sponsored by the government. The rest are privately-sponsored. In
addition, the government provides some financial assistance to students studying in
local private universities and abroad. Figure 1.1 shows students cleared by the
Ministry of Education to go for further studies out of the country since 1999 per
grade. The cumulative number was about 15,500. Half the number of these students
attained grades C+ and C- at the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE)
but there are those with grades between E and D + who also go abroad. The majority
of students with grades between A and B- are absorbed locally. A large number of
Kenyan students also find their way out of the country without getting formal
clearance from the Ministry of Education. Kenya should invest in university
education to capture this large number who spend substantial foreign exchange in
other universities.

Figure 1.1: Students Cleared by the Ministry of Education to go for Further
Studies out of the Country since 1999 per grade





Kenya has one of the largest educated workforce in Africa and exports its
professional manpower to other African countries such as Botswana, Rwanda,
Sudan and South Africa. Many other professionals, who received their initial
university education in Kenya are working in the US and Europe. As a result there
are substantial remittances from abroad amounting to about Kshs. 46 billion.
Graduates from local universities provide services in the public and private sector as
well as abroad.

In 2004/2005 the government expenditure on education was Kshs. 86.123 billion

which was 7% of GDP. Only 0.9% of GDP went to cover the operational costs of
public universities. This was an equivalent of 12 % of the total education budget.
The expenditure per student as a percentage of GDP per capita is still very high at
274.7 compared to 44.9 for Mauritius, 28.8 for the UK and 111.1 for Namibia
(UNESCO, 2006). Funds allocated for development have been very low in
comparison with those provided for operational costs. For example, only Kshs. 602
million was allocated for development to all the six public universities in the fiscal
Year 2004-2005. The public universities have therefore been under pressure to
generate additional income and to reduce their dependence on the government
expenditure (Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2005).

As mentioned earlier the universities have played a critical role in the development
of human resources and the advancement of research in this country. However, the
relative success and innovations of the Kenyan university system notwithstanding,
there is an urgent need for increased investment in university education, particularly
in the public universities for the following reasons.

i. Investment in the sub sector has not kept pace with the growth in enrolment.

ii. The university enrolment ratio of 3% is still very low by global standards and
huge investments are required to increase the enrolment ratio. For example,
69 out of 100 adults of tertiary education age are enrolled in tertiary education
programmes in North America and Europe, compared to only 3 in Kenya and
10 in South and West Asia. (UNESCO, 2006).

iii. There is evidence that the quality of university graduates is declining in some
programmes. These include professional degree programmes such as science,
engineering, medicine and business that are essential for development.
Professional bodies for accounting, engineering, and law, the local industry
and other employers in government and service sectors have raised concerns
about the quality of graduates from local universities (PUIB, 2006).

iv. Kenyan universities currently do not adequately invest in faculty

development and this is already having negative effects on the quality of the
graduates. Some doctoral programmes in strategic areas like business, ICT,
and engineering have very low enrolments and yet programmes in these
areas have expanded dramatically in the past ten (10) years. Faculty members
are also not being trained on new innovations in teaching and learning, and
receive relatively limited support for research.

v. The global economy has changed from being commodity based to

knowledge driven. The ability to harness and generate knowledge has
become critical to the economic and social advancement of nations and
communities. The competitiveness of nations is now measured in terms of the
Knowledge Economy index and Kenya is performing poorly at position 84 in
the global rankings (

vi. A modern university needs modern technology and a high-quality learning

and teaching environment that includes modern libraries. Universities in
Kenya need to invest heavily not only in information technology
infrastructure but also in science, engineering and medical laboratory
equipment. The PUIB report observes that many engineering and science
laboratories are in urgent need of modern equipment.

vii. Limited investments in the expansion in infrastructure for science,

engineering, medical and IT degree programmes means that it is still not
possible to significantly increase enrolments and carry out adequate research
in these fields. The emerging private universities have also not adequately
invested in science, engineering, and technology programmes because of the
high investment required. Since these fields are essential for economic
development, especially in a knowledge economy, this lack of investment will
have a long-term impact on Kenyas advancement.

viii. Partnerships between local industry and Kenyan universities have been very
weak. In the developed countries, industry benefits from the activities of
research by universities, particularly from their state-of-the-art laboratories,
which conduct cutting-edge research for them. Industry in turn funds
research projects in the universities.

ix. Kenyan universities are often disconnected from the mainstream

development agenda of the country. Their role has been reduced to that of
granting degree certificates to its graduates. There is an urgent need to
position and recognize universities as critical partners in the development
process, that could provide advice, skills and solutions to societal problems.

x. Kenyan universities lack a viable innovation system mostly due to lack of

resources. This limits their participation in large science and technology
projects as well as other sectors. An effective innovation system would
promote an innovative and entrepreneurial mindset among the students and
faculty. Universities should therefore take the lead and become islands of
innovation in Kenya.

xi. Alternative modes of provision of university education such as ODL and e-

learning have not been fully exploited. These would increase access and
enhance life-long opportunities, which are required by a workforce that is
constantly in need of updating skills and competences.

The Kenyan universities need to invest in life-long learning infrastructure in order to

benefit from the existing pool of university graduates working in Kenya. This means
investing in new teaching methods for adult learners and developing locally relevant
local content. It also means investing in ICT platforms for distance education and e-

The PUIB observes that public Universities in Kenya are not efficient or effective in
their use of resources and are in urgent need of institutional reforms to make them
operate in a more business-like fashion. That means that there is need to pay greater
attention to learning outcomes rather than credentials. For example, improving the
quality of teaching using new innovative methods could achieve some of the desired
learning outcomes such as critical thinking and communication skills required in a
modern work environment. This observation is not unique to Kenyan universities as
evidence from Europe shows that money is not a guarantee for achievement of
superior learning outcomes.

Solutions to some of the problems highlighted above require much more that just
funding to support the operational budgets. The universities must endeavour to be
more efficient, flexible and effective in improving learning outcomes. The
government is aware of the need to reform the governance and management of
public universities in Kenya. To improve on the management of the public
universities in Kenya the competitive recruitment of Vice-Chancellors has been
adopted. The government could facilitate more reforms of the Kenyan universities to
make them more efficient in order to respond to both national and global challenges.

Implementing external quality assurance systems and regulations will cause
universities to focus on learning outcomes and quality indicators rather than
credentials. Operating in a business-like fashion will facilitate the efficient utilization
of the scarce resources. However, the government will need to continue to support
universities so that they prepare graduates for the new knowledge economy.

The World Bank knowledge exchange institute has developed a Knowledge

Exchange Index (KEI) with the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE) that measures the
preparedness of nations to harness and use knowledge. The KEI will increasingly be
used to determine the areas of investment in the country.

The knowledge economy rests on four main pillars, namely:

i. Economic and institutional pillar, which provides incentives for the efficient
creation, dissemination and use of existing knowledge;

ii. Education pillar which develops an educated workforce that can use
knowledge effectively;

iii. Innovation pillar that ensures that global knowledge diffuses into the nation,
adapts it for local use and creates new local knowledge; and

iv. Information and Communication Technology infrastructure (ICT) pillar that

facilitates the effective communication, dissemination and processing of

(Knowledge for Development (

Although the above pillars apply to nations, they could be used to assess the
preparedness of universities in Kenya to provide the knowledge economy workforce
required in the key economic areas of agriculture, tourism, business, finance, as well
as the niche areas of computer software development. This is the islands approach
to developing a knowledge economy that has also been adopted by countries like
Argentina and India which are more developed compared to Kenya. A similar
island investment approach has been proposed in the e-campus model for Africa
that has been developed by an ad hoc African experts group.

The island approach recognizes that a particular developing country requires

massive investments to achieve an acceptable global or regional ranking. For
example, it is possible to develop a world-class ICT infrastructure in a campus for
educating graduates for the knowledge economy workforce even when the national
information infrastructure is underdeveloped. Similarly, universities could create an
island innovation system that conducts research and development (R&D) for
industry. Universities and centres of innovation and entrepreneurship could be
involved in capital formation projects, such as technology parks and business
incubator facilitates. An example is the Kenya Country Incubator project of Jomo
Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) that is helping young
computer software engineers develop market-ready products. It is therefore

recommended that the government use the above pillars to structure and measure
the effectiveness of the additional investments into Kenyan universities.

It has been argued that the university should advance critical thinking and
innovation, social equity, deconstruction/or reconstruction of knowledge fit for
African/or Kenyan priorities and global competitiveness (Micere Mugo, 2001). She
further argues that there is need for appropriation, harnessing and development of
intellectual wealth inherent in the youth and communities.

Kenya has a critical mass of highly trained persons in many areas. However, lack of
employment opportunities, policy for rewarding additional qualifications and the
relatively early mandatory retirement ages lead to underutilization of these valuable
skills. The relatively early mandatory retirement of qualified and experienced
personnel is a loss to the economy. It is also a discriminatory practice based on age
which is contrary to human rights principles. It is also an expensive practice as the
retired personnel continue to be paid retirement benefits for a long time. To
maximize on the public returns on investment in education there is need to extend
the retirement age beyond the current 55 years limit.

In order to reaffirm and advance the role of universities as a major catalyst in

national social and economic development, there is need to accelerate the rate of
reforms in this sub-sector, prioritize the reform strategies and make the requisite
investments. This strategy has identified nine key strategic issues that need to be
addressed in order to prepare Kenyan universities for the important role of
preparing the knowledge economy workforce that is adequate both for Kenyas
current and future needs . The strategy is organized in terms of the strategic issues
and identifies suitable investment projects in each area and their link to the
knowledge economy.

2.1 Background
The history of university education in Kenya dates back to the colonial period when
Makerere College in Kampala, Uganda, was established to cater for Eastern Africa
countries. After the independence of the three East African countries, the University
of East Africa was established. The Royal Technical College in Nairobi became a
constituent college of the University of East Africa. In 1970 the University of Nairobi
(UoN) was established as a fully-fledged national university. The original intention
of university education was to train administrators and white collar workers to be
employed in the public sector. Admission into the university was associated with
those areas missionaries had set up schools and the degree of evangelization. The
A level system where schools admitted the best students from across the country
led to some regional equity. In addition, university education was fully paid for until
1974 when the loan system was introduced.

In recent years however, high levels of poverty, lack of infrastructure and equipment
in some schools have been a major impediment to access to university education.
Inspite of the above constraints, there has been a steady increase in the number of
students qualifying for university admission. This however, has not been matched
with similar expansion of university facilities. This problem was compounded by the
change in the education system from the 7:4:2:3 to 8:4:4: which gave rise to a double
university intake in 1990/91. In order to meet the increased demand, the
Government embarked on an ambitious programme to expand facilities in
universities but this intervention was not sustained and some of the infrastructure
remains incomplete to date.

2.1.1 Public Universities Admission Process

The Universities Act of 1985, which established the Commission for Higher
Education mandated this organization to carry out student admission into the public
universities. However, several factors amongst which are lack of capacity by CHE to
carry out the task and resistance of the universities senates to relinquish their
mandate of admission of students to respective degree courses necessitated the
establishment of the Joint Admission Board to undertake centralized admission to
the public universities. JAB is a forum where all public universities come together to
admit the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education candidates into the respective
universities for the various degree programmes available in each university. The
minimum grade required for admission is an aggregate of C+ (plus) at KCSE.
However, JAB has never managed to admit every qualifying student due to various
factors and constraints. Currently individual public universities also admit Self
Sponsored Students (SSS) directly.

2.2 Barriers to Access
Access and equity in university education remain a major challenge for the
Government. Kenyas university GER is 3%. This is low compared to newly
industrialized and developed countries, which have 10% and 69% respectively.
Kenyas GER is still lower than the average for the African countries that stood at 5%
in 2005 (UNESCO, 2006).

As at 2006 the enrolment level at secondary schools stood at 1 million. About 250,000
of the students sit the KCSE. Out of those who qualify to enter university only 25,000
are admitted into public and private universities. Another 5,000 go to foreign
universities giving a total of about 30,000. Out of the remaining 220,000 students,
only about 60,000 access middle level colleges. There are about 160,000 students who
could benefit from university or middle level college education if places were
available. It is projected that the number of students completing secondary school
level by 2016 will be 1 million. Assuming an expansion of public and private
universities intake to 100,000, this would still leave out about 900,000 students
seeking admission into university and middle level colleges.

Kenyas inability to increase admission rates has been brought about by a wide
range of factors. These include disparities in geographical development, low social
and economic achievements of individual households, high levels of poverty which
currently stands at 46% (Economic Survey, 2007), disparities in achievement levels at
high school, and constraints in government funding which have until recently
limited the number of government supported students to about 10,000 annually
inspite of the rapid growth in the number qualifying for university admission.

Limited capacity in public universities has also resulted in raising cut off points
leading to candidates with grade B missing admission to government sponsored
programmes. In some competitive areas such as Actuarial Science and Medicine only
candidates with mean grade A plain are admitted. This leads to internal brain loss
of talented and gifted students with potential to contribute intellectually to national

2.2.1 Regional Imbalances

There are regional inequalities in access to university education in the country. The
2005 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Kenya Human
Development Report shows that the national education attainment index stood at
0.667. Coast, Eastern and North Eastern provinces ranked below the national
average and their educational attainment index was 0.593, 0.625 and 0.480
respectively. This is made worse by the high poverty levels experienced in these
regions. In the three provinces the mean provincial headcount poverty index stands
at 57.6%, 58.3% and 64.2%, respectively. Households headed by individuals with
secondary level education and above are better off than those headed by individuals
with primary level education (Economic Survey, 2005).

Disparities in achievement levels in secondary education have also compounded
regional inequalities as some districts and regions end up having very few
candidates qualifying for university education. In addition, those who qualify from
such districts end up in less competitive programmes. This has increased inequalities
that are manifested in the low numbers of people accessing university per region as
well as producing professionals such as doctors, engineers and lawyers per district.
In 2003, 2004 and 2005 only 371 candidates from Coast Province scored mean grades
A and A- out of 11,383 nationally. This constituted 3.2%, while Central Province had
2,459 constituting 21.6% (Table 2.1). These statistics imply that fewer candidates
from Coast Province stood a chance of being admitted to competitive programmes in
the public universities when compared to those from Central Province.

Table 2.1: No. of Candidates per Province who Scored Mean Grade A (plain) to C+
in 2003, 2004 and 2005 Combined

A A- B+ B B- C+ Total
Coast 65 306 595 1054 2020 2507 6547
Central 392 2067 3814 5671 9175 11132 32251
Eastern 154 1315 3196 5544 8192 11983 30384
Nairobi 480 1617 1930 2334 2474 2653 11488
Rift Valley 250 1990 4326 7307 10578 15048 39499
Western 146 895 2208 3804 6076 8990 22119
Nyanza 159 1537 4136 6541 9454 12580 34407
North Eastern 0 10 28 78 139 289 544
Total 1,646 9,737 20,233 32,333 48,108 65,182 177,239
Source: MoE, 2006

2.2.2 Limited Resources

Limited resources, the high cost of university education in Kenya compared to other
countries in the Eastern African region, the high demand for admission places by
students and inadequate infrastructure have curtailed access and development of
human resources. The decline in the transition rate from secondary to university
education is a result of the inadequate development of infrastructure. The transition
rate for JAB selected candidates decreased from 4.86% in 2003 to 4.55% in 2004 and
3.83% in 2005. Government funding for the public universities capital development
projects has been reducing in real terms. Furthermore, until recently there have been
no financial incentives such as tax exemption and rebates to attract greater
participation by private investors in university education.

The current knowledge based economies are driven by scientific and technological
based programmes and yet both private and public universities do not have the
financial capacity to fund the development of these areas. As a result, the number of
students in these programmes remains low. The government sponsored students

pay a uniform figure irrespective of the course they are enrolled in while the self
sponsored students meet the full cost of their university education. Although,
privatization of university education and the move to commercialisation has
enhanced access it has tended to increase social class inequalities in admissions.

2.2.3 Inadequate Facilities for Students with Special Needs

Limited resources, inappropriate physical infrastructure and equipment are a
hindrance to students with special needs, limiting their chances of accessing
university education. The few special needs students who eventually obtain
admission have to deal with an unfriendly learning environment, as many
universities have not fully adapted their facilities and curricula in favour of students
with special needs. Currently there are only two universities that have made some
effort to put in place infrastructure to cater for students with special needs. The
number of physically disadvantaged students in the public and private universities
is about 54 yet 10 percent of the general Kenyan population are people with special
needs. There is need for each university to have strategies for increasing access for
special needs students.

2.2.4 Gender Imbalances

Gender imbalances are apparent in the admission of students. Although there is a
near gender parity in private universities, female students in the public universities
form about 37% of the total student population. Between 2000 and 2004 the average
number of female students admitted was 3,836. Gender disparities also exist in
scientific and technological programmes with female student access being lower
than that of males. In 2000/2001 to 2004/2005, (Fig. 2.1), Moi University had the
highest proportion of female students (53.6%) followed by Kenyatta University
(40.7%) Egerton and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
(JKUAT) had the lowest (25.8%) and (30.1%) respectively (Economic Survey, 2005).
The percentage of female students in different science programmes is lower
compared to that of males (fig.2.2). Gender imbalances are also manifested in faculty
and the teaching where out of the seven public universities only one is headed by a
woman. In private universities out of the 12 chartered universities only two are
headed by women.

There is need to provide adequate gender sensitive and friendly learning

environments so that female students and academic staff can carry out their
learning, teaching and research activities without any inconveniences or
embarrassments. Such facilities include gender sensitive seating arrangements,
breastfeeding/nursery rooms, sanitary disposal facilities, and safe ablution rooms.
There should also be clear notice board notices that articulate gender supportive
institutional policies. In addition annual gender progress reports should be prepared
and disseminated and a recognition and rewards system established for students
and staff who have excelled in championing gender policies.

Figure 2.1: Student Enrolment in the Universities by Gender

Source: Economic Survey 2005

Table 2.2: Moi University Students Enrolment in Various Courses by Gender from 2003/2004 to

PROGRAMMES 2003/2004 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007
Number of Students by
Gender M F T M F T M F T M F T
Medical related 356 234 590 436 241 677 362 258 620 301 263 564
Business related 453 301 754 717 396 1113 643 397 1037 527 403 930
Education related 1545 810 2355 2363 783 3146 1511 878 2389 1297 773 2070
Technology related 752 126 878 1026 105 1131 886 134 920 896 148 1044
Arts General 511 353 864 722 291 1013 522 361 883 608 468 1076
Information and
Computer Science 199 100 299 258 131 389 210 117 327 203 120 333
Agriculture related 44 27 71 101 55 156 118 54 172 152 76 228
Forestry and Wildlife
Management 363 126 878 1026 105 1131 886 134 920 896 148 1044
Bachelor of Science 644 187 831 503 191 694 460 282 702 458 281 739
Total 4867 2264 7520 7152 2298 9450 5598 2615 7970 5338 2680 8028
Source: Moi University, 2006

2.3 Current Pathways to University Education
There are several pathways for students seeking university admission as
described below.

2.3.1 Government Sponsored Students

These are students who are admitted through JAB and receive government
grants for their tuition. They receive government loans and bursaries from
HELB. The number selected is determined annually by the public universities
declared capacities that are linked to the available government sponsorship,
available facilities and the weighted cluster points for each programme. Priority
is given to the applicants first choice and where vacancies still exist, second to
fourth choice applicants are then considered. Where there are vacancies but do
not match with the students choice JAB makes the choice for the student.
However, due to limited capacity in popular programmes, some qualified
students with the required cutoff points end up in courses that might not have
been their preferred choices. This leads to demoralization, apathy and
misplacement of talents.

As a result of these constraints the number of secondary school leavers who have
qualified for entry into university education but were not admitted under JAB
has accumulated to 201,315 over the last seven years with academic year
2004/2005 accounting for 58,000 (86%) of the qualified candidates for that year).

Figure 2.2: KCSE Candidates Admitted to Public Universities in the Academic
Years 1999/2000 to 2003/2004.

Source: CHE 2005.

2.3.2 Self-Sponsored Students

The Self-Sponsored Students meet the full cost of their university education. The
admission of these students commenced in 1998 as a means of generating
additional income to supplement recurrent and development expenditures of the
universities. Depending on their ability to pay, students are admitted to the
courses of their choice provided they meet the minimum requirement of C+ plus
and above at the KCSE or its equivalent. The number of SSS has reached an
average of over 40% nationally and constitutes over 50% of the student
population at the University of Nairobi and Kenyatta University. SSS have
resulted in a rapid growth in enrolment in both public and private universities
increasing from 59,193 in 2,000/2,001 to 91,541 in 2004/05 (Economic Survey,
2005). This pathway has increased access as well as placement to preferred
programmes for those students whose parents are able to pay full fees to the
disadvantage of some more qualified but needy students who cannot meet the
full cost of education. There is therefore need to enhance the current government
interventions to cater for this disadvantaged group of students so that inequities
are not exacerbated.

2.3.3 Bridging Courses
Some public and private universities offer bridging courses to students who meet
the required minimum qualification for university admission but miss the
required cluster points in the relevant subjects to join degree programmes of
their choice. The bridging courses are offered within university campuses or in
other affiliated institutions where the universities have entered into collaboration
agreements. Some universities also offer bridging courses for key subjects where
the candidate may not have attained minimum qualification. Successful
candidates are then invited to apply for admission into degree courses. This
pathway is also available to only those students whose parents can afford to pay
for both the bridging courses and the eventual degree course studies.

2.3.4 Pre-University Entry Course

Some of the students who do not meet the minimum university entry
requirements of C+ undertake a pre-university or foundation course, which
qualifies them for admission to the particular university. This is currently going
on in some private universities both locally and abroad. The Australian Studies
Institute (AUSI) for example established a centre in Nairobi to prepare students
for degree courses in Australia. Private schools which offer the British system of
education provide foundation courses that enable access to degree programmes
in the United Kingdom and other countries.

2.3.5 Middle Level Colleges

Some students who graduate from the middle level colleges with diploma
certificates seek admission to the universities both within and outside the
country. In 2007 there were 30,410 students) enrolled in Government Diploma
Teacher and Technical Training Colleges, 21,288 in National Polytechnics and
27,302 in Institutes of Technology (TIVET National Training Strategy Document.
A further 96,500 students are enrolled in other public and private institutions
offering diploma and certificates. The Middle-Level Colleges programme areas
are diverse, competitive, relevant and costeffective. Some of the students from
these colleges get admission into university programmes with at least one year
course credit transfer. The capacity of some of the diploma institutions could also
easily be upgraded to offer degree programmes without losing their core

2.3.6 Open and Distance Learning

There are also a number of students who are accessing university education
through Open and Distance Learning (ODL) programmes, which are run by
some of the public universities. These programmes have greatly enhanced
opportunities for students in remote areas, mature students and employed
people. The total number in this system, in Kenya, is only about 5,000 compared
to the Open University of Tanzania (OUT), which has about 30,000 and

University of South Africa (UNISA) with an enrolment of 250,000. Some students
are also enrolled by foreign universities through distance education and e-
learning. JKUAT is, for instance, collaborating with Sunderland (UK) to offer
degree programmes through distance education from this UK institution.
Similarly, the African Virtual University (AVU), which has satellite campuses at
Kenyatta, and Egerton universities, is offering ODL opportunities to Kenyans.

2.3.7 Students in Foreign Universities

Limited access caused by the rigid admission criteria, the time lag of two years
before admission by JAB, the desire to undertake programmes of a candidates
choice and affordability are some of the reasons that have led a number of
Kenyans to seek study opportunity abroad. Foreign universities have also
recently mounted aggressive recruitment campaigns for local students as they
account for a substantial source of funding for their institutions. There is also
high presence of foreign universities in the country. In 2004 there were, 14,123
Kenyan students attending universities abroad (UNESCO, 2006).

2.4 University Expansion

The government, universities and households have responded to the challenges
of limited access in various ways. The government undertook to increase the
number of sponsored students by 3% annually starting from 1990. This target
has, however, not been achieved since the funds required were not available. If
this normal increase had been effected, the number of government-sponsored
students admitted annually would have increased from 10,000 in 1990 to 16,528
in 2007.

SSS admissions have increased access to university education since their

establishment in 1997/98 academic year. This programme has, however,
increased inequities in access to university education, since the access has been
for those who can afford to pay. Other economically advantaged households
have responded to the challenges by seeking university admission overseas. The
two initiatives have adverse social and equity implications.

In order to respond effectively to the challenges of access, the number of students

sponsored by the government should be increased. The increases should
particularly target strategic and competitive programmes and socially
disadvantaged communities for which enrolment of government-sponsored
students has stagnated since 1990.

2.4.1 Projected University growth to 2015
The demand for university education is increasing rapidly. Using the current
university enrolment trends, the projected enrolment by 2015 will be 164,280
representing about 60% growth in twelve years (5.0% annual growth) (Table 2.3).
At the same time the projected number of students expected to qualify for
university admission (C+ and above) when the first cohort of the Free Primary
Education (FPE) students complete secondary education is projected at 230,118.

The figures demonstrate that the capacity of universities needs to grow two fold
in order to cater for the projected demand. In view of the current resource
constraints there will be need to pursue more diversified and innovative
mechanisms for meeting this demand.

Table 2.3: Projected Levels of Student Enrolment 2004 to 2015

Projected Annual
Year enrolment Growth Factor % Growth
2004 91,541
2005 96,440 4,899 0.054 5.35
2006 103,224 6,784 0.070 7.03
2007 110,008 6,784 0.066 6.57
2008 116,792 6,784 0.062 6.17
2009 123,576 6,784 0.058 5.81
2010 130,360 6,784 0.055 5.49
2011 137,144 6,784 0.052 5.20
2012 147,928 10,784 0.079 7.86
2013 150,712 2,784 0.019 1.88
2014 157,496 6,784 0.045 4.50
2015 164,280 6,784 0.043 4.31
Total 60.18
Average 5.02

Source: Economic Survey, 2005

2.4.2 Meeting the Expected Demand in Higher Education

Investment in the higher education sub-sector has not been commensurate with
the high demand. Inadequate access to higher education leads to increase in
social inequalities, loss of foreign exchange and participation of doubtful players
who come in to exploit the high demand. Lack of expansion has also denied
Kenya the opportunity to participate as a serious player in the emerging market
of higher education. It also leads to dissatisfaction and lack of interest for
students who may not access courses of their choice. In order to ensure that no
qualified Kenyan student misses opportunity to pursue university education,

there are several recommended options open to the country in order to increase
access to university education at a reasonable cost without compromising quality
and relevance of higher education.

Universities need to be competitive and attractive. Efficiency in their operations

and in the delivery of services to meet students needs will require significant
steps in facilitating the interflow of students across borders. A diversity clause
pegging foreign student enrolment at about 15% would therefore open up
Kenyan universities to students from within the region and from overseas.
Students can further be attracted and retained through ensuring predictability of
university programmes, and by avoidance of frequent closures. This can be
achieved through proper governance and management and effective teaching
and learning methods. These measures are crucial in creating diversity and
reducing the ultimate costs of university education.

Student diversity will help graduates of Kenyan universities make friends,

influence people and be competitive as they are then able to provide leadership
and enable the country to fulfil its obligations to its neighbours. Demand for
Kenyan university education can be sustained by laying emphasis on opening up
access to, and flexibility in running established programmes where Kenya has
natural and cultural advantages.

The establishment and efficient running of academic programmes in areas of

comparative advantage such as sports, wildlife, biological sciences, health
studies, marine studies, social studies, conflict resolution and peace studies will
make our universities more competitive. Universities could establish a niche for
language programmes as business or economic tools for globalized economies.
Emphasis on programmes ASAL which constitute three quarters of Kenyas land
surface would also enhance economic development and social cohesion.

Enhanced access to post-graduate programmes and research in collaboration

with international bodies like the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP), International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) and the
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), among others, would help
provide manpower required not only to drive university education but also to
open up avenues for new knowledge and solutions to problems in critical areas
of national and international concern.

Key Recommendation 1.1
Increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the
present 3% to 10% by 2015.


Without adequately trained human resource, Kenyas capacity to compete in

knowledge economy will be compromised.
In order to join the knowledge economy, Kenya needs to train more skilled
persons. The present 3% GER of Kenya is below the average for Africa which is
5% and far much below the OECD GER which ranges from 40-69%. The
neighbouring Republic of Tanzania has set a goal of raising the university
students GER from 1.5% to 15% by 2015. Botswana and Nigeria have achieved an
increase of GER of 3% in 5 years.
Kenya has the highest student mobility in the continent standing at present at
over 13% leading to drainage of scarce resources and eventual loss of much
needed talent. Most of the students studying in foreign countries are supported
by Kenyan households. These students, if provided with quality education and
space in local universities will enrol in Kenyan universities.
Kenyas GDP continues to grow at 6.1%. The government economic plan namely
Vision 2030 projects a growth rate of 10%. Assuming a national growth rate of 5%,
additional funding will be realized to support a GER growth of 0.8% per year. In
addition, efficient and better management of available resources will enable the
country to realize this objective.
Even with the recommended GER of 10%, Kenya will not be able to absorb all
secondary school graduates who qualify to enter the universities and those who
did not receive entry into the universities in the preceding years.
Kenyan households, through self sponsored admissions in public universities, as
well as students in private universities, have shown that they are willing to
support students at the university.
The capacity of private universities is growing, thereby playing an increasingly
important role in absorbing qualified students.
With the proposed ICT integration into university education, access to knowledge
at a lower cost will be enhanced.
The government has shown willingness to provide some incentives to private
investors in higher education.

38 Efficient Admissions Process
As already observed, students wait for two years after their KCSE before they
can be admitted into the universities. Some of them also never get admitted to
courses of their choice. SSS on the other hand get an advantage over the others
as they can get admission to courses of their choice as soon as they receive their
results. There is need to develop mechanisms for a timely, flexible admission and
placement process. The introduction of a smart card would allow students access
courses of their choice immediately after they complete their KCSE without
having to wait for two years for JAB admission.

The strategy to ensure students get courses of their choice is to introduce an

Education Smart Card System (voucher system) where the government supports
all needy students including SSS and those opting for private universities.

In view of this, there will be need to harmonize and speed up the admission
process. The revised admissions process should be implemented as follows:

i. the public and private universities should design a uniform application

form, which will be distributed to all applicants; KCSE, middle level
college graduates and other candidates by CHE/or Universities. The
application form should also capture data on the special requirements
unique to each university and national policies on university education;
ii. establishment of a University Student Placement Office (USPO) at CHE to
process all admissions into the universities;
iii. increase human and ICT capacity at CHE to ensure efficiency and
facilitate online application processing and communication between
universities, CHE, HELB, MoE, MoHEST and students and public; and
iv. transfer the Joint Admission Secretariat at the University of Nairobi to
CHE so that the culture, experience and character of merit admission
process are not lost. Open and Distance Learning

ODL is a viable option that Kenya should embrace aggressively. This mode of
learning provides a cost effective pathway for increased access, enhances
students opportunities for pursuing courses of their choice, and gives a second
chance to learners to upgrade their qualifications. Open and Distance Learning
provides a chance for introducing tailor-made courses to meet specific Human
Resource requirements for the economy. This mode also enhances equity as
distance learning centres can be established in remote, underdeveloped and
marginalized areas thus bringing education closer to the learner. Open
Universities have the capacity to meet the high demand as has been
demonstrated by such countries as India, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, and
the UK. At present all universities have ODL programmes. However enrolments
in these programmes have remained low. This alternative mode of learning will

be more successful if the government subsidises it. Students should also be
supported with HELB loans and bursaries. Therefore, there is need for the
establishment of a fully-fledged national Open University. However, a study is
required to assess the existing local capacities, and develop mechanisms for
expansion, capacity building and diversification of programmes and delivery

For ODL to succeed the government as well as other stakeholders must accord it
the same commitment as that for traditional modes of delivery. Such
commitments should include adequate budgetary allocations, sustained staff
development, financial aid to students and the capacity to offer competitive and
popular courses. There should be sufficient investment in ICT to support this
mode of delivery. Proper planning must be done to ensure that the most cost
effective and wide reaching delivery methods are put in place.

Disciplines such as law, medicine and basic sciences need to be customized so as

to be effectively taught through ODL. As ODL has the capacity to open up access
to disadvantaged groups, this should be taken into account when planning the
locations of regional centres. Experiences from elsewhere indicate that drop-out
rates can be a major problem. It is therefore essential to have student-tracking
mechanisms in order to address this potential challenge.

In order to contain costs, huge investments in such capital development as

buildings should be avoided. Instead of these, investments should be directed
into the kind of infrastructure that will enhance reach without escalating costs
such as ICT. For disciplines such as the Physical Sciences that need an extensive
physical facilities, adequately equipped regional centres would offer a cost-
effective solution that safeguards the quality of education offered. Use of
microscience learning and teaching experiences will reduce the cost of practicals
( ICT as a Tool for Enhancing Access

The universities have not fully embraced the advances in ICT. In order to expand
access through e-learning and exploit more efficient course delivery there is need
to use ICT in spite of the initial high costs of installing infrastructure and
commencing operations. The unit cost will decrease as more students in ODL
programmes access their courses through ICT. Apart from increasing access,
availability of IT will also facilitate the sharing of resources such as libraries
through the use of the Internet and web-sites. The huge backlog of Kenyans who
qualify for university education could benefit through this mode of learning
(Knight J. (ed), 2003). Expansion of Existing Universities
There is need to expand the capacities of the existing universities in terms of
physical facilities, equipment and staff. The existing universities should start

campuses in strategic locations in order to exploit available resources in the
region. Brand names add more value and recognition than newly established
universities. Therefore, the strategy is to establish campuses of existing
universities. Currently there is a lot of duplication of academic programmes
among the universities and this limits students choices. This is also not cost-
effective. In order to fast track access to strategic programmes there is need for
cost-effective expansion and specialization in existing universities based on the
principle of regional comparative advantage and strategic priorities. Establishment of New Universities and Campus Colleges

Most of the current universities are located in urban areas. The strategy is to
establish universities offering programmes that enhance the exploitation of local
resources, alleviation of poverty and provide long term solutions to
developmental problems both locally and nationally. Such universities could
target, for example, dry-land farming, tourism and hospitality, marine sciences
and environmental resources. The establishment of new universities should take
into consideration national interests as well as regional disparities. In addition,
the government should consider providing special incentives to investors to put
up universities in marginalized areas. In expanding universities through creation
of campus colleges, measures should be taken to avoid acquisition by
universities of existing tertiary and middle level colleges that are so critical and
essential in ensuring continuous supply of the required technical staff.

Currently most major municipalities administer a number of primary schools but

leave secondary and university education to the central Government.
Municipalities, for example, could start new universities using the resources at
their disposal. Additionally, the concept of corporate university where a
corporate body establishes a university to train manpower relevant to its core
business could be explored as is being done by the Aga Khan University.
Institutions such as Bandari College, Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Kenya
College of Communications Technology (KCCT), Water Training College, and
Cooperative College, although in the public sector, are already carrying out
sector specific training in this mode, and their selected programmes and could be
upgraded to degree level. They would then become specialized colleges in
specific-areas such as Finance, Telecommunications, and Actuarial Science
without losing their specific mandates and character. Affirmative Action

There are a number of initiatives that have been taken to increase access for
female students, students with special needs and those from poor households.
JAB lowered the admission cut-off points for female students by one point. Some
universities have put up infrastructure, which is friendly to students with special
needs. The government also provides loans and bursaries to cater for needy
students. In spite of these measures, access to university education remains a

challenge to students from the socio-economically disadvantaged areas, female
students and those with special needs. In view of the above, it will be necessary
to consider enhancing affirmative actions for these groups.

In order for these affirmative interventions to enhance access and equity for
disadvantaged groups, specific and clear policies for their support should be put
in place. Such support should include enhanced financial aid, bursary support
for pre-university courses or alternatively provision for a five year first degree
instead of four year programme as well as provision of suitable and adequate
learning and teaching equipment for students with disabilities.

A special quota admission system should be established and reserved for

disadvantaged groups and communities. These groups include women, students
with special needs, communities from the informal settlements and other
marginalised areas. Students from these areas could be admitted into the
university provided they attend a three-month upgrading course in their areas of

Universities should be encouraged to take deliberate steps targeting students

from communities that do not yet have a culture of university education.

Establishment of standards for accrediting prior earned learning, experiential

knowledge and work skills is also urgently needed. The case of Sammy Gitau, a
Kenyan student, admitted at Manchester University demonstrates that students
admitted on the basis of experiential learning and relevant demonstrated
aptitude can successfully go through university education.
Sammy Gitaus academic journey began in the slums of Kibera, Nairobi. Sammy
was a standard 8 drop out caught up in the vicious circle of anti social behaviour
of many of the young people in this kind of environment-stealing and drug
dealing and taking. Fortunately for him an NGO that was providing the youth in
the slums with training in tailoring and computer skills included him in their
programme. Sammy did so well in his training that he was trained as a trainer.
The NGO officers were so impressed with his performance that special admission
to a masters programme at Manchester University was sought for him. He was
admitted and due to his unique academic background he was hosted by the
Mayor of Manchester City. ( Sunday Nation , October 8th 2006)

2.5. Outreach Programmes for Socio-Economically Disadvantaged

There exist several socio-economically disadvantaged communities in every part

of Kenya. Some of the well-known communities are in informal settlements in
major cities. They include Mathare, Korogocho and Kibera. Some of these
communities may have never sent a student to a university during the
independent lifespan of Kenya. Social transformation of these communities will
be done by persons from such areas. They act as role models and are likely to
invest in their communities. Therefore, it is important that outreach and
affirmative action programmes be started by universities to ensure that such
Kenyans are accorded opportunities for university education. For example, an
adopta-school programme could be started where a university targets a school to
help raise achievement levels.

2.6. Increasing Equity in Universities

Despite the Governments efforts to enhance equity in university education
through improvement in science and mathematics teaching and affirmative
action, there still exist inequalities. In order to enhance equity in university
education the following strategies should be applied.

i. increase enrolment of female students into science and technology related

programmes by lowering the cut-off points by two and in the other
programmes of their choice by one point;
ii. introduction of Quota Admission System (QAS) which guarantees places
in the universities that are distributed on proportional basis to socio-
economically marginalized students, at least 30% of whom should be from
either gender. Those students to be admitted under this programme and
who do not meet the university entry requirement will be offered pre-
entry courses of 3 months, at the end of which those who do well will be
allowed to continue with the appropriate courses, while those not meeting
the entry point would be directed to other suitable courses;
iii. increase enrolment of students with special needs through appropriate
out-reach programmes targeting them and/or through pre-entry
programmes supported by the government;
iv. diversify and harmonize pathways into university education for non
direct secondary school leavers e.g. middle level college graduates,
learners with workplace/ experiential learning skills and mature entry
needs by reserving at least five percent of admission places annually for
these groups. A national qualification framework should be established
within CHE to work out mechanisms for implementation;
v. the government to provide financial incentives to universities that enrol
students to academic programmes which are in line with national priority
and strategic areas. Universities that meet the national target of enrolling

and graduating female, special needs and socio-economically
disadvantaged students should also benefit from such incentives; and
vi. provide information and create awareness about the new changes
recommended to students and other stakeholders.

Key Recommendation 2.2

Attain equity in university enrolment that reflects
national diversity by 2015.

Equity at university will enable the country to tap the national talent,
narrow the disparities in society, ensure social justice, and celebrate
national diversity and foster national unity.
Participation in and contribution to society in the 21st century will
require acquisition of knowledge and skills provided at university
Equity will enhance national and gender equality.
Through the outreach and affirmative action programmes
recommended, it is possible to achieve equity in university
education by 2015.
Financial aid which targets needy students will enhance their
enrolment and retention.
Equity will enhance regional balance with regard to professionals
trained in such areas as medicine, engineering and science.

2.7. Centralized Data System

Effective planning for university education requires a centralised university data
system on all aspects of higher education. Lack of a centralized universities data
system hinders access to reliable statistics on outreach programmes to the under-
privileged; prevents implementation of mechanisms to mentor, monitor and
follow up students from disadvantaged communities to ensure retention.

In order to achieve the strategy of 10% GER there is an urgent need to establish
a centralized and well-managed information and database system that keeps
track of enrolment, retention, completion and/or attrition rates of students
within universities.

Each university should be required to submit student data annually to the central
database system and also develop a coherent strategic and management plan for
its data.

2.8. Projects
In order to address the above issues on university access and equity, there are
several projects/activities recommended in the logframe on Access and Equity
that need to be undertaken. Listed below are a few of these projects.

i. Establish, in the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology, a

University Education Database System that will follow up and synchronize
trends in enrolment, participation rates and attrition from primary school to
university level. The database should be modelled to contain features in the
UNESCO Institute for Statistics database. The database should clearly
delineate the characteristics of Kenyan students studying abroad and
locally. The database system should provide the Central Bureau of Statistics
with comprehensive university data that informs and directs policy;
ii. Conduct a study to assess the local capacity for Distance Learning, Open
Learning and Virtual Learning
iii. Establish a National Open University
iv. Build human capacity to develop programmes and teach in Open
v. Develop/review gender policy at University and programme levels
vi. Review national policies and or legislation for promoting diversity
vii. Develop appropriate incentive systems by Government for universities and
the private sector

The logframe for access
Issue : Access
Goal Increase GER from 3% to 10% by 2015

Strategic Time- Assumpt Responsi

Objectives Strategies Outcomes Project/Activities Indicators frame ions ble

Conduct a study to assess

the local capacity of
Distance Learning, Open
Learning and Virtual Feasibility study and MHEST,
1. Expand learning status report. 2008/09 CHE
Open and ODL bill
Distance passed
Learning a) Establish a and
National 100,000 allocation
Open students by Establish National Open National Open of MHEST,
University 2015 University University 2009/10 resources CHE

Build human capacity to

develop course materials
b) Expand or
and teach in Open Additional human 2008 and
establish ODL Increase from
Universities capacity developed annually VCs
in existing about 8,000 to
public and 40,000 Readiness of
private students by Build ODL infrastructure institutional ODL 2008 and
universities 2015 capacity infrastructures annually VCs

a) Establish
2. Expansion specialized 160,000
of capacity of campuses in students
existing strategic (achieve
public locations/deg double intake Develop TORs for
universities ree areas by 2015) university campuses Planned campuses 2008/09 VCs
b) Expand Increased
facilities for access in Identify strategic
strategic strategic programmes for national MHEST,
programmes programmes development. Priority programmes 2008/09 CHE
Assess the status and
potential capacity of local
universities to offer Post-
graduate programmes and Capacity for Post-
recommend additional graduate MHEST,
resources programmes 2008/09 CHE
Strengthen existing post-
graduate programmes and
c) Strengthen start new Post-graduate
postgraduate Increased programmes in strategic % increase in
programmes access in areas, Streamline post students enrolled in
in quality and postgraduate graduate admission Post-graduate studies 2008/09 and
quantity studies process in strategic areas annually VCs
d) Partner access and
with existing improved Develop policy, guidelines Streamlined system
middle level quality of and mechanisms for of university middle
colleges programmes partnerships level partnerships 2008/09 VCs, CHE

Diversified Evaluate the human Human resource
degree resource needs for current Status report; list of
programmes and proposed degree incentives
3. Expansion programmes in
of existing universities;
private Identify and provide
universities appropriate incentives for
private investors in
university education (as
proposed in the finance CHE,
logframe) 2008/09 MHEST
enrolment by
10% annually
from current
10,000 to
a) Diversify 20,000 Establish a Taskforce to re- Accelerated New
degree students by engineer new programme programme approval 2008/09 and CHE,
programmes 2015 approval process by CHE process continuous MHEST
b) Strengthen % increase in % increase in pool of
the capacity programmes Recruit professional staff local and
of CHE to approved per for CHE and expand pool international MHEST,
accredit year of resource persons resource persons 2008/09 CHE
programmes . %reduction in time
taken to approve
programmes 2008/09 CHE

4. Needs assessment
Establishmen Access report and criteria for
t of new increased by establishing new
universities 12,000 universities and
and colleges students; guidelines of new MHEST;
a) Establish Opening new programmes in place 2008/09 CHE,
three (3) new academic Assess the needs;
public programmes Determine criteria for
universities in national establishing and locating Campuses developed MHEST,
strategic areas new universities. and staff recruited 2009 CHE
Assess the needs;
Access Review criteria for
b) Facilitate increased by establishing new
the 4,500 students universities; Needs assessment
establishment Opening new Guidelines for determining report and criteria for
of at least academic new academic establishing new
three (3) new programmes programmes in national universities and
private in national strategic areas. guidelines of new CHE,
universities strategic areas programmes in place 2008/09 MHEST
c) Establish (achieve at
specialized least 20%
campuses in growth in Develop appropriate
strategic public incentives to accelerate
locations/deg universities growth in private
ree areas by 2015) universities Planned campuses 2008/09 VCs, CHE
d) Expand Increased Identify strategic Priority programmes 2008/09 VCs, CHE
facilities for access in programmes for national
strategic strategic development.
programmes programmes

Assess the status and
potential capacity of local
universities to offer Post-
graduate programmes and Capacity for Post-
recommend additional graduate
resources programmes 2008/09 VCs,, CHE
e) Strengthen Strengthen existing post-
postgraduate Increased graduate programmes and % increase in
programmes access in start new Post-graduate students enrolled in
in quality and postgraduate programmes in strategic Post-graduate studies 2008 and
quantity studies areas in strategic areas annually VCs, CHE
f) Partner access and
with existing improved Develop policy, guidelines Streamlined system
middle level quality of and mechanisms for of university middle
colleges programmes partnerships level partnerships 2008/09 VCs, CHE

5. Increased
Expand access in Assess the status and
postgraduate a) Strengthen postgraduate potential capacity of local
and postgraduate studies universities to offer Post-
International programmes graduate programmes and Capacity for Post-
students in quality and recommend additional graduate
programmes quantity resources programmes 2008/09 VCs, CHE
Strengthen existing post- % increase in 2008 and VCs, CHE
graduate programmes and students enrolled in annually
start new Post-graduate Post-graduate studies
programmes in strategic in strategic areas

access and
b) Partner improved Develop policy, guidelines Streamlined system
with middle quality of and mechanisms for of university middle
level colleges programmes partnerships level partnerships 2008/09 VCs, CHE
c) Expand co- Increased
operation regional and Assess the possibility of Assessment report 2008/09 and
with and international reserving 5% of admission annually VCs, CHE
training for cooperation places for regional and
regional and international students;
international implement the results of
students the assessment

6. Modernize a) Modernize Increased Assess the existing Assessment report; 2008/09 MoE,
expand and expand and access from capacities and recommend expansion strategies MHEST,
upgrade upgrade 1,900 to 3,800; strategies for their and funding CHE
existing diploma improved expansion; invest in
middle-level Teacher infrastructure modern equipment
colleges Training and
Colleges equipment;
and Better

Increased Assess the existing Assessment report; 2008/09 MHEST,
b) Modernize, access from capacities and recommend expansion strategies MoMS,
expand and 2,800 to 5,600; strategies for their and funding CHE
upgrade improved expansion; invest in
diploma infrastructure modern equipment
medical and
colleges equipment;
and better
Increased Assess the existing Assessment report; 2008/09 MHEST,
c) Modernize, access from capacities and recommend expansion strategies CHE
expand and 43,000 to strategies for their and funding
upgrade 86,000 expansion; invest in
diploma students; modern equipment
technical improved
colleges/Insti infrastructure
tutes of and
Technology equipment;
and better
d) Modernize Double the
expand and current A study to assess their Assessment report; 2008 and
upgrade enrolment; existing capacity; expansion strategies annually Respective
corporate improved formulate strategies for and funding Ministries;
training infrastructure linkages and partnerships Heads of
colleges and with universities Colleges;
(Railway, equipment; government and other MHEST;
Communicati and better stakeholders; invest in CHE
ons, NYS, trained modern equipment
Bandari, etc.) graduates

To establish a university Information system 2008/09 Directorat
a) Expand Specialized education management e of
and HE statistics information system. E-
strengthen the units governme
statistics to nt
include a HE CHE
statistics unit To develop guidelines for
enhanced capacity for
planning, policy
coordination and
monitoring in the
University Education
Division and the
b) Develop Adequate and Assessment of the Educational Statistics 2008 MHEST
7. Expand and and recruit trained organisational structure of and ICT
strengthen adequate number of the university directorate professionals in
the HE human professionals and recommend place;
directorate of capacity and in educational restructuring. New organizational
MHEST develop ICT statistics; structure in MHEST
infrastructure Adequate
of the HE number of
directorate ICT

Data centre Prepare technical Technical 2008 MHEST
infrastructure specifications and design specifications
of MHEST data centre
Prepare tender documents Tender documents 2008 MHEST

Procure and install data

centre equipment MHET, E-
Operational data governme
centre 2008/09 nt

8. Coordinate voucher Coordinated Establish university Matched students 2008/09 MHEST,
Universities (Education admission students placement office interest with CHE,
Admission Smart Card) voucher in CHE academic programme HELB,
Process system system VCs

The logframe for equity
Strategic Goal Attain Equity in University Education Enrolment that Reflects National Diversity by 2015

Strategic Outcomes Project/Activiti Indicators Assumptio Respon

Objectives Strategies es Timeframe ns sible

1. Increase a) Introduce 50% gender parity in Develop/review Ratio of 2007-2015

Gender VCs,
gender parity admission criteria all programmes gender policy at female/male parity of CHE,
which enhance access University and students in all qualified MHEST
such as: Merit, programme programmes secondary
lowering of cut-off levels school
points for female leavers
students, QAS, pre- Operational
entry courses. outreach
b) Develop Policies/ legal Review national New/revitali MHEST,
policies /legislation provisions policies and or zed national 2008 and Parliament CHE
to promote diversity legislation for policies and continuous will give the VCs
in enrolment promoting or legal bills priority
diversity provisions in

c) Establish Incentive systems Develop No. of 2008/09 Sustainable MHEST

appropriate incentive appropriate incentives; source of VCs
system for promoting incentive systems resources finances
diversity in by Government allocated
Universities for universities
and private

d) Institute outreach Outreach Develop outreach No. of 2009 and VCs
programmes for programmes programmes students annually
courses with acute admitted
gender disparity directly or
indirectly as a
result of
programmes ;
No of 2008 and VCs
programmes annually

e) Provide special Increased No. of Build No. of

scholarships of scholarships and partnerships with scholarships
various kinds for awards civil society and awarded to
female students private sectors female
students 2008/09 VCs
Value of scholarships Develop grant No. grant 2008/09 MHEST
proposals; utilize awards VCs,
at least 30% of the HELB,
Scholarship fund CHE
at MHEST for
female students
Initiate and No. of 2008 and MHEST,
publicize scholarship annually VCs,
scholarship programmes HELB,
programmes for initiated CHE
female students

f) Fast-track Increased No. of Attract, recruit, % increase in 2008 and VCs,
recruitment of female teaching staff train, promote no. of female annually CHE,
female academic staff and retain female lecturers HELB
to achieve gender lecturers

Provide special % increase in

scholarship and number of
accommodation female
to PhD. female enrolled in
students Post-graduate VCs,
especially those programmes 2008 and CHE,
with families annually HELB
Negotiate terms No. of
and conditions of scholarships
scholarships with awarded to
development female
partners to students
reserve at least
30% for female MHEST
students 2008/09 VCs
g) Transform the Gender sensitive Develop/review Institutional 2008 VCs,
teaching, learning teaching, learning institutional gender CHE,
and working culture and work policies gender sensitive policies in MoGCA
and environment in policies place HELB
the programmes
with acute disparity

Publicize and No. of cases
strengthen the reported and 2008 and
implementation resolved and annually VCs,
of institutional time taken MHEST,
gender sensitive CHE,
policies MoGCA

Gender sensitive Sensitize the Number, level 2008 and

learning and teaching university and variety of annually
environment community on awareness VCs,
the use of gender activities/me MHEST
sensitive asures in MoGCA
language place

Have adequate
Number of
and appropriate facilities and
facilities andservices that
services that
are gender
address gender compliant/
needs functionality VCs
compared to MHEST
the number of 2008 and MoGSC
users annually S,
Assess the gender Status of the
sensitivity of gender
universities sensitivity

2008 and VC,

annually CHE

Attitude and Train and No. of staff 2008 and VC,
behaviour change in sensitize and students annually CHE
the university university trained/sensit
community community on ized
gender issues and
procedure for
filing complaints
and consequences

Develop systems No. and types

of recognition of awards
and reward for
effective gender
sensitive VC,
champions within CHE,
the university 2008 and MoGSC
community annually S
Periodic survey Change in
of attitudes and behaviour
behaviour and attitudes
changes of
students and staff
2008 and
annually VCs
Assess the gender Assessment
2008 and CHE,
sensitivity of report
annually VCs

2. Increase the a) Develop % increase in % of facilities
Modify 2009 MHEST
enrolment of affirmative action students with special modified
University VCs
students with guidelines for needs
facilities to
special needs students with special
needs such as: QAS,
students with
special needs

Develop Special needs 2008 MHEST

affirmative action Policy VCs
policy for
students with
special needs
Acquisition, No. of 2009 and
adaptation and teaching and annually MHEST
development of learning VCs,
special teaching materials CHE
and learning available
materials for
students with
special needs
Provide full No. and value 2008 and VCs,
scholarships for of annually CHE
professionally scholarships
certified students awarded
with special

Negotiate with No. and value 2008 and VCs,
Government and of grants annually MHEST
development awarded and CHE,
partners for facilities in HELB,
additional place;
funding for No. of
specialized beneficiaries
Recruitment and No. of 2008 and VCs
training of support staff annually
University staff to
support students
with special
2008 and HELB,
annually VCs

Institute and No. of out- 2008 and VCs

strengthen reach annually
outreach for programme
students with and Number
special needs of students
enrolled in
the university
through the

3. Increase the a) Synchronize Reduced waiting Develop a New 2008
enrolment of admission for time for admission to decentralized admission
socio- government University to at most admission system system
economically sponsored and six months upon the
disadvantaged privately-sponsored release of KCSE
students students results VCs
Assess the Assessment 2008
implication of report
admission on MHEST
equity /CHE
Develop a new New 2008
policy for accommodati
residential on policy
accommodation VC/CH
of students E
b) Review the means % increase in Develop and Completion 2008 HELB/
testing for student financially needy review the means rate of needy CHE/V
loans and bursaries students in testing students Cs
University instrument;
c) Publicly Availability of Develop Feedback 2008 HELB/
disseminate information to community-based from local CHE/V
information on the stakeholders at information communities Cs
processing and community level packages in urban and
beneficiaries of loans rural areas
and bursaries
d) Expand student % increase of Implement the No. of 2008/09 MHEST
loan schemes to privately-sponsored HE financing students on /HELB
support privately- students with access strategy (See expanded
sponsored students to student loans financing student loan
in both private and logframe.) scheme; value
public universities of the loan

e) Establish bursary Value of the bursary Establish/review Value of the
fund for students fund /strengthen fund
from social bursary funds in
economically Universities and
disadvantaged HELB
communities/areas No. of students from No. of 2008 and VCs/HE
marginalized Beneficiaries annually LB
locations (urban or
rural poor) who

3.1 Introduction
Quality in a product or service manifests itself in the satisfaction of the clientele.
Quality education demonstrates its due accountability to the public when it is
relevant to the needs of both the learners and of the community. This is why
every nation, in principle, seeks to have universities of quality, which produce
graduates of substance and distinctive character, with productive, innovative
and creative abilities, as well as excellent leadership abilities for service to the

The locus of quality in education must of necessity be found in the students

admitted, the learning environment created, the curriculum or programmes
adopted and the academic staff in the institution. Although there are other key
ingredients, these are the most critical ones (Sector Review Report, 2003). The
level of quality in these critical categories is, in turn, dependent on supportive
key pillars. These include the overall environment, the prevailing leadership,
funding and equipment.

This chapter focuses on the most critical factors outlined above with an overall
strategic goal of improving the quality of learning and research in university
education for socio-economic transformation by 2015.

3.2 Quality of Students

There are a number of indicators that characterize the quality of students
admitted to a university. These include: interest shown in the institution; prior
testing or assessment; basis of selection and admission; system of allocating
course of study; retention and rate of graduation; entry into further study; job
placement; impact and contribution of alumni.

Kenya has done very well in respect to the quality of students in the university
because its system relies heavily on the process of students final assessment at
the end of their secondary school education. There is a credible national
standardized system of testing in the form of the Kenya Certificate of Secondary
Education (KCSE) Examinations. There is also a commendable system of
selection for admission into the university which at the moment has been pegged
on the attainment of C+ (plus) and above in the KCSE examination. Table 3.1
below shows the number of candidates who attained C+ (plus) and above for the
years 2001-2006.

Table 3.1: Number of Candidates with C+ and above in KCSE (2001-2006)
Year No. C+ and Total no. of % of candidates scoring
above candidates C+ and above
2001 42,158 194,798 21.64
2002 42,721 198,076 21.57
2003 49,870 205,730 24.24
2004 58,230 219,405 26.54
2005 68,030 260,665 26.10
2006 63,104 243,453 25.92
AVERAGE 54,019 220,355 24.33
Source: Kenya National Examinations Council, 2007

The Joint Admissions Board (JAB) through a merit-based selection criteria,

accords the best candidates the chance to study in public universities in their
respective areas in any given year.

3.2.1 Choice and Admission

The JAB process does not always guarantee students admission to courses of
their choice because of the limited places. In a few instances students are
allocated alternative courses which are not of their choice. However, self-
sponsored students may enter course programmes of their choice if they meet the
minimum requirements and are able to pay. It is important to institute uniform
flexible measures which enable students who qualify for particular courses to be

The JAB standardized system for selecting students joining public universities
will have to be reviewed as Kenya opens up access through more diversified
entry criteria that recognize credits earned at various middle level colleges, other
accredited examination systems within and without the country, and prior-
earned learning.

A range of approaches and practices for the accreditation of prior certified learning
are emerging even though they have not been standardized or unified. Kenya,
however, would add great value to the student admission process if she goes
beyond this prior certified learning and acknowledges the place and contribution
of prior experiential learning. There are many Kenyans who have great knowledge
in various fields and who would otherwise benefit from higher education if the
criterion of admission and/or the teaching language in universities is not too
narrowly defined.

3.2.2 Diversified Admission Criteria
Some private and public universities have already adopted several entry criteria
besides the KCSE examination. They have adopted a mode of admission that
gives credits to students with Diplomas, Certificates and other qualifications.

Increasingly diversified admission criteria, nevertheless, comes with a challenge

to quality in university admissions. To safeguard quality, therefore, deliberate
steps should be taken to ensure that appropriate high standards of admission are
established, adhered to, employed, and maintained for the various avenues of
admission. Unified national admission criteria and procedure need to be
developed for students from the 8.4.4., GCE, O and A level systems,
technical and diploma colleges. Indeed, it is necessary also to plan diversity with
international students in mind.

3.2.3. Student and Staff Ratios

Student-Staff Ratios (SSRs) are an important indicator of the quality of the
teaching-learning process. Governments and universities often link their
evaluation of quality of education to the ratios attained, especially with respect to
some course units. They not only use disaggregated average SSRs by broad
subject areas such as Arts, Science and Clinical subjects, but go further to indicate
the ratios for various disciplines. Table 3.2 below shows the ratios in the United
Kingdom (UK) according to broad subject areas:

Table 3.2: Student-Staff Ratio in UK Universities

Arts 17.10
Science 13.20
Clinical 5.60
All Subjects 13.90
Source: University Statistics 1992-93, Vol.3.

The PUIB report gives national gross student-to-staff ratios for several countries
including Kenya (PUIB, 2006:88-89), which is 14.6. This ratio has substantially
changed since the introduction of the SSS. These programmes have skewed the
student-staff ratio with the number of students increasing while the number of
academic staff remains constant. This has also led to limited tutorials or their
elimination altogether. Student-staff ratios in Kenyan universities, therefore,
need to be improved through an increase in staffing, diversification of modes of
delivery, interventions in the learning situation, and better terms of service for
lecturers and employment of teaching assistants.

Table 3.3 below shows the current and proposed SSRs for selected academic
programmes in public universities together with their respective benchmarks.
The PUIB report (2006) acknowledges the need for these improvements and goes
further to propose new SSRs for various disciplines, while still holding the gross
national SSRs to within an average of fifteen (15) on the basis that the trend of
SSRs can be increased without compromising academic quality by application of
teaching tools such as ICT which enhance delivery.

Table 3.3: Current and Proposed Student-Staff Ratios for Selected Academic
Programmes in Public Universities

Academic Programme Student Staff Ratio

Benchmarks Current Proposed
Cluster 1A: Dentistry Pre-Clinical 6 10 14
Cluster 1B: Dentistry- Clinical 6 8 10
Cluster 11A: Medicine (MB ChB) Pre-Clinical 6 12 15
Cluster 11B: Medicine (MB ChB) - Clinical 6 9 11
Cluster 111A: Veterinary Medicine Pre-Clinical 7 13 17
Cluster 111B: Veterinary Medicine - Clinical 7 9 11
Cluster 1V: Architecture, Engineering, 8 12 15
Surveying, Computer Science, Information
Cluster V: Pharmacy 6 12 16
Cluster V1: Nursing 8 13 17
Cluster V111: Mathematics, Natural Sciences 12 12 16
Cluster 1X: Agriculture and Agricultural 8 14 18
Sciences, Forestry and Wood Science and
Technology, Food Science and Technology,
Range and Wildlife Management,
Environmental Science, Environmental Health,
Ornamental Science and Landscaping,
Biomedical Science and Technology, Education
(Science and Technology), Appropriate
Technology, Communication and Media
Technology, Information and Library Sciences
Cluster X: Building Economics, Construction 10 14 18
Management, Land Economics
Cluster X1: Law 13 17 23
Cluster X11: Business Management, Commerce 15 17 23
Cluster X111: Education (Arts and Social 15 20 27
Sciences), Environmental Studies (Arts and
Social Sciences), Home Science and Technology,
Hotel and Hospitality Management, Travel and
Tours Operations Management, Recreation and
Leisure Studies, Tourism, Sport Technology,
Source: CHE Unit Cost Document, 2004 and PUIB, 2006

3.3 Quality of Academic Staff
Regardless of the level of education under consideration, it has been argued that
the teacher resource is one of the most important inputs into the education
system. As a single element it ranks only second to students. Dedicated, inspiring
and competent lecturers are key to quality instruction and the overall
development of the students. They are looked upon as role models. The calibre of
academic staff can be measured in terms of qualifications and their absolute
numbers as compared to that of students. In addition, their continued
development is demonstrated by the continuous pursuit of scholarship and

The honours and awards conferred upon a lecturer are also very important
indicators of quality. Beyond this general outlook, quality in academic staff
should also focus on processes that affect them as individuals. The key elements
for consideration in this regard include: prior preparation and training;
recruitment and employment procedures, development and enhancement;
incentives and motivation; monitoring and evaluation; and promotion
procedures and retention.

3.3.1. Academic Staff Qualifications

Universities often indicate quality by showing the number of students in a given
year as compared to the number of faculty. They make note of the qualifications
of the lecturers and especially show how many of them hold doctoral or other
terminal degrees in their fields. In the University of Dar es Salaam, PhD is a
requirement for the entrance to the level of lecturer. In 2007, out of the 700
academic staff in the University of Dar es Salaam, 500 (71%) had PhDs. At the
Bugando Medical School in the same country, of the 18 academic staff, 12 (67%)
had PhD. The University of Aberdeen in 2005 indicated that 85% of its academic
staff was research-active.

Kenyas universities score rather low with regard to how many faculty members
are qualified to the PhD level. This is partly due to brain drain. Each of our
universities should have a substantive number of highly qualified academic staff
at the centre of its teaching, research and supervision levels. Indeed entry into
university teaching should be a PhD. Universities should be keener to recruit,
develop, and retain such personnel by putting in place comprehensive and
competitive incentive systems.

3.3.2. Mentoring New Lecturers

Some lecturers are not trained in pedagogy. There is need to organize some
induction courses or refresher courses to mentor new lecturers. Moreover,
lecturers trained through thesis only are not fully exposed to the subject
content, which they need in order to become competent lecturers. It is

recommended that Postgraduate training be done through a combination of
coursework and thesis.

3.3.3. Research and Publications

The number of publications is a major indicator of the quality of academic staff
and it is commonly used to rank universities worldwide. Malaysia, for example,
has developed incentives for its researchers and has managed to post a
significant number of publications in international journals. A few Kenyan
scholars publish in international journals and are as good as any other top class
researchers. However, these efforts are too few to raise Kenyas ranking index
worldwide. The culture that prevails is one where the bulk of university dons do
not publish journal papers. This can be attributed to the following factors:

i. lack of incentives to write and publish;

ii. poor working environment characterized by lack of facilities and
iii. inadequate funding for research and related activities;
iv. the terms of service for lecturers lack a clause requiring them to
undertake research and publish the findings;
v. inadequate institutional support for faculty to carry out research and
publish the findings;
vi. most lecturers do not demonstrate initiative for attracting research
funds from donors despite availability of such opportunities;
vii. lack of adequate and streamlined local, regional and international
linkages in research (doctoral consortium);
viii. inadequate mechanisms for the dissemination of research findings to
consumers and the public;
ix. inconsistent funding mechanisms for the promotion of research and
x. lack of a national forum for researchers where they could exchange
experiences and enrich their works;
xi. inadequate training in scientific journalism to build media capacity to
summarize and publish research results;
xii. lack of practical training for faculty on e-learning.

3.4 Quality of Physical Facilities

Physical facilities are critical indicators of quality. They include suitable and
adequate teaching halls, laboratories, offices for academic staff, facilities for
specialized disciplines and libraries. Each of these should be provided fully with
appropriate, sufficient, and up-to-date equipment and in particular current ICT
facilities and infrastructure.

Special attention should be given to the library as it is the heart and soul of the
university. Libraries fundamentally influence and facilitate the pursuit of

knowledge and research for students and faculty. They should be adequately
equipped with textbooks, online resources, and relevant publications and also
have adequate reading and working space.

The PUIB report indicates that in addition to volumes of books, the holdings in
the libraries, especially of public universities, need to be relevant to the degree
programmes. These libraries have very old titles and are limited in contemporary
ones. The report also indicates that the seating capacity in most libraries was too
low compared to the number of students. Table 3.4 shows status of libraries in
selected universities in Kenya.

Table 3.4: Public and Private Universities Library Stock, Annual Budget, ICT
Status and Seating Capacity

University Stock Annual Budget ICT Status Seating

2004/2005 Capacity
Africa Nazarene 40,000 Volumes Kshs. 7,247,200 Automated with on- 400
University 56 Journals line catalogue
University of 500,000 Volumes Not Stated On-line catalogue 1,330
Aga Khan 3,500 Volumes Kshs. 1,400,000 Issue system-manual 50
Eastern Africa 56,000 Volumes Kshs. 55,000 Internet access 484
University- 320 Journals
Catholic 59, 270 Volumes Kshs. 2,000,000 Fully automated Not Stated
University of
Eastern Africa
Daystar 49,876 Volumes Not Stated Automation of 230
University catalogue in process
Egerton 265,000 Volumes Kshs. 1,076,674 Limited automation 1,720
Jomo Kenyatta 80,000 Volumes Kshs. 1,600,000 Catalogue Not Stated
University of computerized but not
Agriculture and online
Kabarak Not Stated Kshs. Automated and 24 607
University 19,070,000 hours internet access
Kenyatta 31 Titles of Journals Kshs. 3,000,000 Automated with on- Not Stated
University 6000 Journals online line catalogue
Kiriri Womens 600 Volumes No Budget Not automated 18
University of indicated
Science and
Maseno 30,000 Volumes Not Stated Inadequate 100
University computers
Moi University 850,000 Volumes Kshs. 2,686,080 Automated 4,840
Strathmore 100,000 Volumes Kshs. On-line public 540
University 15 Journal 38,380,000 catalogue
Subscriptions 24 Hrs internet access
United States 101,042 Volumes Kshs. On-line database Not Stated
International 284 print periodicals 30,734,420 including INASP
University 4,669 Non-print
Source: PUIB, 2006

Some universities have made considerable effort to improve and maintain their
teaching-learning physical facilities. They have re-branded themselves well with
much learner friendly and well-maintained campuses and more organized
systems. However the existing teaching-learning facilities in many instances are
inadequate, outdated, and of poor standards. Therefore additional investments
to expand and establish new ones are required.

Concerns have been raised about technical staff lacking the requisite skills and
will in maintenance and operation of some equipment in university laboratories
and workshops. There is need to train and upgrade the technical staff in our
universities so that they are able to effectively and efficiently facilitate the
teaching and learning process. Exposure to state-of-the-art equipment for
technicians could be enhanced through industrial attachments. When expensive
equipment is procured, there is need to have maintenance contracts for them and
build-in sustainability programmes so that universities do not find themselves
with tools that they cannot utilize.

3.5 Quality and Relevance of the Curriculum and the Teaching-Learning

Curriculum involves the content, structure, processing and examination of what
is taught and learnt. Effective curriculum implementation is an important
catalyst for quality. Learning institutions guard the integrity of their curriculum
by ensuring that it is fully implemented. In addition, faculty should continuously
update knowledge in their respective areas so that the instruction remains
current and relevant.

There has been a lot of creativity and innovation in curriculum development in

Kenya in recent years. Many new programmes have been started in an attempt to
meet the needs of industry. However, there is need to continuously review the
curriculum to ensure that there is a balance between academic programmes and
the needs of industry. For instance, in health science education, there is need to
review the syllabus as appropriate in order to emphasize preventive medicine
and place less emphasis on curative medicine, as is currently the case. The
curriculum review process should be participatory and should include
interaction with such stakeholders as professional bodies, industries and alumni.
There should be institutional policies that ensure a systematic way of reviewing
and updating curricula in Kenyan universities.

The issues of relevance also need to take into consideration Kenyas areas of
strength and uniqueness. For example, the rich wildlife heritage provides
opportunities for specialized teaching and research programmes. Other areas
include flora and fauna, indigenous knowledge, performing arts, cultural
attractions, and historical monuments, some of which have been already
recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites.

There is also need to add value to our primary products through innovation and
aggressively branding them in order to enhance our competitiveness in world

3.5.1 Length of Semesters
The length of semesters is clearly stipulated in university statutes. However, this
is often violated and semesters shortened by as much as two or three weeks in
some universities. This loss in students study time is often compounded by the
time it takes for students and faculty to settle down to serious learning and
teaching at the beginning of each semester. Sometimes timetabling problems and
general laxity on the part of students, faculties and administrators cause these

Every university needs to have a clear calendar of activities and timetable with
regard to semester dates and other academic activities. This should be a
contractual document between the university and her students which makes it
easier for students to plan ahead. Moreover, universities can avoid the cost of
printing and circulating the calendar by having it on the website and/or talking
notice boards in each faculty/school/institute or centre of learning. Such
effective planning and adherence to the plan would make Kenyan education
attractive both to Kenyans and to international students.

3.5.2. Examination Process

Management of examinations and other evaluation processes need to be
reviewed to ensure the integrity of the results and qualifications from Kenyas
universities. The reported laxity in setting, administering and grading of
examinations in some universities which lead to faulty results must be
addressed. Complaints of such vices as sexual harassment for grades, unmarked
scripts or lost grades should be addressed urgently. Management of Examinations

Effective teaching should include in-depth coverage of required units and
systematic evaluation of the same through continuous assessments tests and
examinations. These two modes of assessment are part of a universitys internal
quality assurance mechanism. Although all universities in Kenya have rules and
procedures that govern student evaluations, there are many complaints, which
question the integrity of examination procedures. Some of the causes of this
problem include: poor implementation of examination rules and light penalties
for offenders; shortage of invigilators to effectively supervise large numbers of
candidates; lack of proper preparations for examinations by both lecturers and
students; favouritism, lack teaching assistants to assist in the supervision and
marking of examinations; and subjective appointment of external examiners.

Kenyan universities have to revitalize their examination procedures to go

beyond having policies by ensuring that strong implementation processes are
upheld strictly and consistently. Some ways of strengthening the examination
process include: early setting of examinations; internal and external moderation;
confidential marking and grading of examinations; digitalization of the
examination process; holding departmental leadership accountable for the
examination process; and validating the role of the external examiners.

3.5.3 Preparedness for Teaching and Learning Environment

Faculty need to circulate course outlines, lists of textbooks and other learning
materials in advance of the onset of teaching. These will allow students to have
guided study and research and also help administrators to prepare and allocate
learning resources and other logistics. Moreover, universities should also
develop clear catalogues showing the core courses and electives to be offered in
every semester and other requirements. Where possible these should also show
the faculty names for students to interact better with their instructors.

Universities need to provide enough copies of prescribed textbooks in the library

which can be issued to students as part of their course books but then replaced
after a prescribed period and new ones bought. To assist this process, students
should also be encouraged to buy textbooks to help them read widely, prepare
adequately for examinations and avoid reliance on lecture notes. Currently,
many students rely on faculty notes because they cannot all access the few books
in libraries.

Students in some universities use the internet more as a source of knowledge and
information. While faculty and students need greater access to e-books,
individual universities could also encourage the production of local reading
materials on the internet which students can be referred to. Indeed, each
university must significantly enhance its ICT interface and link it with the
process of borrowing books in the libraries. All these would require that internet
infrastructure be in place to support the process.

3.5.4 Lifelong Networks and Broad Perspectives

Exposure helps students to develop friendships, leadership qualities and
ultimately widen their spheres of influence. Kenyas universities, especially the
public ones, do not have significant numbers of international students, yet more
and more Kenyans are taking up opportunities in foreign universities. This
imbalanced trend needs to be reversed to enable Kenyan universities to offer
enlightenment to their students by increasing the level of international students.
This will call for re-branding of the universities and additionally result in
expanding their income base from tuition fees.

Factors that could further enhance inter-university cooperation include: the

establishment of a negotiated transfer of credit system; affordable fees; inter-
university co-curricular activities; and government supported and negotiated
student exchanges. The East African Community and the Inter-University
Council already provide great opportunities for enhancing mobility and
interaction for students within the region.
3.5.5. Dialogue in Ideas and Public Lectures
Kenya has a rich resource of experts in corporate and research organizations.
These could be either Kenyans with great expertise, other nationalities resident
in the country, or Kenyans in the Diaspora. All these could be utilized to
promote intellectual diversity and improve the quality of instruction. Public
lectures are important for the intellectual and professional development of
students, staff and the nation as a whole and these experts could be utilized in
these lectures. It must be noted that the dialogue of ideas has been limited, and in
some cases missing altogether, in some sections of our society. The public should
be given an opportunity to make informed choices after being educated by

Public universities should encourage these experts to give lectures on real life
experiences including those of industry, health, government policy and other
sectors of life to enhance the exposure of the university community and the
public. While this is ongoing in some universities, publicity for these activities
need to be enhanced and disseminated.

3.5.6 Utilization of Experts in Kenya and the Diaspora

Kenya needs to utilize its human resource in a more conscious way. Some of the
experts in the university could be attached to industry. There are many
university faculty doing a great deal of consultancy for the private sector. They
form a major component of consultants in the countries around us.

There is need to develop mechanisms for attracting and utilizing Kenyans abroad
and locally who have been proven to be excellent drivers of institutions and
innovations. Faculty need to be recognized for good teaching, linkages, and
research in our national honours list as well as individual universities having
ways of honouring their outstanding academic staff. The country should
recognize its outstanding scholars and identify ways of appreciating their
contribution to knowledge, development and innovation. It is recommended that
a system be put in place to track such Kenyans and highlight their work. A
databank needs to be created so that more Kenyans can celebrate their strengths
in various fields. A sense of patriotism that motivates scholars to mentor
unselfishly and with great dedication be inculcated into Kenyans. .

In addition, there is need to create partnerships and networking with Kenyan

experts within the country and in the Diaspora. Such Kenyans would bring a
wealth of knowledge, infuse fresh thinking and revitalize scholarship and
research. Such experts could be brought in as visiting scholars, research partners
and conference lead persons. They could also be approached to provide their
thinking on some particular intellectual or national debate or issue especially in

specific strategic programmes through commissioned papers or inaugural

3.5.7 Retention and Rate of Completion

In Kenya, a number of students do not complete studies at the university. This is
especially witnessed in the postgraduate students sector and in some
undergraduate programmes in universities. This is due to the low income levels
of the majority of the households, the ever-increasing cost of living, and the
apathy about securing jobs after completion of college and/or the inadequate
preparation of students for university life. Often, postgraduate studies take long,
and are taxing. Apart from retaining students who enter the university, there is a
dire need to improve on completion rates. Some universities, for example,
provide work-study programmes and needs-based aid to help the financially
challenged students; others allow students to take time-off for a specified period
to sort out a difficulty at hand or reorganize themselves.

3.5.8. Quality of Postgraduate Programmes

Postgraduate programmes enhance research, scholarship and serve to develop
the intellectual capacity of talented and gifted students in their areas of interest.
Most Masters programmes in Kenya are mainly done through coursework and a
project component, which makes the students incompetent in research, especially
when undertaking a PhD programme. There is need, for Masters students
undertake their programmes by coursework and thesis to ensure that they are
well grounded in research techniques. In addition, course work on proposal
writing and the writing of research reports should be integral parts of graduate
studies. This will eventually enable upcoming scholars to access external grants.
Professional writing is a critical area that would enable students to participate in
the world of publishing and dissemination of ideas.

There is need to financially support postgraduate students through teaching

assistant/research assistant grants so that they can help in teaching, hence
reducing lecturers teaching workloads. This way, lecturers may have more time
to undertake research while at the same time encouraging their students to
conduct original research under supervision.

Other challenges in postgraduate studies in Kenya include: long, cumbersome

and inefficient registration processes; lack of appropriate equipment; poor
supervision; and inadequate funding. There is, therefore, need to enhance
efficiency and management of postgraduate programmes by:

i. putting in place policies that encourage all First Class students to pursue
postgraduate studies;
ii. fast-tracking the registration process and making it more student friendly;
iii. having policies that stipulate a timeframe for the completion of PhDs;

iv. enhancing the completion rates of PhD which in turn have an effect on
quantity and quality;
v. providing students with adequate stipends and where necessary other
facilities that ensure them reasonable accommodation; and
vi. providing students with research grants that are tied to the writing and
completion of PhD.

3.6 Quality of End Products

3.6.1 Further Study, Job Placement, Stature of Alumni
The number of graduates, who pursue further studies, the job placement, the
stature and contribution of the alumni in society, and number and status of
organizations that recruit students on campus are significant indicators of quality
of a university. For example, the University of Aberdeen indicated that 97% of
her graduates in 2005 entered directly into work, further study or training within
6 months. Such good standing is also true of some universities and some
university departments in Kenya.

3.6.2. University Reputation: example from the Health Sector

In the health sciences, for example, the training of doctors is increasingly being
questioned by patients with respect to the quality of degree and expertise
obtained during internship. The medical science programme emphasizes
curative medicine over preventive medicine. Internship training is haphazardly
organized by the Ministry of Health with very little supervision by the Medical
professional bodies or the universities. Ideally, internship in any professional
body is the responsibility of the professionals. In Kenya this is not so.

Although we have a referral hospital in each province, many of these are not
teaching hospitals. All the people from these communities who want to pursue a
career in medicine learn within contexts that sometimes are removed from the
realities of their communities. Upon graduation, many of them decide to
continue working in their new settings. Would it not work better if
referral/teaching hospitals were closer to the people so that people are trained
locally and remain to serve their populations?

At the moment, Kenya is vigorously training but not retaining. As at 2006, 6,000
doctors had been trained in Kenya but we have managed to retain only 600. The
country lags behind in the provision of qualified doctors with only 14 docotrs per
100,000 populations. What is the solution to this undesirable trend? While it is
imperative that more be trained to meet the need, we must question if this is a
good solution. A better way forward, surely, is for Kenya to invent ways of
retaining at least 50% of her trained health workers. In addition, a legal
framework needs to be in place that requires doctor interns to be supervised by
qualified personnel. It has been reported that sometimes nurses have supervised
these trainees because there are few local doctors/consultants. It may also be
more helpful to consider partnership and/or a new model in the provision of
health education in Kenya, especially with the private sector. It should not only
be the public universities that have schools of medicine. We need to break new
ground by seeking new partners especially in the private sector as seen in the
case of Tanzania, for example. Some of its major teaching/referral hospitals are
privately owned.

3.6.3 Demands of Industry

The industry demands an employee who is fully trained in the areas of their
operation. Hence, graduates needed by industry are those who can
independently think through tasks, are innovative, creative and goal oriented.
Although this dissatisfaction has been indicated in Kenya, universities often
operate without full regard to the feedback from the employers and the wider
society. There is need to address this apparent disconnect between the kind of
training most graduates receive and the demands of industry.

There is need to diversify academic programmes to be able to produce job

creators rather than job seekers. This can be achieved, in part, through the
incorporation of common courses such as, communication skills, critical and
analytical thinking, ethics and integrity, and overall social concern and
awareness. The goal would be that of contributing to the production of high
calibre, well-prepared, and suitable graduates of integrity. In order to improve
the quality of graduates there is need for each university to establish graduate
tracer studies conducted every five years in order to inform curriculum

3.7 Quality Assurance

3.7.1. Internal Quality Assurance
When benchmarks are well established they serve as positive indicators of self-
criticism by both universities and stakeholders. Apart from examinations, these
could take the form of assessment and feedback from students, peers, alumni,
industry, and relevant professional bodies.

While faculty and course evaluations are now standard procedure in most
private universities, this internal quality assurance measure is yet to take place in
a systematic way in some public universities. There is need to ensure that the
information gathered through evaluation is utilized to improve quality. Peer and
industry assessments could also be used to inform internal quality assurance. To
enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of these measures, institutions
should develop internal reward systems that target faculty, the quality of
research, innovations, and community service.

3.7.2. External Quality Assurance

CHE is the quality assurance body for higher education. It has developed
standards, rules and regulations for quality assurance in some critical areas. Its
effectiveness has been particularly evident in the maintenance of quality
assurance in private universities. However, it has been noted that with the quest
to meet the high demand for education in Kenya and the inadequate government
funding that has been witnessed from 1980 to date, certain elements which go to
producing quality are either lacking or misplaced in most Kenyan universities,
especially in the public ones.

The accreditation process needs to have some reward and sanction system
attached to it. In some countries, the level of funding is tied to the number of
students who successfully graduated as well as the volume and quality of
research and publications. In some cases, incentives are withheld and only given
when a university provides a credible plan for self-improvement. Kenya should
adopt systems of incentives which encourage universities to focus on quality.

3.8 Quality of Governance and Management

The character, culture and efficiency of an institution depend on its Chief
Executive as well as other officers who are in positions of leadership. For
example, Chairs of departments are key to proper curriculum implementation,
examinations and programme updating. Other key leadership positions include
the Chief Academic Officers, Student Affairs Deans, and Registrars. They all
need to carry out their duties in a professional manner in order to ensure quality
in the various academic, administrative and management process of the
university. Quality leadership should, therefore, be secured, nurtured and
enhanced through appropriate recruitment, continuous training and requisite

Key Recommendation 3.1

Universities to substantially improve the quality of teaching, learning

and research for socio-economic transformation by 2015.

Kenya is concentrating the best human and quality physical
resources in this sector, and therefore, expects the best returns.
We are in a highly competitive global environment and therefore,
need quality universities to effectively participate.
Universities by their nature are required to foster excellence and
the highest standards in every endeavour.
To leapfrog the country into a newly industrialized status, quality
research environment and conducive climate are required.
We need to appreciate and build on the existing research
infrastructure and ongoing reforms in order to improve quality.
Quality universities are required for the realization of Vision 2030.
All the activities outlined in the logframe are doable by the universities.
The additional financial resources required to achieve quality can be
generated by the universities and/or government.

3.9. Strategic Objectives for Quality and Relevance in University Education

The overall quality of teaching, learning and research especially in universities
can therefore be enhanced through the following strategic objectives:

i. establish and/or strengthen admission mechanisms to ensure that

quality students are admitted into universities bearing in mind past
marginalization, geographical and socio economic disadvantages;
ii. develop and/or strengthen mechanisms that allow students to
pursue courses of their choice for which they qualify;
iii. produce high calibre, well-prepared, and suitable graduates with
requisite knowledge, skills, competencies, and right values, attitudes
and integrity;
iv. improve the retention and graduation rates of university students
and strengthen graduate education;
v. develop student academic support systems and monitor the progress
of students;
vi. recruit, develop, and retain Ph.D. or equivalent qualified academic
staff in all disciplines;
vii. increase the quantity and quality of research output;
viii. provide sufficient teaching facilities, equipment and materials;
ix. provide a high standard and modern learning environment;
x. review curriculum to make it current and relevant; and
xi. establish and/or strengthen internal quality assurance mechanisms.

The following are some of the strategies:

viii. drafting of a comprehensive Universities Act to incorporate all players

in Higher Education;
ix. restructuring and strengthening of the Commission for Higher
Education to undertake accreditation of all higher education
x. establishment of mechanisms that encourage universities to enforce
their existing quality mechanisms and also develop new and
effective ones;
xi. establishment of a review and harmonization committee to be assisted
by an external consultant in order to enhance objectivity;
xii. development of admissions criteria that is sensitive to the diversity of
potential students and that recognizes prior learning and experience;
xiii. development of monitoring and evaluation systems to ensure
adherence to the set standards; and

xiv. Involvement of peers, professional associations and bodies in quality
assurance and control of graduate programmes.

3.10. Projects
The proposed projects to enhance quality and relevance of university education
are discussed under four major concerns: the envisaged quality assurance
mechanisms; sustainability of programmes; diversification of programmes; and
Research and Development.

3.10.1 Envisaged Quality Assurance Mechanisms

The proposed accreditation body for higher education will accredit and validate
programmes in all universities and tertiary institutions. It will also have a
Quality Assurance Unit that will be mandated to ensure that programmes
offered are of high quality. Respective universities and professional bodies will
also develop or strengthen existing quality assurance processes and mechanisms.
The universities and professional bodies need to devise a project to reassess their
current modes and mechanisms of examining students and develop new models
that will achieve their desired objective since the current system adopted from
the British clearly has many shortcomings.

One of the ways of encouraging institutions to maintain high quality is to rate

their performance with accepted and recognized benchmarks such as quality and
quantity of research output, number of patents registered, number of
publications, and number of times the institutions papers are cited in other
publications as well as effectiveness of outreach programmes. The number of
researchers with the proposed NRF accreditation would also be taken into
account. CHE should come up with the required criteria.

i. Accreditation Guidelines: To develop clear guidelines for accreditation

and quality assurance that can be used to establish Quality Assurance
(QA) for all higher education courses and professional programmes. This
must include accreditation of Prior Earned Learning.
ii. Accreditation Standards: To develop institutional QA standards with the
universities and professional bodies and there from develop the national
accreditation standards. The team of consultants shall consist of
international experts who will bring an international dimension to what
the local experts will have done.
iii. Monitoring and Evaluation systems: To design a monitoring and
evaluation system that will oversee the compliance to the guidelines.
iv. Database: To invest in a higher education database and undertake tracer
studies on graduates employment.
v. Internal and External audit and their relations: To outline the processes
and structures of relations between internal and external audit. To design

the process of internal and external audit through visitations. There
should be structures in place to identify and justify them.
vi. Programmes and Funding: to establish a mechanism for ranking
programmes as a basis for special funding.
vii. Modes of Examination: To evaluate and compare Kenyan universities
modes of examining students with other modes applied globally. The
universities need to devise a project to reassess their current modes and
mechanisms of examining students and develop a new model that will
achieve their desired objective. How can the variations in the examination
processes both in public and private universities be harmonized?
viii. Rewarding innovative Research: To come up with guidelines on how to
appropriately recognise researchers and consequently promote research
and publication.
ix. Programme Ranking: To develop criteria for ranking specific
programmes in the universities in order to promote competition and
improve funding for excellent programmes.
x. Approach to Postgraduate study: to interrogate the management of
postgraduate training in terms of recruitment of postgraduate students,
teaching, training, resources availability and supervision.
xi. Admission procedures: To prepare guidelines on admission procedures
that should take into consideration the variation in programmes such as
8.4.4 system, G.C.E. O & A levels, technical and diploma colleges, prior
earned learning and prior experiential learning, among others.

3.10.2 Sustainability of Programmes
Some programmes in Kenyas public universities do not attract students. This
could be due to the way the courses are taught or the way they relate or do not
relate to the needs and demands of industry. Their relevance to stakeholders
needs or national priorities can be deemed questionable. This not withstanding,
JAB continues sending students to such programmes involuntarily, hence
significantly contributing to attrition, loss of opportunity and/or frustrations in
stakeholders. Kenyan universities should continuously rationalise and review
their programmes based on the market trends and future projections. To do this
effectively, the following projects at the national level should be a prerequisite:

i. Gauging Viability of Programmes: to develop guidelines for gauging

viability of programmes in order to streamline, promote and terminate
them depending on the market and national needs.
ii. Training of staff: there is need to ensure that university staff is
equipped seek for and manage quality. Training and retraining is
needed for all levels of university personnel in order to avoid trial and
error scenarios. Managers and administrators should be adequately
equipped with relevant skills to provide leadership that benefits the
iii. Improving staff and student ratios: there is need to have a project to
improve the current staff and student ratios. The project should
determine the components that would improve quality despite the
increasing student ratios. Each university, therefore, needs to establish
a desirable enrolment and completion ratio of PhDs to
undergraduates. Which new technologies and other modes of teaching
methods are suitable for various disciplines?
iv. Improving Library Capacities: there is need to improve the seating
capacity in the lecture rooms and the libraries of the universities.

3.10.3. Diversification of Programmes

Kenya started with a diversified university system where different universities
were expected to develop as centres for specific disciplines. However, as student
numbers increased, universities were under pressure to open up more
programmes. A trend developed where a critical mass of students find
themselves admitted into Arts oriented subjects with little or no regard for the
demands of industry in the country. The notion of Centres of Excellence is
almost lost to Kenyan universities, especially the public ones. Today there are
about 170 degree course programmes offered at public universities. We
recognize that there is every merit in diversifying programmes and in
developing Centres of Excellence.

The Government of Kenya needs to invest in the following projects to curb the
erosion of the gains made in the initial diversified university system:

i. Specialization of Universities: to look at the institutional capacity and

geographical location to see which areas particular universities can
excel in.
ii. Pooling of Resources: to determine how universities can pool
resources and invest in common facilities that they can access either
physically or online.
iii. Funding of Strategic Programmes: to develop guidelines on how
strategic programmes that are critical for national development are to
be identified for possible funding. The question as to who will teach
these programmes must also be considered alongside Kenyas capacity
to retain the people it trains for such programmes.
iv. Science and Technology in Private Universities: to undertake an
evaluation on why private universities are not able to start some
programmes in Science and Technology and recommend incentives
that would encourage them to make a contribution in higher education
and national development.
v. Links with Reputable Universities: to encourage linkages with
reputable regional and international universities in order to offer joint
degrees programmes and benefit from the strengths of their
vi. Multifunctional skilled Students: to equip students with
multifunctional skills to enhance their employability and capacity for
self employment and varied tasks.
vii. Investing in Satellite Campuses: universities need to invest in satellite
campuses and in tuition in general to ensure that the quality of
education offered to clients meet international standards. Time and
resources must be invested to enhance completion rates and bring
them within acceptable international standards. It is noted that some
campuses only use the name of the host university but the facilities
and academic staff remain unchanged. Universities must ensure that
similar standards are met in satellite campuses and the Commission
for Higher Education should be enjoined in all Memoranda of
Understanding signed between Universities and Satellite campuses.
viii. Language at University: the question of language at university needs
revisiting to rationalize why so many Kenyans cannot access education
due to a foreign language barrier. The project should also develop
curricular and ways of expressing and assessing multi-illiteracies not
only in English or Kiswahili but in other Kenyan languages. This will
cater for all Kenyans who cannot express themselves in English but
who are teachable and versatile in various prior experiential
knowledge and can demonstrate that learning has taken place.

A study should be undertaken to identify ways to enhance the competencies of
local languages and to develop them to be used as mediums of learning in some
university courses. Since we live and trade in a global environment, there is also
need to evaluate the way Kenya has positioned herself to take advantage of
foreign languages like French, Arabic, Chinese, Portuguese and Spanish. This is
an area where universities can take a lead and venture in outreach programmes
to promote local and foreign languages among local schools within their vicinity.

3.10.4 Research and Development

There are numerous complex problems afflicting the society today. These
include, the acute nature of environmental degradation, food insecurity, in
formal settlement, and sexual molestation and harassment which must be aptly
responded to. These can be solved adequately if their nature is well researched
and their solutions ultimately arrived at. For this to happen, university level of
education is necessary. There is need to encourage and facilitate researchers in
human and social sciences to enhance their capacity for advocacy and highlight
problems that afflict society. There is need, therefore, to have the following
projects undertaken:

i. Research Capacity and Utilization: to develop an assessment of

research capacity and utilisation for economic development.
ii. Policy on Research: to urgently put in place a policy to direct research
to the critical areas of national development.
iii. Prioritizing Research: a project to identify and prioritize key areas for
focusing research in Kenya. How can we know objectively which of
the following areas are key or need to be given priority: peace,
security, disaster management and conflict resolution; a sustainable
Kenyan environment; frontier technologies for building and
transforming industry in Kenya that is, adding value to the
manufacturing chain by increasing the worth of our natural resources;
a healthy Kenya; food; water and security; entrepreneurship; Kenyan
heritage and identity; status of the existing university - industry links,
incentives and constraints; transport Kenya, that is, the facilitation of
communication and so forth.
iv. ICT and ScTI in Kenya: to investigate how Kenya is doing especially
in ICT and Science, Technology and Innovation. Issues of how the
government can fund the development of specific infrastructure could
be explored. In some countries, cities support research in areas of their
choice. Kenyan cities should identify areas they can support.
v. Modalities of Grant Management: while the modalities for calling for
research proposals and review will be determined by the relevant
institutions, it is important, at the national level, to work out the
modalities of grant management.
vi. Productive Capacity of Kenyas Researchers: to evaluate the
productive capacity of Kenyas researchers through assessment of the

number of copyrights; the number of patents per year; the areas and
kinds of research that are being undertaken; the areas that are not
being researched; and the kinds of innovations exhibited. With the
pressures of globalization and the head-start that we appear to have in
the region, Kenya must continue to invest significantly in areas, bodies
and outputs of research that support quality assurance in university
education. We need to invest in the identified priority research areas
within specified periods of time. We recommend that the Government
of Kenya (GoK) should set aside about US$ 65 million (KSh. 4,680
billion) within the next five years for research. Research that can add
value to our natural resources, agriculture and improve our
environment and peoples health is vital.

3.11 Conclusion
While this chapter has pointed out certain strengths that Kenya needs to exploit,
it has also indicated many weaknesses in various spheres of the teaching-
learning process that must be addressed to ensure quality in university
education. Specific issues which need to be addressed with regard to students,
faculty, programme and physical facilities have been highlighted. The challenge
before us as a nation is that it is not enough for universities to mount courses and
admit students. Deliberate steps must be taken to ensure that universities
continue to admit the right students, develop faculty adequately, run
programmes efficiently and effectively and have the requisite physical facilities,
which promote quality education. The importance and urgency of harnessing
thinking, strategies, resources, and funds in ensuring quality assurance and
relevance in higher education as a matter of priority, cannot be over-emphasized.
The Government of Kenya must invest increasingly in critical areas and continue
to facilitate key support services.

Each university should have, within its structure, a quality assurance mechanism
as a means of helping entrench, gauge, and monitor quality. This quality
assurance machinery should evaluate and review, from time to time, the quality
standards within the university. To ensure that this internal quality is of the
highest standards, each universitys internal quality assurance mechanism
should be subjected to peer review at the national, regional, and international
levels. Only then can our universities fully exploit their potential for creativity,
relevance and innovation and also secure their competitiveness in the region and

In education, the central focus of quality and relevance is the teaching-learning

process. In turn, the two priority elements in the quality of education are, first,
the students, and secondly, the teaching staff. This being the case, emphasis in
the quality of university education should be laid on the teaching-learning
component, with students coming top and academic staff following closely as
second, in the thinking, energy and resources of those in authority.
Logframe for Quality and Relevance of University Education
Strategic Quality and Relevance of University Education
Strategic Improve the quality and relevance of learning and research for socio-economic transformation by 2015

Strategic Strategies Outcomes Project/Activities Indicators Time/ Assu Responsibili

Objectives frame mptio ties

1. Establish a) Develop a Quality CHE to develop unified A unified national 2008/09 CHE,
and/or diversified students that admission qualification MHEST, VCs
strengthen merit system are competitive criteria/procedures for framework
admission that embraces for any students from the 8.4.4 Market 2008/09 CHE,
mechanisms other university in system, G.C.E. O & A competitive and MHEST, VCs
to ensure qualification Kenya and levels, technical and undergraduate annually
quality of systems elsewhere diploma colleges and so students
students forth.
b) Develop Admission of Develop/review Quality students 2008 and VCs, CHE
admission qualified and admission guidelines for annually
guidelines for quality students specific programmes
specific degree for the specific given the diversified
programmes programmes admission criteria
c) Develop The students Develop admission Admission 2008/09 CHE,
admission admitted criteria for prior earned criteria MHEST, VCs
criteria for through prior and experiential learning.

prior- earned -earned and Assess the viability of Researched report 2008/09 CHE,
and experiential experiential local African languages MHEST, VCs
learning criteria will be for use in some
quality students programmes and develop
translation mechanisms
that will go with it
d) Develop Greater and CHE to develop Criteria for 2008/09 CHE,
admission principled admission criteria for admitting MHEST, VCs
criteria for access to graduates of diploma diploma students
graduates from university by colleges
diploma diploma
colleges and graduates
other middle
level colleges
e) Develop Admission of Assess the needs for Assessment 2008/09 VCs,
admission quality students university entrance for report and MHEST,
outreach from socio- disadvantaged annually CHE
programmes economically communities
for students disadvantaged Design and implement Programmes 2008/09 VCs,
from socio- communities outreach programme developed and MHEST,
economically Enhanced annually HELB, CHE,
disadvantaged admission of Community
communities students from leaders
such communities

(e) Affirmative Improved Develop and apply clear Guidelines 2008/09 VCs,
action on quality of guidelines for affirmative developed and and MHEST,
qualified but students action Students who annually HELB, CHE,
otherwise not admitted to qualify to Community
selected university from university leaders
students; and marginalized admitted
improved districts Evaluate the Evaluation Report 2008/09 VCs,
school infrastructure and and MHEST,
infrastructure leadership of all schools in annually HELB, CHE,
and leadership disadvantaged Community
communities. leaders
Provide resources that Relevant
directly address the infrastructure and
disadvantage leadership in

2. a) Allow intra- Satisfied and Universities to develop Clear 2008/09 VCs

Develop/Str and inter- motivated mechanisms to guide the mechanisms to and
ength-en university students process and practice guide the process; annually
mechanisms transfers enhanced student
that allow mobility
students to b) Develop i) There will be Assess the merits of Systems in place 2008/09 VCs, CHE
pursue flexible systems continuity of various systems of doing
courses of that allow lifelong credit transfer.
their choice students to learning. Recommend an
for which accumulate independent body to
they are credits undertake this on behalf
qualified of universities in Kenya

ii) Retention
and completion
rates will be
c) Strengthen Strengthened Identify additional New quantum of 2008 and MHEST,
HELBs capacity HELB capacity sources for student funding and annually HELB,
to assist to distribute financing percentage KEPSA,
qualified needy student loans increase in FOUNDATI
students student funding ONS
Establish a new student No. of students 2008 and HELB, VCs,
loan system that pays the enrolled in annually MHEST,
real cost of learning to courses/program CHE
allow student take courses mes of their
of their choice choice

3. Improve a) Re-introduce Enhanced Analyze retention and Data base on 2000/089 VCs
the tutorial system learning and graduation data for all university
retention in order to improved programmes in all retention and
and improve student and universities to establish graduation rates
graduation learning staff contact and the magnitude of the
rate of mentoring problem
university b) Expand the Enhanced Analyze the staff to Report on 2008/09 VCs & CHE
students physical learning and student ratios for all student/staff and
facilities to improved programmes in each ratios per annually
support tutorial student and university programme
system staff contact Determine the additional Facilities in place 2008/09 VCs & CHE
facilities for a vibrant
tutorial system

c) Expand post- i) Increased Develop the Quality indicators 2008/09 VCs & CHE
graduate number of criteria/indicators for for P/G and
programmes to highly trained evaluating the quality of programmes annually
increase number persons. post-graduate
of teaching programmes.
assistants Assess the quality of Data 2008/09 VCs & CHE
existing post-graduate and
programmes annually
Assess the capacity of Capacity 2008/09 VCs & CHE
universities to provide indicators and
post-graduate studies. annually
Improve the management Mechanisms that 2008/09 VCs & CHE
and enforcement of the ensure and
quality assurance policies compliance of annually
ii) Effective Develop guidelines for Relevant and 2008 & CHE, VCs
teaching and gauging of academic sustainable annually
learning programmes in order to programmes
streamline, consolidate, Programmes that 2008 & VCs,CHE,
promote and/or phase meet national annually MHEST
them out depending on socio-economic MoTI
their alignment to national needs
strategic needs and the
Training of quality staff Enhanced 2008 & VCs
for effective teaching, research output annually
research management and and quality
quality assurance. students

d) Develop a Enthusiastic Review and improve the Time taken for 2008 & VCs
more efficient postgraduate system by having a clear admission annually
admission students time bound process; fast
system for post- attracted into track the process to meet
graduate universities the students needs

4. Produce a) A well-rounded Assess the impact and Impact and scope 2008/09 VCs, CHE
high calibre, Introduce/expa educated citizen scope of the current report
well- nd common foundation/common
prepared, foundational core/general education
and suitable courses that courses in all the
graduates of include ethics universities
integrity and philosophy Review curriculum to Curriculum
and develop ensure that courses on reviewed 2008/09 VCs
critical thinking ethics, critical thinking
and analytical and analytical skills are
skills incorporated into
mainstream university

b) Men and Establish events and Positive reports 2008 and VCs
Institutionalize women who are programmes like public about students & annually
ethical conduct cultured and debates, lectures, alumni;
and civil culture exhibit high seminars, orientation Awareness
in universities ethical programmes that promote programmes like
behaviour civil and ethical behaviour debates;
involvement in
service and
general respect
for environment
and senior

5. Develop a) Set up Focused and Assign/strengthen and Capacity to 2008 and VCs
student and/or well mentored train academic advisors mentor students annually
academic strengthen students on mentoring and effectively
support academic counselling students
systems and advisors'
monitor services

progress of b) Establish Increase equity Establish guidelines for Capacity for 2008 and VCs, CHE,
students three month in gender and selection and the teaching intensive annually MHEST
pre-entry communities programme for pre-entry remedial teaching
programme in students is made available
science and
technology for
women and
students from
c) Develop Enlightened and Assess the existing Availability/ 2008 and VCs
and/or informed public Information Systems with Accessibility of annually
strengthen the and university a view to strengthening the information to
student community them. community
system in every
d) Assign Well mentored Develop advisory, Number of 2008 and VCs
students to students monitoring and students who annually
academic evaluation systems and visit advisors;
advisors guidelines feedback from
(lecturers) on students
e) Promote and Increased Establish/Strengthen/revi Well equipped 2008/09 VCs
enhance career student job talize an effective career centre; number of
counselling placement. counselling centre. students who
visit centre

services in all Develop programmes Number of 2008 & VCs
universities /sessions for interaction speakers, events annually
with students and links with
industry etc
Establish & maintain Adequate/curren 2008 & VCs
database on graduate t database and annually
schools/universities, information
career patterns and
undertake tracer studies
on job placement (skills
f) Promote an i) Students with Establish contacts and Employers 2008 & VCs,
entrepreneurial a better active interaction with feedback and annually KEPSA,MoSt
/innovative understanding employment market for success of ate in charge
mindset in the of the placement of students placement of Youth
students requirements of Affairs
job market and
how to prepare
themselves for
ii) Student Determine ways to Presence of 2008 and VCs,
preparedness integrate entrepreneurship annually MHEST,
for innovation/ entrepreneurship/innovat /innovation MoT
entrepreneurshi ion in the regular culture in the
p. university academic thinking and
programmes actions of

6. Recruit, a) Establish i) More Develop the Quality post- 2008 and VCs & CHE,
develop, quality post- qualified criteria/indicators for graduate students annually the proposed
and retain graduate postgraduate evaluating the quality of NRF
Ph.D. or programmes students post-graduate
equivalent attracted to programmes.
qualified universities. Assess the quality of Assessment 2008 & VCs & CHE,
academic existing post-graduate report and annually the proposed
staff programmes database NRF
Assess the capacity of Capacity 2008 & VCs & CHE,
universities to provide indicators annually the proposed
post-graduate studies. NRF
Improve the management Mechanisms that 2008 and VCs & CHE,
and enforcement of the ensure annually the proposed
quality assurance policies compliance of NRF
ii) Quality Establish an orientation, Focused and 2008 & VCs, the
academic staff in-servicing, and productive annually proposed
will have been mentoring systems for younger scholars NRF
mentored. academic staff
b) Establish i) Increased Establish research projects Published works 2008 & VCs, the
post-doctoral research output in national strategic areas and patented annually proposed
programmes products NRF
ii) Retention Identify and seek funding Number of post- 2008/09 VCs,
and attraction of to establish such doctoral MHEST,
outstanding programmes; programmes MoTI, the
PhD students Establish Post-doctoral established and proposed
and researchers programmes students enrolled. NRF

c) Enhance the Improved Assess the strengths and An assessment 2008 & CHE,
incentive retention rate, weaknesses of the existing report annually University
system for new improved incentive systems, the Councils
and existing morale and terms and conditions of /Manageme
academic staff work ethics service for staff nt Boards,
among staff. the proposed
Enhance terms and Rates of retention 2008 & VCs,
conditions of service of staff and annually Councils/M
increased output anagement
Boards, the
d) Establish i) Availability of Assess the national, Operational 2008/09 MHEST &
centres of platform institutional capacities centres of CHE, the
excellence between private and geographical location excellence proposed
sector and for identifying and NRF
universities. establishing national
centres of excellence in
specific strategic
ii) Increased Establish and annually Increased 2008 & VCs, MHEST
research output avail a national inventory research annually MoTI, the
of research. publications/pate proposed
Establish targeted funding nts and funded NRF
for strategic research projects

iii) Develop Build capacity for Quantum of 2008 & VCs,
business spin- negotiating licensing, resources annually MHEST,
offs. transfers and patent allocated to MoTI, the
rights. research proposed
Look for venture capital. Volume of 2008 & VCs,
venture capital annually MHEST,
investment MoTI, the
Quality of 2008 & VCs,
partnerships and annually MHEST,
joint ventures MoTI, the
e) Introduce i) Maximum Develop policy and Number of active 2008/09 VCs, the
flexible terms of utilization of the implementation strategy joint proposed
service that limited on joint appointments; appointments NRF
allow for joint academic staff, implement policy
appointments facilities and
and linkages resources
and ii) Enrichment Identifying and engage No. of joint 2008 & VCs, KEPSA,
consultancies and broadening individuals with teaching and annually MHEST,
of knowledge appropriate skills that industry-linked MoTI, the
experiences. would enhance joint research proposed
university-industry programmes NRF

iii) Better Identify the barriers and Percentage 2008 & MHEST,
facilitation of establish incentives that increase in annually VCs, CHE,
staff attachment would enhance staff interaction the proposed
and internships. interaction with industry between NRF
academic staff
and private
Establish liaison offices Number of links 2008 & MHEST,
with trained officers in and strength of annually VCs, CHE,
each university to vibrancy of the proposed
facilitate staff & communication NRF
contact with industry and
ensure vibrancy
f) Increase ratio i) Strengthened Assess the current ratios Data on the status 2008 & VCs,
of academic research and of academic staff with of PhD ratios annually University
staff with teaching PhDs in all programmes; Councils/M
relevant PhDs Recruit scholars with Percentage of anagement
or equivalents PhDs (or equivalents) for staff with PhDs Boards, the
in all the institutions to meet the proposed
departments required ratios. NRF
ii) Improved Assess the basis of Improved 2008 & Chancellors,
university university ratings and international annually VCs, CHE,
rating design mechanisms to recognition of the the proposed
internationally improve individual university NRF
university rating
CHE then publishes the Document on
basis for university ratings ratings

7. Increase a) Provide i) Quality and Establish mechanisms for Increased grant 2008 & VCs,
the quantity, incentives and quantity assessing and rewarding funding to annually MHEST,
quality and competitive research good research output. universities, MoTI,
relevance of research grants proposals
research Increased 2008 & VCs,
output university awards annually MHEST,
and recognition MoTI
to researchers;
peer reviewed
ii) Quality Establish policy to Policy in place for 2008/09 VCs,
research output. manage and direct directing and National
research to the critical managing Council for
areas of national research Research
development. and
Build capacity for Number of new 2009 Technology,
undertaking research, products, MHEST,
dissemination and publications and MoAgric.,
utilization of research patents arising MoTI,
output. from research Proposed
increased NRF
citations from
local research

iii) An Review the existing Increase in 2008 & MHEST
improved research environment percentage of annually CHE, VCs,
research especially funding, funded research Research
environment management, output and Institutions,
utilization of resources at
Increase in Proposed
institutional and national
completion rates; NRF
level Increase in
and/or utilization
iv) Increased Train staff on research Increase in the 2008 & VCs
research income proposal writing, number of annually
to the university management and proposals that are
marketing funded;
Enhanced 2008 & VCs,
efficiency i.e. annually
reduction in time
from conception
of proposal to
enhanced overall

Establish and/or Interaction and 2008 & VCs
strengthen relevant engagement with annually
offices in Universities to research in
assist the research universities;
proposal process better monitoring
of research
activities by a
visibility of
research within
the university
Increase in 2009 & VCs
number of annually
proposals that
attract funding
and the levels of
Establish a pool of A database of 2008 & VCs,
seasoned researchers research annually Proposed
experts/mentors; NRF , CHE,
Develop clear linkage Increase in the 2008 & VCs
between use of scholars number of annually
timecum-output and institutional
incentives both at the incentives,
institutional and recognitions and
researchers level awards

Defined 2008 & VCs
percentage of annually
time allocated for
Develop an inventory of Database and 2008 & VCs, MoE,
funding sources linkages annually MoST, MoTI,
Mentor younger scholars enhancement of 2008 & VCs
on research proposal and postgraduate/pos annually
marketing of research tdoctoral training
b) Establish i) Reduced costs Universities to develop a Clear guidelines 2008/09 VCs
collaboration of operations. clear policy and for overheads.
amongst guidelines on overheads
institutions and that can be used to
private sector negotiate with donors
for Universities to establish Number and level 2008 & VCs
procurement, research grants that of university annually
use and support new research internal research
management of proposals grants
the resources Allocate sufficient Well maintained 2008 & VCs
and the maintenance and and functioning annually
utilization of operations budget equipment for
research teaching and
findings research

Train technical staff for Number of 2008 & VCs
maintenance and trained annually
operations of the teaching technicians;
and research equipment increased
productivity and
more efficient use
of equipment
Determine the modalities Number of 2008 & VCs,
for pooling of resources emerging and on- annually MHEST,
among/between going MoTI,
universities and industry. partnerships MoAgric.,
between Research
universities and Institutes
private sector and
Directors of
Number of active 2008 & VCs and
collaborative annually KEPSA,
efforts between Directors of
universities and Research
research Institutes

Invest in common Number of 2008 & VCs,
facilities that can be equipment/buildi annually Directors of
accessed either physically ngs/ Research
or online. laboratories/libra Institutes
ries shared and
Volume of 2008 & VCs,
Information annually Directors of
exchanged Research
ii) Better Identify the Protocol 2008/09 VCs,
utilization of limited/specialized established Directors of
limited/speciali facilities and determine a Research
zed facilities. protocol and the means to Institutes,
maximally use these MHEST,
resources MoTI,
The level of 2008 & VCs,
utilization of annually Directors of
resources Research

iii) Enhanced Articulate protocols and Guidelines on 2008-10 VCs,
national guidelines for collaboration and Directors of
innovation collaboration increase in the Research
system number of Institutes,
innovations MoE, MoST,
Assess the capacity and Database on 2009-11 VCs,
need of universities, and capacities and Directors of
small and medium limitations; Research
enterprises to participate increased Institutes,
in collaborative research utilisation/comm MHEST,
ercialisation of MoTI,
innovative ideas MoAgric.

Establish joint research Number of joint 2008 & VCs,

between universities and research annually Directors of
SMEs initiatives in place Research

iv) Improved Assess the productive Number of 2008 & CHE, VCs,
publication capacity of Kenyasarticles published annually KIPI,
index for the Researchers throughin peer reviewed Proposed
country. assessment of the number journals; NRF, and
of copyrights, the number knowledge of Research
of patents per year, the Research Institutes,
areas and kinds ofDevelopment and Ministry of
research that are being Demonstration Foreign
undertaken, the areas that (RDD) strength Affairs
are not being researched, and weaknesses;
and the kinds ofnational
innovations exhibited. publication index;
expenditure on
Increase in 2008 & VCs,
Direct research efforts to number of annually Directors of
areas of weakness, gaps research Research
and strategic priorities initiatives and Institutes,
improved MHEST,
funding in the MoTI,
priority areas MoAgric.,

Develop incentives and Increased funding 2008 & VCs,
award systems to for research to an annually Directors of
recognize published institution; Research
works Institutes,
Number and 2008 & VCs,
varied awards by annually Directors of
institutions and Research
donors Institutes,
c) Establish Well managed Assess our national A report MoF,
National and research status and 2008/09 HELB, MoE,
Research administered capacity MoST,
Foundation of one-stop CHE
Kenya as an organization for
institution to research Develop legal framework, The NRF Act, the
manage/ funding, organizational & Organizational &
administer coordination governance structures and governance
research funds and mandate for NRF; structures in
management place
Establish the institution Institution in 2009
and operationalise it place and in

Identify sources of Funding sources 2009 & MoF
funding for NRF for NRF annually HELB,
Establish funding for Number and 2009/10 MoF
research amounts of & HELB,
research grants annually MHEST,
distributed CHE,
d) Educate Informed and Determine the appropriate Proactive and 2009 & MHEST,
legislators and effective institution to offer supportive annually KNAS/
public servants leadership courses; Develop course legislators and Academic,
on effective programmes /content and public servants Sc & Techn.
policy and its management; community,
governance of Operationalise it MoF
research MoE,
KEPSA, Civil
y ES & T

8. Provide a) By 2008 i) Well-stocked Assess the current level of Assessment 2008/09 VCs,
sufficient increase libraries, report; and MHEST,
library holdings in terms
teaching funding for equipped annually MoTI, CHE
facilities, libraries and & laboratories & of relevance and currency
equipment improved and improved
in compliance with CHEs
and teaching teaching/learni
materials equipment ng equipment. standards;
Assess the current level of Status report 2008/09 VCs,
teaching equipment in
compliance with CHEs
Identify sources of Negotiated 2008/09 VCs,
agreements with & MHEST,
local and external annually MoTI, CHE,
development MoF,
partners KEPSA,
At least 10% of 2008/09 VCs, MHEST
university budget and
allocated to fund annually
libraries and

Procure necessary Volume of funds 2009 & VCs, CHE
and increase in annually
relevant library
according to assessment holdings and
equipment per
Each university to be Degree of 2008/809 VCs,
compliant with compliance to & MHEST,
CHEs/UNESCOs CHEs guidelines annually MoTI, CHE
benchmarks in the
purchase of relevant, up
to date equipment and
library materials
Establish national Established 2008/09 CHE, VCs,
holdings and digital national digital & MHEST,
library of local and library; annually MoTI,
international materials
Increase funding to enable Funding 2008/09 CHE, VCs,
set up/run this library increased for this & MHEST,
purpose annually MoTI,

ii) Quality of Introduce new methods of Assessment tools; 2008/09 VCs, CHE
learning, teaching/learning; Assess Degree of usage &
teaching and impact of improved and achievement annually
practical environment on learning of learning
application will and teaching outcomes;
improve. Efficient
absorption of
graduates by
b) Construct i) Sufficient Expand and/or improve Degree of 2008/09 MHEST,
and/or space for the sitting capacity in compliance to & VCs, CHE
complete new learning, lecture rooms, the libraries CHEs guidelines annually
buildings for teaching, and staff offices in the
libraries, research and universities.
tutorial rooms, study.
lecture theatres
and staff offices
c) Install More effective Assess the extent of Assessment 2008/09 VCs, CHE
modern learning/teachi modern technology in report
technology to ng teaching/learning
support Increased Provide connectivity Availability of 2008/09 VCs, CHE,
teaching/learni accessibility to on/off campus connectivity HELB
ng knowledge and points, and
data lecturers/student
s using modern

d) Ensure Harmonized Assess the quality of Comparable high 2008 & VCs & CHE
Satellite quality of learning environment and standards in both annually
Campuses enjoy teaching/learni programmes in satellite parent and
same ng environment campuses satellite campuses
rds as parent
e) Have i) Improved Assess each universitys Assessment 2008/09 VCs, CHE
interconnectivit access tostatus in ICT report
y between the national and infrastructure in the light
offices of the international of emerging needs and
teaching staff body ofpriorities
and libraries, knowledge. Develop guidelines for Guidelines 2008/09 VCs, CHE
and between application of ICT in
university university education and
libraries in the research
nation to ii) Establish an integrated Systems in place 2008 & VCs, CHE,
facilitate E- Interconnectivit campus and wide area and functional annually MHEST,
education y and wireless network with full internet networks MoTI, MoIC,
systems that access CCK,
benefit more TELECOM,
people. KENET

f) Strengthen Strengthened Identify additional Increased funding 2008/09 MoE, MoST,

HELBs capacity HELB capacity sources of funds for for HELB MoTI, VCs,
to assist to distribute institutional loans CHE,HELB

institutions of institutional Establish institutional loan New funding HELB,
higher learning loans products resources for 2008 & VCs,
institutions and annually MHEST,
the number of MoTI, CHE
loans disbursed

9. Provide a) Improve Attractive, Auditing/Inspection of all Inspection reports 2008/09 CHE,

high quality compliance to functional and universities with regard to MHEST,
ambience in universitys acceptable CHEs guidelines all VCs,
universities strategic plan quality of the
and/or physical settings Assess CHEs capabilities Appropriate skills 2008/09 MHEST,
gazetted rules of the university and efficiency capacity to and competencies CHE
and standards handle compliance of the
established by professional staff
CHE and professional
Strengthen the Degree of 2009 CHE,
coordinating mechanism compliance MHEST,
for compliance to ensure VCs
that the rules and
regulations are adhered to
by all universities
Determine a schedule of A compliance 2008 & CHE, VCs
compliance that ensures schedule that is annually
that the process is time adhered to

Modification and/or Compliant 2009 & CHE, VCs
Improvement of campuses annually
universities to make them
b) Develop a A civil Establish formal and Number and 2008 & VCs, CHE
dialogical university informal dialogical spaces vibrancy of the annually
university community (forums) for enhanced spaces created in
culture at all communication between an institution
levels that various An enhanced 2008 & VCs, CHE
accepts and organs/stakeholders sense of annually
tolerates belonging,
divergent views participatory and
service culture
A sense of 2008 & VCs, CHE
creativity annually
c) Cultivate a A beautiful Landscape, plant flowers Harmonious,
physical and university and maintain university aesthetic and
aesthetic environments beautiful
environment Have architectural designs institutions
that is that enhance beauty 2008 &
conducive to Create physical annually VCs, CHE,
teaching, environments that exhibit HELB
learning and the creativity and sense of
research the art of the community

d) Develop a A civil society Introduce core courses in Number of
culture that re- that respects leadership and ethics programmes and
orients, forms & democratic number of staff 2008 & VCs, CHE,
mentors space /students annually HELB,
university participating
leaders and provide Degree of ethical
community to incentives/sanctions behaviour;
practice respect number of
and ethical commendations
values and complaints
Introduce orientation,
leadership and ethics Behaviour change
programmes that are in both students
offered regularly for and staff.

10. Review a) Institute a Quality, up to Develop guidelines for

Ensure participatory date and gauging viability of Relevant
curriculum curriculum relevant programmes in order to programmes
is current development/re curriculum streamline, promote and Stakeholder 2008 &
and relevant view process developed terminate them depending participation annually VCs
on the market and
national needs.
Develop and establish a Ranked
mechanism for ranking programmes 2008 & VCs, CHE,
programmes annually MHEST

Provide special funding Special funding MoTI,
incentives for the top- and opportunities KEPSA,
ranked programmes and proposed
provide opportunities for NRF, HELB,
improvement for weak CHE,
programmes professional
b) Align Relevant and Develop guidelines for
curricula and vibrant identification of strategic Guidelines in
research to curriculum programmes; place; strategic 2008/09 VCs, MHEST
national policies develop/identify strategic programmes CHE
and challenges programmes identified
Assess the current Modifications of 2008/09 VCs, MHEST
curricula and align them current curricula and CHE,
to the strategic and development annually Proposed
programmes of new ones NRF,
Develop guidelines on
who teaches these Charter of
programmes and also conventional
establish Kenyas capacity academic 2008/09 VCs, MHEST
to retain the people it freedoms and CHE
trains for such responsibilities
c) Empower the Access to up to Assess adequacy of Assessment 2008 &
curricula date knowledge learning community in report annually VCs, CHE,
implementers to accessing knowledge. Proposed
access NRF

knowledge Degree of access 2008 & VCs, CHE,
wherever it is. to internet and annually proposed
other non- NRF, MoFA
sources of
knowledge and
use of such
Develop programmes that Entrepreneurial, 2008 & VCs, CHE
equip students with creative and annually
multifunctional skills to innovative
enhance their graduates
employability and
Train lecturers on new
ways of accessing Lecturers who
knowledge and are: IT compliant, 2008 and
innovative teaching able to use e- annually VCs
techniques learning
platforms, and
Provide classrooms that moving with the
are wired appropriately trends
for knowledge access
d) Groom a Kenyans who Assess Kenyas capacity to Researched report 2008/09 CHE,
mass of are versatile and offer foreign languages MHEST,
Kenyans who competitive in like French, Arabic, VCs
will capture international Chinese, Portuguese and
opportunities languages Spanish.

beyond the Develop and/or Active 2008/09 CHE,
English strengthen these programmes in MHEST, VCs
language programmes in schools &
designated schools and universities

11. Establish a) Evaluate and Effective QA Evaluate the QA Report 2008/09 CHE, VCs
and/or restructure from mechanisms in structures and processes
strengthen time to time each university in each university
internal quality Review/Develop Guidelines of
quality assurance guidelines that can be Quality
assurance mechanisms in used to establish Quality Assurance, CHE, VCs
mechanisms each university Assurance (QA) for all structures and 2008/09
higher education courses processes

Design the process of

internal and external audit A audit 2008/09 CHE, VCs
through visitations and guidelines and
develop structures that structures
identify and justify them.
Develop clear guidelines Accreditation
for accreditation guidelines 2008/09 CHE, VCs

Establish and strengthen a
Quality Assurance Unit in
each university that A QA unit in each
ensures that the rules and university VCs, CHE
components for quality 2008/09
are implemented and
b) Subject each Nationally and Develop mechanisms that Number of 2008 &
university's internationally ensure that programmes programmes that annually VCs, CHE
internal quality recognized adhere to guidelines have been peer
assurance university reviewed
mechanisms to quality Outline the processes and A harmonized 2008/09 VCs, CHE
peer review at education structures of relations quality audit
national, between internal and process in place
regional and external audit
international Develop institutional QA Institutional QA 2008/09 VCs, CHE
levels. standards with the standards and a
universities and there national
from develop the national accreditation
accreditation standards. standards in place
Develop systems and No. of new 2008/09 VCs, CHE,
incentives that encourage linkages with & MHEST
linkages with reputable reputable annually
international universities international
for achieving quality universities in
education place

Develop guidelines and Accredited joint 2008 VCs, CHE
modalities of joint degree degree
programmes between programmes
local universities and
between local and foreign
universities to safeguard
the integrity of
programmes and such
e)Reform and Strengthened Restructure, recruit and Restructured and
strengthen CHE quality reform staff for CHE in reformed CHE CHE,
as a national assurance light of its emerging that is effective MHEST
quality functions for mandates 2008/09
assurance public and
institution private
universities in
Functional MIS Establish MIS system at Functioning MIS
system for all CHE that exchanges data system with 2008-2009 CHE,
university needs effectively with all pertinent MHEST, VCs
university institutions databases
Recruit IT experts for CHE Number and 2008/09 CHE
qualification of IT
complete IT
connectivity and
IT usage

f) Establish an Institutional Provide a forum for Regular VCs 2008/09 VCs
association for self-regulation, interaction and discussion forum and &
all vice proactive on the development of reports; areas of annually
chancellors in planning and higher education consensus on
Kenya validation of issues
agreed quality
Progress in Convene congresses on University 2009 and VCs,
innovation and higher education to education bi- MHEST,
sharing of deliberate on critical congresses; annually CHE
knowledge and issues in the development Congress
transformation of higher education proceedings
in higher

4.1 Introduction
Successful implementation of the strategies proposed in this report will involve
undertaking several activities which will require mobilization of sufficient financial
resources from different sources. This chapter presents a financial model for funding
and implementation of the projects in the logframe as well as for sustained funding of
universities. The model should enable universities to increase access and equity and
provide the required university infrastructure. The model is based on a detailed
examination of the funding levels, sources (income), applications (expenditure), and
funding mechanisms (allocation formulas) in public and private universities in Kenya.

The Kenyan situation has been compared with prevailing circumstances in other
countries, particularly countries that have made marked development in
education and whose funding mechanisms were found to be sustainable. Several
projects and programmes to enable the various implementing agencies to make
informed decisions on the approaches to the implementation of the financing
strategies have been suggested.

The strategic development of university education in Kenya should be guided by the

fundamental principles of ensuring expanded access, provision of quality academic
programmes and intensified research. The university education national objectives can
only be met with increased investment in educational infrastructure and human
resource capacity development by the government. The cross-cutting challenge to
meet the above objectives is provision of sufficient and reliable funding levels using
credible funding mechanisms by the financiers. The principal financier of public
universities is the government which provides funds for the initial infrastructural
facilities and recurrent funding for teaching, research and management.

4.2 Current Funding Model for University Education

Equity and fairness in sharing funds is achieved by using specific funding formulae,
which are agreed procedures of determining funding requirements of a university
using measurable and objective parameters such as student numbers and types of
academic programmes. Public universities in Kenya are currently allocated
government funds as single line budget based on estimates developed by the
universities. The level of recurrent funding is fundamentally determined by the
number of government sponsored students, based on a uniform rate of about
Kshs.120,000 regardless of the unit cost of programmes. This method of funding
universities places those offering expensive courses such as dentistry, engineering and
medicine at a disadvantage.

The development and implementation of a realistic unit cost based on zero budgeting
principle for all the courses will mitigate this unfairness. With all other things being
equal, expansion of facilities in order to accommodate more students is expected to
lower the unit cost due to economies of scale. A substantial proportion of the
government capitation to universities (eighty percent) goes to pay salaries and
allowances leaving only twenty percent for Operations and Maintenance (O&M).
Funding for O&M is allocated to the various competing expenditure items of the
university without necessarily determining the various priorities but based on
historical budgeting.

Universities have other sources of income through the Income Generating Activities
(IGAs) and direct funding from development partners. The management of these
additional funds is not transparent and there is no clear policy for appropriation
especially of funds from SSS fees. There is therefore, need for universities to
mainstream the IGAs and develop more sustainable methods of remunerating their
employees. This will necessitate the amalgamation of Government sponsored and the
self-sponsored students.

Private universities in Kenya derive most of their recurrent income from tuition fees,
and source their capital funds from loans, grants and support from their sponsors.
Apart from the Value Added Tax waiver on imported equipment no other benefit is
given to the private universities by the government. It is important to note that while
exchequer support has gone only to public universities, private universities also play a
role in providing education as a public good and therefore should be assisted to meet
their goals and aspirations.

4.3 Trends in Flow of Government Funds to Universities

Universities require substantial funds for rehabilitation of equipment and expansion
of infrastructure, research and basic operational costs. The capitation given by the
government to them has not been adequate. Universities have started exploring
diversified sources of funding in order to ensure that quality of teaching and research
are not compromised. This trend should be continued.

The Government provides support through direct tuition grants to the universities
and through loans and bursaries to students provided by HELB. The current level of
contribution by the government is not going to be sustainable in the long term, in view
of the other competing demands on the exchequer. The diminishing contribution of
Government funding to public universities in relation to other sources of income is
shown in Table 4.1

Table 4.1: Comparison of Total Income of Public Universities to Government Funds

Contribution (2001, 2003, 2005, percent, in bracket)
University Income (KShs x 106), % GOK capitation
2001 2003 2005
Nairobi 3261 (50) 4080 (48) 6081 (44)
Kenyatta 1263 (67) 1481 (59) 2530 (50)

Egerton 1097 (94) 1364 (81) 1767 (84)
JKUAT 546 (-) 628 (-) 943 (74)
Maseno 577 (70) 621 (77) 956 (69)
Masinde Muliro Not established 216 (93) 338 (76)
TOTALS 6,744 8,390 12,615
SOURCE: Commission for Higher Education 2006; University Returns (-) not available

The table shows that government capitation to the universities declined from 50% to
44% for UoN and from 67% to 50% for Kenyatta University. Public universities in
Kenya rely principally on Government funding for capital investments and
substantially (between 50 80%) for their recurrent expenditure. Private universities
on the other hand, source 98% of their revenue from student fees for all their capital
and recurrent expenses.

4.4 Government to Household Financing Ratios to Public Universities

4.4.1 Kenyan Situation
Table 4.1 reveals that the University of Nairobi and Kenyatta University have crossed
the critical transition point of generating at least 50% of their income internally. Most
of these internally generated funds are raised through the self-sponsored degree
programmes. The transition point reflects the relative ratio of self-sponsored to
government-sponsored students as greater than one. The ratios were 1.16 for
University of Nairobi (UoN) and 1.23 for Kenyatta University (KU) in 2004/05, while
those of Egerton University (EU), JKUAT, Maseno and Masinde Muliro University of
Science and Technology (MMUST) were 0.15, 0.96, 0.28 and 1.04 respectively.

With the introduction of Self Sponsored Student Programmes in 1997/1998 academic

year, the relative contribution of households to university education has continued to
rise while that of the Government has relatively declined. Although the ratio between
the household and government funding indicate that there has been rapid expansion
of admissions of self sponsored students it is doubtful if this source of funding can be
elastic enough to accommodate further tuition fees increases. The universities may
henceforth have to rely on economy of scale in order to meet their financial
requirements. Adjustment of tuition fees must take into consideration academic
quality and standards. Introduction of unit cost fees may ameliorate the challenges of
providing quality university education. Meanwhile the Taskforce recommends that a
realistic ratio of household to government funding be maintained below 1.5. Policies
should be developed for the management of funds generated from SSS programmes.
These policies should ensure that there is a balanced distribution that takes into
account cost of maintenance of facilities and proper remuneration of employees.

The key expenditure items in the university budget include staff salaries, maintenance
costs, development of library, equipment and facilities, staff development and
research. For good practice, salaries should not consume more than 60% of the total

university expenditure. The prevailing scenario is that staff salaries consume over 80%
of the expenditure in some public universities.

The current allocation of funds to universities is inconsistent with the size and
academic programmes offered in each university. It appears to favour certain
universities over the others. The Taskforce proposes that a suitable independent
agency be created to develop objective criteria for funding universities. Furthermore,
public universities should be compelled to account to the public their expenditures in
order to generate trust among the potential providers of additional funds. University
education is essential for economic development and competitiveness. Expenditure in
education is therefore an investment in the human resources.

Figure 4.1 Expenditure among the sub-Sectors in Education: 2001/02-2004/05


2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06

Primary 55.0 56.2 57.7 59.2 57

Secondary 29.4 28.6 27.2 24.6 26
TIVET 1.8 1.6 1.8 2.2 2
University 12.9 12.8 12.0 13.4 14
Others 1.0 0.8 1.3 0.7 0.6
Financial Years

SOURCE: PUIB report 2006

Government contribution to the education sector is not limitless. Further more within
the sector itself, there are competing sub-sectors. Table 4.2 indicates that allocation to
the university sub-sector fluctuated between 12% and 14% between 2001/02-2005/06

Kenya has a fundamental role and obligation to invest more in higher education. In
addition to opening up access, this will also provide leadership in the region by
providing opportunities for training and quality human resource development for
neighbouring countries. Private universities in Kenya provide support for the
provision of higher education to Kenyans and should also be supported by the
Government. Even in the US where higher education is open to market forces the
Government funding remains a critical source for the universities funding.

Increased Government funding will provide skills for strategic professions which are
necessary for economic development but are expensive to establish and maintain.
These strategic programmes both conventional and emerging ones, will continue to
receive governments support.

4.4.2 Experience from Other Countries

China and India have recognized that knowledge is critical to the national economy
and a major driver to global economy. As a result the number of university students
doubled from 4.9 m to 9.4 m in India within the 1990s. This has unfortunately led to a

decline in quality in some universities. In order to ensure quality, India funds an elite
cadre of institutions under the umbrella of the Indian Institutes of Technology. More
private universities have also been allowed to flourish. The newly established private
universities are more entrepreneurial than the older institutions.
The expansion of higher education in China has also been phenomenal. In the 1980s
only 2-3 % of school leavers went to universities. This ratio rose to 17% in 2003.
Furthermore, the growth of doctoral degree recipients rose from 2000 in 1993 to 10,000
in 1999 and peaked at a figure of 18,000 in 2003. Most of the doctorates earned in
China between 1992 and 2003 were in engineering (38% of total) natural sciences (22%)
and medicine (15%). The other 25% of doctorates were in the social sciences
(UNESCO, 2006)

4.5 Challenges in Financing Universities

Three major challenges faced in financing Kenyan universities are; government policy
on university funding, expanding university student numbers and management of

4.5.1 Government Policy on University Funding

The Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2005 encourages public universities to devise more
innovative ways of managing the available limited resources in order to attract private
sector players to invest in higher education. In order to achieve this policy there is
need to generate statistics to determine the true and ideal funding mixes in the
universities. Knowledge gained from such a study would ensure equitable access to
quality education as well as fund research, science, technology and innovation.

The current university funding system should be re-examined to ascertain whether it

ensures fairness, equity and access to all Kenyans who qualify for university

4.5.2 Expanding University Student Numbers

The policy for government financing of the universities should be seen in the context
of the realistic projected growth in student numbers. A logical funding strategy
should be based on the projected number of students the government intends to
sponsor annually per academic programme. It is estimated that if this reform
programme is implemented fully, then there will be 450,000 university places
available in 2015. Further, assuming that one quarter of the places will be taken by
incoming students, then approximately 112,500 students will gain admission into
the universities each year. This will represent an increase in admission rate from
the present 23.4% to 48% of the 230,118 students projected to qualify. Thus, apart
from the need to base funding on students data, student diversity, and research,
attention should also be paid to cost demands of providing quality programmes.

The current GER in Kenya is only 3%, while that of the UK is 43% and is projected to
rise to 50% by 2010. The GER for OECD countries ranges from over 70% for Finland
and New Zealand through 50% for Norway and Netherlands to 46%, 43% and 37% for
South Korea, the United States and France respectively (MoE, UNESCO 2006). The
figures clearly demonstrate that if Kenya is to achieve its developmental goals then it
should raise its GER from the current 3% to 10% by 2015.

4.5.3 Management of Funds in Universities

Public universities are perceived to be inefficient and wasteful in the management of
resources. The high unit cost proposed by public universities for their courses is a
reflection of inefficient use of financial resources. Such inefficiencies have been
attributed to bloated administration and management units in the public universities.

Private universities, on the other hand, are thought achieve much more with a lower
unit cost. The alternative sources of income for universities may include the private
sector, university students, endowments and marketing of services. In order to
improve the financial situation, universities will be expected to implement cost-cutting
measures, raise institutional productivity, institute efficient management of financial
resources, and above all, offer quality academic programmes.

The long-term objective of the financing strategy proposed in this strategy will enable
public and private universities diversify their revenue base and use available funds
prudently in order to become financially stable and self sustaining. Public universities
may be charging real unit cost for the SSS programmes. However, the basis of these
costs has not been fully established and there are perceptions that the current costs do
not take into account the cost of the existing university investment. There is therefore
need to develop a sustainable policy on the stream of tuition income to make it more
sustainable. The most prudent way would be to charge real cost, pay for all services at
market price and have lecturers remuneration improved instead of relying on
bonuses. The management of other funds should also be improved by cutting costs
and outsourcing the non-core services.

The allocation of public funds to universities should be guided by the principles of
protecting national interests, meeting the needs of students and staff, and
promoting teaching and research of high quality. Mechanisms of allocating public
funds to universities should therefore be fair, transparent, country and university
specific and broadly acceptable to stakeholders.

Universities have expanded SSS Programmes, in addition to which some universities

have started other IGAs which are managed by independent commercial units. Such
commercialisation of university services has created a dependable stream for
generating additional funds.

The scramble to open up access while raising funds has generated an additional
dilemma, since the access is being opened to those who can afford to pay. The
disadvantaged communities are likely to continue experiencing limited access to
university education through the new window opened by SSS Programmes.

4.5.4 Funding Based on Unit Cost

In order to compete favourably with other universities regionally and internationally,
local universities should introduce the unit cost as a way of funding their
programmes. In view of this, the initial project before introducing unit cost system is

Review the unit cost as a basis for funding public universities in Kenya, and
establish guidelines for objective determination of the unit cost, based on zero
budgeting principle for undergraduate and postgraduate academic programmes.
Subsequently, introduce unit cost funding.

4.6 Lessons Learnt from Other Countries

The formulae for funding universities should provide ideal and reliable instruments
for providing equitable funding to equivalent institutions offering similar
programmes. Formula-based financing reduces the need for excessive lobbying in
sourcing for public funds and guarantees university autonomy. The most commonly
used funding formula is based on the unit cost, which is the cost of educating one full-
time student for a particular course in a year. The unit cost differs according to the
degree programme. The formula often assumes a linear correlation between the level
of student numbers and the cost of mounting the programmes. The assumption of
linear correlation is appropriate for growing universities, but may be inappropriate for
a mature university which has levelled off in terms of student numbers and in which
economies of scale may be operational. In the case of growing universities, an
expansion factor should be applied to the unit cost in order to generate funds for
growth of capital and infrastructure.

The quantum of available resources and their distribution determines the relative
quality of higher education system. Academic programmes in highly endowed

American universities are often ranked among the best in the world on the basis of the
quality of their staff, facilities and funding levels. The average national expenditure
per student was in the USA US$ 22,000 (Kshs1,540,000.00) while that in the OECD
countries was US$ 10,000 (Kshs 700,000.00) in 2001. By contrast, the current average
national expenditure per student in Kenya is US$ 2,500 (Kshs 175,000.00). The
expenditure per student is $ 12,000 (Kshs 840,000.00) in Denmark, $ 9,000 (Kshs
630,000.00) in Australia, $8,500 (Kshs 595,000.00) in UK, $ 7,500 (Kshs 525,000.00) in
France and $ 5,000 (Kshs 350,000.00) in Mexico. American universities therefore spend
2-5 times as much on students as European universities, and about 10 times as much
as Kenyan universities.

The high expenditure per student means that classes are smaller, teaching is more
efficient, there is higher quality of research and there are more committed and
productive professors. On the average, the USA spends 2.7% of the GDP on higher
education, while European countries spend about 1.1%, and Kenya spent around 4.2%
in 2004, (The Economic Survey, 2005). These countries also spend substantial funds on
research both within Higher Education Institutions as well as in other National
Research Institutions. Some American universities have created endowment funds,
whose value exceeds the annual budgets of many developing countries. Harvard, for
example, has an endowment fund exceeding $20 billion, Yale $11 billion and Princeton
$8 billion. Harvard spends an average of $100 million per year of its income from
endowments to support needy students.

The inherent philanthropic spirit of the Kenyan society can probably be marshalled to
establish sustainable Endowment Funds for Kenyan universities. The culture of
individual and corporate giving can be nurtured through mobilization of the alumni
and the promotion of relevant tax incentives. The individual universitys ability to
brand and market its programmes as well as to persuade its alumni to contribute to its
funds will determine the future stability of the endowment fund.
In addition to the relatively high expenditures per student, universities in the
developed world also enjoy limited government interference in managing the
universities. Their funding relies more on the increasing contribution of households
and expanded financial patronage (households, private sector, grants, royalties and
licenses, students, philanthropists and alumni). Finally the universities are usually
developmental, practical and relevant to national needs. They have science parks,
industrial incubators and patenting and licensing arrangements with industry.
In Tanzania the government has identified the national strategic areas of study and
research and students enrolled are fully supported by the Government. All other
students pay 40% while the government meets the other 60%. The needy students are
given loans to pay for the 40% of the education cost.

Universities should be encouraged to undertake consultancies with proper costing of

the bid at current market costs in order to benefit the lecturers who participate and
also create income for the university. Consultancies improve the research capacity of

the lecturers and their research ranking. In Kenya academic staff consultancies are
conducted as personal undertakings despite the fact that they use university time and
resources, no university policy on proportionate sharing of this income is in place. In
Tanzania a lecturer is allowed to undertake consultancy but remits 20% of the
consultancy income to the university and retains 80%. A system which defines these
ratios should be developed in Kenyan universities.

In the US, universities have fund raising, investment and endowment fund managers.
Universities often form consortia to raise common pool of funds. Consortia enable
common use of equipment and resources, reduce costs and create credibility. Kenyan
universities may borrow a leaf from developed country universities by registering one
managing company in the targeted countries for fundraising for their individual

In UK, the government guarantees bank loans to students. The use of loans could be
considered in Kenya but this should be done cautiously in order to avoid enslavement
of the students in loan repayment during their working life. In addition to loans,
Kenyan universities should be encouraged to use research grants, bursaries,
scholarships, work study programmes to support bright and needy students.

The strategic activities under the financing logframe are to:

i. determine the type of incentives which individuals and corporations may

prefer to enable them support universities in establishing and maintaining
viable endowments; and
ii. analyze and recommend appropriate Government incentives that would
promote the establishment of endowment funds and grants.

4.7 Funding for Research and Development

Research is the systematic approach of identifying options for creating wealth by
adding value to natural resources as well as developing human resources. It is the
best way of mobilizing knowledge and scientific assets to drive economic
transformation and reduce poverty. The level of development of any country is
correlated to the relative investment in research and development in the public and
private sector. It is a means of developing new knowledge and capitalizing on it for
effective competitiveness. The critical component of a successful research enterprise
includes strong government commitment of 12% GDP and private sector investment.

The quality and standards of any universitys academic programmes cannot be

determined independently of its research output. To enhance the quality of
programmes in public universities in Kenya, the government and the private sector
should allocate funds for research, while faculty must commit themselves to defining
the research agenda and undertaking research projects vigorously. The research
enterprise in Kenya is constrained by the poor coordination and harmonization

between researchers and research institutes, inadequate funding allocated to research
and diminishing motivation for researchers. Lack of a precise research and science
policy has hindered the formulation of a coherent national research agenda, which in
turn has generated very few linkages with the economic sector for utilization of
research findings.

Investment in strategic laboratories and other infrastructure for carrying out cutting-
edge research in material sciences, biotechnology, nanotechnology, energy and
transport among others should be considered in Kenyan universities. These
specialized laboratories should be rationally spread out across the universities with
one specific lead university serving as the Centre of Excellence in the specific
programme. Sustained funding should be earmarked for updating such facilities. A
framework should be established for ensuring equitable and fair shared use of the
facilities among university students and staff.

4.7.1 Funding Formula for Research

Funding for research in universities should be based on competitive criteria,
which should be used to assess the quality of the proposed research projects. The
PhD degree being the driver for research, government subsidies could be tied to
the number of PhD throughputs in a university. In many countries with
successful research infrastructure, funds allocated for research are invested in an
autonomous agency steered by professional fund managers. In the USA, for
example, research funds from the government are distributed competitively by
the National Science Foundation and National Institute for Health among others.
Brazil, India and South Africa have recently formed similar independent
agencies for allocating and channelling research funds from government to
university researchers. Such an independent agency instils efficiency and reduces
bureaucracy in processing research proposals by involving the scientific
community in the review and allocation panels. However, such an agency must
be enabled, and formulae must be based on real numbers, as shown in the case of

Indias annual funding for research in Science and Technology is about 0.8 % of
the national GDP. The country has, however, committed itself to revitalizing
research by three approaches. First, the research budget has been increased by 16
% to a figure of US$4.5 billion (Kshs. 320b) in 2007. Secondly, the government has
pledged US$ 25 million (Kshs. 1.8b) to each of three public universities for
rejuvenating institutional research. These figures are, however, substantially
lower than what is used by some individual multinational companies. The
Research and Development budget for Pfizer, a multinational pharmaceutical
company, was over US$ 7.7b (Kshs. 540b) in 2004/05. Thirdly, an Indian national
agency, the National Science and Engineering Research Foundation (NSERF) has
been set up and will be allocated an annual budget of US$ 250 million (KShs 20b)
for research. The agencys full-time mandate is to spearhead scientific research,
to undertake fundraising and to develop criteria for assessing the quality of

research undertaken. South Africa is planning to grow its research funding from
the current 0.87% to 1 % of GDP allocation by 2008.

An additional project under financing is to:

Assess the feasibility of establishing a suitable autonomous agency, such as

a National Research Foundation, for judging the quality of research
proposals and for allocating research funds from government and other
sources. Establish mechanisms for the foundation to seek funding from
science-based industries operating in the country.

4.8. Funding Sources

A diversified funding model which is proposed for Kenya is shown in Figure 4.1.
The key element of the model is the role of intermediary bodies to manage and
regulate the flow of funds from the diversified sources to the recipients. The
principal sources of funds will remain the Government and households. Other
proposed sources include private sector players such as banks, philanthropy and
the universities internal IGAs. The model proposes the creation of various
innovative schemes including government education Bond, educational lottery
and Kenya Education Insurance Fund for mobilizing additional funds. Funding
from international partners will continue to be negotiated through the

It is proposed that all principal funding be channelled through intermediate

bodies. The funding from the government should continue to be channelled
through HELB and a revitalized University Grants Committee (UGC) for special
development projects like the establishment of new universities, construction of
infrastructures such as roads, lighting, water systems and communication
facilities that would facilitate operations of both public and private universities.
The government may also create education bonds or negotiate loans or grants
through Official Development Assistance (ODA) mechanisms for the
establishment of special projects and strategic academic programmes.

From Table 4.1, one can deduce hat households contribute about 50% of the
public universities financial needs. Most students in private universities are fully
supported by the households. Universities should in addition be able to access
funds from commercial banks and other financial institutions through acceptable
financial arrangements. These arrangements may include parents borrowing
money from these sources for the education of their children and the universities
taking loans for capital or academic development projects. Similarly, universities
may borrow money from these financial institutions through government
guaranteed loans for capital development.

The private sector is also a major source of university funding. The government
has recognized the potential contribution of the private sector and individual
philanthropy in the 2006 Financial Bill. It is now possible to exempt such
contributions that are over one million Kenya Shillings from taxation. This major
innovation in Kenyas financial system should be exploited to enhance university
funding. Some private sector institutions have contributed to university
education development in the past. For example, the Kenya Reinsurance
Company funded the construction of a student centre at Moi University in the
1990s. Kenya Breweries limited has set up a scholarship fund for university
students. Other private sector companies have similarly contributed to various
university projects. Enhanced contributions to university education by the
private sector should be encouraged.

Although universities have diversified their IGAs, they can generate more
financial resources through research grants, patents and licenses, international
students fees and other similar sources. Therefore, the strategic goal for
university funding is to:

Key Recommendation 4.1

Establish an appropriate, reliable, diversified and sustainable

mechanism for financing university education (see fig.4.2).

The establishment of diversified sources of funding is within the reach of
the Government, universities and other stakeholders.
The two-track fee paying system adopted by the universities has greatly
improved the financial base of the universities.
The additional recommended activities, though requiring high investment
in the short term, will cost less in the long term and greatly improve the
viability of university education.
Increasing demand for higher education cannot be met through
government funding only.
There is need to reach out to the needy segments of society owing to
increasing levels of poverty (about 46% Kenyans live below poverty line in
Diversifying sources of financing would enable the government to focus its
resources on strategic areas of development.
See Figure 4.2

Figure 4. 2: Proposed Kenyan Model for Financing University Education, Sources and pathways
Funding sources Recipients
Managing/ Intermediary
Bodies Beneficiaries


Government Educ. Bonds, Higher Education Government
IDA Researchers Employers
Professional Academies Individuals
HELB Communities


Financial institutions

Private Sector
National Research Research
Foundation Institutes

Kenya Education Insurance Fund

Income Generating Activities

4.9. Financial Management Bodies
The Taskforce has recommended that funds for the universities need to be disbursed
in a rationalised and fair manner. In this regard, there is need to enhance the role of
HELB and create a new body, the NRF to mobilise, manage and disburse funds for
university development, teaching and research.

4.9.1 Higher Education Loans Board

HELB currently gives loans and bursaries to undergraduate students. It also gives
loans and scholarships to postgraduate students. The strategy is to have the following
additional responsibilities for HELB:

i. receive annual recurrent capitation grants from government and disburse

the same to universities;
ii. disburse institutional loans and grants for capital development;
iii. manage funds for infrastructure development;
iv. spearhead the establishment of a National University Education
Endowment Fund and National University Insurance Fund; and
v. mobilize additional funds for supporting needy students.

In order to enhance capacity for recovering loans and facilitate the migration of
individual students loans across institutions, the strategy of using Personal
Identification Number (PIN) system shall be introduced by HELB for the identification
of students in consultation with the Kenya Revenue Authority. In addition, HELB
should establish an Education Smart Card System (voucher system) that incorporates
the student PIN for all university education financial transactions. The proposed
education smart card shall be used for paying fees and other charges calculated at unit
cost that should vary with each university. HELB will continue to be responsible for
recovery of loans, generation and investment of funds.

Additionally, the strategy of introducing new mechanisms for financing universities

capital developments, strategic academic programmes, purchase of expensive and
specialised equipment, and the promotion of education in general, through a
restructured and strengthened HELB shall be implemented.

HELB will at the same time continue to fund students and initiate new institutional
support through a combination of various efficient mechanisms:

The means tested financial assistance should be in the form of loans, grants, or
scholarships. Grants and scholarships should be used sparingly only to advance
policy directions for access, equity and /or development of human resources for
strategic national needs.
4.9.2. Proposed Modalities for Management of Student and Institutional Loans
The Taskforce has also considered the current management of student loans. Loans
awarded to students shall carry a zero real rate of interest that is, a rate of interest
equal only to the prevailing rate of inflation. The zero real rate of interest shall apply
during the students full time normal duration of study for both undergraduate and
postgraduate. The current HELB grace period of one year after graduation should be

Ideally, in a stable and mature economy, the cost of financing does not fluctuate as in
an economy with a hyper-inflation rate. However, with the present inflationary
interest rates prevailing in Kenya, application of this principle will result in more
losses due to amortization and administrative costs. Hence until the interest rates are
in stable low single digit figures, it will be prudent for the government to continue
investing in loan schemes with recovery rate pegged at about 60-80%.

Institutional loans should be competitively procured based on peer-reviewed project

proposals submitted to HELB and certified by CHE for QA/QC or administering
body/institutions after calls for such proposals. The repayment period should be long
enough to allow for a level of monthly repayments that fits the average income of
most borrowers.

Student and institutional loans should be guaranteed by a combination of institutional

collaterals, individual co-signatories for students and government guarantees in order
for loans to be sold from time to time in the capital market.

The goal of co-signatory arrangements for student loans is mainly to assist in

locating the borrower and exerting moral pressure to repay the loans. It is not
for loan recovery from the co-signatory. Similarly, the demand for collateral
from institutions is to ensure institutional responsibility in loan utilization and
The Government should assume all or most of the risks of institutional loans
and student loans from low-income families who do not have the assets to
reasonably co-sign the student loan forms of their children or who are for other
legitimate reasons, unable or unwilling to provide a sufficient guarantee.

The government can assume the risk referred to above in three ways:

by being the lender: that is, by making student loans from current
governmental budgets like other governmental expenditures;
by guaranteeing the loans made by private lenders (e.g. banks). Such a
guarantee, or contingent liability, incurs essentially the same net
discounted present value cost to the government as would be incurred in
the case of the government-as-lender expensing only a reserve for bad
debts. The government guarantee will be based on some minimum
conditions that borrowers must meet; and

by securitizing the loans: That is, paying private lenders a risk premium up-
front to then assume the risk of non repayment. (In accounting terms, this
device essentially pre-pays the guarantee and unloads all of the risks onto
the private lender up-front.)

The details of the new mechanism will depend on the outcome of a proposed detailed
financial study. The proposed restructured HELB will facilitate universities and other
higher education institutions to borrow funds from various sources at subsidized
interest rates. It is understood that education loans shall not carry interest rates much
higher than the cost of government borrowing.

4.9.3 National Research Foundation

The strategy shall include the establishment of National Research Foundation of
Kenya whose responsibilities shall be to:

i. fund research especially at PhD level at universities;

ii. co-ordinate knowledge acquisition, application and direction of research in
all fields;
iii. inform and communicate research achievements and directions to the policy
makers and the public;
iv. promote scouting for new knowledge, technologies and academic
programmes that are strategic to national development and advance
research on the same;
v. mobilize and distribute research funds;
vi. promote university-private sector linkages and partnerships;
vii. promote the establishment and funding of science councils, research
institutes, national scientific and professional academies and societies of
viii. promote international and national linkages and partnerships amongst
universities and private sector, international scientific bodies;
ix. manage funds identified for specific national priority and strategic areas;
x. manage incentives and grants given to universities for the development of
specific programmes.

4.10. Recipients
The recipients of funds coordinated by the intermediary bodies shall be the university
and higher education institutions, research institutes and researchers, professional
societies and academies, councils and CHE. The funding of these institutions has not
been well coordinated. Furthermore, the basis for allocation of funds to universities
has not been equitable. Some research institutes and CHE have suffered shortages of
funds that inhibit execution of their activities. Professional societies and academies
have also been unable to pay membership to international organizations. Inability to
become members of international professional bodies has denied Kenyan scientists

and researchers opportunities to benefit from participation in internationally funded
mega projects and activities organized by such institutions.

4.11. Beneficiaries
In addition to individual and national benefits outlined in chapter I of this strategy,
universities also benefit the communities in which they are located. They are economic
growth centres of towns and cities hosting them, through their demand for materials
and services. Recognition of universities as drivers of economy though common in
most developed countries, is often ignored in developing countries, Kenya included.

4.12 Proposed Strategic Objectives

The following strategic objectives, which are considered in detail in the logframe, will
be pursued to achieve the financing goals:

i. mobilize sufficient funds, internally and externally, to implement the strategic

reforms recommended in the comprehensive strategy for university education
encompassing access, equity, infrastructure, quality and legal frameworks;
ii. establish diversified, reliable and sustainable sources of financing university
iii. develop a sustainable model for supporting students and for funding specific
academic, capital and human resources development projects in the university
iv. establish a suitable framework and an autonomous national agency for raising
and distributing research funds (NRF);
v. establish self-sustaining endowment funds for supporting higher education
through market instruments, lottery, philanthropy and insurance schemes ; and
vi. complete all the stalled projects in public universities and rehabilitate
infrastructure, equipment and establish regular maintenance regimes.

Logframe on financing University Education
Strategic Issue Financing University Education
Strategic Goal To Establish Reliable, Diversified, and Sustainable and Accountable Mechanisms for Financing University Education

Strategic Time
Objectives Strategies Outcomes Project/Activities Indicators frame Assumptions Responsible

1. Establish a) Develop A realistic Assess the proposed Enhanced and 2008/09 MHEST, MoF
diversified, mechanisms to and Kenyan funding model rationalized HELB, VCs
reliable, maximize sustainable specifying sources and university KRA
sustainable funding from Kenyan application of funds in funding.
and sources in model of universities, and
accountable proposed funding propose how it may be
mechanisms of financing universities implemented.
financing model.
university b) Use the More Identify the main A schedule of 2008/09 CHE HELB
education student per realistic components of components of VCs
capita funding calculating the unit cost the unit cost
expenditure (the levels Develop guidelines for guidelines for 2008/09 CHE HELB
unit cost) in objective determination establishing VCs
each degree of the unit cost for the unit cost
programme as undergraduate and
the basis for postgraduate academic
determining the programmes.
appropriate Develop a scheme for One student 2008/09 VCs, MHEST
funding levels. smooth amalgamation of body.
SSS with regular
c) Strengthen Enhanced Evaluate the Evaluation 2008/09 MHEST, CHE,
and diversify funding performance and reports VCs
income levels management of
generating current income
activities. generating activities
in universities and
propose reforms.
Asses the current Assessment 2008/09
allocation and usage reports
of income from IGAs
and propose reforms
d) Develop Enhanced Assess the current The volume of 2008/09 MHEST,
fundraising capacity for capacities for fundraising HELB, VCs
skills and fundraising fundraising within increases
capacity in all the universities and
universities identify training
e) University Establish fund- Established 2008/09 VCs
Institutionalize programmes raising offices in university offices
fundraising for fund- universities for fund raising
raising and manned by
established trained staff and
initiation of

f) Institute a Enhanced Identify criteria and Improved quality 2008/09 MHEST,
two-tier funding academic guidelines for academic and HELB, VCs
mechanism; productivity allocating merit research
unit cost and and quality points to academic programmes/
merit based programmes and output
programme research
g) Sensitize Informed Develop sensitization Greater 2008/09 VCs, MHEST,
households on households mechanisms, understanding and HELB
their role in materials and and participation annually
financing communication of households
university channels

2. Develop a a) Restructure All qualified Assess the capacity Revitalized and 2008/09 MHEST, HELB
sustainable and strengthen Kenyans of HELB to raise and more efficient
model for HELB to enable have access manage funds to HELB ;
supporting it become a to financial support the current % increase of
students. broad-based support for and projected students
funding scheme university numbers of Kenyan supported
education students who are
eligible for
scholarships, loans
and grants
b) Develop Adequately Identify staffing and Number of 2008/09 MHEST,
human capacity staffed training needs of personnel HELB
for HELB HELB HELB to undertake trained/recruited;
new functions enhanced

c) Ensure Adequate Evaluate and Value of funding 2008/09
sufficiency of funding for monitor financial and number of MHEST;
student funding student assistance for students HELB; VCs;
education students sufficiently CHE
needs funded
d) Establish Flexible and Assess and Flexible 2008/09 HELB,
Education efficient strengthen the admission and MHEST,VCs
Smart card transactions capacity of HELB transfer of funds
for management and universities to
of transaction of introduce and utilize
education loans, smart card
and other funds
given to

3. Develop a a) Identify Support for Develop criteria for Existence of 2008/09 MoF, MHEST,
sustainable strategic strategic prioritization, strategic HELB
model for academic and academic location and academic and
funding capital and capital allocation of funds capital
strategic development development development
academic and programmes programmes programmes
capital for Government
development funding
programmes. b) Develop Improved Develop guidelines Funding 2008/09 CHE, HELB,
modalities of quality of for project guidelines MHEST,
HELB working projects assessment and VCs
jointly with funded funding
CHE in

c) Attract Additional Identify suitable Increased 2008/09 MoF, MHEST,
private sector funds from incentives and modes participation by and HELB, VCs,
and the private of co-operation for private sector; annually KEPSA, KBA,
development sector and attracting private number and KRA, KAM
partners to development sector and diversity of
provide support partners development academic and
in strategic partners capital
programmes programmes

4.Develop a a) Identify Human Needs assessment in Needs assessment 2008/09 MoF, MHEST
sustainable strategic areas capacity HRD in strategic report and OOP VCs
model for in human developed areas. annually Proposed NRF
human resource for strategic MoL MOPND
resources development areas.
development for Government
in strategic support.
academic b) Attract Additional Identify suitable number and 2008/09 MoF, MHEST,
programmes private sector funds from incentives and modes diversity of and HELB, VCs,
and the private of co-operation for Human resource annually KEPSA, KBA,
development sector and attracting private trained KRA, KAM
partners to development sector and
provide support partners development
for human partners

5. To establish a) Establish a National Develop legal and National Research 2008/09 MHEST, VC's,
a suitable National Research organizational Foundation ACT Research
agency for Research Foundation framework for a Institutes
raising Foundation national agency for
managing and mobilizing and

distributing disbursing research
research funds. funds.

6. Establish a) Establish a A national Carry out a study to Feasibility study VCs, HELB,
self sustaining National Higher endowment determine the report 2008/09 KRA
endowment Education fund feasibility of a
fund for Endowment established. sustainable National
supporting Fund by endowment fund.
University reserving 1% of
education VAT income
annually to the
b) Establish An Assess how Assessment VCs
institutional endowment endowment funds report.
endowment fund for operate and develop
funds for each each local guidelines for
university university establishment of
endowment funds 2008/09
Determine the types Schedule of KRA, MoF,
and amount of classes and MHEST
incentives which will incentives
enable individuals
and industries to
contribute to the
fund. 2008/09

c) Mobilize Diversified Assess the potential Number of new 2008/09 MoF, MoP,
financial income for alternative local unexploited VCs,HELB
support from sources sources of funding sources of funds
private sector, identified
alumni and
d) Develop A system of Identify the types Identified system 2008/09 MHEST, KRA
national incentives and values of of incentives and
incentives for incentives which annually
industries and would motivate
persons individuals and
donating funds industries to give
to universities generously
e) Reactivate Inventory of Determine the Report of 2008/09 VCs, MHEST,
dormant or dormant current dormant dormant assets; MoR,
unproductive university university assets Volume of MoPW, MoF
university assets assets (land, houses, farms), income realized
to provide seed their value and
money for the propose how to
establishment of prudently unlock
endowment them to generate
funds income for the
f) Universities Seed funds Propose cost-cutting Sustainable 2008/09 MHEST, VCs,
to invest at least for the and waste-reduction endowment fund MoF
5% of their total endowments measures to enable
income universities continue
annually for the to render quality
next five years service after saving
into growing at least 5% of their

their income in the
endowments. endowment.

7. To complete a) Source funds Improved a. Assess the Assessment VCs, CHE,

the stalled to complete the access and condition of stalled report of the state MHEST, MoR
projects in projects quality projects and cost of of stalled projects MoPW
public completing them and
universities propose a completion
and schedule
projects in
universities 2008/09
b. Assess the Assessment
condition of existing report of
infrastructure in infrastructure
private universities
and the cost of VCs, CHE,
rehabilitating them MHEST,
2008/09 MoRPW

8. To provide a) Mobilize Quality Carry out a needs Priority list of VCs, CHE,
suitable and funds from the teaching and assessment equipment, their MHEST
up to date diversified research costs and 2008/09
teaching and sources equipment procurement and
research schedules annually
equipment in Procure needed Equipment 2008/09 VCs, CHE,
all universities equipment procured and MHEST

9. To establish a) Universities University Undertake audit of Audit report, 2008/09 MHEST,
proactive to establish maintenance all university assets budget and CHE, CBS
maintenance budget lines for budgets and to facilitate maintenance
regimes for maintenance of scheduled preparation of regimes
university assets and regimes and maintenance budgets established
assets and Equipment well and regimes
equipment. maintained

5.1 Introduction
Students form the core interest of any university. As such, issues pertaining to
their welfare, as they pursue their studies, need to occupy the university
managements priority list. Likewise, the academic and administrative staff of
a university also deserve to have their concerns addressed. The faculty, or
teaching staff, technical and other support staff all work together to enable
the university perform its core functions of enabling effective learning,
teaching and research.

A number of related issues have been highlighted and the following strategic
objectives identified as crucial to the improvement of student and staff
welfare in universities:

i. streamlining the admission process to ensure that quality students are

admitted appropriately and in an equitable manner;
ii. enhancing student financing for retention and completion;
iii. enriching student advising, guidance and counselling;
iv. improving planning and performance of student registration and the
orientation process;
v. upgrading catering, accommodation and recreation facilities; and
vi. improving the learning, teaching and research environment.

5.2 Student Welfare

5.2.1 Student Admission
A combination of factors has traditionally interfered with the process of
conducting student admission into public universities. These factors, ranging
from frequent student and lecturers strikes; political interference; delay in
student admission through JAB and university admission being pegged to
available bed space in each university have culminated in the public
universities lacking a consistent and reliable academic calendar. The relay
system of running the universities academic programmes, currently in use, is
a positive attempt to rectify this anomaly.

JAB admission into university programmes is largely dependent on KCSE

results. The university admission cut-off points particularly for the
competitive courses tend to vary each year depending on overall performance
in the national examination. This variation, coming after a long wait of
sometimes up to two years, results in the dashing of many students
expectations. Having suddenly been declared unqualified for their chosen
courses, the unsuccessful students find that they have been locked out of
admission into Middle Level colleges for which they would have ultimately
qualified had they applied in time. Middle Level colleges and private
universities admit their students soon after the release of each years KCSE
results. Furthermore, this particular category of students may also not be able
to independently meet the cost of pursuing higher education in private
universities or as self-sponsored students within public universities. The
process creates wastage of talents which would have benefited the country.

There is need to change the admission process to one that enables potential
university students to be informed of their admission, or otherwise, early
enough. It is possible to improve on the prevailing system in such a way that
within at least six months of the release of KCSE results, students would be
able to begin university studies. Such a system would relieve students of
much anxiety and enable them make alternative arrangements concerning
their career paths in ample time. Accelerated admission arrangements would
also enable universities to plan their programmes better and rationalize more
efficient use of their learning and teaching facilities.

The following are some of the factors that contribute to the need for
decentralization of student admissions into universities.

i. Decreasing government capitation: households are the main financiers

of higher education in Kenya. This trend is unlikely to change soon
particularly with the great demand for higher education in a situation
where supply and choice are relatively limited.
ii. Increasing student mobility and range of career choices: Many
universities are opening up new departments or collaborating with
other institutions of higher learning in an effort to provide courses that
are in popular demand.
iii. Growing competition amongst universities: Potential university
students are generally a wellinformed group of people. They are
unwilling to invest funds and time in what does not promise attractive
and durable returns. They want quality, credibility and efficiency.
Undoubtedly, it will be the university which is able to live up to these
expectations that will attract a steady and faithful flow of clients.
iv. Increasing privatization of higher education. The Self-Sponsored
Student Programmes running in public universities are gradually
placing university education beyond the reach of the needy student
who desires higher education. A system of early identification of needy
students and provision of financial assistance is essential for the
viability of university education as a key promoter of equal
opportunity. This also serves as an equalizer of members of society.
v. Streamlining the admission process: Issues that currently affect
efficiency in the admission process include the apparent lack of well-
structured career Guidance and Counselling programmes at the
secondary school level. Students choices of university courses are
often not aligned with their core qualifications. Some secondary
schools also do not bother to remit the university application forms in
good time, or simply discourage their students from even filling them
out. An open door admission policy would capture the unlucky
students who would otherwise miss admissions.

The following strategies are proposed:

i. transfer the Joint Admissions Board Secretariat currently based at

the University of Nairobi to the Universities Students Placement
Secretariat within CHE so as to retain public confidence in an
established system with credible selection procedures. The
students Placement Secretariat would then become the nucleus of
the students placement office. This transfer process should aim at
keeping intact the skills and expertise gained in JAB over the years;
ii. liaison with the government on human resource needs.

Similar systems operate in the United Kingdom, the United Republic of

Tanzania, and the Republic of South Africa and have been proven effective
since they do not prevent an individual university from getting its share of
students from the market or the university from charging admission fees.
Instead, these systems bring order into the admission system. The Secretariat
shall have an Advisory Board of not more than 15 persons representing the
public and private universities and the government.

5.2.2 Admission into Postgraduate Studies.

Introduction of the SSS Programmes in public universities has helped open
up admission for Kenyans into some Masters Degree Programmes. Statistics
indicate that while the average national enrolment into second degree
programmes runs to about seven hundred students annually, enrolment into
PhD level of studies lags far behind, standing at a national average of twenty-
five. Registration procedures for PhD students in some universities require as
many as twelve (12) steps and up to two years to complete. Such unnecessary
bureaucratic procedures hinder students enrolment into these programmes.
Unlike undergraduate level courses for which information may be available at
departmental level, the admission process into PhD programmes is, at best,
shrouded in mystery.

University websites have minimal information on postgraduate programme

requirements. There is need for universities to include elaborate information
as well as revise the procedures for admissions to remove unnecessary
bottlenecks. The approval of potential PhD students proposals could, for
instance, be done definitively at the departmental level and decisions
communicated in a timely manner to the candidates. In addition, universities
need to align possible areas of postgraduate study to critical and strategic
areas of national development and international concern. Postgraduate
students registered for study in these areas should benefit from incentives
worked out in conjunction with the NRF.

5.2.3 International Students Admission

Our public universities predominantly attract local students. This is an
unfortunate move away from the situation as it was up to the early nineties,
when regional states had regular representation in the few public universities
established country then. The presence of international students enhances
diversity within the university student body. It is a useful indicator in
validating the strategic utility of a course and subsequently contributes to a
more favourable global rating for a university. Each university needs to
define the desirable percentage of its overall student population that should
be from without. International student admission procedures should be
clearly outlined and adhered to so as to make Kenyan public universities
attractive across borders.

5.2.4 Student Orientation

The orientation process is intended to help students fit into a university. Some
of the core functions of the orientation process include helping students find
their way around the campus; learning to read and correctly interpret
material such as time-tables and alerts pinned up on notice boards; knowing
the work ethics and values that the university upholds; and health and safety
procedures that have been put in place or are expected of the student body. In
short, the orientation process has more than just a perfunctory value and
plays a key role in inducting students into the culture and character of a
particular university.

It is commendable that every university runs some kind of orientation

programme particularly for freshers. However, students who manage to gain
admission into most public universities still have to contend with a number of
discouraging events relating to poorly coordinated or clogged orientation
programmes. Newly-admitted students generally lack basic information on
how to get around the various campus grounds. Despite a couple of
universities embracing on-line registration, the overall admission and
registration process into public universities is still clumsy and inefficient.
Problems in orientation and registration could be reduced and eventually
eliminated by the institution if regularly updated information systems were
used and enhanced through talking boards that communicate effectively.
The Taskforce is cognisant of the fact that some departments in public
universities are larger than some entire private university populations. Rising
up to the challenge of ensuring that such a large populace is adequately
catered for should therefore be one of the goals in ensuring the efficacy of
admission and orientation process.

Lack of clear guidelines on where to get help or advice on various issues

related to their arrival, registration, accommodation and, studies tends to
compound students woes. This is often due to the fact that a number of staff
members who are arbitrarily picked to help out during the process have
limited and vague information on areas outside their respective disciplines
for the duration of the orientation process.

Orientation officers should have the requisite knowledge and attitudes that
can lead to effective socialisation of students into university life. Thorough
knowledge of institutional culture, geography and policies as well as basic
interest in the novices backgrounds and motivation would be very beneficial.
Admission and orientation counsellors should be identified early and trained
to gain the necessary skills for mentoring students. Training in public
relations is of prime importance given that universities already need to
compete for students. Client orientation is of key importance. Consequently,
each university faces the challenge of promoting a welcoming, compassionate
and friendly atmosphere within the campus.

Private universities tend to have elaborate orientation programmes that are

conducted over a number of days, just before the beginning of a new
academic semester or year. Where deemed possible or logical, students
parents and/or guardians are also invited to participate in the orientation
programme. Time and resources are deliberately invested into these
introductory moments of students academic life. This also makes the
orientation and registration process more meaningful and less frustrating for
the students.

Investment should also be made in the training, mentoring and deployment

of peer counsellors stationed in easily accessible advisory offices. Staff
deployed to these offices perform key services for the university community
and therefore need continuous training, on how to effectively respond to the
needs of undergraduates, continuing students, postgraduates and
international students.

5.2.5 Catering and Accommodation

The establishment of the Student Welfare Authority (SWA) in UoN is a
positive development that signals the existence of valid structures to take care
of students welfare. Accommodation and recreation facilities should be
regularly assessed for adequacy and safety. The halls of residence in most
universities also employ the services of counsellors and wardens who are
available to the students in times of need.

Their services are further enhanced by chaplaincies, particularly in public and

faith-sponsored universities. Fairly adequate health care facilities and services
are available while some universities have worked out student insurance
schemes that actually lower both the individual and overall cost of health
provision to the student community.

The following limitations have been observed in respect to students catering

and accommodation services:
i. lack of variety of accommodation from which students could make a
choice. The current situation is that each university offers a fixed menu
of residential facilities to students who require them. Universities
generally have, to-date, paid no thought to the accommodation needs

of mature and/or married students. The general assumption is that
university students are freshly out of high school and celibate. In this
regard, university accommodation facilities are still styled along the
lines of what is generally available in boarding high schools;
ii. absence of kitchenettes within the halls of residence. These facilities
foster independence in the preparation of ones meals within an
approved and safe environment without being limited to adhering to
prescribed communal meal times;
iii. insufficient and poorly-maintained halls of residence. Student
populations often outgrow available residential space. Some halls are
also poorly designed and lit. This ends up compromising on the
students individual and group safety and security. Safety regulations
include institutionalising records of visitors and discreet patrols of the
halls of residence;
iv. congestion within the hostels or halls of residence. Some rooms have
no provision for basic academic equipment such as reading tables,
chairs or book-shelves. Congestion also leads to lack of privacy and
subsequent loss of self-dignity and respect amongst students. Issues of
ethics and morality are also easily dispensed with in such
circumstances; and
v. prohibitive cost of balanced meals. Catering services should provide
for flexible balanced diets that are affordable.

The government has put in place a legal framework that governs health and
safety measures in public buildings. These include the installation of fire
alarms and exits; conducting occasional drills to familiarize resident students
with evacuation procedures in case of emergencies, and strict surveillance of
halls of residence to detect presence of intruders. The universities should be
encouraged to adhere to these regulations.

Accommodation and catering are a major source of discontent and tension in

many universities. Privatization of these services, while theoretically a
plausible idea, is no guarantee to ensuring the provision of quality
accommodation facilities. Universities should continue providing this service
to the students and should consider joint investments with private
developers. For example, universities could encourage investors to construct
hostels on land owned by individual universities on the basis of the Build
Operate and Transfer (BOT) principle. The designs and standards of halls of
residence and hostels should be determined and approved by the respective
universities, preferably in conjunction with architectural consultants. Such
viability assessments would also help enhance professionalism on the part of
the universities. Students, through their leaders, could be involved in
negotiating for student- friendly rental rates.

Contractual arrangements could also be reached with private developers who

possess prime land in close proximity to the universities. The architectural
design of such hostels should also be approved by the university and not left
entirely to the market forces. The university would guarantee the availability

of students while the landlord ensures the provision of quality
accommodation and catering facilities, in accordance with the agreement. The
university should negotiate the type, quality and prices offered by on campus
caterers of canteens and eateries. With these arrangements in place, the
universities should outsource the existing student accommodation systems.

5.2.6 Sports and Recreation Facilities

Many universities have active student clubs such as AISEC, Model United
Nations, SIFE, and ESA. Participation in these clubs and organizations helps
develop character as well as instil certain values in the students as they
prepare to join the countrys labour force. Inter-university contests are a
means of proving academic prowess while providing healthy entertainment.

The Taskforce has already recommended that sports be considered as one of

the strategic areas in university programmes. Sports departments are
operational and inter-university games are growing in scope, recognition and
sponsorship. The 2006 games series, for instance, was sponsored by DAAD,
the German Development Agency. There, however, still exists a dearth in the
provision of choice entertainment facilities. This is most critical when one
takes into cognisance that Kenya is well-known world over as an athletic and
sporting power house. Public universities should look into means of being
associated with sports heroes such as they do with literary and political ones.
Overseas and private universities have placed value on sports and athletics
and regularly offer sports scholarships to deserving students.

Suitably equipped student centres that offer a variety of entertainment are

limited. This is understandable as choice entertainment can be as varied as the
students represented in a university. However, in collaboration with various
partners, it is possible to install musical, visual arts and other equipment to a
reasonable level.

Contests that enable schools and other institutions of learning to win valuable
entertainment facilities for themselves and their institutions of learning could
be extended to universities. In this regard, the CELTEL Challenge Cup that
brings together over 20 regional universities is highly commended as it has
enabled participants win significant awards for themselves and for their

5.2.7 Learning Environment

The learning environment in a university is a combination of material and
intangible factors. These include the location and state of physical amenities,
care of grounds and flora, as well as attitudes portrayed by the university

As much as university students are quite adaptive, this should not be

construed to mean that they are ready and willing to pursue their studies in
any type of environment. It is unfortunate that many of those who gain

admission into public universities through JAB admission come from
secondary schools whose infrastructure has been excellently maintained. The
students initial experience in some university departments is shocking.
Critical problems cover the following areas.

i. Neglected grounds, walkways and public areas. The first

impression one gets of a university, either in person or from
brochures, contributes significantly to the individuals perception of
the university. For instance, well-maintained public areas are
inviting and conducive to reading, reflection or group discussions.
Provision of clean litter bins at strategic points encourages students
to be responsible for the conserving of their environment.

ii. Laxity in enforcing security procedures within university

campuses. This is a loophole that can prove costly to a university. In
some public university campuses, any decently presented people
can simply walk in and out with no-one enquiring as to the nature
of their business therein. Very few work environments are this
tolerant to the presence of strangers around or within their
precincts. Students need to be encouraged or compelled to wear
identification badges when on campus. This is now standard
procedure even in offices, so one cannot complain of undue
victimisation when faced with the consequences of ones own
negligence. Security measures should extend to proper lighting of
corridors within buildings and the general university grounds.

iii. Insufficient numbers of ablution facilities. Each building housing

lecture theatres, laboratories and special learning rooms should have
clean, well-lit and aerated washrooms and related facilities in close
proximity of the lecture rooms for use by the students. Special
attention should be paid to the needs of the physically challenged by
providing clearly marked and specially adapted ablution facilities
for their use.

iv. Over-crowded classes. There are overcrowded classes that cannot

be split due to the logistics involved in preparing tuition time-tables.
Common or foundation courses that are taken by large student
groups are worst hit by congestion. Students are sometimes forced
to follow lectures from outside the lecture rooms due to limitations
in seating space and furniture. Care needs to be taken to ensure that
all lecture theatres and other reading rooms have adequate
ventilation even with the doors shut. Improper aeration leads to the
reading and learning spaces becoming sources of illnesses and other

v. Shortage of lecturers, research and/or teaching assistants. There are

shortages of lecturers, research and teaching assistants to run
parallel classes. Having them helps ease congestion on the lecturers

teaching load while improving on studentlecturer contact. This is
particularly critical with part-time or adjunct lecturers.

vi. Absenteeism and/or lateness. Some students and lecturers are

habitually late to class or regular absentees. Guidelines for the
management of these issues need to be clearly defined to both
students and faculty right from the time of orientation. The first few
days and/or weeks of learning are wasted and lost due to a variety
of amorphous reasons. Registration for proceeding semesters could,
for instance, be done half-way through the current semester as is the
case in some private universities (USIU, Nazarene). With proper
organisation, class hours need not be spent filling out forms and
performing other administrative routines.

vii. Academic staff lacking in effective communication skills. Some

lecturers cannot be faulted on issues of punctuality but are simply
unable to effectively transfer the knowledge they possess to the
students. This is usually a result of lack of pedagogical skills or the
unwillingness to polish up on ones repertoire of communication
skills. Impersonal and uncreative lecturers simply end up de-
motivating students and sending them away from their course units.

viii. Shortage of adequate and suitably-equipped teaching spaces. As

universities expand the number of programmes they offer as well as
of students admitted, similar expansion needs to be extended to
infrastructure. Proper ventilation is a health issue that is generally
ignored. The installation and location of emergency exits, should a
crisis arise, is also overdue. Students with special physical and other
needs should know what measures the university has taken to meet
their mobility and learning requirements.

ix. Inadequate audio-visual facilities and ICT connectivity in special

rooms and lecture theatres. Many university lecture halls are simply
rooms with seats and the traditional chalkboard. This compels
lecturers to specialise in the talk and chalk methodology for lecture
delivery. Few departments can boast of modern and functional
learning equipment, a new coat of paint and general maintenance.
Lecture room and theatres are generally dusty, neglected
environments that no-one in particular seems to pay attention to.
The prevailing attitude, in such circumstances, seems to foster
conservatism, where some things should just be accepted as they are
as thats just the way they have been.

It is possible for universities to gradually update their facilities. With

proper budgeting, financial resources generated through full fee
paying students could be applied to improve the learning
environment. In addition, maintenance policies that specify

maintenance and replacement periods that are adhered to should be
spelt out by each university department.

x. Lack of a sexual harassment policy. There is a general lack of clear

sexual harassment policies that clearly define appropriate student-
to-student and student-to-staff conduct, channels of lodging
complaints, as well as disciplinary measures that may be taken in
the event of breach of conduct.

xi. Centralized and limited guidance and counselling services. In

view of the current realities of student life, university guidance and
counselling services need to be supportive and comprehensive
enough to cover more than academic and preventive lifestyle
counselling. The following identified areas should be assigned to

a. grief counselling to help students live through the reality of loss,

especially through the death of family members, and classmates;
b. counselling of students in transition to and from university life;
c. relationship counselling which should be broad enough to
address various of challenges that come with being in an
assortment of friendships, preparation for marriage,
management of the challenges that come with being a married
university student; as well as general conflict resolution;
d. counselling of students with terminal or lingering illnesses not
exclusive to HIV and AIDS;
e. counselling of single parents within the university student
community; and,
f. counselling of students undergoing rehabilitation from drug
abuse or other social problems.
5.2.8 Overview
The management of student services would improve significantly through the
enhancement of client care. Secondly, the establishment of management
information systems that would encompass student academic and social
information systems, assist student development as well as financial
management should be encouraged.

Students, and subsequently the universities as a whole, would benefit from

the development of student welfare policies with regard to illicit drugs and
substance abuse, sexual harassment and tendencies to compromise on
academic and professional standards, especially those relating to examination
regulations. These policies need to be published, disseminated and
implemented through a feedback system boosted by the presence of live
hotlines and help-lines where complaints can be channelled and acted upon
promptly. The availability of such crucial information on print, electronic and
recorded media that can be easily accessed by students enhances the
ambience of security.

Universities also need to ensure high levels of confidentiality. Student
information should not be arbitrarily released to third parties. An equally
high level of confidentiality needs to be accorded to student Intellectual
Property Rights.

5.2.9 Projects
In addition to the projects and activities listed below others have been given
in the logframe chapter concerning student welfare:

i. Develop clear regulatory guidelines for a decentralized admission

process. This would ensure that access is not compromised. With
funding pegged to admission, students would be free to choose the
universities that best meet their needs.

ii. Establish mechanisms for funding curricula development or revision

that is accessible to all universities. Universities could access such
funds through peer reviewed grant applications.

iii. Come up with mechanisms that enable the provision of loan facilities
to enhance creativity and entrepreneurship among university students.

iv. Promote the development and nurturing of incubators for

experimentation and discovery. Given that innovation skills are
nurtured when identified and supported at an early stage, there is need
to provide incentives to this group through support programmes
funded by the government, the private sector and other funding

v. Promote a study on intellectual innovativeness and Centres of


vi. The University Councils should ensure the establishment of students

guidance and counselling system that respect the dignity and integrity
of the students needs and development of monitoring and evaluation
systems to ensure adherence to the set standards.

5.3 Staff Welfare

5.3.1. Introduction
Teaching in the university is a demanding and multi-faceted task. It requires
that the teacher, commonly referred to as the lecturer, be a seeker, imparter
and creator of knowledge. University lecturers are expected to motivate the
wider populace to thirst for academic advancement. Ideally, lecturers should
demystify knowledge and the learning process. The quality of the lecturers
participation in the search and provision of knowledge often reflects the
character of the university they represent.

Kenyan public universities have a highly educated and committed workforce.
The academic and non-academic cadres need to complement each other for a
university to carry out its full mandate. This section looks at issues pertaining
to the general well-being of university staff, with a special emphasis on the
teaching and technical workforce. The body of academic staff forms an
essential resource of universities. Their ranks, depending on the various
departments they serve in, range from that of tutorial fellows to full

5.3.2 Hiring and Deployment

Positions of lecturer and above are usually advertised in the press. Those who
apply for the posts are vetted and eventually selected based on competitive
interviews. This logically implies that the recruitment process is usually
limited to the bank of those who respond to the job offers. Such a process may
enable a university employ the best of the lot and not necessarily the best
there is. The process of finalizing interview results and recommendations
takes time and departments facing severe man-power shortages often resort
to offering jobs to those qualified on a part-time basis, pending confirmation
of appointments. This lapse between interviews and confirmation of
appointment has often resulted in public universities losing potential staff,
which may be in high demand, to the private sector locally or even to
institutions overseas.

5.3.3 Benefits
Significant attempts have been made by both private and public universities,
to improve the welfare of the academic staff. These include the provision of a
variety of allowances. Depending on the terms of ones service, university
staff are entitled to some of the following allowances

i. Passage allowance that is reimbursed to cover the costs of physical

transfer to the new work station.
ii. Commuter allowance to defray the costs of using public transport to
and from work.
iii. Mileage allowance paid to staff who use their personal vehicles to get
to and from work.
iv. Responsibility allowance that is paid to those assigned administrative
v. Book allowance to enable lecturers purchase required course books
and journals.
vi. Acting allowance payable to staff performing duties in a post that is
higher than ones current appointment.
vii. Medical cover for themselves as well as for members of their families.
viii. House allowance to help cover the cost of renting a house.
ix. Leave allowance to cover the costs of proceeding on annual leave as
well as basic provisions for transport to and from the campuses is also
provided for.

Full-time staff members are also entitled to, and receive on application, paid
sabbatical leave. The staff of most public universities also has in place general
progression and promotion criteria. Those employed on permanent and
pensionable terms enjoy a flexible retirement age.

Flexible working hours also give lecturers a wide array of opportunities to

serve in the wider community in various capacities. For instance, the
membership of many Taskforces is mainly drawn from the university
community. University staff gets opportunities for exposure to the
international community through attendance of, and participation in,
conferences and other international staff development programmes.

Some departments, within the universities, also make an effort to maintain a

stimulating working environment through the provision of the requisite
pedagogical material and infrastructure. Hosting talks graced by members of
the academic, political, diplomatic and scientific world and other
professionals is a complementary facet to the sustenance of this vibrant
working and learning atmosphere.

5.3.4 Challenges of Working in the University
Lecturers in public universities do their best in the midst of a wanting
environment. Despite the apparent exodus to southern regional countries and
to other greener pastures, many lecturers have not yet given up on local
universities. This patriotic spirit is commendable. Many lecturers are certain
they would do a better job if their concerns in the following areas were
seriously looked into.

i. Heavy teaching load. There exists an imbalance in the ratio of staff to

students, particularly at the under-graduate level. This is most critical
in popular and common courses. The age-old university system of
mentoring tutors and graduate assistants to help out in marking
assignments, counselling and in performing some routine tasks
associated with lectureship is no longer evident. Lecturers are
increasingly getting accustomed to contending with unreasonably
large groups to be taught at once.

ii. Lack of office space. Many lecturers in the universities lack offices.
This is most critical for new appointees. They therefore opt to work
from their houses or other bases and are only seen on the campuses
when they have lectures or meetings. This modus operandi eventually
ends up limiting contact and consultation hours between the students
and the faculty. It also breeds an absence of ownership and lack of
sense of belonging to the university on the part of the faculty.

iii. Limited access to support teaching material. It is generally not easy

for academic staff to gain access to relevant equipment such as
computers, LCD projectors, language laboratory facilities,
photocopiers, printers and other relevant tools of trade. This is
generally exacerbated by poor governance and a bureaucratic
centralized command system which pays more attention to procedure
than to results and outputs. Where these facilities exist, they are
usually under lock and key. The technicians in charge either have no
idea how to install and operate them or prefer not to have them used.
In universities that run evening and/or Saturday classes, academic
staff simply have to be self-sufficient with regard to teaching material
and equipment. This is not easily achievable given the cost of
equipment such as laptops and projectors.

iv. Inadequate library and research facilities. The library is the heart of
the university. A well-equipped, spacious and adequately ventilated
university library promotes research, fosters a reading culture within
the university community and generally exhibits an ambience of
seriousness. Newly-established universities may lack expansive
reading spaces, but do strive to ensure that their student and staff
needs are adequately met through the provision of current books and
periodicals, topical reviews and subscription to online journals. Online

research facilities are gradually being availed in cyber-cafs for adjunct
staff or in offices for the full-time staff of Maseno University, Kenyatta
University, the Catholic University of East Africa and Strathmore
University. The purchase of newly published books in public
university bookstores is slow. New departments certain to attract
students are known to have been set up way ahead of the procurement
of relevant course and reference texts. Kenyan universities are yet to
get to a stage where students and staff can renew subscriptions and
book books online. The library still remains a place one must visit in
person in order to be served.

v. Relatively low and uncompetitive remuneration. This aspect is best

exemplified by the continued and steady exodus of highly trained and
qualified staff to neighbouring and far-flung countries that offer better
pay packages and generous benefits to university lecturers from

vi. Dishonoured terms of service. Terms of ones service must

be clearly spelt out and availed to university staff. The contractual
agreement also needs to be respected. Full time staff are occasionally
not allowed to proceed on sabbatical leave when due. Signed contracts
and terms of service are arbitrarily changed by the administration
without consultation with affected staff members. Part-time staff in
most universities, both public and private, are also affected particularly
when remuneration for work done is unduly delayed in contravention
to the terms laid out in the signed contracts.

Conditions for staff engagement in university-based consultancies are

unattractive and the procurement process laden with bottlenecks. The
pay package for the consultant is more of a stipend than a consultation
fee that is a true reflection of services rendered. Once universities
revert to the teaching entry qualification of PhD, it should be easier to
have more attractive university-based consultancies and also expedite
financial disbursements and procurement procedures for research and
consultancy. It is the responsibility of each University Council to
ensure that terms of service are honoured.

vii. Limited opportunities to participate in faculty exchange

Many universities have faculty exchange programmes with peer
institutions. Such exchanges are vital in order to improve programmes
and avoid academic inbreeding. They also enrich the professional
capacity of the faculty. They are windows for enlarging a lecturers
professional horizons. They encourage the establishment and
maintenance of contact with peers in a common area of interest. The
exchanges also enhance linkages with local, regional and international
universities. Universities that are keen on enhancing diversity within

their institutions will usually have policy requiring that at least 10% of
their staff, in any academic year, be exchange or visiting faculty.

5.3.5 Deteriorating University Working Culture and Ethical Norms

Every university has an ethos to which it subscribes. Encoded within it is the
common commitment to uphold and improve on academic and ethical
standards within the respective university. Despite this, complaints abound,
from students, concerning the following issues that directly relate to lecturers.

i. Regular lateness and/or absenteeism of lecturers especially in public

ii. Monotonous mode of delivering lectures. This can be attributed to lack
of appropriate technical facilities that make demands on the lecturer to
be more innovative. Public universities seem to be in no hurry to
update the Communication Technology departments for the benefit of
the general university community.
iii. Hurried setting, lackadaisical administration, lax supervision and
delayed marking of Continuous Assessment Tests and examinations.
Some lecturers are known to give regular assignments which are duly
collected but never returned to students. The eventual grading of
students course and term work seems to engender absenteeism from
class as regular absentees tend to score higher than serious attendees. It
is incidences such as these that lend credence to the notion that final
grades can apparently be negotiated for either through material, sexual
and/or other favours.
iv. Lack of commitment in the supervision of project and thesis papers.
Lecturers assigned to supervise Masters and PhD students take long to
read and comment on students work. This ends up prolonging the
period taken to cover the course. Speed should, however, not
compromise on quality. Supervisors who do not have offices
sometimes end up proposing to meet students in venues that
compromise the seriousness of the task at hand. Other supervisors
regularly misplace copies of work left with them. Making enough
reserve copies of bulky documents, to replace lost ones is an
unnecessary expense to students.

5.3.6 Discontent among various Cadres of Staff within the University

The discontent between various cadres of staff within the university system
should be given due attention by the university managers. The bone of
contention has been in the modalities used to work out equivalence in grade
and remuneration. Academic staff are unhappy with the fact that
administrative staff within public universities with lesser academic papers
earn significantly more than the highly educated academic staff. The
university reward system is subsequently more demanding and less fulfilling
for lecturers.

5.3.7 Remedial Strategies
Staff in Kenyan universities play a pivotal role in the well-being of the
universities against a backdrop of limited institutional resources. Universities
need to appreciate their training and experience by granting the staff
commensurate benefits.

Key Recommendation 5.1

improve well-being, retention, and productivity of students and staff in


The promotion and improvement of staff and student welfare is requisite for
quality education and work performance.
There is need to stem the trend in which Kenya has been losing significant
numbers of potential students and academic staff to foreign countries.
There is need to attract and retain required expertise especially at
postgraduate levels.
There already exist vast opportunities in the financial market that could be
tapped by universities to improve the welfare of both students and staff.
There is a vibrant private sector that is keen to partner with other
stakeholders to enhance quality education in universities by improving
welfare of students and staff.

The leadership, management and administration of universities could be

strengthened through the achievement of the following strategic objectives,
strategies and related activities.

5.3.8 Improvement of Staff Welfare

The academic staff constitute a critical component of universities. Therefore,
every university that desires to attract and retain its teaching and
administrative workforce will have to take measures that reflect its
commitment to this purpose. These include:

i. the deliberate choice, employment and training of Human Resource

ii. the expansion and improvement of infrastructure to accommodate
growing numbers of staff members. These include office and library
facilities as well as recreational rooms. Infrastructure already in place
also needs regular maintenance to reduce on costs of repair and

iii. reviewing the legal framework governing universities;
iv. sourcing of extra funds to help in the organization, attendance and
facilitation of locally organized and international staff development
v. developing guidelines for giving incentives to academic staff, who
publish papers, supervise students, engage in research as well as
participate in community service;
vi. harmonization and rationalization of remuneration packages. The
criteria for appointment to various offices and promotion could be
incorporated in the Terms and Conditions of Service manuals to be issued
to staff, for ease of reference;
vii. flexible terms of service that incorporate the following could also be
developed: joint appointment of experienced and distinguished
professors positions; Emeritus professor appointment and flexible
leave of absence that allows for the acquisition of new experiences as
well as attractive terms for consultancy services;
viii. regular review and improvement on the terms and conditions of
service for university staff;
ix. development of clear guidelines of the management and safeguard of
confidential material with respect to third parties;
x. out-sourcing or internally developing Human Resource Management
Systems that would oversee the implementation of all aspects of staff
xi. institution of deliberate measures to ensure respect of Intellectual
Property Rights for both the academic staff and universities. The
absence of this crucial measure hampers progress in innovation and
promotes the loss of benefits that are supposed to accrue from the
generation and possession of knowledge;
xii. development of occupational safety guidelines. Reliance on general
labour regulations and the Workmans compensation Act are far from
xiii. establishment of a system that allows for dual citizenship. Kenyan
intellectuals in other countries have abandoned Kenyan citizenship in
favour of their host countries;
xiv. University Councils should ensure the establishment of PhD as the
entry point for university lectureship. This will in turn effect an
increase in the number of PhD holders and professors in Kenyan
universities; ensure better remuneration of lecturers by universities;
establish flexible terms of service that allow staff to undertake
consultancies within the university and retain 80% of the proceeds
while 20% is given to the university; similarly, negotiate arrangements
for the sharing of royalties and licenses; establish flexible programmes
for the lecturer that allow taking of sabbatical leave and supported
travel to attend international conferences to present papers;
xv. provision of attractive tax-free tuition waivers that encourage family
members of staff members to go through university programmes at
any level; and

xvi. creation of joint schemes with credible financial institutions that will
enable university staff to own their own homes.

5.4 Conclusion
University staff are generally a dedicated group of workers simultaneously
striving to make ends meet and improve on their individual, social and
academic lot. Many lecturers have resisted the lure of migrating to better-
paying jobs abroad mainly due to patriotism and the firm belief that issues
relating to their welfare will improve as they are finally receiving due

Log frame of Student and Staff Welfare

Strategic Student and staff welfare

Strategic Improve retention, well-being and productivity of staff and students in universities

Strategic Strategies Outcomes Project/activities Indicators Timef Assump Responsib

objectives rame tions le

1. a) Review and Improved flexible Identify weaknesses in the Status report of 2008 Chancellor
Improveme improve terms and terms and existing terms and terms and and s,
nt of staff conditions of service conditions of conditions of service; conditions of annua University
welfare service. assess the current staff service; high lly Councils /
workload and develop retention rate of boards,
guidelines on staff student staff. VCs
Harmonize and Rationalized 2008 Chancellor
rationalize the terms and terms and and s,
conditions of service to conditions of annua University
make them service, high lly Councils /
comprehensive and retention rate of boards,
competitive in local and staff. VCs
b) Review the legal Improved Assessment of Assessment 2008- MHEST,
framework autonomy of
impediments to university report; Revised 2009 VCs, CHE,
governing public university autonomy and Acts; increased HELB
universities to enable institutions to
management by existing level of
them to enhance the enable them
legal frameworks i.e. State autonomy.
welfare of staff. operate in a
Corporations Act;
market economyUniversity and
Universities Acts
c) Deliberate choice Increased number Identify HR needs: needs Number of 2008 MHEST,
and training of of professionally analysis, design and or people trained in and VCs, CHE,
Human Resource qualified HR and source HR training HR and improved annua HELB,
and institution institution programmes . institution lly
managers managers management;
enhanced staff
d) Expand and Improved Assess the adequacy of Number of new 2008 VCs,
improve working and facilities and their and improved and MHEST,
infrastructure for all living suitability for special facilities, % of annua CHE
staff particularly staff environment needs facilities lly
with special needs. responsive to
special needs and
e) Develop Well-maintained Assess the needs of Number of new 2008 VCs,
sustainable infrastructure and infrastructure requiring and improved and MHEST
rehabilitation and improved rehabilitation and facilities, annua CHE
maintenance regimes working and maintenance; reduction of lly
of infrastructure and living development of running costs
equipment. environment. maintenance regime

f) Recruit, motivate Increased Develop guidelines for Increased number 2008 VCs,
and retain highly productivity, recruitment, reward, of research and MHEST
qualified staff. number of remuneration and students and annua CHE
qualified staff performance appraisal. research lly
retained. products.
g) Improve policy on Improved Review of existing policies New policies 2008 VCs, CHE,
confidentiality and relationship on confidentiality and developed and in and HELB
third parties. between students, third parties; develop new place. annua
staff and and improved policies. lly.
h) Focus staff Increased output Carry out audit of List of activities 2008 VCs, CHE,
activities on in core business university activities with a forming core and HELB
university's core areas. view to out-sourcing non- business annua
business. core activities. lly.
Develop guidelines on Guidelines of 2008 VCs, CHE,
how staff could be authorized and HELB
involved in other activities activities in place. annua
without compromising lly.
output in core activities.
i) Develop, promote, Increased No. of Develop policy on patents, University policy 2008 VCs, CHE,
enforce and patents, business business spin offs and on patents, -2009. HELB,
safeguard spin offs and licences. business spin offs, proposed
Intellectual Property licences. research NRF.
Rights policies. collaborations MHEST
and licences
Initiate studies that would Number of 2008 VCs, CHE,
create awareness and research reports and NRF.
legally safeguard IPR on IPR annua

Develop mechanisms that Visible publicity 2008 VCs, CHE,
enable universities to of the research and proposed
communicate and findings in the annua NRF.
publicize findings of media and other lly
studies on IPR. relevant fora.
j) Create a conducive Increased Identify and evaluate Number of 2008 VCs,
environment for capacity carry out existing conditions of research outputs and MHEST
development and research and research and innovation; and innovations annua CHE,
improvement of innovate develop guidelines for lly. proposed
research outputs and improved research and NRF
innovations innovation output
k) Promote safety in A safe working Review the existing labour Revised 2008- VCs,
the working environment for laws and regulations occupational 2009 MHEST
environment. staff governing occupational safety policies MoL&
safety to reflect current MPD
economic and social
realities, i.e. insurance

2. a) Streamline efficient and Develop clear regulatory Developed 2008 VCs, CHE,
Improveme admission process to reduced student guidelines for increased guidelines on and MHEST
nt of student ensure that quality wastage. access and equity in access and equity annua HELB
welfare students are higher education. lly
admitted Develop criteria for direct A uniform 2008/ VCs, CHE,
appropriately and in admission by individual admission criteria 2009 MHEST
an equitable manner university senates/ for all universities HELB
Academic Boards

Synchronize admissions Reduced wastage 2008/ VCs, CHE,
into universities to reduce 2009 MHEST
wastage HELB
Review the current Revised JAB 2008 VCs, CHE,
functions of JAB to serve functions /2009 MHEST
the admission needs of all HELB
students for all
Formulate new functions Defined clearing- 2008 MHEST,
for the new JAB which house functions /2009 VCs, CHE,
acts as a clearing house for HELB
student admission for all
Develop guidelines and Accreditation and 2008/ VCs, CHE,
accreditation criteria for credit transfer 2009 MHEST
admission and student guidelines. HELB
credit transfers between
universities and middle
level colleges
Develop mechanisms for Number of 2008 VCs, CHE,
funding out- reach outreach and MHEST
programmes targeting programmes annua HELB
talented and gifted lly

2. (i) a) Streamline the Improved Revise the current Increased 2008 HELB,
Improve process of retention and students Means Testing Number and and MHEST,
student identification of completion rates criteria to enable HELB value of awards. annua VCs CHE,
financing needy students and identify various levels of lly
for retention appropriate levels of need and the relevant
and financial assistance financial assistance
completion award(s) required to adequately
cover both tuition and
living expenses
b) Develop Increased number Assess the feasibility of Feasibility study 2008/ MHEST,
mechanisms for of loan products Government guaranteed report, New loan 2009 HELB,
special loan products to Institutions loans that HELB can avail products and VCs, CHE,
to cover both and students. to institutions for facility developed. annua
institutional and improvement as well as to lly
student needs students who are
adjudged to be able to pay
but are facing cash flow
c) Establish internal Scholarships and Conduct a study to Study report 2008/ VCs.
university student fellowships establish the factors 2009
financial assistance established impeding the provision of and
programmes internal university annua
scholarships and lly
Establish internal financial Number of 2008 VCs
aid schemes students assisted; and
Number of annua
schemes lly
established and

their value

2. (ii) a) Improve the flow A well-informed Review the current Status report 2008/ MHEST,
Improve of communication and oriented admission, orientation 09 VCs and
student and information to student and registration processes and CHE
advising, and from students for all universities as
guidance appro
and priate
counselling Develop guidelines for Diversified 2008 MHEST,
mainstreaming guidance guidance and and VCs and
and counselling services. counselling annua CHE
services lly
A well- Establish as appropriate Number of2008 MHEST,
coordinated an efficient system of advisors on and VCs and
admission, advising students on admissions, annua CHE
registration and admission issues, orientation and, lly
orientation orientation, change of registration issues
processes degree programmes , and
Develop and establish as Operational 2008 VCs
appropriate an MIS for student MIS /2009
students that enhances
effective communication
throughout the university

b) Develop and Holistic, Study and review existing Reviewed 2008 VCs
implement student professional and policy guidelines guidelines and and
welfare policies civic teaching and governing student and remedial annua
learning staff conduct and develop measures in lly
environment remedial measures as place.

2. (iii) a) Develop a well- A well co- Study the current Efficient, 2008 and VCs
Improve integrated and coordinated admission and orientation structured and annually
planning established registration and process with a view to comprehensive
and registration and orientation incorporating and registration and
performance orientation process. process. integrating departmental orientation
of student inputs. process.
registration b) Develop and Efficient teaching Review the current No. of calendars 2008 and VCs,
and advertise all and learning university calendars with and programmes annually MHEST
orientation academic process. a view to digitalizing and on-line HELB,
process programmes and availing them on-line on CHE
respective timetables time.
before the start of the
c) Develop and Prompt Recruit and train qualified Number of 2008 and VCs
maintain a well commencement administrators to manage administrative annually
structured and and continuation teaching and learning staff recruited
efficient registration of teaching and programmes . and trained;
process to avoid learning process Number of
wastage of time students and
reporting on time

Develop appropriate Appropriate 2008-2009 VCs
software for timetabling. software available
d) Improve Efficient and Assess registration Assessment 2008-2009 VCs
postgraduate attractive procedures for report
students registration postgraduate postgraduate students and
and supervision programmes factors hindering their
completion in specified
Implement assessment Enhanced 2008-2009 VCs
report by establishing postgraduate
appropriate and efficient students
registration procedures enrolment; No. of
and student supervision postgraduate
system students
completing their
programmes in
2. (iv) a) Enhance and An efficient Carry out a study on Status report 2008 and VCs, CHE,
Improve develop flexible catering system, students catering annually MHEST
catering, student catering, secure accommodation and MOW
accommodat accommodation and accommodation recreational facilities.
ion and recreation policy and adequate
recreation recreation
facilities. facilities.

b) Develop policy for Accommodation Review the current Reviewed policy 2008 and VCs, CHE,
construction and construction accommodation in place, number annually MHEST,
rehabilitation of policy construction and of private sector MOW
quality student rehabilitation policy and developed
accommodation develop new guidelines; hostels, number
facilities to cater for rehabilitate, remodel of remodelled
all categories of existing premises; and or /and
students promote private sector rehabilitated
participation in hostels
construction of student
accommodation, catering
leisure, sports and
recreational facilities
2. (v) a) Provide adequate Adequate quality Undertake needs
Needs assessment 2008 and VCs, CHE,
Improve the library, lecture halls, teaching and assessment of available report; annually MHEST,
learning laboratory, tutorial learning facilities teaching and learning Number of new MoW
environmen rooms, ICT facilities, facilities. facilities
t. etc provided.
b) Recruit sufficient Improved Identify and rationalize Rationalized staff 2008 and VCs, CHE,
quality academic and teaching and the staffing needs and establishment annually MHEST,
support staff for all learning recruit as appropriate. No. of new staff
teaching and recruited
learning needs.
c) Procure modern Application of Undertake needs Relevant cutting 2008 and
learning, teaching new technologies assessment survey and edge annually VCs, CHE,
and research in teaching, procure as necessary technologies; MHEST
equipment. learning and New equipment
research in place

d) Improve policy on Improved Review existing policies New policies 2008 and VCs CHE,
confidentiality and relationship on student confidentiality developed and in annually. HELB
third parties between students and third parties, and place.
and university develop new and
staff. improved policies.
e) Promote and Increased number Develop policy on patents, University policy 2008 -2009 VCs, CHE
enforce Intellectual of patents, business spin offs and on patents,
Property Rights business spin offs licences as relates to business spin offs
and licences students. and licences with
reference to
f) Create a conducive An improved Review the current policy Revised policy 2008 and VCs, NRF,
environment for environment for on student research and document. annually MoT, MoI
development and student research innovation with a view to
improvement of and innovation developing new policy
research and
g) Expand and Improved Needs assessment of Number of new 2008 and VCs,
improve learning and facilities such as special and improved annually MHEST
infrastructure with living office space, facilities, % of ,CHE
special reference to environment accommodation, facilities
students with special laboratory and lecture responsive to
needs and gender rooms, library, recreation special needs and
and ICT facilities. gender
h) Promote health Healthy student; Review the existing Revised 2008-2009 VCs,
and safety of safer learning and university statutes occupational MHEST,
students. living governing students health, safety policies MoL &
environment conduct and safety MPD

Establish appropriate Insurance policy 2008 and VCs,
student insurance in place annually MHEST,
schemes HELB,

6.1 Introduction
An effective innovation system of firms, research centres, universities, and
other organizations has been identified as one of the four pillars of the
emerging knowledge economy (Dalman, 2006). Such an innovation system
allows countries to assimilate and adapt global knowledge for local needs and
to create knowledge. The World Banks Knowledge Assessment Methodology
(KAM) measures the effectiveness of the innovation system using three
variables, namely:
i. Researchers in Research and Development
ii. Patent applications granted by the US patent and trademark office
iii. Scientific and Technical journal articles.

Thus, innovation depends on national performance in science and technology.

Consequently, OECD countries have recognized the need to develop Science,
Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) skills and conduct the
Programme for International Students Assessment (PISA) for 15 year olds

In addition to STEM skills, management, communications, and

entrepreneurship skills for university graduates are also required for an
effective innovation system. One measure of competitiveness in these other
skills is the quality of business degree programmes at undergraduate and
graduate levels.

China and India have also recognized the need to focus on ScTI as a way of
achieving economic development and reducing poverty. For example, the
research and development investment for China alone grew from US$ 7
million in 1994 to US$ 500 million in 2000, doubling between 1996 and 2002.

South Africa has in the past 10 years been enhancing its innovation system
through the National Research Foundation (NRF). At present, the South
African NRF has a special focus on increasing the PhD throughput of South
African universities. This is achieved by not only providing scholarships for
doctoral students, but by also offering financial rewards to universities in
proportion to the number of PhD holders who graduate. Moreover,
publication of refereed journal articles and registration of patents also attracts
financial rewards for the authors as well as the universities. The NRF
facilitates the registration of patents by university lecturers and researchers.
In addition, the NRF operates a venture capital fund that is used to
commercialize some of the innovations, inventions and patents. NRF
facilitates collaborative research between south African researchers and other
researchers from some of the highly ranked universities of the world. The
overarching goal is to improve South African ranking in the Knowledge
Economy Index (KEI) and the Global Competitive Index and create a
knowledge-based economy to support future economic growth of the

In contrast, Kenyan universities do not explicitly measure their performance

based on the PhD throughput, journal articles published or the patents
registered per year. For example, the Taskforce found from universities
publications that no university in Kenya has targets on the number of PhD
holders who should graduate from their universities, especially in science and
engineering. In fact, Kenyan universities have not aligned their enrolment and
budgeting to the strategic economic sectors.

Scienceinnovation linkages can take many forms, from contract and

collaborative research and personnel transfers to technology licenses and
creation of spin-off firms. Public research must be more responsive to the
needs of business and society. This therefore calls for increased and more
efficient linkages between science and innovation. Such linkages must serve
to both facilitate industrys uptake and commercialisation of public sector
research results and to ensure that the research performed in the public sector
is attuned to social and economic problems.

There are various systems required in an innovation driven economy. One of

these includes the identification of platform technologies. At the same time
there is need to focus on some of the fastest growing areas of enterprise such
as Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), service industries, financial and
monetary services, education, eco-tourism, African cultural artefacts and art
and human health. Fast growth and necessary reforms will require new
products and processes in these areas. Key strategies to enhance the Science,
Technology and Innovations as an agenda should also focus on scientific and
technological empowerment and financial facilitation of Small and Medium

University-private sector linkages promote innovation system.

In order to improve the linkages between university-private sector and
government it is critical that social and human sciences education, research
and publications are strengthened. The interface between science and
technology is best understood through the study of social and human
sciences. The impact of innovations and technology on society is the main
preoccupation of social and human sciences. At present, there is a disjoint
between the natural and social sciences and this can only be remedied by a
review of the priority focus of the research areas in these sciences.

The PUIB report (2006) observed that universities in Kenya need to align their
degree programmes to the needs of the strategic sectors of the economy. The
report identified the following key strategic areas.

i. Agricultural technologies.

ii. Water and sanitation technologies.
iii. Medical and health sciences and technologies.
iv. Infrastructure technologies including engineering programmes and
information and communication technologies.
v. Energy.
vi. Culture and development.
vii. Peace, Human security and development.

Other areas include software and hardware industries and services that will
be required as ICT penetration in business, government and households
increases in Kenya and Africa. The software services industry is also a huge
global industry that presents an opportunity for Kenya. Kenya also needs to
focus more on strategic areas such as biotechnology, nanotechnology,
genomics, transport systems and new materials sciences.

Most of the above strategic areas will require a large pool of high quality
Science, Engineering, Technology, and Medical degree graduates. Data
available to the Taskforce indicates that only a small fraction of the 130,000
students in Kenyan universities are pursuing degrees in Science and

The Taskforce developed the strategy for Science, Technology, and Innovation
(ScTI) based on the environmental analysis as well as the competitive analysis
of ScTI for Kenya. Section 6.2 summarizes the ScTI context for Kenyan

6.2 Science, Technology and Innovation in Kenyan Universities

6.2.1 Strengths
Kenya has a very competitive secondary school education system. Students
admitted into professional engineering, medical, and science degree
programmes have scores of B and above in science and mathematics. There is
also a very high demand for science, engineering, and medical degree
programmes among high school graduates.

All the seven public universities have well-established science and

engineering degree programmes. The University of Nairobi has had a focus
on traditional areas of engineering namely electrical, mechanical, and civil
engineering. It also has strength in science and medicine and Architecture.
The university has a strong network of alumni who are internationally
recognized in their fields of specialization.

Kenya has always recognized the need to focus on Science and Technology
for development. For example, in 1984, Moi University was established as a
university of technology and offers engineering, science and medicine degree
programmes. Similarly, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture was
established as an Agriculture and Engineering university. Egerton University
also has a focus on Agriculture and Agricultural Engineering.

The eleven chartered private universities in Kenya offer Information
Technology degree programmes while Daystar and Baraton universities offer
engineering degree programmes. The Aga Khan University offers post-
graduate degree programmes in Medicine and has a fully-fledged teaching
hospital. Thus, the Kenyan university system recognizes the need for high
quality science, technology and medical degree graduates.

In addition to the science and technology degree programmes, all Kenyan

universities offer business and humanities degree programmes at the
undergraduate and graduate levels. For example, many of the local
universities now offer the Master in Business Administration (MBA) degree
programmes. The local universities also have strong languages, education and
economic degree programmes that complement the science degree
programmes. Many science and engineering graduates pursue graduate
degrees in business, entrepreneurship, management and economics. Such
programmes are critical in an effective innovation system. Three Kenyan
universities, JKUAT, USIU and Moi have Centres of Entrepreneurship that
aim to incubate research findings for graduates who wish to commercialise
their projects.

The National Annual Secondary School Students Congress on Science and

Technology has been successful in motivating high school to pursue science
degrees. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has been
organizing and holding an international exhibition of electrical and electronic
final year projects in Nairobi. This gives Kenyan engineering students the
opportunities to compete with their counter parts in Southern Africa. The
Kenyan students have been winning the awards, which indicates that the
quality of engineering degrees is high compared to the neighbouring
countries. A few of the projects are developed into fully-fledged products.

All the public universities have Masters and doctoral degree programmes in
Science and Mathematics. A few have doctoral programmes in engineering
and architecture. In addition, many science and engineering graduates of
Kenyan universities are admitted into graduate programmes in South Africa
UK and US universities. Consequently, Kenya has a relatively large pool of
scientists with PhD degrees.

Kenya has a large concentration of local and international research centres

that employs graduates of local universities and offer doctoral, post-doctoral
and internship opportunities. The Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)
focuses on medical research and has collaborative links with local
universities. The Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) also employs a
large number of graduates of local universities. Kenya hosts many
international research centres like ICIPE, ILRI, and ICRAF that offer post-
doctoral research programmes to Kenyan scientists and also provide research
databases for use by graduate students in Kenya. The Kenya Industrial and
Research Institute (KIRDI), has been active in the area of industrial research

for over 20 years. Kenya has other research institutes in the areas of marine
and fisheries (KEMFRI), Trypanosomiasis (KETRI) and forestry (KEFRI)
among others.

The Kenya Industrial Property Institute (KIPI) was established by the

government to register patents and copyrights. It has an outreach programme
with Kenyan universities. Its current mandate should be expanded so that it
can patenting of Intellectual properties.

The Science and Technology Act (Cap 250) of 1977 established the National
Council for Science and Technology (NCST) as an advisory body to the
government on matters of science and technology. Kenya also has an
Academy of Sciences.

In the past two years, the government has started to provide research grants
to university researchers and lecturers through the Commission for Higher
Education. The initial funding of Ksh. 130 million may appear inadequate but
is a significant development for research funding. In addition has established
a research endowment fund with a seed funding of Ksh.200 million

Kenya commands up to 40% of the trade in the Common Market for Eastern
and Southern Africa (COMESA). The trade is in industrial and manufactured
goods. Thus, there is a large demand for industrial and innovative products in
the neighbouring countries.

Kenya therefore has the necessary structures required to support an

innovation system and a market for industrial goods made in Kenya.

6.2.2 Weakness
Despite the above cited ScTI strengths, the Taskforce identified some
weaknesses that affect the effective operation of the Kenyan innovation
system. For example, the initial science and technology focus of most of
Kenyan public universities has been lost. This is mainly due to the dramatic
growth in the enrolment in the humanities, education, and business degree
programmes at the expense of the science and engineering ones. The capacity
of the science, engineering, and medical sciences technology has not been
growing in the past 10 years yet enrolment has more than doubled in the
universities. Private universities face constraints in offering science and
technology degree programmes as they are capital intensive and therefore
expensive to establish.

In addition to limited capacity for science and technology degree

programmes, the equipment to support the programmes is not well-
maintained and in some cases, is obsolete. This has led to more emphasis
being placed on theory at the expense of the practical aspects of the degree
programmes. It has also reduced the capacity of the universities to offer Ph.D.
degree programmes in many areas of science, engineering and medical

sciences. Anecdotal evidence suggests that there has been a reduction in the
PhD throughput of Kenyan universities. In fact, the strategic plans of Kenyan
universities do not set targets on the expected number of PhD graduates per
year. Many of the bright students are forced to seek admission in
international universities in Europe, North America and South Africa.
Anecdotal evidence again suggests that there has been a reduction in the
number of journal articles per year from Kenyan universities in the past 10

Faculty members in Kenyan universities receive limited research funding

from the Kenyan government and most of the research is funded by donors
and international universities. This often results in loss of Intellectual
Property Rights.

The Taskforce also observed that most of the Kenyan universities do not have
operational institutional IPR policies. That also means there that are no
guidelines for collaboration with international universities in developed
countries. Kenyan universities do not explicitly encourage researchers and
innovators to register patents. Most universities also do not use patents as a
measure of performance of departments and faculty.

Kenya has very limited venture capital funds to support innovators and
entrepreneurs from Kenyan universities. Kenyan lecturers and graduates
therefore have to fund their own development work and commercialisation of
their innovations or inventions.

Kenya does not have an overarching Science, Technology and Innovation

policy. This is despite proven socio-economic benefits of investing and
focusing on ScTI in other developing countries such as China, India, South
Africa and OECD countries. Kenya still operates under the 1977 Science and
Technology Act (Cap 250) which has been overtaken by advances in
knowledge-based industries and globalization of research and trade. This
limits the alignment of enrolment and funding of science and technology
degree programmes in the universities to the national strategic economic

6.2.3 Threats
One of the threats is the lack of sustained and adequate funding for science
and technology degree programmes. This might lead to a lower throughput
of PhDs in science and technology from Kenyan universities. The general
quality of the graduates is also likely to decline.

The lack of adequate absorptive capacity of the local industry also

discourages science and technology graduates. Talented science graduates are
forced to pursue additional courses in accounting and finance in order to get
employed by the local industry. Other science and technology graduates are
attracted to other countries like South Africa and the OECD countries.
Development of new technologies in the country is hindered by the fact that
most manufacturing companies are not directly involved in any research
development while the universities do not offer programmes more relevant to
the needs of the industry. Potential researchers are therefore attracted to
international universities and countries that offer superior academic and
career prospects.

Lack of effective management of research and IPRs also implies that there is
limited reward and commercialization of innovations in Kenya. This also
discourages graduate students from carrying out research. There is also
evidence that the general performance in mathematics and science in primary
and secondary schools is low. This is a threat to the innovation system. An
outreach programme will be required to increase the pool of talented science
and mathematics graduates from Kenyan secondary schools.

6.2.4 Opportunities
East African countries are still agricultural based economies with most of
their products being exported in primary form. There are therefore many
opportunities for value-adding agricultural products like tea and coffee.
There are also many opportunities in the food processing industries,
including fish and livestock products for export and local industries. There is
also need to increase food production capacity in East Africa and there are
many research opportunities that could enhance food security in the region.

There are also opportunities for attracting multinational research laboratories

and technology support facilities for different industries. The area of
computer assembly and software development for local mobile applications is
an opportunity for foreign companies looking for skilled scientific and
engineering manpower that is also relatively inexpensive. In addition, there is
large software industry market in the Eastern and Central African region.
This is for relatively low-cost software products for Small and Medium-sized
Enterprises and organizations and would require university-graduate
software engineers. The availability of open source software and other free
software development platforms would make a local software industry viable
as long as trained computer science and engineering graduates continue to be
available. Thus, it is possible for Kenya to attract Foreign Direct Investment

(FDI) in science and technology because of the large pool of motivated and
competent university graduates.

The tourism industry has been growing in Kenya and Eastern Africa. There is
an opportunity for value-addition by adding information and knowledge to
aggressively brand the uniqueness of the countrys attraction. It is also an
opportunity to scale up the production of curios and other value-added
cultural products. Kenya also has a vibrant private sector with an umbrella
body called Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA). This makes it easy to
develop cross-sector collaboration between universities and the private sector.
There is also increased interest in Africa in the scientific community because
of indigenous knowledge and medicinal products. There is an opportunity to
negotiate mutually beneficial partnerships that could increase the research
output of Kenyan universities as well as funding of research.

The Taskforce has therefore identified strategies that take advantage of the
strengths of Kenyan universities and the new opportunities identified. The
starting point is to increase the effectiveness of the Kenyan innovation system.
This could be achieved by improving the governance and management of
science, technology, and innovation as described in the next section.

6.3 Strategic Goals, Objectives and Outcomes for Science, Technology and

The strategic goal for science, technology and innovations (ScTI) is:

To create a culture of knowledge generation, adaptation, application and

innovation in Kenyan universities.

The main purpose of creating the culture is to support the socio-economic

development of Kenya. The Taskforce identified the following strategic

i. improve ScTI governance in universities and in Kenya;

ii. enhance the Kenyan innovation system; and
iii. increase investments in ScTI degree programmes and research

Key Recommendation 6.1

Create a culture of knowledge generation, adoption, adaptation, application

and innovation in universities

At present Kenya has unrealized potential in Science, Technology and
Strengthening the ScTI infrastructure in the universities and enhancing the
human capacities will improve the productivity, creativity and competitiveness
of both the universities and the nation.
Presence of a private sector that is willing to partner with universities in ScTI.
Existence of research infrastructure and expertise that could be used to achieve
the ScTI reform agenda.
ScTI reform will assist in effective interaction with the international community
in critical areas of ScTI and the knowledge economy.

6.3.1 Governance of ScTI in Kenyan universities

The governance of ScTI should be linked to the national ScTI governance
structure. The Taskforce identified three new national governance structures
as follows:

i. A cabinet sub-committee chaired by the President of Kenya

ii. An Inter-ministerial committee on ScTI chaired by the Minister
responsible for Science and Technology
iii. An independent Science and Technology Council.

Table 6.1 identifies the key functions of each body. The ScTI governance in the
universities then works with the ScTI council as shown in Figure 6.1.

Table 6.1 Proposed Governance and Functions of ScTI Bodies

Body Functions
Cabinet Sub-Committee on S&T, Set the national science and technology
chaired by the President or his priorities.
nominee Set budget estimates for science and
Prioritize government spending across
government departments on ScTI.
Prepare annual Science and
Technology plan for Cabinet comment
and approval.

National Science and Technology An independent body appointed by the

Innovation Council (Advisory Body) Minister for Science and Technology.
Provide expert, independent advice to
Review support and advice given to
government by the National Council
for Science and Technology.

Figure 6.1: Science, Technology and Innovation Council

Paris Relevant
l Bodies
Private sector
& FKE Universities
ke Science,
KEPSA $KAM Technology
Community Innovation
Abroad Council Students Bodies
- Basic Sciences
- Engineering
- Hum. & social sciences
- Business
Research - Biological Sciences

Civil Society
The following are some of the strategies and expected outcomes for achieving
the strategic objective. The list of strategies is contained in the logframe at the
end of this chapter.

i. Establish National and Institutional policy Frameworks for Science,

Technology and Innovation.

The lack of a national policy on Science, Technology, and Innovation

makes the governance of ScTI in universities difficult. For example, the
allocation of resources for ScTI has become diffused and impractical. In
addition, universities are not guided by any national strategic areas of
ScTI. A national ScTI policy and associated institutions will ensure
resources are allocated to ScTI in a rationalised and fair manner for use
by the universities.

One of the key outcomes of this strategy is a national ScTI policy that
will drive the governance of ScTI in universities. The practice has been
found to work in countries like China, Cuba, Finland, Ireland and

ii. Establish a National Research Foundation to fund and manage

research grants

The proposed National Research Foundation will be created as part of

the financing strategy for university education. However, will have a
broader mandate that includes the following:
The development of ScTI human resources for both universities
and the country, with a special focus on PhDs.
The management of research grants for strategic ScTI areas
The establishment of international research partnerships in ScTI.
The management of a venture capital fund for some strategic
The outcome of this strategy will be an increase in research output, as
demonstrated by increase in journals, articles, patents, and PhD
throughput from Kenyan universities.

iii. Strengthen National Intellectual Property Rights Strategies

It has been established that ScTI thrives best where protection of

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) is enforced. Most of the universities do
not have an operational IPR policy. The institutional IPR offices when
established will then work closely with KIPI whose mandate will have
been enhanced to cover IPR.

The expected outcome of this strategy is improved environment for

innovation and investment.

iv. Develop the capacity to negotiate and enforce IPR at national
and institutional levels.

The awareness level of the importance of patents in the enhancement of

innovation and accelerated economic growth is still low, hence the need
for capacity building for negotiation and enforcement of IPR. If well-
managed, these patents can be an important source of finance for
universities. Effective institutional IPR policies would ensure that
universities register and retain patents and royalties on government
funded research projects.

6.3.2 Enhancing the Innovation Systems

An effective innovation system is a loose network of firms, research centres,
universities, consultants, and other organizations that creates local
knowledge, assimilates and adapts global knowledge to local needs. This
requires a comprehensive and effective information infrastructure at national
and institutional levels.

In developing strategies to achieve the strategic objective of enhancing

innovation system, the Taskforce has emphasised an increase in the PhD
research and throughput of local universities. However, the focus on the
development of university infrastructures for graduate research is addressed
by a number of strategies. University-based business incubators will also form
an important component of the enhanced innovation system.

Some of the strategies for enhancing the innovation system include:

i. Increase the Percentage of ScTI Student Population in all

The expansion in university enrolment in the past 5 years has in general
not been in Science and Technology degree programmes. The Ministry of
Education and the Public Universities Investment Project recommended a
target of 40% for Science and Technology degree programmes. Data on
enrolment in Science and Technology that includes the privately
sponsored students in public universities is scarce. It will therefore be
necessary to conduct an initial study to establish the percentage of
students enrolled in Science and Technology. Increasing percentage of
enrolment requires an increase in the number of faculty as well as
expansion of the laboratory facilities.

ii. Enhance and Develop Adequate ScTI Infrastructure.

Apart from the need to expand the ScTI infrastructure to accommodate a

greater number of students, there is also a need to upgrade the existing
laboratory equipment to support the ScTI programmes. This is an area that
has been neglected in the past 10 years for science and engineering degree
programmes. The outcome will be adequate and modern laboratory

facilities to support both undergraduate and graduate degree programmes
in ScTI.

iii. Encourage Participation of Students in National and International

Design and Innovation Exhibitions and Competitions.

The learning outcomes of science, engineering, and technology degree

graduates tend to be the same in all parts of the world. A student studying
electrical engineering in Kenya must therefore be trained to the same
standards as a graduate from a developed country. One indicator of the
international quality of the degree is the ability to participate in
international design competitions and exhibitions.

Kenyan Science and Engineering students currently participate in only a

limited participation in such international competitions and exhibitions.
This strategy will therefore require more students and departments to
participate in such competitions.

The expected outcome will be a higher quality of final year projects and in
some cases, venture capital funding for some of the viable projects.

iv. Strengthen Science and Technology Doctoral Programmes.

The throughput of PhD graduates in engineering faculties of Kenyan

universities is very low. In fact, the University of Nairobi department of
electrical engineering has never graduated a PhD since the 1970s when it
was started. PhD graduates in other areas of ICT are equally low with only
University of Nairobi offering a PhD in computer science.

This strategy will require provision of adequate funding to departments of

Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) in order to increase the
throughput of PhDs. A consortium approach to PhD supervision will be
used by universities without a critical mass of supervisors in a given area.
The proposed NRF if operationalized facilitate funding of this strategy.

The outcome is an increase of PhD throughput to at least 100 per Science,

Engineering, and Technology. In addition, there is a need to increase PhDs
in management from the current less than 5% to at least 25 per year.
Similar increases in PhD programmes of social sciences is critical
especially for nationally critical courses such as economics, sociology,
philosophy , ethics, anthropology and history.

v. Promote Technology Clusters to Allow Flexible Integration of


At present there is a fair distribution of universities in various regions of

the country. The creation university-industry linkages have been shown
to be successful in increasing the reach and impact of university

innovations. This strategy only works if the quality of the ScTI
departments is high.

The expected outcome is an increase in the innovations from Kenyan

universities that are adopted by the local industries. It also results in
increased collaboration among Kenyan universities and local industries.

vi. Develop Business Incubation Systems at the Universities

The university graduates in Science, Engineering and Technology often

have research projects that could easily be commercialized or developed
further into products. The challenge is normally that graduates with
entrepreneurial ideas do not have business skills or the capital needed to
commercialise their inventions or projects.

Business incubation centres have been shown to increase the number of

projects, patents, or innovations that are converted into products and
businesses. Kenya currently has one incubation centre, the Kenya
Country Incubator that was started at Jomo Kenyatta University of
Agriculture and Technology.

This strategy aims to create business incubators in Kenyan universities

that could nurture the research projects. The incubators should be set up
jointly by the business schools and departments of science and

The outcome would be an increase in the number of research projects

that are nurtured into fully-fledged businesses.

vii. Attract high value-adding Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs) and

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) to Kenya for increased
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

Kenya has a large pool of graduates in science and technology who are
not being absorbed by the local industry and enterprises. An increase in
the number of foreign enterprises investing in Kenya would strengthen
the absorptive capacity of the economy. At present, Kenya does not
attract high level of FDI by companies establishing manufacturing and
research centres in the country.

This strategy aims to increase the FDI inflows. Some of the activities in
this strategy include assessing the current barriers to FDI inflows into
Kenya. Kenyan universities will be expected to establish partnerships
and linkages with foreign enterprises for joint research and development

6.3.3 Increase Investment in Science, Technology and Innovation in Kenyan

Kenya does not have effective mechanisms for funding ScTI research at
national and institutional level. In the past two years, the Commission for
Higher Education has been managing a Ksh 130 million government research
fund. Some of the Kenyan universities allocated limited funds for research
grants. However, even in those universities that have limited research grants,
the culture of research is not pervasive and sometimes the funds are not
disbursed because of lack of competent research proposals from the
university community. Anecdotal evidence shows that faculty members are
much more interested in external research funding that is managed by
external donor agencies and not controlled by the universities. There is a need
to conduct a detailed study on internal management of research funds and
methods that universities could use to promote a research culture. The
Taskforce identified some strategies that could be used to increase the level of
research funding in Kenyan universities.

i. Increase ScTI Basic Expenditure on Research and Development

(BERD) as a percentage of GDP to 1% in line with the Abuja
Declaration of 1991

Kenya is a signatory to the Abuja declaration of 1991 that set the

target for ScTI research funding at 1% of GDP. However, there has
been no explicit attempt to achieve the target. The PUIB report and
NCST estimate that Kenya is currently spending between 0.6% and
0.7% of GDP compared to 0.76% for South Africa and 2.86% for the
UK. This funding needs to be centralized, possibly by funding the
NRF and increase to at least 1% of the GDP.

ii. Increase Funding of ScTI from Internal and External Sources

It is possible for Kenyan universities to attract additional funding

from external donor agencies like the UN bodies, IDRC, USAID, and
other development aid agencies and foundations. This would require
an increase in competent research proposals. Faculty members and
researchers will need training on proposal writing and the support of
an institutional grants office.

It is also possible to attract some research funding from the private

sector in local and international companies.

iii. Stimulate Venture Capital Activity

Universities in Kenya could benefit from a venture capital fund. At

present, Kenya does not have venture capital funds that support
university researchers. One of the mandates of the proposed NRF is

to establish a venture capital fund that would support university
researchers and incubation centres.

The outcome of this strategy is increased development funding and

commercialisation of university research.

6.4 Projects
The following are proposed projects under Science, Technology and
i. Develop a policy framework for ScTI taking into account the
existing Needs Assessment Report.
ii. Assess the existing IPR and copyright legislation, determine the
level of compliance and investigate links between levels of
compliance and FDI in ScTI, and recommend mechanisms for
strengthening them.
iii. Assess the current IPR regimes within the universities with
special reference to funded research.
iv. Study how collective knowledge, know-how and learning
maintained by the organization-core competency may be shared
by universities and the private sector.
v. Develop guidelines on how professional associations may
collaborate with the private sector, educational institutions,
students and other entities to promote and champion innovations
and related issues.
vi. Develop a legal framework for the proposed National ScTI
vii. Develop National ScTI strategic priority areas.
viii. Assess the current capacity of universities and research institutes
to negotiate and enforce IPR and develop guidelines and training
ix. Establish the potential of FDI; establish the effectiveness of the
existing FDI regime; and assess the level of participation of
International SMEs and MNEs in value adding activities.
x. Assess the capacity of all universities to offer ScTI degree
programmes and determine the constraints for expansion and
recommend ways to overcome them.
xi. Assess the level of participation of local SMEs in value adding
activities and establish mechanisms for university-private sector
xii. Review the current level of inter-firm collaboration in technology
acquisition and development and design guideline for increased
xiii. Establish funding and support mechanisms for student design
projects and participation in local and international competitions
xiv. Identify international innovations relevant to Kenya, whose
patents have expired and recommend mechanisms for
modifying/acquiring them.

xv. Identify and establish international research partnerships
xvi. Identify barriers to university and local private sector partnership.
xvii. Establish guidelines and mechanisms for venture capital activities
and risk apportionment.
xviii. Undertake a graduate labour study that builds on the 1992
graduate labour study undertaken by CHE. This study should
highlight among others the areas that have shortages of skills,
skills that have been over-produced and also show employment
trends in the labour market.

Logframe for Science Technology and Innovation in University Education

Strategic Science Technology and Innovation

Strategic Create a culture of knowledge generation, adoption, adaptation, application a

Strategic Strategies Outcomes Project/activities Indicators Tim

objectives me

1. Improve a) To put in place a Science, Develop a policy Policy 200

ScTI national policy Technology framework for ScTI Framework
governance framework for and taking into account developed
at all levels Science, Technology Innovation the existing Needs
and Innovation policy Assessment Report.
and in force.
b) Strengthen Improved Assess the existing No. of IPR 200
national IPR environment IPR and copyright copyright
strategies for legislation and cases
innovation recommend handled
and mechanisms for
investment strengthening it to
allow speedy IPR
Court litigation
Allow universities Increased 200
to retain patents No. of
and royalties on university
government patents put
funded research into use
projects and to
share the royalties
with inventors and
agencies at a ratio
of 33% inventor,
25% agencies and
the rest to the
c) Promote Flexible Study how No. of 200
Technology clusters integration collective science ann
of knowledge, know- parks;
knowledge how and learning regional
maintained by the clusters
organization-"core formed;
competency" may No. of MoU
be shared by signed
universities and the between
private sector private
sector and
Develop guidelines No. of 200
on how professional ann
professional associations
associations with in place
private sector,
students and other
membership may
be promoted to
innovation issues
d) Develop business No. and type Develop No. of 200
incubation systems of incubators technology incubators in
developed business incubators universities
funded by
Establish No. of non- 200
mechanisms to profit
fund and support business
non-profit business incubators in
incubators place
e) Strengthen No. of Assess the Increased 200
Metrology and institutions capability of No. of ISO
Standards registered by metrology and standards in
Institutions ISO standards use
infrastructures and institutions and
capabilities design mechanisms
for their
f) To put in place Institutional Review and Reviewed 200
institutional policy ScTI policies harmonize ScTI
frameworks for established. institutional ScTI Institutional
Science, Technology policies with policies
and Innovation National Policy.

Increased Establish No. of policy 200
understandi instructional analysis ann
ng and capacity for ScTI centres in
awareness of policy studies, universities;
ScTI policies analysis, and No. of
monitoring publications
on policies
g) develop the ScTI Establish Develop a legal Act of 200
structures for National framework for Parliament
operationalising the ScTI council National ScTI
policy council
Develop Organizatio 200
organizational nal structure
structure and
functions for the
h) Establish A Assess the need for Assessment 200
government government ScTI advice to Report
advisory structure on advisory Parliament,
Science, Technology structure Government, and
and Innovation established general public
Develop the Advisory 200
guidelines for the guidelines
establishment of a
two tier advisory
system which
formal and an
impartial and
informal person.
Establish a two-tier
Advisory 200
advisory system systems in
i) Integrate ScTI Rationalized Identify the ScTI 200
policy into national ScTI potential impact of Ranking
policy development ScTI in National
policy. development with
a view to placing it
in its rightful
strategic priority
Develop National ScTI Priority 200
ScTI Strategic list ann
priority areas

Develop projects ODA Grants 200
for Official for ScTI ann
Assistance (ODA)
j) Develop capacity Equitable Assess the current Guidelines 200
to negotiate and IPR regime; capacity of developed; ann
enforce IPR at An informed universities and IPR
institutional and negotiating research institutes negotiators
national level. platform for to negotiate and trained.
IPR enforce IPR and
develop guidelines
and training
k) Attract high value- Increased Establish the Framework 200
adding Multi- Foreign potential of FDI; for attracting ann
National Enterprises Direct establish the new FDI
(MNEs) and SMEs to Investment effectiveness of the established
Kenya, e.g., R&D (FDI) existing FDI
Assess the level of Assessment 200
participation of Report ann
International SMEs
and MNEs in value
adding activities.
Create the New 200
necessary conditions in ann
conditions for place;
attracting high Increase in
value adding the No. of
multinationals and MNEs and
SMEs .e.g. identify SMEs
National platform attracted.
technologies as in
Taiwan, Mauritius
l) Develop the Cross Assess the level of NO. of local 200
innovation capability -linkages participation of SMEs using ann
of indigenous firms between local SMEs in new
i.e. firms must be private value adding technologies
able to access, sector and activities and
develop, assimilate, universities establish
absorb and adapt mechanisms for
new technologies university-private
sector linkages
m) Increase the level Increased Review the current Guidelines 200
of inter-firm participation level of for ann
collaboration in of collaboration and collaboration
technology universities develop guideline developed
acquisition and in for increased
development partnerships collaboration.

2. Enhance a) Enhance and Adequate Asses the existing New 200

the develop ScTI infrastructur
infrastructure and guidelines ann
innovation infrastructure. e, science
develop guidelines and
systems technologyand mechanisms mechanisms
parks (STPs),
for establishing in place; No.
incubatorsnew facilities and of new and
and research
improvement of improved
existing ones facilities
b) Increase the At least 40%
Assess the capacity Status 200
percentage of ScTI of university of all universities to report;
student population students in offer ScTI degree recommenda
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Harmonize, expand % of 200
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d) Strengthen Increase in Assess the Investment 200
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Expand and/or No. of 200
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undergraduate literate in Science, and ICT in integration
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especially humanities , Science and Review No. of 200
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i) Integrate the Increase in Assess the Assessment 200
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activities and risk Number of
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d) Increase FDI flows Increased Establish specific No. of 200
FDI flows research based diversified ann
strategies for FDI strategies for
e) Increase local Increased Establish specific No. of 200
investments into ScTI local research based diversified ann
investment strategies for local strategies for
flows investments attracting

7.1 Background
The term Information and Communications Technology (ICT or IT) is used
as an umbrella term to describe the computing and telecommunications
technologies. The integration of ICT in university education therefore means
the use of computing and telecommunications technologies in teaching,
learning, research and management of universities. The main purpose of
integrating ICT in university education is to improve the learning outcomes of
all university graduates and therefore develop the ICT workforce required by
the Kenyan economy and information society. The use of ICT in university
management could also increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the
universities. That is, universities could utilize the limited educational
resources in a more cost-effective manner by using ICT in all their operations.

Apart from developing a university-level ICT workforce, there is also need to

develop the ICT professionals to support the university and national ICT
infrastructures. ICT professionals will also be required to develop new ICT
applications required by the government, educational institutions and local
businesses, especially the Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). At
university level, ICT professionals have traditionally been developed in what
is often referred to as the big IT degree programmes. These include degree
programmes in computer science, electronic engineering, software
engineering, and information systems (

The big IT degree programmes have clearly defined international learning

outcomes that have been developed over a relatively long period of time.
Universities that offer such degree programmes are normally accredited by
national or international professional accrediting bodies such as the
Institution of Engineering of Kenya (IEK), the Institution of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the Institution of Engineering and Technology
(IET) or the Accrediting Body for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in the
USA. In general, accrediting bodies assess the quality and currency of the
faculty, the teaching and laboratory facilities, the learning outcomes of the
graduates, and the currency of the curriculum. However, none of the Kenyan
ICT degree programmes have applied for international professional
accreditation and there is no local formal professional accreditation of most of
the ICT degree programmes. Currently only engineering programmes are
accredited by IEK.

The convergence of computing and telecommunications has also resulted in

the convergence of ICT degree programmes, referred to as the small IT
degree programmes by ABET. These are often called B.Sc. in IT degree
programmes and contain content from the different degree programmes (e.g.,
Information Systems and Computer Science). The Taskforce is not aware of
any country or accreditation body that has developed professional
accreditation criteria for such new programmes. This is a work in progress
among many professional bodies and even at ABET. We note that there has
been a strong demand for ICT professionals in Kenya and corresponding
increase in ICT degree programme enrolments.

In the past 5 years, there has been an increase in the number of both big IT
and small IT degree programmes offered by Kenyan universities. For
example, all of the 13 private universities in Kenya that have been chartered
or given interim letters of authority by CHE, offer ICT degree programmes.
The existing public universities continue to introduce new ICT degree
programmes and to expand the existing ones as shown in Table 7. 1. The
increase in total enrolment in ICT degree programmes means that there is a
strong demand for degree-level ICT education in Kenya. However, expansion
of the ICT programmes has not been based on any ICT labour market analysis
data to ensure job placement and relevance of the graduates.

Table 7.1 ICT Degree Programmes in Kenyan Universities

Degree Course Public Universities Private Universities Small or Big

Computer Yes (all) Yes (ANU, DU, Kiriri) Big IT
Computer Eng. Yes (Moi, KU, JKUAT) No Big IT

Electronic Eng. Yes (UoN, JKUAT, Moi) Yes (Daystar) Big IT

Information No Yes (USIU, SU, DU) Big IT

Software Eng. Yes No Big IT
Computer Yes (KU, JKUAT) No Small IT
Technology / IT
Source: M. Kashorda, Emerging trends in IT education, in Proceedings of Strathmore ICT Conference

The Taskforce has therefore used a layered model to analyze the relative
demands of the different ICT degree programmes and recommended some
possible areas of focus for universities in Kenya. The national strategy on ICT
education will need to conduct a detailed ICT labour market analysis as well
as a quality assurance audit of all ICT degree programmes. This is especially
important because of the global nature of ICT education and the critical role
supposed to be played by the high-quality ICT graduates in creating a
national innovation system.

Apart from the ICT degree programmes, most universities now offer some
general IT courses to all of their students. This means that there has been a
deliberate effort to ensure that all university graduates are computer or IT
literate. It is these graduates who will help drive the integration of ICT in
primary and secondary schools, as well as in middle level colleges in Kenya.

In order to achieve the objectives of developing the degree level ICT
workforce and professionals, Kenyan universities must have an appropriate
ICT infrastructure that includes networked computers and applications with
high speed access to the global internet. In addition, universities will need
qualified ICT faculty and support staff. The Taskforce has identified the
strategies and plans of action that will ensure universities are ready to
develop the ICT manpower required by the Kenyan economy and society.
The goal is:

To integrate ICT in University education and increase the number and

quality of ICT professional degree graduates of Kenyan universities.

7.2. Forecasting ICT Demand in Kenya using the Open Networking Model
Figure 7. 1 shows the Open Networking (ON) model originally proposed for
analyzing the convergence of computing and telecommunications. We have
adopted the model to estimate the relative demand for different ICT degree
programmes offered in Kenyan universities. We also use it to recommend the
areas of focus in degree programmes offered by Kenyan universities.

Figure 7. 1: Open Networking model and ICT degree programmes

Networked Applications
E-mail, fax, telephony, videoconferencing, TV.
E-games, Web browsing, Web casting..
Interactive education, interactive TV, Image server
Interoperability (Middleware)
Name servers, security, privacy, directories
Intelligent agents, distributed processing environments
Internetworking Internet protocol layers 3 & 4
Internet architecture and protocols
Operating systems
Digital pipes and hardware (Internet protocol layers 1 & 2)
Computing services: Computing hardware and devices
Telecom services; TV services: Data pipes (LANs, Leased lines, Modems)

7.2.1 Data Pipes and Hardware Layer
The bottom layer of the ON model provides the foundational computing and
telecommunications services. This includes the computer hardware and
associated memory, the data pipes used to carry digital data, and the local
and wide area network infrastructures. The skill set required in this layer is
provided by electronic engineers, computer engineers, and
telecommunications engineers. However, some computer science graduates
also work in this area because of the pervasive and embedded computer
systems that are software driven.

The industry at the bottom layer is dominated by a few large corporations

(e.g. Intel, Huawei, and Siemens) and most of the manufacturing of the
products has moved to Far East Asian countries, including China. That means
Kenya and other African country economy cannot absorb large number of
ICT graduates in these areas. This is also the area that requires the largest
investments in laboratory facilities. From Table 7. 1, it is evident that Kenyan
public universities continue to train ICT professionals for the bottom layer
although it is strategically less important. The Taskforce is not aware of any
detailed analysis of the actual ICT industry that absorbs these graduates.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that only a small fraction of the ICT graduates
work in their respective areas of training.

7.2. 2 Internet Working Layer and Interoperability or Middle-Ware Layer

Convergence of voice, data, and broadcasting (video) services and industries
has led to the increasing adoption of Internet platform technologies. The skill
set in this area is again provided by electronic engineers (includes
telecommunications engineers), computer science, computer engineering, and
information systems degree programmes. Since these ICT skills are required
by both the infrastructure providers like Safaricom, Telkom, and Kenya Data
Networks as well as by individual firms that need to be networked, we expect
a strong demand for these types of ICT graduates. The equipment and
software platforms in these area is again dominated by a few large
multinational corporations based in the US. These include Cisco, IBM, HP,
Microsoft and in Europe, BT, Nokia,and Siemens and Huawei in. China Even
manufacturing operations have moved to China and the Far East Asian

Kenyan and other African ICT professionals, that is electronic engineers,

computer engineers, and computer science specialists, can only work in
infrastructure support services and in a few cases in design. This limits the
number of ICT graduates in demand for this layer.

Educating ICT professionals in these areas requires large investments in

laboratory equipment and software environments that also need to be
regularly updated. Although Table 7. 1 suggests that Kenyan universities are
offering ICT degree programmes for this layer, anecdotal evidence suggests
that the institutions neither have the modern and specialized laboratory

environments required nor qualified ICT faculty to effectively teach and train
students in the programmes.

Since it is relatively inexpensive to provide world-class environments, Kenya

could aim to provide quality ICT manpower needs for all of Africa. Again
anecdotal evidence suggests the Kenyan economy does not have the capacity
to absorb all the ICT graduates in the areas of electronic engineering,
computer engineering and software engineering. That is lower level ICT skills
seem to be in higher demand because of the state of the ICT industry.

7.2.3 Networked Applications Layer

This is the area that needs the largest number of ICT professionals because of
the large number of customized networked applications that need to be
developed. For example, the Government of Kenya launched the E-
government strategy paper in 2004 and a large number of E-government
applications will be required. Such applications could be developed by the
local software industry. Many businesses in Kenya, especially in the SMEs
sector, are to automating their operations and will require relatively cheap
software solutions. The IT systems in turn need to be maintained and this is
expected to increase demand for ICT professionals in this layer.

Although a few software companies still dominate some of the mission-

critical software applications (e.g., Enterprise Resource Planning dominated
by SAP), specialized ICT professionals are required to set up and support the
complex systems. The relevant ICT degree programmes for working in this
area include information systems, computer science, software engineering as
well as the small IT degrees in IT or business IT. We estimate that a much
larger number of information systems professionals are required in this layer
because of their deeper understanding of business processes and strategies.

Although the ICT infrastructure required to support an information systems,

computer science, or software engineering degree programmes is much
cheaper than that for electronic engineering or computer engineering, it is
much harder to recruit and develop ICT faculty in the information systems
area. Recruitment is further hampered by the fact that none of the large public
universities in Kenya offer degree programmes in information systems.
Moreover, the quality of computer science, information systems, and
information technology degree programmes is still relatively low because of
lack of modern software environments as well as qualified and experienced
ICT faculty. These will continue to limit the innovativeness of the ICT
graduates. The lack of graduate ICT programmes in Kenya means that quality
concerns will continue to be a challenge.

7.2.4 The Knowledge Economy and Demand for ICT Professionals

The emerging knowledge economy will continue to drive the demand for ICT
professionals as well as use of ICT in universities in Kenya. In the knowledge
economy, the development and competitiveness of countries will depend on

their ability to leverage local and global knowledge. The knowledge economy
rests on four main pillars, namely;

i. Economic and institutional pillar, which provides incentives for

the efficient creation and dissemination and use of existing knowledge.
ii. Education pillar that develops an educated workforce that can use
knowledge effectively.
iii. Innovation pillar that ensures that global knowledge diffuses into
the nations and adapts it for local use and creates new local
iv. Information and Communication Technology infrastructure (ICT)
pillar that facilitates effective communication, dissemination and
processing of information.

The ICT pillar is required to support all the other pillars, especially the
innovation pillar. This means universities need to integrate ICT into all the
other degree programmes and increase the enrolment in relevant ICT
professional degree programmes. Increased use of ICT in universities should
translate into greater adoption of ICT in primary and secondary schools
because of the availability of IT literate teachers and administrators.

The above sections demonstrate the need to carefully analyze the relevance,
quality, and demand for the different ICT professional degree programmes .
There is an urgent need to develop and recruit qualified faculty in all
universities to cope with the increasing demand for ICT degree programmes.
In addition, there is a need to assess the ICT infrastructure in all universities
to determine if it is appropriate for educating the ICT workforce and
professionals that will be required in Kenya and the neighbouring countries.
The current ICT infrastructure is not yet adequate for educating innovative
ICT graduates who will be required to develop all of the new applications
required by the government and local businesses.

In the next section, we identify the key infrastructure segments required by

universities. The environmental analysis in this Chapter has been done for
the different segments.

7.3 Segments of the University ICT Infrastructure

A university ICT infrastructure can be divided into three main segments:
i. campus ICT infrastructure and applications;

ii. national network interconnection infrastructure; and

iii. international internet bandwidth.

7.3.1 Campus ICT Infrastructure and Applications

The campus ICT infrastructure in a university includes the integrated campus

network that supports voice and data services on and off campus. Such a
network would include an intranet (for data and e-mail services), and the
PABX network for internal and external voice services. The intranet includes
computer labs for students as well as the networked computers used by
academic and administrative staff on campus. The data services include e-
mail, intranet web services, e-learning platforms, and student and financial
information systems.

In addition to building the ICT infrastructure and applications, Kenyan

universities must invest in a reliable power supply through use of diesel
generators and UPSs, and air-conditioning for server rooms also need
priority. This support infrastructure is often very expensive to install and to
operate. The universities may be assisted through a one-off government
investment for infrastructure acquisition and installation.

The campus ICT infrastructure is in turn connected to the national ICT

backbone often operated by telecommunications network operators such as
KENET or Telkom Kenya.

7.3.2 National Network Interconnection Infrastructure and Systems

Although the data and voice traffic generated by users of a campus
infrastructure is mostly local, access to other campus networks and the
internet is often required. For example, the student and financial information
systems used for management of a university do not always need access to
the outside world. Faculty and students on the other hand need access to the
global Internet and external e-mail. All universities also need national and
international voice services.

Since the national infrastructure is operated by an external network operator

(KENET, Telkom, Safaricom), universities are only concerned with the local
access network that connects them to the national backbone. In Kenya, this is
often a copper cable connection although some universities are connected
using optical fibres or digital microwave radio system. The bandwidth of
these local access lines available to a university depends on the budgetary
allocation of the institution. The operational cost is directly proportional to
the bandwidth. However, universities do not need capital investment in this

7.3.3 International Network Infrastructure Segment

This is the segment that provides universities with international voice and
data services. At most universities, only senior management of the university
need access to international voice services. These services are often provided
by licensed network operators such as Telkom Kenya, Safaricom, or Celtel.
However, some ISPs are starting to provide Voice over Internet Protocol
(VoIP) voice services but these require large international Internet

The focus for universities in Kenya has been the provision of international
internet bandwidth. At present, the International bandwidth providers have
been Jambonet through KENET, Intelsat through KENET, and ISPs who

provide DVB download satellite services used to enhance the browsing
speeds for the students.

All the international bandwidth is satellite-based because Kenya does not yet
have access to an undersea optical fibre. Universities do not need to incur any
infrastructure costs in this segment and the challenge has been to sustain the
expensive satellite bandwidth at about $3,000 per mb/s per month. However,
effective campus ICT infrastructure and a high-speed local access
infrastructure could significantly reduce the demand for high-speed
international bandwidth connections.

7.3.4 E-readiness of Kenyan Universities

E-readiness is the degree to which a community is ready to use ICT and to

participate in the networked world of learning, teaching, and research. At
present, anecdotal evidence collected by KENET and other ICT departments
of the Universities suggests a very low state of e-readiness in Kenyan
universities. This is especially true for human capacity and low penetration of
networked PCs on most of the campuses. Many faculty members still do not
have access to networked PCs in their offices and the computer labs are
inadequate for the large number of students. Furthermore, faculty members
have not yet started integrating ICT into their courses.

There has been no detailed study of the e-readiness of the universities in the
recent past. However, there is an on-going project that is assessing the e-
readiness of the universities in order to inform the ICT strategic planning
process in the universities. The Taskforce conducted the ICT environmental
assessment of the universities even without the benefit of an e-readiness
study, but using the strategic plans, knowledge of the Taskforce members,
and the PUIB report.

7.4 Environmental Analysis

The SWOT analysis has been used to appraise the status of both internal
(within the Kenyan University system) and external (outside the university
system) environments. The internal appraisal (strengths and weaknesses)
focus on human capacity, ICT infrastructure and policies and other internal
conditions that directly affect Kenyan universities. The external appraisal
(opportunities and threats) is based on those external conditions that have a
broad, rather than direct impact on the universities.

7.4.1 Strengths

Kenya does have an existing base of mobile and fixed telephone network and
as well as backbone internet infrastructure. Although the fixed telephone
network has a low penetration of only 1 telephone for every 100 persons, the
mobile network has much higher teledensity (14.5 to 100) with over 6 million
active subscribers. These networks can support both national and
international voice communications. The mobile networks also support Short-
Message Service (SMS), a limited form of mobile internet. Kenya also has a
large number of PBX and computer suppliers as well as internet service
providers. All the universities currently have a permanent Internet connection
as well as PBX access to the national telephone networks.

The ICT regulatory environment in Kenya also currently supports the use of
ICT in higher education. For example, 6 of the 17 universities are connected to
the internet and telephone using digital radios without payment of the radio
frequency usage licenses. Universities can also set up wireless campus
networks without seeking a license from the regulator. It is also the regulatory
environment that has ensured that the country is fully covered by the mobile
telephone networks. Other backbone infrastructure providers have also been
licensed to ensure roll-out of national optical fibre networks. Over 4
international gateway providers have also been licensed and this is expected
to drive down the cost of international communications. Currently, there is
also a strong partnership between the government and the universities. This
is partly the reason why license fees have been waived. Universities also serve
as the main advisors to government on ICT-related issues, including the use
of ICT in e-learning, and ODL.

All the universities in Kenya have websites as well as functional PBX network
systems for internal voice communications. Most of the universities have at
least a networked computer lab and/or cyber cafs that are used by students
and faculty. Mobile communications in the universities have improved
communications with faculty and administrative staff and students. Most of
the universities have institutional mobile phones trunks connected to their
PBX systems.

Each of the universities in Kenya has some ICT champions among the
students and faculty. The ICT faculty members strengthen the ICT human
capacities of the Universities. University students are very enthusiastic about
the use of ICT for communications, research and learning. In fact, it is often
the students who put pressure on the universities to provide the necessary
ICT infrastructure for learning. There is also a large pool of young IT
professionals available to work in the universities.

7.4.2 Weaknesses

Most of the Kenyan universities have not yet developed comprehensive ICT
policies and strategies. This means that most of the investments or
recruitments of ICT professionals or faculty are ad hoc. Consequently, most
universities allocate only about 1% of their revenues to ICT yet need to
dramatically increase their ICT investments and recruitment.

In general, Kenyan universities find it very expensive to establish and

maintain the ICT infrastructure. For example, each of the seven public
universities in Kenya has over 6,000 students spread over a large geographical
area, sometimes in multiple locations. The University of Nairobi has about
32,000 students. Creating an integrated campus-network and setting up
enough computers for these populations can cost over Ksh 500 million.

In addition to the cost of establishing the campus networks, internet
bandwidth is also expensive and increases operational costs. For example, a
university with 3,000 students would need at least 4 Mb/s of internet
bandwidth and this would cost about $ 8,000 per month. Most Kenyan
universities can only afford about 256 kb/s. Kenyan universities are still
unable to provide classroom ICT services or even to equip all faculty offices
with computers. Most do not have an e-learning platform. In addition, there
are very few incentives for the use of ICT in teaching and learning.
Consequently, faculty and students outside the ICT degree areas rarely use
ICT in teaching and learning. Furthermore, there is very limited locally
relevant content that faculty could use for teaching or that students could
access. Most faculty in the universities are also not prepared or trained to use
ICT in their work.

Kenyan universities have a very large pool of very talented students pursuing
degrees in ICT professional degree programmes. However, the universities
often do not benefit from their creativity and innovations. For example, many
of the final year ICT projects could be commercialized if the universities had
an innovation system that supports the students and the faculty. It is possible
for universities to support large team-based software development efforts by
students and faculty but this is currently not happening. In fact, most
universities do not fully recognize the innovative capacity or skills of the ICT
faculty and students and consequently do not benefit from the large ICT
human capacity.

All Kenyan universities now offer at least one ICT professional degree
programme. However, there is a very limited pool of ICT faculty available in
Kenya, especially at the doctoral level. Many of the ICT faculty also have no
professional experience in ICT industry as engineers, software developers, or
in the emerging area of computer and network security. There are very few
ICT graduate degree programmes in Kenya and only the University of
Nairobi has a small number of doctoral ICT candidates. Most of the students
who pursue graduate ICT degrees in other countries such as South Africa,
UK, or USA do not return to Kenya on completion of their studies. It is
expected that there will be an even greater shortage of ICT faculty in the
future even as more universities continue to increase enrolments in ICT
degree programmes.

It is therefore possible that ICT degree learning outcomes are not being
achieved. It could also explain the limited number of software development
companies and the limited ICT innovations in Kenya in the areas of patents
and new software products.

7.4.3 Opportunities

One opportunity identified is the huge demand in Kenya for ICT applications
in business (especially the SME sector), government, hospitals, and
educational institutions. Since the imported software applications are
expensive, there is an opportunity to set up software houses in universities or
close to universities and use students and faculty as software developers.
Apart from the local software market, there is also an emerging international
ICT jobs and software market. For example, the large global business process
outsourcing or the call centre market has not benefited universities.
University students who are ICT literate, are also usually proficient in the
English language. This proficiency could be judiciously used by the
universities to set up call centres in partnership with the private sector.

Some of the existing private sector partnerships with large ICT companies
such as Microsoft, Cisco, Oracle, Safaricom, or Celtel could be approached to
establish specialised ICT labs in Universities and also to setup software
houses. This is a huge opportunity, especially in the East African region.

7.4.4 Threats
An advanced ICT infrastructure in universities is also not without risk or
threats. For example, the lack of locally relevant content means that most
students often visit websites in other parts of the world. A large number of
Kenyan university students have web-based e-mail accounts with yahoo or g-
mail. Such an external focus reduces interest in local issues and could also
dilute the local culture at the expense of foreign cultures. Students could also
get hooked to pornographic sites and suffer from the negative influences of
the internet.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that universities have not yet addressed security
Key Recommendation
issues fully and neither do they have operational 7.1
IT security policies. This
means that universities are often sources of spam or spyware and are also
To integrate
exposed ICT into
to international university
hackers. Sucheducation
hackers and
could increase ICTsome
penetrate innovation
of the
and research
mission-critical output of Kenyan
information systemsuniversities.
of the universities.

Changes in ICT are also a threat to adoption of ICT in Universities. Kenyan
must remain of ICT in Kenyan
current university education,
yet technological increase
obsolescence in theit
expensive toICT innovations
maintain and research output will yield improved socio-
ICT systems.
economic development.
The lack of Full incorporation
undersea of ICT
optical fibreinto learning
access and that
means research
partnershipsis long overdue and
for software expenditures
development andenvisaged
Business in this Outsourcing
(BPO) opportunities might notare aptly justified. The emergence of other ICT
be developed.
Centres of ICTininthe
of Excellence university
region inwillMauritius,
lead to effective
and Southand Africa
meanscontribution to knowledge
that universities might not andbenefit
the ICT and therebytalent
developed enhance
socio- their
also retain economic development
critical personnel. of the country.
Use of ICT will enhance e-learning as a means of complementing other
The lack of delivery.
of FDI into the non-telecommunications ICT sector such as software
Embracing ICT
development, internet will open up channels
applications, ICTfor acquisition,
design andupdating and and
equipment of knowledge.
manufacturing in Kenya also means that the country will
ICT to
continue will enrich
have weak teaching, learning
absorptive and research.
capacities for ICT innovations.
Use of ICT will improve the process of data collection, analysis, storage,
7.5 Strategic and and
Application of ICT will improve institutional operations through the
creation of effective Management Information Systems.

The environmental analysis of the ICT in University Education carried out
helped the Taskforce to develop the strategic goal and strategic objectives.
The Taskforce subsequently developed a detailed logframe for

7.5.1 Strategic Goal

The integration of ICT in university education means that ICT will be used in
teaching and learning in order to achieve superior learning outcomes. It will
also ensure that universities develop the necessary ICT workforce necessary
for the emerging knowledge economy and information society. Distance
Learning programmes will also use ICT to extend the reach of the universities
and provide access to Internet-based learning resources to all on-campus and
off-campus university students.

The increase in ICT innovations requires an enhanced quality of ICT

education and support for ICT entrepreneurship of the students and faculty.
The research output can only increase by hiring and retaining more doctoral
level ICT faculty in Kenyan universities and strengthening the ICT graduate
degree programmes. The superior learning environment required to integrate
ICT in education and increase the ICT innovations will require much higher
investment in ICT infrastructure, including high-speed Internet access. The
strategic objectives focus on each of these areas is described in the next sub-

7.5.2 Strategic Objectives and Associated Strategies

The Taskforce identified the following strategic objectives:

i. to develop and implement institutional ICT policies and strategic

ii. to strengthen the ICT human capacity in Kenyan universities;

iii. to provide adequate networked campus infrastructure to serve the

teaching, learning, and management needs of the universities;

iv. to extend the reach and enhance the capacity and quality of the
national university interconnection infrastructure;

v. to increase the international internet bandwidth and reduce the cost of

high quality service;

vi. to facilitate educational content creation, sharing, and delivery;

vii. to collaborate with the National Research and Education Network

(NREN) to enhance partnerships with strategic institutions and achieve
economies of scale in procurement of ICT equipment and services;

viii. to increase the quality and quantity of national ICT human capacity in
strategic areas; and

ix. to improve the socio-economic development of the country using ICT

innovations and research.

The following section describes the strategies that would be used to achieve
each of the strategic objectives and highlight the key outcomes of the

1. To develop and implement institutional ICT policies and strategic


As noted in the environmental analysis, one of the major weaknesses of the

universities in Kenya is that they do not have ICT policies and strategic plans
that are aligned to the corporate policies and strategies. The strategies
proposed therefore include:

a. The development of institutional ICT policies based on an ICT policy

template. The template would be developed at the national level by
the Kenya Education Network (KENET) the umbrella body that
provides Internet, training, and content services to all universities.
b. The development, review and implementation of ICT strategic plans.
These ICT strategic plans would be aligned to the corporate
strategies. One of the key outcomes of implementing ICT strategic
plans would be improved integration of ICT in teaching, learning
and management processes.

c. The development of policies and strategies on open content

development that would influence the pool of Kenyan ICT
professionals and faculty in Kenya and in the Diaspora.

2. To strengthen the ICT human capacity in Kenyan


The integration of ICT into university education and the advancement of ICT
professional education depend on both the ICT professionals who support the
applications and the infrastructure as well as the ICT faculty who teach and
conduct research. The environmental analysis of the Taskforce confirmed that
there is a critical shortage of both classes of ICT personnel in universities
today. Some of the strategies proposed to achieve this strategic objective

a. Establishing a competitive scheme of service for ICT professionals

and faculty working in Kenyan universities. Such a scheme would
take into account the employment market in the country of
competent ICT professionals. The outcome of such a scheme would
be an increase in retention and motivation of the ICT professionals
and faculty.

b. Recruiting an adequate number of ICT professionals. The envisaged

increase in levels of integration of ICT into university education will
require an increased number of qualified ICT professionals and
faculty. There is especially an urgent need to recruit and train
doctoral level faculty in Kenyan universities. As a start, it will be
necessary to conduct a compressive assessment of the ICT human
capacity in Kenyan universities.

c. Develop ICT management best practices. The intention of this

strategy is to develop national guidelines for managing the ICT
function in the universities and would be developed in collaboration
with KENET, the umbrella ICT body for universities.

3. To provide adequate networked campus infrastructure to serve the

teaching, learning, and management needs of the universities.

The success of the integration of ICT into university education depends on a

state of the ICT infrastructure and applications available in a campus. Our
environmental analysis revealed that this is inadequate to serve the needs of
the university community. Apart from recruiting and retaining ICT staff, this
is the other area of challenge because of the financial constraints of the

universities. However, there is no choice. Some of the strategies identified by
the Taskforce include:

a. Network all the campuses and equip them with an adequate number of
networked computers, servers, and applications that can be accessed
by both faculty and students. The use of the e-campus or island model
makes it possible for universities to focus only on the campus
infrastructure and learning resources available without being inhibited
by the limited national information infrastructure.

b. Allocation of sufficient financial resources to network and maintain the

ICT infrastructure. This often requires a detailed re-organization of the
university budgets rather than availability of additional financial
resources. For example, a reduction of the fixed and mobile telephone
budget could be used to fund the Internet infrastructure and
operations relating to software and e-mail.

c. Develop fund-raising strategies for capital development of the campus

ICT infrastructure.

4. To extend the reach and enhance the capacity and quality of

the national university interconnection infrastructure.

Although the e-campus model solves the problem of ICT infrastructure for
each campus, it is still necessary for Kenyan universities to share resources
and to support communication among students and faculty. This is especially
critical in areas where there is a small pool of faculty in certain disciplines
such as computer science and electronic engineering. ICT departments also
need to share experiences and to learn from each other. Our environmental
analysis indicated that there is limited sharing of knowledge among Kenyan

Some of the strategies identified to achieve this objective include:

a. Partner with the umbrella body, KENET, and other non-educational
network operators to rollout a broadband interconnection
infrastructure. In some instances this would involve developing a
business case for the commercial network operators to interconnect the
universities. This is possible because of the large user base of the
universities, estimated at 90,000 plus students. This is already
happening in some cases in Kenya with Telkom Kenya Ltd. extending
their internet backbone infrastructure to universities in Kenya.

b. Collaboration among the universities to obtain government support for

infrastructure to rural campuses. This will be especially important
when the Universal Access Fund is established by the government that
is aimed at providing access to communities that are not commercially

5. To increase the international internet bandwidth and reduce the cost

of high quality service.

At present, one of the biggest challenges for Kenyan universities is to provide
campus-wide internet access at reasonable speeds. This is because of the very
high cost of internet bandwidth in Kenya, at $3,000 per mb/s of Internet
bandwidth. In the USA, the cost of 1 mb/s Internet bandwidth is about $50.
This means that universities can only afford internet bandwidth that is not
adequate for the student population. This limits the use of the Internet for
learning and research. In the long run, this problem will only be solved once
the national and international Internet infrastructure is fully developed in
Kenya. In the short run, the Taskforce identified the following strategies for
achieving this objective:
a. Reduce the cost of bandwidth per mb/s. This is possible by applying
for international grants to subsidize the commercial costs of
bandwidth. It is also possible for universities to negotiate as a group
for lower tariffs. This is already happening through the umbrella
body, KENET, but there are more opportunities

b. Increasing the quality of service of the internet services. This could be

achieved by adopting efficient internet bandwidth management
practices in universities and also developing service level agreements
with Internet service providers.

6. To facilitate educational content creation, sharing, and delivery.

The integration of ICT into university education can only happen when
educational content is available. Our environmental analysis revealed that
this is a challenge for all universities in Kenya because of the limited
availability of local content. The use of ICT to increase access to university
education also depends on availability of local content. The Taskforce
identified the following strategies for achieving the outcomes of this strategic
a. Train faculty on content creation and e-learning. In most universities,
the faculty lack practical knowledge on the creation of on-line
content or the use of e-learning to supplement classroom instruction.

b. Create university partnerships for content creation. For example,

faculty in the area of chemistry from different Kenyan universities
could collaborate to create ICT-based learning materials and research
databases. The umbrella body KENET is already starting to facilitate
such faculty collaborations as a way of increasing the local content.

c. Create e-learning content for all university courses and for

continuing education programmes. At this stage, e-learning content
is being created on a pilot basis at some of the universities and this
will need to be scaled upwards.

d. Implement e-learning and ODL policies in order to increase access to

university education, especially by adult learners who do not get
admission immediately after their KCSE results. This would also
support the strategic objective of increasing the GER of Kenya from
the current 3% to 10% by the year 2015.
To collaborate with the National Research and Education Network (NREN) to
enhance partnerships with strategic institutions and achieve economies of
scale in procurement of ICT equipment and services

All Kenyan universities are already members of KENET. Although KENET

was supposed to evolve into a fully-fledged NREN, it is currently serving
only as an educational network operator and Internet service provider. This
strategic objective therefore aims to elevate KENET to an NREN by
encouraging universities collaborate in teaching, research, and management
of universities. The two main strategies that will achieve this objective are:

a. Establish partnerships with strategic institutions. The strategic

institutions could be local and international research organizations,
other universities in other parts of the world, or just local universities.
The national NREN would provide the connectivity needed to support
the partnerships. This is already happening in a limited fashion with
research institutions in Kenya and also in the US universities.

b. Promote joint procurement of ICT equipment and services. This is

especially important in negotiating for software licenses for
educational management and learning software. At present, there is
limited joint procurement among Kenyan universities but evidence
from other countries such as the USA and South Africa suggests that
significant saving could be achieved using joint procurement

7 To increase the quality and quantity of national ICT human capacity in
strategic areas
All of the above strategic objectives address university-related issues.
However, the key reason for improving the use of ICT in university education
was to improve the learning outcomes of the graduates, train the ICT
workforce of the country, and to supply ICT graduates to the Kenyan
economy. Our environmental analysis suggests that universities in Kenya
have not been training the necessary ICT workforce or supplying the national
economy with a sufficient number of well-prepared ICT graduates as
required by industry and government. The Taskforce has therefore identified
the following strategies for achieving the outcomes of this strategic objective:

a. Integrate ICT into the teaching and learning processes of all degree
programmes as well as in conducting all other institutional business.
For example, a Physics professor could use ICT to teach about
electromagnetic waves suing simulation packages. A student of
architecture would use Computer Aided Design tools for drafting
and designing buildings rather than the traditional drawing board.
Documents would be sent through e-mail and entire meetings could
be conducted through the same.

b. Integrate the teaching of humanities and social sciences in ICT degree

programmes. This would ensure that ICT professional graduates can
communicate effectively with people in other areas and are also
sensitive to the socio-economic challenges of the country.

c. Enhance the quality of ICT degree programmes offered in Kenya.

None of the ICT degree programmes offered in Kenya have
international professional accreditation status. This is an indicator
that the ICT degree programmes do not meet internal standards in
terms of quality of faculty, quality of equipment, and the currency of
the curriculum.

d. Align the ICT professional degree enrolment in Kenyan universities

to the national ICT education strategy. At present, universities in
Kenya offer ICT degree programmes to meet the demands of the
students without detailed analysis of ICT labour market or even the
national areas of focus.

e. Strengthen ICT doctoral programmes in all universities. Although all

universities offer one or more ICT undergraduate degree
programmes, only two or three universities have graduate
programmes at Masters Level and only one at doctoral level. There is
a diminishing of doctoral level faculty in Kenyan universities.

f. Create and strengthen ICT entrepreneurship and innovation centres

in universities. At present, ICT departments do not encourage
students to start entrepreneurship ventures or even to commercialize
some of their innovations. It is important that most ICT graduates

develop an entrepreneurial mindset that drives their motivation for

g. Encourage the participation of Kenyan students in national and

international project exhibitions and design competitions. This is
normally the best way to encourage students to be innovative and to
achieve high standards in their projects. At present, some
departments participate in some national competitions organized by
IEEE but this needs to be scaled up.

8. To improve the socio-economic development of the country using ICT

innovations and research, the strategic objective also aims to align the
ICT professional education as well as the integration of ICT into
university education with the socio-economic development agenda of
the country.

ICT is one of the four pillars of the knowledge economy as well as a critical
component of a national innovation system. The Taskforce therefore
identified the following strategies that could be used to achieve the outcomes
of this strategic objective:
a. Establish high quality ICT centres of excellence undertaking cutting-
edge research that addresses the socio-economic needs of Kenya. At
present, ICT departments in Kenyan universities are not set up as
centres of excellence. This limits the research outputs and
innovations of the ICT departments. Universities have to find
different ways of establishing centres of excellence as separate units
or as parts of the ICT departments.

b. Establish ICT incubators and spin-off companies in partnership with

the private sector. The private sector in Kenya is willing to partner
with ICT departments but that will mean a change of management.
Such models have been found to work well in Finland, Ireland and
the US.

c. Increase the number of ICT applications that have been locally

developed to serve key sectors of the economy. The Taskforce
identified opportunities for ICT application developments to serve
the needs of government and SME sectors of the economy. Such
applications could be developed within the incubators or by the
spin-off companies established in university clusters. There are a few
examples of university-affiliated incubators that are starting to
develop local ICT applications.

The detailed ICT in Education matrix that has been developed by the
Taskforce identifies the outcomes, the projects and/or activities, indicators
and the people who could be responsible. We note that in most cases, the
above strategies can be implemented by the university leadership rather than
external bodies or the government.

Logframe for ICT in University Education
Strategic Goal Integrate ICT into university education and increase ICT innovations and research output of Kenyan universities

Strategic Strategies Outcome Projects/Activities Indicators Timeframe Assum Responsibl

Objectives ptions e

1. Integrate a) Develop i) Viable ICT Develop an ICT policy Level of 2008-09 VCs,
institutional institutional ICT policy that
template completion of KENET,
ICT policies policies supports the ICT policy CHE
and strategic institutional template
plans education Communicate an ICT No. of 2008 VCs,
objectives policy template to all universities KENET
universities aware of the
ICT policy
Develop and % of 2008 and VCs
implement ICT policy universities annually
with an ICT
policy derived
from template
ii) Enhanced Undertake a detailed E-readiness 2008 and VCs,
role of ICT in e-readiness assessment survey report annually KENET
teaching, of universities and for each
learning and university
management in develop ICT ranking of E-readiness 2008 and KENET,CH
all universities universities ranking of annually E
Publicize the e- No. of 2008 and VCs,
readiness survey universities annually KENET,CH
results and application aware of e- E
in institutional ICT readiness
strategic planning status and
Undertake annual ICT No. of self- 2008 and VCs, CHE,
self-evaluation surveys evaluation annually KENET
in all universities using surveys per
the e-readiness ICT strategic
methodology period
b) i) ICT strategy Develop/review ICT Degree of 2008 and VCs
Develop/review aligned to the strategic plan of alignment of annually
and implement corporate universities using a strategic plan
ICT strategic strategic plans participatory process to the
plans of universities for all stakeholders corporate
strategic plans
ii) Improved Implement ICT Compliance 2008 and VCs
integration of strategies starting with with ICT annually
ICT in learning, pilot and strategic plans
teaching and demonstration
management programmes in new
processes in areas

iii) Improved Revise curriculum to % of 2008 and VCs,CHE
student learning integrate ICT in all graduates that annually
outcomes and academic programmes used ICT for
improved of the universities over 50% of
knowledge their learning
economy Implement integration % of academic 2008 and VCs, CHE
workforce of ICT in academic programmes annually
programmes with ICT
c) Develop policy Increased Develop and promote % of 2009 VCs,
and strategy on availability of open content universities KENET,
open content local content in development policies adopting open CHE
development in universities in universities content
universities development
d) Implement e- Operational e- Roll-out e-learning Enrolment in 2008 and VCs,
learning and ODL learning and and/or ICT-enabled ICT-enabled continuous KENET,
strategies in all ICT-based Open distance education programmes CHE
universities and Distance programmes in all as a % of total
Learning universities university
policies. enrolment
Increased access
to education

2. Strengthen a) Establish Highly skilled, Assess the ICT human ICT human 2008 VCs,
the ICT competitive motivated and capacity and scheme of capacity KENET,
Human scheme of service productive ICT service for universities readiness MHEST
Capacity of for ICT personnel in all and make appropriate report for

universities professional staff universities recommendations as universities
part of e-readiness
Review the terms and Revised terms 2008 -2009 VCs,
conditions of service of and conditions MHEST
ICT staff in of service of
Universities and ICT staff
develop a scheme of
service that includes
ICT staff development
b) Recruit i) Increased Recruit skilled ICT No. of skilled 2008 and VCs
adequate number retention and technical and ICT staff Continuou
of ICT staff for competence of administrative staff recruited s
universities using ICT staff in under new
revised Scheme of universities scheme of
Service. service
Establish an ICT staff No. of ICT 2008 and VCs
development and technical and continuous
training programme administrative
staff trained
% of staff 2008 and VCs
developed continuous
according to
their job

% increase in 2008 and VCs
of key ICT continuous
staff retained
for at least 3
ii) Adequate Maintain an adequate % of in-post 2008 and VCs
ICT staff complement of ICT staff to total continuous
complement in staff establishment
each university
Develop and Extent of 2008 and VCs,
implement Internship completion of continuous KENET,
guidelines Internship MHEST,
guidelines KEPSA
Establish a strong and No. of 2008 and VCs,
structured Internship students and continuous KEPSA
programme for ICT staff
staff and university participating
students using in structured
Internship guidelines internship
c) Develop ICT Improved Develop and Extent of 2008 and VCs,
management best quality of ICT implement best completion of continuous KENET,
practices services practice guidelines for ICT MHEST,
ICT management and management KEPSA
operations best practices

% compliance 2008 and VCs,
with ICT continuous KENET
best practices

3. Provide a) Network all Increased use of Develop guidelines Guidelines 2008 - 2009 VCs,
networked university ICT and indicators for and indicators KENET,
campus campuses infrastructure Kenyan universities MHEST
infrastructure indicators in networked campus
to adequately education for infrastructure
serve the decision- Design a scaleable Network 2008-2009 VCs
teaching, making networked campus design
learning, infrastructure
research and Setup the networked % of 2008 and VCs
management campus in phases completed annually
needs of networked
universities campus
b) Allocate ICT department Assess the level of ICT Assessment 2008 and VCs,
sufficient has sufficient funding and allocation report annually KENET
financial resources to in all universities using
resources to the meet university- the e-readiness studies
ICT department wide objectives Review university %increase in 2008 and annually VCs
to support the and maintain budgets and align the total ICT
ICT strategic the allocations of ICT budget to
plans infrastructure. budgets to the management
institutional ICT information
strategies systems

Integrate ICT budgets % increase ICT 2008 VCs
in core academic budget as a
programmes budgets. percentage of
c) Develop Increased Write grant proposals Amount of 2008 VCs,
fundraising funding of ICT to fund ICT capital funds raised and KEPSA
strategies for use budget by development projects. from annuall
of ICT in donors and fundraising y
education government Develop or setup the % of 2007 VCs
networked networked and
applications to support applications annuall
learning, teaching and installed y

4. Extend the a) Partner with Broadband Develop and market Amount of 2008 VCs.
reach and KENET and other interconnection Interconnection infrastructure and KENET,
enhance the licensed network of all Kenyan infrastructure funding for annuall MHEST,
capacity and operators to roll universities collaborative proposals local loop and y MoIC
quality of the out broadband for funding by national
national national development partners. interconnectio
interconnectio infrastructure to n links
every university

n b) Collaborate Extended reach Bid for Universal Amount of 2009 VCs,
infrastructure with other of broadband access (UA)/Universal UA/US funds and KENET
universities to infrastructure in service (US)funds to allocated annuall MoIC
obtain all rural extend reach of y
government universities broadband educational
support for local network in
access and collaboration with
interconnection network operators or
infrastructure KENET.
Negotiate in No. of active 2008 VCs,
collaboration with the partnership and KENET
NREN and implement agreements annuall
partnership y
agreements with
licensed operators

5. Increase a) Reduce the cost i) Affordable Negotiate and develop % reduction in 2008 VCs,
Internet per Mbps and institutional Internet bandwidth cost of internet and KENET,
bandwidth increase the Internet access agreements that reduce bandwidth annuall MoIC,
and reduce quality of service to high quality overall cost of Internet y KEPSA
cost for high to that service level. bandwidth

quality comparable to ii) Increased Develop international % of satellite 2008 VCs,
service benchmarked Internet Internet bandwidth Internet BW and KENET,
universities bandwidth per grant proposals for cost paid by annuall MoIC,
terminal support by development y KEPSA
comparable to development partners partners
that of the
iii) Increased Collaborate with % of optical 2008 Completio VCs and
quality of NREN and operators fibre Internet and n of KENET,
service at to negotiate reduced bandwidth annuall undersea KEPSA,
reduced costs cost of undersea y optical MoIC
optical fibre-based fibre
Internet bandwidth projects
iv)Increased Develop service level % compliance 2008 VCs,
level of agreements with with service and KENET,
satisfaction of network operators and level annuall KEPSA
users NREN agreements y

6. Facilitate a) Train faculty Increased local Organize workshops No. of 2008 VCs,
educational members on content and training workshops and KENET,
content content developed by programmes for and annuall KEPSA
creation, development and faculty faculty and programmes y
sharing and delivery instructional designers
delivery on content
development process
and tools

No. of faculty 2008 VCs
trained on the and
content annuall
development y
b) Create Increased use of Write content Grant 2008 VCs,
university local content development grant amounts KENET,
partnerships for proposals to create awarded KEPSA
content research databases and
development other relevant
educational databases.
Create thesis abstracts No. of thesis 2009 VCs, CHE
database by year in
database /
No. of
searches of the
c) Create Increased Develop national % faculty and 2008 KENET,
communities of collaboration faculty and research researchers in VCs
practice for among students database the database
students and staff and faculty in
in related Kenyan
disciplines universities
d) Develop e- Improved Develop and update % of courses 2008 VCs, CHE
learning content learning institutional e-learning per university and
for degree and outcomes course content. posted on e- annuall
continuing learning y

education Write grant proposals Amounts 2008 VCs,
programmes for open content awarded and KENET
development for life- annuall
long learning and y
faculty development
Conduct research on No. of life- 2008 VCs, CHE
Open and Distance long learning and
Learning models and courses annuall
evaluate existing developed per y
models year
No. of 2008 VCs, CHE,
research and NRF
projects in annuall
e) Increase access Increased access Setup an Web-based e- No. of free 2008 VCs
to educational to life-long mail server and Web-based e- and
opportunities for learning discussion groups, mail addresses annuall
life-long learners opportunities chat rooms in all offered to y
universities university
students and
Develop lifelong Enrolment in 2008 VCs
educational life-long and
programmes . courses annuall

7. Collaborate a) Establish i) Expanded Develop joint research Completion of 2008 VCs.
with National partnerships with intellectual & consultancy policy the policy KENET,
Research and strategic contribution of guidelines guidelines NRF,
Education universities Kenyan MHEST,
Network universities KEPSA,
(NREN) to MoIC
enhance ii) Improved Develop and No. of 2008 VCs
partnerships standards in undertake joint publications in
and education and research projects refereed
collaboration research journals and
with strategic in conference
institutions proceedings
Develop partnerships No. of 2008 VCs,
and collaborations MOUs/Memo and KENET
with members of other randa of annuall
NRENs and Agreement y
universities outside (MOAs) with
Kenya universities in
other non-
Bid for and undertake Contract 2008 VCs,
joint consultancy amount KEPSA
projects awarded

b) Promote joint Reduced cost of Identify ICT Inventory of 2008 VCs,
procurement ICT equipment equipment needs, common and KENET,
equipment and and services develop common equipment annuall MHEST,
services specifications and and services y KEPSA,
negotiate competitive required and MoIC
pricing of equipment associated
and services based on specifications.
bulk purchases Percentage 2008 VCs,
reduction in and
cost of ICT annuall
equipment y
and services

8. Improve a) Establish high No. of ICT Assess the existing Assessment 2008/09 VCs,
socio- quality ICT Centres of current policies in report MHEST,
economic centres of Excellence universities for MoTI
development excellence contributing to creating and funding
of the country undertaking improved centres of excellence in
using ICT cutting-edge innovations ICT
innovations research.
b)Establish ICT Increased no. of Develop new Guidelines 2008 VCs, CHE
incubators and entrepreneurial guidelines and and incentives and
spin-off ventures incentives for for university- annuall
companies in establishing ICT based Centres y
partnership with Centres of Excellence of Excellence
private sector in ACT

Create and/or No. of Centres VCs, MoTI
strengthen Centres of of Excellence
Excellence in ICT in created
Kenyan universities
Introduce high-quality No. of new 2008 VCs,
multi-disciplinary technology and KEPSA
degree programmes and annuall
and courses that link entrepreneurs y
ICT to hip degree
entrepreneurship programmes
c) Increase the Increased use of Assess the quality of Ranking of 2008- VCs, CHE,
number of locally locally ICT degree ICT 2009 Professiona
developed ICT developed ICT programmes and programmes l bodies
applications in applications in locally developed and and
key sectors of the Kenya applications with a applications institutions
economy. view to improving the
quality of ICT
Strengthen and/or No. of high- 2008- VCs, CHE,
introduce high-quality quality degree 2010 MHEST
ICT undergraduate programmes KEPSA
and graduate degree
programmes (e.g.,
electrical engineering
and computing) in
Kenyan universities
( check with ScTI)

d) Create Increased Develop/design No. of 2008 VCs,
awareness of the awareness by funding mechanisms publications, and MHEST
link between ICT policy makers for research in ICT for thesis and annuall
and socio- and local development areas. reports y
economic businesses and
development society on the
using research- socio-economic
based studies benefits of ICT

8.1 Introduction
University linkages have been going on without legal agreements or
structures. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) is often used to
formalize a linkage. A partnership, on the other hand, often requires a
Memorandum of Agreement (MoA) and often involves collaborating
institutions committing financial, material and human resources to support a
joint research project or facility.

Collaboration among universities in developed countries such as those of the

OECD, is driven by the need to share research resources in different
universities. For example, 95% of the worlds scientific research takes place
outside the UK. This means that the UK funds only 5% of global science
research. The UK therefore supports its universities to establish international
linkages and partnerships with other world-class universities in different
research areas (Annual Report, UK Investment Framework 2004-2014, 2005).
For example, the University of Manchester in UK has established a linkage
with the University of Washington, USA, to develop composite materials for
use in aircraft design. This linkage is supported by the UK funding

Collaboration between universities and industries is often driven by the need

for technology transfer from universities to industry. For example, the UK has
knowledge transfer partnerships that enable researchers in universities to
work in strategic industries for one to three years. South Korean universities
are setting up university-industry clusters to support collaboration with
industries. For example, Hanyang University in South Korea has created an
Education and Research Industry Cluster at Ansan (ERICA) campus which
facilitates the collaboration between government, industry, national research
institutes, and the science and engineering departments of the university.

South African universities have established university-industry linkages and

partnerships at two main levels:

i. direct university industry links. For example Telkom South Africa

has established Centres of Excellence in selected departments of
engineering in South African universities. These Centres of Excellence
conduct joint research. The mining companies have also established
links with mining engineering departments; and
ii. national research partnerships established through the National
Research Foundation of South Africa. For example, the Hartebeesthoek
Radio Astronomy Observatory (Hart RAO) will be an international
project that will be built at an estimated cost of 1 billion Euros in 2014-
2020. It will be an international facility that will allow South African
universities and other international universities to collaborate in
research in radio astronomy, space geodesy and satellite ranging.

CHE and Kenyan universities have surveyed the different models used in
Europe, Asia, and Africa for sustainable university-industry linkages (Ogada,
2000). For example, in Germany, the university-industry links are sustained
by joint research projects and technology transfer centres. In Sweden on the
other hand, the linkages are through technology parks. Systematic reforms in
University Industry Partnerships in OECD countries have made universities
in those countries centres of innovation. Thus, linkages and partnerships are
widely used all over the world to increase the research output of universities
as well as quality research in these nations. Kenyan universities have begun to
establish both technology and science parks. They have also enhanced
collaboration in research projects.

The Taskforce has developed the strategic goals, objectives and strategies for
the linkages and partnerships. The strategies support seven types of linkages
and partnerships, namely:
i. university-industry;
ii. university-university;
iii. university-research institutes;
iv. university - middle-level colleges;
v. university-international organization;
vi. university-community; and
vii. university-relevant professional regulatory bodies.

Key Recommendation 8.1

Develop strong university linkages and partnerships that enhance mutual

learning, research and innovation.

Strong linkages and partnerships will enhance dissemination and
utilization of research findings and innovations emanating from the
Strong linkages and partnerships will enable universities to access
resources available in the private sector.
Linkages and partnerships provide platforms for consensus regarding
policies on strategic areas of the economy.
Linkages and partnerships can encourage pooling of human, physical and
financial resources.
Strong linkages and partnerships are necessary for diversification of
financing and incorporation of talent in the governance structures.
Linkages and partnerships provide an opportunity for identifying
community needs and enhance the capacity for community involvement
and improvement.

8.2 Linkages and Partnerships in Kenyan Universities: An Environmental

8.2.1 Strengths
Public universities in Kenya have linkages with universities in developed
countries. The University of Nairobi has linkages with many universities in
Eastern Africa Belgium, Germany, the UK and the USA. For example, the link
between the University of Nairobi and the Free University of Belgium has in
the past six years provided funding for ICT infrastructure and joint Masters
and Doctoral degree programmes.

Moi University has links with Indiana University in the USA, and the Free
University of Belgium that support doctoral training, faculty exchange and
joint research programmes. Egerton University offers a joint degree in
Aeronautical engineering with Michigan University in the USA. JKUAT has
linkages with Japanese universities that have traditionally been funded by
JICA, the Japanese development agency. Similarly, all the private universities
have links with international universities for faculty and student exchange
programmes. For example, Kenya Methodist University has linkages with a
Canadian university that supports joint research programmes. USIU
maintains links with universities in China, Germany, India, Japan and the
USA for faculty and student exchanges, while Strathmore University has links
with universities in Nigeria, South Africa, Spain and the USA.

Kenyan universities also collaborate with Eastern African universities

through the Inter-University Council of East Africa (IUCEA). These linkages
support limited student and faculty exchanges as well as joint student
competitions. In addition, they support joint research projects, like the Lake
Victoria research project that involves faculty from universities in the three
East African countries working in multidisciplinary programmes. Some
faculty members have created research networks in various areas of regional
and global concern. All the Kenyan universities are also members of the
Association of African Universities (AAU) which supports faculty exchanges.
Both IUCEA and AAU organize annual meetings for Vice Chancellors to
share experiences.

Kenyan universities have been collaborating in the area of internet bandwidth

purchases and development of campus networks as members of the Kenya
Education Network (KENET). All the universities are members of KENET.
KENET is already coordinating joint production of on-line teaching materials
and research databases by faculty at different universities.

All the Kenyan universities also share library resources through the inter-
university library loan system. University libraries are increasingly being
automated and about 25% have OPAC available off-campus to students and
faculty in other universities. Thus Kenyan universities already recognize the

need for collaboration in teaching, research and management of the

University-Industry Linkages
A study commissioned by CHE confirmed that there is some collaboration
between industry and universities in Kenya. Internship and industrial
attachments are a requirement in professional degree programmes such as
business, law, engineering and ICT in Kenyan universities. Some private
universities such as Strathmore University and USIU have an attachment
requirement for all their degree programmes. These attachments result in
some level of collaboration between the universities and industry.

In 2006, Safaricom Kenya Limited, a leading mobile communications

company, entered into an agreement with Moi University to set up and
support a modern telecommunications laboratory. The linkage will also offer
faculty members opportunities to upgrade their skills through a faculty
internship programme.

A few private universities also involve local industry during the curriculum
development process. The IEEE, a professional engineering body, also works
closely with the departments of electrical engineering to organize project
exhibitions and competitions. The university-based student associations and
clubs also work closely with other professional bodies like those for
Accounting or Marketing. AIESEC, the worlds largest student organization,
has chapters in most of the Kenyan universities and coordinates interactions
and internships in local and international industries and organizations. Most
of the universities also keep in touch with local industry through their
respective alumni associations and placement offices.

University Research Institutions Linkages

Research institutions in Kenya are area-specific and as such, they have
excellent equipment and qualified manpower that can be utilized to enrich
teaching and research at the universities. The institutes can carry out joint
research and training with the universities and their facilities can also be used
by both faculty and students thus exposing them to the requisite
infrastructure for research. Some research institutions have strong
partnerships with development partners through whom they get substantive
funding and expertise. Universities can similarly benefit through
collaboration and also benefit from such funds. There are many international
research organizations which operate in Kenya. These research institutes are
often disconnected from the local research environment and experts. There is
therefore, need to review the legal framework, protocol and conventions that
set up these institutions to allow for more collaboration with the universities
and local researchers.

University- International and Multinational Organizations Linkages

International organizations such as UNESCO, FAO and WHO have extensive
funding ability, data and expertise that can highly benefit the universities.
Such benefits can only be realised if the universities are well-informed about
what these institutions can offer and how funds as well as other resources can
be accessed. In addition to United Nations bodies, the universities would also
need to form strong links and partnerships with other international
organizations like the International Social Sciences Council and the
International Council for Science. It is important that universities be well-
informed on the protocols and conventions that govern these bodies, their
status with Kenya and membership requirements. There is need, therefore, to
carry out an assessment of the potential benefits of these bodies with a view
to maximizing universities exposure and building relevant partnerships.

University - Middle Level Colleges Linkages

The current relationship of universities with middle level colleges revolves
around these colleges excellent facilities which the universities utilize as their
off shore campuses to offer courses to SSS. Collaboration between the
universities and middle level colleges can lead to sharing of resources,
consultation on curriculum development and consensus on student credit
transfer. There are many specialized diploma level colleges with excellent
facilities which can partner with universities to upgrade some of their courses
to degree level without abandoning their core mandate of offering quality
diploma and certificate programmes. These colleges include the Kenya School
of Monetary Studies for Finance related courses, Kenya College of Insurance
for Actuarial Science, Kenya College of Communication and Technology for
Telecommunications related courses and Bandari College for Shipping and
Marine Science. There is need to carry out an audit of facilities in these and
other colleges with a view to establishing the most suitable partnership and
linkages with universities.

University-Community linkages

Some of the private universities in Kenya require each student to undertake a

community service attachment with not-for-profit organizations. These
include schools, hospitals, and community-based organizations working in
the informal settlements. The objective is to develop a community service
culture among students.

Public universities also have community outreach programmes through co-

curricular activities, although community service is not integrated in the
curricula of most degree programmes. For example, the Student in Free
Enterprise (SIFE) programme at all the universities in Kenya encourages
students to develop social entrepreneurship projects to solve community
problems. Experience from Rhodes University in South Africa showed that
community outreach programmes underpinned by a specific policy on
student volunteerism can enhance the university brand and increase students
skills in community mobilization.

University linkages and partnerships will therefore lead to progressive
innovative institutions whose mandates are informed and enriched by the
experiences, expertise and resources of these partners. The partners on the
other hand gain by tapping the intellectual and creative energy of the
universities. The overall achievement of these partnerships is the production
of more relevant knowledge and skills for economic development. The
successful case studies of university linkages and partnerships in the
developed countries cited above emerged through deliberate and specific
reforms that were underpinned by strong political will and government and
institutional support. There is need for a paradigm shift that ensures that
universities and collaborating entities mutually reinforce their strengths.

8.2.2 Weaknesses
Anecdotal evidence suggests that most of the links with international
universities are not well structured. They are particularly weak in the area of
Intellectual Property Rights because most Kenyan universities do not yet have
operational IPR policies. Consequently, it is possible for a university to lose
IPR to a foreign university. In fact, most universities have not developed
guidelines for faculty collaboration with researchers at other universities.

Collaboration beyond student exchange is normally based on common

research interests. It assumes that faculty in both universities are equally
active in research. The limited research output of Kenyan lecturers reduces
the opportunities for collaboration with industry and foreign universities.

A study commissioned by CHE (Gichaga, 2005) found that there was limited
collaboration between Kenyan universities and industry. This is partly due to
lack of awareness of local industry of the potential for research contributions
from Kenyan universities or lack of awareness of university researchers of
industry needs. At present, there is no university in Kenya that has a chair in
any field of study that is sponsored by local industry. This is because the
multinational manufacturing companies undertake their research in the
countries of their origin. Incentives should be provided to financial and utility
companies to support chairs in their respective areas.

8.2.3 Opportunities and Threats

Many opportunities for collaboration with local and regional universities
exist. For example, there are opportunities for purchasing and sharing
expensive laboratory equipment by local universities. There are also
opportunities for cost- reduction through economies of scale in the purchase
of internet bandwidth and other materials that could be exploited. There is
currently great interest in indigenous knowledge and plant and animal

materials in other parts of the world which could be of benefit to universities
in Kenya. There is also a large pool of local researchers that could support
joint research projects at relatively low costs. Kenyan universities just need
to market their capability to the rest of the world.

Kenya is considered a hub for financial services and tourism in Africa. The
country also hosts the headquarters of the United Nations Environmental
Programme (UNEP) and this increases opportunities for joint research. Many
companies are also attracted to Kenya as a gateway to Africa. For example,
Nokia is establishing its Africa operation in Kenya and is willing to work with
Kenyan universities in developing new products. Currently, Google has
entered into collaboration with KENET, the university-wide research network
to provide e-mail and search engine and local content services to Kenyan
universities. Thus, Kenyan universities could scale up their collaboration
locally and internationally with universities and industry.

The greatest threat is that of losing indigenous knowledge to foreign

universities because of the lack of institutional IPR policies. There is also the
threat of brain drain arising out of the collaborations. The mandate of Kenya
Industrial Property Institute (KIPI) enables it to protect industrial innovations
only. There is need to have its mandate expanded to protect intellectual
property rights of innovations from universities and research institutes.

8.3 Strategic Goal, Objectives, Strategies and Outcomes

The strategic goal for linkages and partnerships is to:

Develop strong university linkages and partnerships that enhance mutual

learning, research and innovation.

The Taskforce identified the following strategic objectives:

i. establish a conducive policy environment for university-industry

linkages and partnerships;
ii. promote university-industry linkages and partnerships;
iii. develop and strengthen university-university linkages and
iv. promote university-research institutes middle-level colleges linkages
and partnerships;
v. promote university-international/multinational organizations linkages
and partnerships;
vi. strengthen university-community linkages and partnerships and
vii. promote university-relevant professional regulatory bodies linkages
and partnerships.

8.3.1 Strategies for Establishing a Policy Environment for University-

Industry Linkages and Partnerships

The following are the strategies that will be used to achieve this strategic

i. establish a national policy on university-industry collaborative

ii. promote innovative knowledge transfer mechanisms. This would
involve development of policies for creating spin-off companies to
utilise university patents and licenses and establishment of IPR
management offices in each university; and
iii. support the establishment of joint university-industry incubation
centres. This would involve development of guidelines and
template agreements for establishing jointly owned incubation

8.3.2 Strategies for Promotion of University-Industry Linkages and


i. Promote faculty and student internships and exchanges with local

and international companies. Faculty internships in local industries
are, at present, limited. An increase in faculty internships and short-
term consulting opportunities would greatly improve the quality of
teaching. Student internships in public universities are required for
technical degree programmes. Internships for most of the students
would increase the quality of graduates.
ii. Promote collaborative curricula development in universities. The
outcome would be curriculum that is relevant to industries operating
in Kenya and other African countries.
iii. Promote joint research and contract research. The joint research could
be with local SMEs as well as multinational corporations operating in
Kenya. The outcome would be an increase in the research capacity of
local universities, increase in number of publications and patents, and
increase in research funding by industry
iv. Promote creation of knowledge-based start-ups jointly with
industry. The outcome would lead to an increase in the number of joint
start-up companies.

8.3.3. Strategies for Promotion of University-University Linkages and

The majority of faculty members are not engaged in the partnerships.
However, the linkages with international universities are also asymmetrical
because faculty at universities in developed countries is more active and
better funded than their counterparts in Kenya. The following strategies will
strengthen the linkages with local and international universities.

i. Strengthen the national research and education network (NREN) in

order to increase the level of collaboration among Kenyan
universities. At present, the Kenya Education Network (KENET) is a

small-scale NREN that has a focus on ICT and connectivity between
Kenyan universities. Increased funding and awareness will mean
faculty will create locally relevant content, increase the number of joint
subject specific research databases and also support joint research
projects. Students would also collaborate using a strengthened NREN.
ii. Promote linkages and partnerships between local and international
universities. A fully-fledged NREN could also support collaboration
with international universities. Already KENET is linked to the
European NRENs through the European academic network. This
strategy will develop IPR guidelines for research collaboration. In
addition, the strategy aims to increase the level of funding to support
joint research, faculty and student exchanges. Linkages will also
support consortium-based doctoral and post-doctoral research

8.3.4 Strategies for Promotion of University-Research Institutes/ Middle-

Level Colleges Linkages and Partnerships

Kenya has established several research institutes and middle level colleges
whose activities are not synchronized with the universities research and
teaching programmes. Often, some research institutes have very well
equipped research laboratories. In some instances, some universities have
better equipped research facilities. Sharing of these resources would benefit
both and improve national innovation activities.

8.3.5 Strategies for Promotion of University-International Organizations

Linkages and Partnerships

Kenya is a member of United Nations organizations like UNEP, UNESCO,

WHO, UNIDO. Involvement of Kenyan universities in linkages and
partnership with these bodies is weak although several academic staff
members participate in their activities on individual merit. Similarly, several
international organizations exist that promote sharing of knowledge like the
International Council of Science (ICSU), the International Social Sciences
Council and several discipline oriented global organizations. Enhanced
participation of Kenyan scientists and researchers in international research
programmes is one benefit that is derived from membership. Strategies that
open the doors for Kenyans to participate in these international programmes
would greatly enhance knowledge transfer to the country.

8.3.6 Strategies for Promotion of University-Community Linkages

i. Integrate community service into university degree programmes

This strategy will require universities to review curricula in order to

incorporate community service in all degree programmes. The
outcome of this strategy is expected to produce graduates who are

sensitive to community needs and who understand how their degree
programmes could support social development.

ii. Align university research projects and community development


This strategy aims to ensure that research projects funded by the

university or government in any disciplines such as science,
engineering, music, tourism, medicine and business are aligned to
community development needs. Already, CHE requires that research
projects funded by the government address some of the critical
development needs of the country such as water and sanitation,
agriculture, trade and energy. However, individual universities have
not developed research guidelines that are aligned to community
development needs or even poverty alleviation.
The outcome of this strategy could be an increase in application
research output that has an impact on the economies of the different
regions of Kenya.

iii Promote co-curricula activities that engage communities

This is the area that is most developed in Kenyan universities because

of the activities of student clubs and associations in community
projects as described in the environmental analysis. However,
anecdotal evidence suggests that only a small fraction of the students
enrolled in Kenyan universities are participating in community-based
co-curricular activities. This strategy aims to increase the level of
participation by all students, and especially graduate students.

The outcome would be graduates with a strong volunteer spirit and

readiness to help their communities develop.

8.3.7 Strategies for Promotion of University-Relevant Professional and
Regulatory Bodies Linkages and Partnerships.

The following strategies will be implemented to achieve the strategic objective

i. establish guidelines for university- professional and regulatory

body linkages and partnerships;
ii. promote involvement of professional and regulatory bodies in
curriculum development;
iii. develop mechanisms for professional and regulatory bodies to
participate in internships supervision;
iv. develop mechanisms for professional bodies to facilitate
registration and protection of student and faculty IPR.
v. develop mechanisms to allow professional bodies support
research, chairs, scholarship in their respective areas.

8.4 Strategy Implementation and Projects

The Taskforce has developed detailed implementation matrices or logframes
appended to this Chapter. The logframe has identified activities and projects
and the associated indicators, time schedules and persons responsible. These
could be customized and incorporated into the strategic plans of the
individual universities. It could also be the basis for criteria for evaluation of
projects for funding. Some of the key projects include:

i. assessment of the capacity of Kenyan universities to participate in

national and international research and education networks;
ii. development of e-learning content and research databases in
strategic subject areas;
iii. development of template agreements for university-university,
university-research institutes, and university-industry linkages and
partnerships that include IPR agreements;
iv. establishment of science and technology parks that would be
shared by universities and industries;
v. review of Kenyan university curricula to incorporate a community
service component;
vi. development of university research guidelines that align research
projects with community development priorities; and
vii. development of policies and mechanisms for university-
professional regulatory bodies linkages.

Logframe for University Linkages and Partnerships

Strategic issue University Linkages and Partnerships

Strategic goal Develop Strong University Linkages and Partnerships that Enhance Mutual Learning, Research And Innovation

Strategic Strategies Outcome Project/Activities Indicators Timeframe Assumpt Responsible

Objective ions

1.Establish a) Establish a national Increase in Develop policy on A template established; 2008/09 MHEST, MoF,
conducive policy on university- number of collaborative research policy on collaborative and MoA, MoH, MoT,
policy industry collaborative sustainable and template on research in place and annually MoI, MoL,
environment for research university- partnership protocols; No. of grant awards MoF, VCs, NRF,
university- industry linkages recommend mechanisms CHE, OP,
industry and partnerships for sourcing of funds and KEPSA ,MFA
linkages and awards.
b) Develop policies for Enhanced Assess the current status Policy guidelines for 2008/09 MoT, MoI, MHEST,
university-industry synergy in of collaboration and research and VCs, NRF, KEPSA
innovation clusters research and develop policy guidelines innovation clusters
and/or technology parks innovation for knowledge creation
Create research and No. of research and 2008/09 MoT, MoI, MHEST
Strengthened innovation clusters in innovation clusters and VCs NRF,KEPSA
research in priority areas e.g. disease created. annually
priority areas diagnosis, biological,
agricultural, physical and
chemical sciences, socio-
economic studies and ICT
c) Promote knowledge i) Creation of Develop guidelines and Improved management 2008/09 VCs, MHEST,
transfer mechanisms spin-offs and transfer mechanisms on of innovations; and KEPSA, NRF KIPI,
increased dissemination of research percentage increase in annually KBS
utilization of findings, management of the No. of patented
patents and IPR, especially licensing products
licenses. and patent transfers.
Develop mechanisms for Level of functional 2008/09 VCs and KEPSA
promoting exchange of engagements and
experts between annually
universities and
Create projects that No. of projects that 2008/09 VCs, MHEST,
demonstrate to Kenyans can easily and KEPSA
researchers, policy access. annually
makers and society the
benefits of licensing and
patenting of knowledge
and innovations
ii) IPR Establish technology No. of IPR 2008/09 KEPSA, VCs,
management licensing regimes and management offices; and MHEST, KIPI
offices organizations, and IPR No. of technology annually
established management offices licensing regimes and
d) Promote knowledge- Increase in No. of Assess the current status Assessment report; 2008/09 VCs, KEPSA, MoT,
based start-ups through successful of university industry No. of incubation and MoI, MHEST NRF
incubation centres. entrepreneurial linkages and develop centres annually
start-ups policy guidelines and
mechanisms for venture
capital sourcing and

2. Promote a) Promote and Pooled expertise, Identify SMEs and MNCs No. of joint research 2008/09 VCs, KEPSA, MoTI,
university- operationalise knowledge skills , with projects and MHEST NRF
industry creation through joint competencies industrial/technological annually
linkages and research, contract and other needs and match and link
partnerships research, and resources by the the industry with
comprehensive universities, professors/ researchers
collaboration agreements industry and who have knowledge and
research capability to solve the
institutes; variety problems.
of new products Work with the private No. of linkages and 2008/09 VCs, KEPSA, MoTI,
introduced sector to establish reliable partnerships and MHEST NRF
meeting linkages and partnerships established with annually
consumer with relevant relevant organizations.
demand organizations;
Collect and disseminate Established database; 2008/09 VCs, KEPSA, MoTI,
data and information on No. of new discoveries and MHEST NRF
existing innovations and and innovations annually
activities in universities commercialized and
and industry that will No. of students
lead to appropriate attached to industry.
placement of students on

b)Promote knowledge Increased Assess the existing status Assessment report; 2008/09 VCs, KEPSA,
transfer through journals, publication and of joint publications and mechanisms for and MHEST, MoT,
papers, books, conference circulation of student/faculty exchange student/faculty annually MoI, NRF
presentations, as well as papers, programmes and design exchange programmes
student/faculty technology and mechanisms for in place;
internships and management strengthening them or No. of students and
exchanges journals; establishing new ones faculty on exchange
increased programme;
exchange of No. of joint
students and publications

c) Develop universities' Increase in Identify the relevant Report on gaps; 2008/09 VCs, KEPSA, NRF
capability to generate and relevant knowledge gaps and No. of new research and
accumulate relevant knowledge design appropriate activities in relevant annually
knowledge that is transfer between research agenda. areas.
transferable to society, universities, the Design and undertake Research reports; New 2008/09 VCs, KEPSA,
economy and business private sector research that is relevant market products and proposed NRF,
and society. and transferable to annually MHEST, CHE

d) Promote faculty and Harmonized Review curricula and curricula review 2008/09 VCs,KEPSA,
student internships and student develop pertinent reports and and MoT,
exchanges with local and attachment attachment programme harmonized attachment annually MoI, NRF
international companies programmes; programmes
increase in
faculty on short- Develop short-term No. of faculty 2008/09 VCs, KEPSA, MoT,
term industry industry sabbatical participating in and MoI, NRF
attachments programmes for faculty industry-attachment annually
and /or sabbaticals

3. Promote a) Promote linkages with Increased Assess current status of Assessment report; 2008/09 CHE, VCs,
university- international universities number of linkages and partnerships barriers identified; MHEST, NRF
university to enhance knowledge sustainable between universities guidelines in place;
linkages and and technology linkages with nationally and increased levels of
partnerships acquisition international internationally. linkages
universities Develop guidelines to
promote university-
university linkages and

b) Strengthen the Increase in joint Assess the total research Data on research 2008 and VCs, CHE, NRF
national research and research projects, capacity of Kenyan capacity annually
education network to databases and universities Research databases
support collaboration locally relevant
among Kenyan learning Locally relevant
universities materials Initiate and fund pilot learning materials
and demonstration No. of joint research
projects for creating projects
research databases and

4. Promote Enhance joint research Increased Assess the potential that Assessment report 2008 and VCs, Relevant
university- and students/staff utilization of exist for joint research annually research institutes,
research exchanges research and staff/ student NRF, Middle level
institutes and equipment and exchange between Colleges
middle level facilities universities and research
colleges Increased institutes
linkages and collaboration in
partnerships research and Establish collaborative Number of
training by research and training collaborative research
Kenyan in place
universities and

Flexible student Develop guidelines for Guidelines in place 2008 and VCs, Relevant
credit transfer; student credit transfer periodicall research institutes,
Enhanced y NRF, Middle level
collaboration Colleges
with middle level

5. Promote Establish collaborative Participation in Evaluate how Kenyan Evaluation report; 2008 and VCs, CHE, NRF,
university- programmes with United international universities can No. of projects funded annually MHEST, relevant
United Nations organizations research; participate more ministries
Nations like UNEP, UNESCO, Increased effectively in
/multinational WHO, UNIDO and other funding for international research
Organizations similar organizations research programmes
linkages Establish participation in No. of international
international research research activities
activities established

6. Develop a) Integrate community Graduates Curriculum review for all No. of degree 2009 and VCs, CHE, CBOs
university- service in university willing to serve degree programmes to programmes with annually
community degree programmes and volunteer in include community integral community
linkages and community service component service component
partnerships initiatives

b) Align university Enhanced Assess and identify areas Assessment report 2008/09 VCs, CBOs
research projects with university- of research and No. of innovative and
community development community innovation that would community project annually
interaction directly address
community needs
c) Promote co-curricula Graduates Assess level of Assessment report 2009 and VCs, KEPSA, CBOs
activities that engage willing to serve participation of annually
local communities local university students in co-
communities curricula activities and
Develop co-curricula Guidelines
guidelines that promote
local community service

Provide facilities and No. of community-
support for community- based co-curricular
based co-curricular activities

Promote a) establish Sustainable Develop guidelines Policy on partnerships 2008/09 Relevant ministries,
guidelines for university- VCs, CEOs of
university- professional and
university- professional regulatory bodies
relevant professional and regulatory
and regulatory bodies
body linkages linkages and
and and partnerships
b) promote Relevant Develop guidelines for Guidelines and No. of 2008/09 Relevant ministries
bodies involvement of Curriculum participatory curriculum curricula developed VCs, CEOs of
developed development through participatory professional and
professional and
linkages and process regulatory bodies
regulatory bodies
partnerships. in curriculum
c) develop Competent Develop guidelines for Guidelines in place;
graduates joint supervision of No. of interns jointly 2008/09
mechanisms for Relevant ministries,
interns supervised
professional and VCs, CEOs of
regulatory bodies professional and
to participate in regulatory bodies

d) develop Increase in Develop and Mechanisms in place; 2008 and Relevant ministries
mechanisms for commercialisa implement No. of IPRs registered annually VCs, CEOs of
professional and
professional and tion of regulatory regulatory bodies
regulatory bodies to research mechanisms for
facilitate registration products professional and
and protection of regulatory bodies to
student and faculty facilitate registration
IPR and protection of
student and faculty
IPRs in their relevant
e) develop Enhanced Develop and implement Guidelines in place;
2008 and
mechanisms to allow resources for mechanisms for increased research
research, facilitating professional outputs; new annually Relevant ministries
professional bodies scholarships and and regulatory bodies publications, VCs, CEOs of
support research, chairs support to universities professional and
chairs, scholarships regulatory bodies
in their respective


9.1 Introduction
The university of the twenty first century places the attitudes, values and
expectations of internal and external stakeholders at the centre. The university
must provide the best atmosphere or learning environment for shaping and
inculcating positive attitudes and values. Its graduates should benefit from
quality education that adds value to knowledge and promotes the social and
economic development of the society. A university with these attributes can
only be developed through effective governance and management structures.

A university is a social service provider that deals with human development.

It should impart values rather than merely profit from the clients. It should
however be able to adopt corporate best practices, principles and technologies
with a view to enhancing efficiency, effectiveness and accountability in
resource management and utilisation. There is need to have a legal
framework that will enable universities to operate as corporate entities in
safeguarding their interests as well as those of the stakeholders.

Public universities are established by specific Acts of parliament that are not
in harmony with the Universities Act Cap 210B that created CHE and
provided for establishment of private universities. In terms of governance the
public universities fall under three Acts: Universities, State Corporations and
the respective university Acts. This in some cases results in conflicts. This
issue is being addressed by the Kamunge Taskforce (2007) on the review of
the educational legal framework. This should improve the governance and
management structures of public universities. The revised governance and
management structures should be lean, effective and efficient so as to enhance
the quality of education as well as ensure more accountability of the public
universities to both the Government and the public.

9.2 Governing Instruments of Universities

The public universities operate with minimum supervision due to conflicts
between the Universities Act (1985) and the individual university Act. The
private universities, on the other hand, are governed by trustees and their
system of governance is clearly stipulated by the Universities Act of 1985. The
differences in the establishment with respect to the governing instruments
have created the impression that public universities, which are established by
parliament and supported by the government, are superior to those
accredited by CHE.

Another limitation of the current legal framework is in relation to

mechanisms for allowing foreign universities to directly set up campuses in
the country as is the case in some developing countries like China and
Singapore. Since education is globally recognized as a commodity by the
World Trade Organization (WTO), there is need to enhance attraction of
quality universities into the country. In order to achieve that, the Universities
Act and the appropriate legislation need amendment. These campuses, if
established, should conform to international standards without
compromising quality and also safeguard the interests of Kenyans.

9.2.1 Role of the Government in Universities

The Governments responsibility to the universities includes: provision of
Charter or legal status for establishment; the articulation of national interests;
provision of enabling legal and operational environment; supplementing
institutional resources to enable them realize their mandates; and ensuring
quality of education and services.

9.2.2 Responsibilities of the Universities to the Government and the Public

The universities are expected to be accountable to the public through
safeguarding institutional quality, integrity and reputation; ensuing the
generation, preservation, dissemination, acquisition, adoption and application
of knowledge; effectively carrying out their mandates of teaching, training
and research and producing graduates with right attitudes, values and skills.

9.3 University Governance and Management Bodies

Effective and efficient governance and management of universities has a
direct bearing on the overall quality of the institutions. The existing
governance and management structures in public and private universities

i. Congregations/Courts;
ii. Councils;
iii. Academic Boards/Senates;
iv. Faculties;
v. Schools;
vi. Institutes; and
vii. Departments.

Key Recommendation 9.1

Enhance governance and management for efficiency and effectiveness of

universities and their contribution to Kenya's socio-economic development.

Ensures efficient and effective utilization of resources.
Ensures smooth running of universities, thus enabling them to carry out
their core mandate.
Promotes accountability and transparency in university management, thus
fostering goodwill of stakeholders for the universities.
Mentors and trains university staff and students for responsible leadership
in society.
Helps attract investments, endowments and partnerships.
Results in optimum delivery of services to the students, staff and the wider
Promotes quality learning, teaching and research.
Promotes universities as role models in institutional management.
Enhances justice and peace within the university community as well as in
the whole nation.
Raises the profile of universities and thus enhances the countrys image.
Enhances the competitiveness of the universities.
Protects the interest of the stakeholders.

9.3.1 The Congregation

The overall governing body of the university in this strategy was identified
and designated as the Congregation. In some countries, it is referred to as
Courts or Conferences. The Congregation is an annual university forum
where the institution gives an account of its activities to the key stakeholders.
The congregation is chaired by the University Chancellor and provides a
opportunity for the university managers and governors to report their
achievements, challenges and present future plans to stakeholders. The
Congregation or Court can then offer, through participatory decision-making,
their views on the same and hence increase transparency and accountability.
At present only two private universities have Assembly bodies which are
similar to the one recommended.

9.3.2 Appointment of Chancellors

Over the years Kenya has produced many citizens of exceptional abilities,
qualifications and proven track records of service in various sectors within
Kenya and the Diaspora. Such citizens can and should be searched to serve
universities and other public institutions. In order to ensure that this rich
expertise is utilized for the advancement of university education, it is
proposed that the appointment of the Chancellor for public universities be
conducted as follows:

i. the public universities Council shall, in consultation with the President,

announce the vacancy of the position of the Chancellor, specify the
requisite qualities and competencies and request for nominations;
ii. the Chancellor shall be appointed by the President from a list of three
names identified through a consultative process involving the parent
ministry, students, staff, alumni, parents, and other key stakeholders.

The functions of Chancellors shall include:

a. conferment of degrees and other awards;
b. directing periodic inspections of the university or enquiry into teaching
research or any other work;
c. advising the Council as deemed necessary;
d. assisting in resource mobilization and helping raise the profile of the
university; and
e. perform any other functions as provided for in the statutes

9.3.3 Appointment of Vice-Chancellors

The Vice-Chancellors (VCs) of public universities are appointed by the
University Councils from amongst the full professors in accordance with the
respective University Acts. The practice of advertising this post to attract the
best candidate has recently been introduced and should continue. On the
other hand, appointment of their counterparts in private universities is by the
owner or the Court/Conference of the university. Some private universities
advertise the post while others make direct appointments without
advertising. The mode of recruitment of the VCs should be on competitive
basis to safeguard quality in governance and management.

9.3.4 Appointment of Commissioners for CHE

The Commissioners are presently appointed by the Minister responsible for
university education. Currently the Commission consists of 29 members. Out
of these the Act stipulates that 15 should be people with experience in
university education and research. All the seven Vice-Chancellors of public
universities and two from the private universities are members of the
Commission. This leads to a conflict of interest as the Commission is
mandated to set standards for quality assurance in their own institutions. This
contradicts the tenets of good governance.

The 29 member commission is large and is not in line with the current
practices of good governance and management. The strategy is to appoint
Commissioners who are impartial and independent-minded, have a mix of
the following qualities: relevant academic qualifications, experience in
financial and mobilization and control and Human Resource management in
comparable institutions, good knowledge of the higher education systems
and a strong track record and stature in service to the public.

9.3.5 Appointment of the Chief Executive Officer of CHE
Quality is the conditio sine qua non of university education. CHE is the
principal external quality assurance body for university education. The Chief
Executive Officer of CHE has the crucial responsibility of providing
leadership to this important body. S/he is responsible for managing the
Commissions day-to-day business. In view of this, s/he should be
competitively recruited to ensure that the CEO has the requisite attributes,
experience, competencies and stature to effectively carry out this

9.4 Councils of Public Universities

The public university Council is responsible for the management and
implementation of the decisions of the Congregation. The Council also
ensures that the decisions taken by the University Senate and Management
take into account the best interests of the institution and conform to the laid
down laws, statutes and regulations. As such, effective councils are the best
safeguards of institutional interests.

It is the responsibility of Council members to set and interpret institutional

policy, promote the well-being of the university and safeguard its traditions,
integrity and reputation. Therefore, members of Council should be impartial
and independent-minded. In addition, members should have a mix of the
following qualities; relevant academic qualifications, experience in financial
mobilization and control and human resources management in comparable
institutions, good knowledge of the higher education systems and excellent
track record and stature in service to the public.

At present, Council members are appointed by Chancellor in consultation

with the Minister responsible for university education. The current
public universities Council membership is too large and stands as
follows: University of Nairobi-35, Kenyatta University-29, Moi
University-31, Egerton University-33, JKUAT-28, and Maseno
University-30. These large Councils are a heavy financial burden to the
universities. The University Councils should therefore be lean, efficient
and effective.

The Taskforce recommends a council of not more that 15 members constituted

as follows:

i. 2 representatives, one each, from the Ministry responsible for

university education and the Ministry of Finance;
ii. 2 members to represent senate
iii. 2 student representatives;
iv. Public representatives: 3 for core strategic areas (at least one parent);
v. Not more than 2 alumni;
vi. Not more than 2 co-opted members;
vii. Vice- Chancellors and Deputy Vice-Chancellors as ex-officio members

As part of the governance reforms, there should be strong Councils that
should be able to audit and manage the institutions. Such Councils should be
able to address the issues of remuneration based on performance.

9.4.1 Appointment of the Officers of University Councils

In order to establish effective and competent councils, it is proposed that the
Chancellor of the University shall appoint the members of the Council. Upon
appointment, the members of the Council shall elect, from among themselves,
the Chair, Vice- Chair and Treasurer. The members should not serve for more
than two consecutive terms of three years each with one half of the members
rotating out in the first cycle. They should have some essential and relevant
competencies to effectively contribute to the functions of the Council. Gender,
regional and special needs considerations should be taken into account
during the appointment.

The Council members decisions should be guided solely by the interests and
objectives and considerations of the university. Thus they should act as
trustees of the university and should be answerable, in the first instance, to
the Congregation and also to the general public. Upon appointment,
members of the Council should be inducted on their roles and responsibilities.

In order to maintain good governance, trade unions should not be

represented in the Councils meeting. However, the Councils should have an
open door policy of handling union affairs and concerns such as through co-
opting them in the various committees of Councils.

9.5 Senate
This is an internal governing body and consists of academic staff from various
faculties within the university. They handle academic and other issues
involving staff and students of the university. Although the majority of Senate
members are there by virtue of the offices they hold, recent trends indicate
that Chairmen of departments and Directors of Institutes and Schools are
direct appointees of the VCs hence locking out diversity of opinion and
experience. The senate members should be senior academics in the
department possessing adequate institutional history and experience.

The composition of the university Senate needs to be changed to

accommodate the current dynamics in governance. In our view and taking
into account the international trends in university governance, the present
system of constituency representation in our Senates denies the institutions
impartiality in decision- making.

The functions of the Senate should be articulated in the respective University

Acts in order to avoid ambiguity. These include but are not limited to
university planning, Quality Assurance, academic programmes approval,
admission and examination of students.

At present the dictum of the relationship between Council and Senate states
that Council shall not override the Senate in academic matters and the
Senate shall not override the council in resource matters. The Council should
fully exercise its statutory roles in governing the universities. The government
can then exercise benign control over universities through policies and
finances. This hands-off approach will ensure institutional autonomy and also
safeguard the governments position as custodian of the publics interests in
the universities.

9.5.1 Proposed Composition of the Senate

It is proposed that the composition of the Senate should consist of not more
than 50 persons and be composed of the following:

i. Vice-Chancellor as chairman
ii. DVC Academic as Secretary
iii. Other Deputy Vice-Chancellors
iv. Deans
v. Representatives of academic staff, 1 from each faculty/school/institute
vi. Representatives of students: a maximum of 4; two undergraduates and
two postgraduates
vii. Head of Library and Information Services

9.6 Student Participation in Governance

Student leadership needs to be developed and empowered in all universities
to help them participate in university governance and management.
Currently student representation in Council meetings is low and often their
contribution is limited. The existing structures need to be updated to include
Self-Sponsored Student representation into leadership positions.

9.7 Reforms in University Management Systems

The universities have instituted several commendable reforms in their student
and financial management systems. Similar reforms are also taking place in
Human Resource Management. The strategy recognizes these steps and shall
implement the following proposals:

i. hasten decentralisation of resources to the departmental level. This

should be the basic unit of decision-making;
ii. establish induction programmes for newly-recruited university
appointees in various governing and administrative units;
iii. establish a university-wide committee to promote institutional
values, support institutional culture and ensure compliance with
the universitys policies and standards;
iv. establish staff leadership training programmes.

9.8 Issues of Governance in Private Universities

Most private universities in Kenya have their origins in faith-based
organizations, whose directors are foreign-based. Although some universities
have ensured the inclusion of local stakeholders in their Board of Trustees,
others continue to rely on officers from their headquarters. These institutions
attract Kenyan students due to the efficiency in programme implementation,
competitive programmes and limited places in public universities. Many
students are convinced that they receive value for money in private
universities. The government has recognized the contribution of these private
institutions and has accepted funding needy students through loans.

The Taskforce proposes that the composition of private university Board of

Trustees reflect democratic principles. The Taskforce learned from its
experience- sharing visit to the Republic of Tanzania that private universities
find it appropriate to include senior government officials in their Councils.
This has enabled them to fast-track decisions of the Council. Kenyan private
universities should to adopt this practice.

9.9 Succession Planning

Good governance requires continuous human resource development based
on a clear understanding of the requisite competencies and skills. Prudent
recruitment and identification of competent staff should be undertaken. A
strategic system to identify and plan to fill positions that fall vacant under
natural attrition should be put in place. A strong planning section of the
university should be the norm. The head of this section should report directly
to Vice-Chancellor.

9.10 Risk Management

A risk is an action or event that will adversely affect an organizations ability
to achieve its objectives. There is need to identify and assess possible areas of
risk in light of past and present trends. Although universities may not afford
to set up contingencies or control measures for every conceivable risk, they
need to develop individual approaches to managing risk in order to remain
competitive. They must determine proportionate expenditure to managing
risk using widely accepted risk assessment, management and control
practices, tools and techniques.

9.11 Change Management

The ability to manage change bears the greatest impact on the implementation
of any reform. Reform Managers should therefore have the necessary
competencies to carry out the required changes effectively. In particular,
there is need for effective work plans, financial forecasting and clear
definition of functions and management structures. Inclusive implementation
of any changes lead to acceptance by all stakeholders. There is need therefore
for each actor to put in place strong reform management teams which should
act as champions of change.

9.12 Accountability of Institutions

While commendable efforts have been made by public universities in areas
such as ICT, recruitment and the award of scholarships and grants, the

perception of the public remains widespread and deep that transparency and
accountability have not been sufficiently thorough.

Corrective mechanisms should be put in place by public university managers

to improve the image portrayed to the public by these institutions.
Improvement of the management of personnel and university resources in a
responsible and fair manner will greatly help restore respect and
accountability. The establishments should also be rationalized. Universities
can further increase operational efficiencies by restructuring programmes
with respect to academic demands, diversifying means of delivery, reducing
management and administration costs, maximizing utilization of resources
and strengthening universityindustry links.

Universities will need to regularly disseminate information on matters such

as finance, research grants and utilisation of income generation activities and
outstanding alumni achievements. Universities should be governed through
policies which have set targets based on incentive schemes to promote their
own development.

9.13 Strategies
In order to achieve the strategic goal the following strategies shall be

i. restructuring of public universities governance bodies;

ii. rationalize and mainstream the functions of the
Congregations/Courts, and the Chancellor in universities;
iii. review the accreditation standards for governance and
iv. review the human resource requirements and policies and
implement as appropriate;
v. review the financial management systems and implement
appropriate reforms;
vi. review universities planning systems and implement reforms;
vii. establish high quality, reliable and timely information and
communication systems;
viii. establish efficient and effective management systems;
ix. improve documentation and records of governing bodies; and
x. Improve decision making process of governing bodies.

Logframe for University Governance and Management

Strategic University Governance and Management

Strategic Enhance governance and management for efficiency and effectiveness of universities and their contribution to
Goal Kenya's socio-economic development.

Strategic Strategies Outcomes Project/Activities Indicators Timefra Assumptio Responsible

Objectives me ns

1. Review of Restructuring of Lean, To review and Revised 2008-2009 The legal VCs, CHE,
legal public effective and amend Universities Universities framework MHEST, AG
framework in universities' efficient Acts and Statutes by Acts and Taskforce
order to governance universities respective Statutes will address
improve structure institutions all issues
governance identified in
and this
management logframe.
ations will
be approved
bills passed
To review and amend Revised CHE 2008 - 2009 CHE
Universities Act of 1985 Act MHEST,

Improve Rationalize and Rationalized Assess the need for and Assessment 2008/09 VCs,
governanc mainstream the functions of the articulate the functions of reports MHEST,
e and functions of the Congregation/ the Congregation/ Court ; CHE
accountab Congregation / Court; Assess the current role of
ility Court and the Clear role of the the Chancellor
Chancellor in public Chancellor

Rationalize and Rationalized Assess the need for and Assessment 2008/09 VCs, CHE,
mainstream the functions of the articulate the functions of report. MHEST
functions of the Congregation/ the Congregation/ Court;
Congregation/Court Court; Assess the current role of
and the Chancellor in Clear role of the the Chancellor
private universities Chancellor
Review the Improved Assess and develop New 2008/09 CHE, VCs,
accreditation governance and appropriate guidelines for benchmarks and MHEST
standards for management accreditation in standards
Governance and governance and
Management management

Review the human Improved policies Assess the current human Assessment 2008/09 VCs, CHE
resource and mechanisms in resource needs and report
requirements and human resource policies
policies and management
implement as

Review the financial Transparent and Assess the current Assessment 2008/09 VCs, CHE
management system accountable financial financial management report
and implement systems systems and recommend
appropriate reforms mechanisms for

Review university Adequate forward Assess the current system Assessment 2008/09 VCs, CHE
planning system and planning system that and recommend report
implement informs policy and appropriate mechanisms
appropriate reforms management for improvement

Improve Establish high A multi-media Assess information and Assessment 2008/09 VCs, CHE,
the quality, reliable and information and communication capacity report. NRF
university timely information communication of the universities;
informatio and communication system created.
n and systems.
communic Establish interactive Interactive MIS 2008/09 VCs, CHE,
ation Management Information in place. NRF
system. Systems.
Recruit and/or train No. of 2008/09 VCs, CHE
qualified ICT personnel. competent ICT and
personnel annually

Improve Establish efficient Lean, effective Review current New and 2008 and VCs, CHE,
the and effective efficient and management structures improved annually MHEST
managem management sustainable management
ent structures. management structures in
structure structures. place

Undertake appropriate New and 2008-2009 VCs, MHEST
reforms as recommended improved
by the review report harmonious

Improve Quality documents Assess the current Assessment 2008-2009 VCs, CHE,
documentation and and records of governing bodies data report
records of governing decisions by management processes
bodies governing bodies; and practices
access to university

Document and digitalise Effective 2008/09 VCs, CHE

all governing bodies database for and
proceedings. university annually.
Improve decision- Effective and Induct and train members Improved 2008 and Chancellors,
making processes of efficient transaction of governing bodies. quality of periodicall VCs, CHE
governing bodies. of governing bodies' decisions y
business; quality and
informed decisions.

Train the members of the No. of people 2008 and Chancellors,
governing bodies and able to access annually VCs, CHE,
management on access and use records. MHEST
and utilization of
university data.

Monitoring of implementation of any project allows the responsible agencies to
appreciate and deal with challenges. It also enables the agencies to avoid pitfalls
in the process of programme implementation. Monitoring enables the agencies
get data and information that can provide lessons for future implementation.
This will also enable the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology
vary the outputs and outcomes as the process of implementation continues.

The Taskforce has recommended various strategies in all critical areas of

university development. The implementation of a number of the strategies will
require substantial investments and set deadlines. In order to ensure that the
strategy is implemented by the defined responsible agencies in an efficient and
effective manner. It is therefore recommended that a Monitoring Committee for
the implementation of the National Strategy for University Education be set up.
The Terms of Reference of the proposed committee will to:

Sensitize stakeholders on national implications of the strategy.

Provide advice and clarification on any of the strategies as and when
Prioritize the activities for investment.
Arrange for periodical stakeholder meetings to review progress and
recommend action as required.
Call for progress reports on implementation of the various strategies
according to set timetable and advise the Ministry of Higher Education,
Science and Technology.
Advise on resource mobilization for specific projects to ensure efficiency
and equity.
Ensure reform processes are managed in an efficient manner and in the
best interest of the institutions and their respective staff.
Organise periodic review of the strategy.
Evaluate the outcomes and make recommendations for adjustments in
either the strategies or implementation processes.
Advise the Minister for Higher Education, Science and Technology on
specific trends in the implementation of the strategy.
Advise on building capacity for implementation of the strategy and
managing change in institutions and at national level.
Advise and make recommendations on any other relevant issues.

Membership of the Monitoring Committee:

The committee including its chairman will be appointed by the Permanent
Secretary, Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. Members
should have adequate knowledge of the proposed reforms in the university sub-
sector. They should also be well-versed in the development of higher education
in Kenya and its impact on economic growth.
The committee shall consist of not more than ten (10) members with
representation from industry, public and private universities, Ministry of
Finance, CHE, HELB and the Development Partners. The Secretariat of the
proposed committee will be hosted by the Directorate of Higher Education.

i. Andreas Schleicher The economics of knowledge
ii. Bloom D., D. Canning and K. Chan 2006. Higher Education and Economic
Development in Africa; Human Development Sector, Africa Region, World
iii. Dalman and Utz, India and the Knowledge Economy
iv. Dalman, The Impact of Higher Education Training and Lifelong Learning
on Economic Development
v. Knight Jane (Ed), 2003. Internationalization of Higher Education: Practices
and Priorities, IAU Survey Report. pp. 220.
vi. Knowledge for Development
vii. Lisbon Council Policy Brief
viii. Micere Mugo. Policy Forum Report, Innovations in African Higher
Education, 2001
ix. Nilekani, Newsweek 2006 Issues p. 93
x. PUIB Report, 2006. Transformation of Higher Education and Training in
Kenya, Government Printer, Nairobi.
xi. Republic of Kenya, 2005. Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2005 on a Policy
Framework for Education, Training and Research. Government Printer.
xii. Republic of Kenya, 2005. The Economic Survey, Government Printer,
xiii. Republic of Kenya, 2006. The Economic Survey, Government Printer,
xiv. Republic of Kenya, 2007. MoST, TIVET National Training Strategy Paper,
2nd Draft.
xv. The knowledge economy index (
xvi. UNDP, 2005. Kenya Human Development Report, Nairobi.
xvii. UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Global Education Digest-2006
xviii. UNESCO, 2006. Comparing Education Statistics across the World: Global
Education Digest. Institute for Statistics, pp1-194.
xix. World Bank Institute: Knowledge Economy Benchmarking of Tanzania
Knight Jane (Ed), 2003. Internationalization of Higher Education: Practices
and Priorities, IAU Survey Report. pp. 220.

Annex 1: General Expansion Cost

The demand for university education is high in Kenya. To meet this demand there is need to expand and
and the postgraduate training in our universities. To achieve this, the following projects will be undertaken

No. Duration
S/No. Project Details Unit Price Total Cos
Required (Days)
1 Determine the Appropriate Unit Cost
Consultancy for the establishment of the
differentiated unit cost based on zero 4 10,000.00 30 1,200,000
2 Data Management
Establish in the Ministry of Education, a
university education database that will
show trends in enrolment, participation
rates and attrition at university level. The N/A 55,000,000.00 1 55,000,00
database should be modelled to contain
features in the UNESCO Institute for
Capacity building for both University
3 1,000,000
and Ministry of Education Staff
Establishment of New University
Colleges (4 )
(1) Prepare legal framework, 3 12,000.00 60
(2) Take inventory of existing equipment
2 10,000.00 30
to determine needs 00

3)Prepare academic programmes and 1

40 10,000.00 30
course content 00

No. Duration
S/No. Project Details Unit Price Total Cos
Required (Days)
(4) Renovation of physical and ICT
4 5,000,000.00 1 20,0
(5)Preparation of learning materials 4 3,000,000.00 1 12,0
(6) Recruit and Train staff. 4 70,000,000.00 1 280,0

(7)Construct and equip libraries. 4 70,000,000.00 1 280,0

(8)procurement of needed equipment 4 25,000,000.00 1 100,0
Sub Total
Establishment of New Campuses (4 )
for existing universities
(1) Prepare legal framework, 3 12,000.00 60 2,1

(2) Establish the number, type and status

of teaching and research equipment 4 10,000.00 60
available in all universities
3) Prepare academic programmes and
40 10,000.00 30 12,0
course content

4) Renovation of physical and ICT
2 5,000,000.00 1 10,0
4)Completion of physical structures 2 1,000,000,000.00 1 2,000,0
(5)Preparation of learning materials 4 3,000,000.00 1 12,0
(7) Recruit and Train staff. 4 70,000,000.00 1 280,0
(8 Procurement of needed
2 50,000,000.00 1 100,0
equipment(Kilifi& Kabianga)
(9) Procurement of needed
2 1,000,000.00 1 2,0
equipment(Taita Tavetta & Kitui)
Sub Total

No. Duration
S/No. Project Details Unit Price Total Cos
Required (Days)

Establish National Open University of


1) Convene a technical committee for the

establishment of the National Open
University of Kenya to: 1) comlpete
development of policy on open and 10 10,000.00 60
distance learning and open University
2)identify academic programmes and
(2) Prepare legal framework, 3 12,000.00 60
3)a)Workshop for development of
materials and setting up of facilities and
22 7,700.00 24
infrastructure for National Open 00
b)Transport (air Tickets) 5
22 100,000.00 24
c)Quarter Per diem 22 5,600.00 15 1,8
4)Develop Physical facilities for the Open
1 1,000,000,000.00 1 1,000,0
Develop ICT infrastructure 1 100,000,000.00 1 100,0
(4) Purchase of ICT equipment 1 50,000,000.00 1
5)Capacity development of staff to
produce electronic teaching and learning 1 20,000,000.00 1 20,0
materials using local resources.

No. Duration
S/No. Project Details Unit Price Total Co
Required (Days)
(6)Preparation of learning materials 20 3,000,000.00 1
7)Production of teaching and learning
1 400,000,000.00 1 400,0
materials(Using Government Printer)
(8) Recruit and Train staff. 1 50,000,000.00 1 50,0
(9)Develop and Equip Library 1 1,000,000,000.00 1 1,000,0
(10)Procurement of needed equipment 1 50,000,000.00 1 50,0
Sub Total 2,790,87
6 Restructuring of HELB :-Restructuring HELB and strengthen its staff to undertake the follo
(1) Develop criteria for targeting funding
to the poor and vulnerable students and 4 10,000.00 60
those from marginalized regions.
(2) Develop guidelines and mechanism
for private sector investment in 2 10,000.00 30
university education.
(3) Develop guidelines for government
4 10,000.00 30
guarantee of education loans 00
(4) Develop guidelines mechanism and
criteria for introduction of student loan 2 10,000.00 30
Smart Card (voucher) system
Improve quality and relevance of
education(HELB& CHE university As 1 20,000,000,000.00 1 20,000,00
per the studies
Sub Total
7 Upgrading of Polytechnics(2 )
Kenya Polytechnic
Academic Staff requirement 1 54,000,000 1 54,0
Cost for staff development 1 246,000,000 1 246,0
Construction and equipping of library 1 385,000,000 1 385,0
Rehabilitation of infrastructure 1 74,650,000 1 74,650,00

No. Duration
S/No. Total Cos
Project Details Required Unit Price (Days)
Purchase of Laboratory & Workshop Eq:
1. Electrical & Electronics Engineering 1 165,500,000 1 00
2. Mechanical Engineering 1 250,000,000 1 00
3. Hotel and Hospitality Management 1 125,000,000 1 00
4. Building and Civil Engineering 1 185,000,000 1 00
5. Curriculum Review 1 44,000,000 1 00
6. Quality Assurance 1 10,000,000 1 00
7. Computer Science and ICT 1 125,000,000 1 125,0
Mombasa Polytechnic
Academic Staff requirement 1 54,000,000 1 54,0
Cost for staff development 1 246,000,000 1 00
Construction and equipping library 1 385,000,000 1 00
Rehabilitation of infrastructure 1 74,650,000 1 00
Purchase of Laboratory & Workshop Eq:
1. Electrical & Electronics Engineering 1 165,500,000 1 165,5
2. Mechanical Engineering 1 250,000,000 1 00
3. Hotel and Hospitality Management 1 125,000,000 1 00
4. Building and Civil Engineering 1 185,000,000 1 00
No. Duration
S/No. Project Details Unit Price Total Cos
Required (Days)
5. Curriculum Review 1 44,000,000 1 00
6. Quality Assurance 1 10,000,000 1 00
7. Computer Science and ICT 1 125,000,000 1 00
Sub Total 3,328,30
8 Other Projects
Completing stalled projects critical to
enhancement of access and quality 7 300,000,000.00 1 2,100,000
improvement and student welfare.

1) Conduct a study to establish the status
and potential of graduate programs in
local universities, the succession of
postdoctoral faculty members, and 4 12,000.00 40 1,920,00
establish conditions and strategies for
attracting Kenyans in the Diaspora back
2) Conduct a study and develop criteria
for credit recognition and credit transfers
across local and from international
universities. Review the established
criteria of credit transfers and admission 4 12,000.00 60 1,440,000
of students from Diploma and Middle level
Colleges to local

No. Duration
S/No. Project Details Unit Price Total Cos
Required (Days)
3) Undertake a study on the implications
of current admission policies on equity
issues as they relate to gender, regions,
4 10,000.00 40 1,600,000
social, ethnic, language and economic
backgrounds. Recommend admission
criteria to address equity issues.
4) Conduct a study on how universities
can undertake outreach programs to
capture the talented and gifted students
from marginalized communities who have
3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000
not been captured by the National
Examination system. Recommend
strategies and mechanisms for funding
5)Develop Regulation and mechanism for
providing incentive to private university
and organization to expand enrollment
and to develop adequate teaching and 3 10,000.00 60 1,800,000
learning infrastructure especially waiver
of VAT on all educational materials and
taxes on philanthropy
6) Consultancy to work with universities
to develop guidelines and mechanism to
enable universities raise money through 4 10,000.00 120 2,400,000
market instruments such as education
bonds guaranteed by government.
Sub Total
Grand Total

Annex II: Cost for Improvement of Access and Equity
The demand for university education is high in Kenya. To meet this demand there is need to expand and stream
postgraduate training in our universities. To achieve this, the following projects will be undertaken.

No. Duration
S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days)
Conduct a study to assess the local capacity of
1 Distance Learning, Open Learning and Virtual 4 10,000.00 40
2 Establish National Open University 1 2,790,873,600.00 1
Build human capacity to develop and teach in Open
3 3 10,000.00 50
Assess the status and potential capacity of local
4 universities to offer Post-graduate programs and 3 12,000.00 40
recommend additional resources
Strengthen existing post-graduate programs and
5 2 12,000.00 40
start new Post-graduate programs in strategic areas

Evaluate the human resources needs for current

6 3 10,000.00 60
and proposed degree programmes in universities;

Establish a taskforce to re-engineer new programme

7 approval process by CHE and recruit professional 4 12,000.00 60
staff for CHE and expand pool of resource persons
Assess the needs; Determine criteria for establishing
8 3 10,000.00 60
and locating new universities.
Assess the needs; Review criteria for establishing
9 new universities; Guidelines for determining new 4 12,000.00 40
academic programmes in national strategic areas.

Develop appropriate incentives to accelerate the

10 2 12,000.00 30
growth in private universities

No. Duration
S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days)

Develop policy, guidelines and mechanisms for

11 2 10,000.00 50

Assess the existing capacities and recommend

12 strategies for their expansion; invest in modern 4 12,000.00 60
Assess the existing capacities of public universities
13 and recommend strategies for their expansion; 4 10,000.00 40
invest in modern equipment
Assess the existing capacities of private universities
14 and recommend strategies for their expansion; 3 12,000.00 40
invest in modern equipment
A study to assess the existing capacity of the middle
level colleges; formulate strategies for linkages and
15 4 12,000.00 60
partnerships with universities, government and
other stakeholders; invest in modern equipment

To establish a university education management
16 6 10,000.00 40
information system.
To develop guidelines for enhanced capacity for
17 planning, policy coordination and monitoring in the 3 12,000.00 30
University Education Division and the universities
An assessment of the organization structure of the
18 2 12,000.00 20
university division and recommend restructuring.
Prepare technical specifications and design of MoE
19 2 10,000.00 50
data center
20 Procure and install data center equipment 1 50,000,000.00 1

Establish university students placement office in

21 2 12,000.00 20

No. Duration
S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days)
Develop/review gender policy at University and
22 2 12,000.00 30
program levels
Review national policies and or legislation for
23 4 10,000.00 40
promoting diversity

Develop appropriate incentive systems by

24 3 12,000.00 40
Government, universities, private sector

25 Develop outreach programs 2 12,000.00 30

Build partnerships with civil society and private
26 2 10,000.00 50
Develop grant proposals; utilize at least 30% of the
27 1 70,000,000.00 20
Scholarship fund at MoE for female students
Initiate and publicize scholarship programs for
28 3 12,000.00 40
female students
Provide special scholarship and accommodation to
29 2 12,000.00 30
PhD. female students especially those with families

Develop/reviews/strengthen/implement and
30 2 10,000.00 40
Publicize institutional gender sensitive policies
Have adequate and appropriate facilities and
31 3 12,000.00 60
services that address gender needs
Train and sensitize university community on gender
32 issues and procedure for filing complaints and 3 12,000.00 40
Develop systems of recognition and reward for
33 effective gender sensitive champions within the 2 12,000.00 30
university community
No. Duration
S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days)
Modification of University facilities to accommodate
34 20 50,000,000.00 1
students with special needs
Develop affirmative action policy for students with
35 3 12,000.00 40
special needs

Acquisition adaptation and development of special
36 teaching and learning materials for students with 2 12,000.00 30
special needs

Provide full scholarships for professionally certified

37 1000 216,000.00 1
students with special needs

Recruitment and training of University staff to

38 20 2,165,000.00 1
support students with special needs

Institute and strengthen outreach for students with

39 1000 10,000.00 1
special needs

Assess the implication of de-linked admission on

40 3 12,000.00 40

Develop a new policy for residential

41 2 12,000.00 30
accommodation of students

42 Develop community-based information packages 2 10,000.00 50

43 Enhance loans, bursaries & scholarships 1550 120,000.00 1


Annex III: Cost for Improving Quality and Relevance
In order to improve quality in public universities the following Projects will be carried out.

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Restructuring Commission For Higher
Establish the current status of CHE and
recommend required reform and
1 mechanisms for making it a Quality 2 40,000.00 45 360
Assurance and quality control body of
international repute
Develop QA/QC for all universities and
2 3 10,000.00 60
Higher education institution 0.00

Develop International benchmark

3 indicators to enhance university internal 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
and external quality control assurance
Develop criteria for programme
4 2 10,000.00 30
accreditation 0.00
Recruit and train academic and
5 180 1,000,000.00 1
administrative staff 0.00
Develop criteria for accreditation for
6 institutions and from these develop 2 10,000.00 30
National accreditation criteria
Develop guidelines and criteria for students
7 3 10,000.00 30
placement into universities 0.00
Develop sunset clauses for universities
8 2 10,000.00 45
courses 0.00
S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Develop guidelines for students staff ratio
9 3 10,000.00 30
for various courses and programmes 0.00
Develop guidelines for establishing new
10 2 10,000.00 30
academic programmes 0.00

Develop programme-based quality

indicators for university self assessment
11 3 10,000.00 45
and from these develop national ranking 0.00
criteria for the same.
Undertake study of the present and future
needs of new middle-level colleges and
12 4 10,000.00 40
plan for their development based on 0.00

13 Improvement and expansion of university 7 1,000,000,000.00 1

library facilities and resources. 0.00
Assess the viability of using local African
14 languages for some of university 4 10,000.00 40

Carry out tracer studies to gauge the
15 4 10,000.00 45
employability of Kenyan graduates. 0.00
Design guidelines for the process of internal
and external audit of universities through
16 3 10,000.00 40 1,20
visitations. There should be structures in
place to identify and justify them.

Design a monitoring and evaluation system

17 that will oversee the compliance to the 2 12,000.00 30 720
guidelines in (16).
S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
CHE to develop a unified admission
criteria/procedures for students from the
18 8.4.4 system, G.C.E. O & A levels, technical 4 10,000.00 30 1,20
and diploma colleges and so forth.
Develop/review admission guidelines for
19 specific programmes given the diversified 2 10,000.00 30 600
admission criteria
Develop admission criteria for prior earned
20 and experiential learning. 2 10,000.00 30 600

Assess the viability of local African

languages for use in some programs and
21 2 10,000.00 30 600
develop translation mechanisms that will
go with it
CHE to develop admission criteria for
22 graduates of diploma colleges 3 10,000.00 60 1,80

Assess the needs for university entrance for

23 disadvantaged communities 4 10,000.00 60 2,40

24 design and implement outreach programme 3 10,000.00 45 1,35

Develop and apply clear guidelines for
25 2 12,000.00 30 720
affirmative action
Evaluate the infrastructure and leadership
26 of all schools in disadvantaged 3 10,000.00 30 900
Provide resources that directly address the
27 disadvantage 3 10,000.00 45 1,35

Universities to develop mechanisms to

28 guide the process and practice 2 10,000.00 30 600

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Assess the merits of various systems of
doing credit transfer. Recommend an
29 2 10,000.00 45 900
independent body to undertake this on
behalf of universities in Kenya
Identify additional sources for student
30 2 10,000.00 40 800

Establish a new student loan system that
pays the real cost of learning to allow
31 2 10,000.00 60 1,20
student take courses of their choice

Analyze retention and graduation data for

32 all programs in all universities to establish 4 10,000.00 30 1,20
the magnitude of the problem of dropout
Analyze the staff to student ratios for all
33 3 10,000.00 30 900
programmes in each university
Determine the additional facilities for a
34 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
vibrant tutorial system
Develop the criteria/indicators for
35 evaluating the quality of post-graduate 2 10,000.00 30 600
Assess the quality of existing post-graduate
36 programmes 2 10,000.00 30 600

Assess the capacity of universities to

37 provide post-graduate studies. 3 10,000.00 60 1,80

Improve the management and enforcement

38 of the quality assurance policies 2 10,000.00 30 600

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Develop guidelines for gauging of academic
programmes in order to streamline,
39 consolidate, promote and/or phase them 2 12,000.00 30 720
out depending on their alignment to
national strategic needs and the market.
Develop package for Training of quality
40 staff for effective teaching, research 2 10,000.00 30 600
management and quality assurance.
Review and improve the system by having
41 a clear time bound process; fast track the 2 10,000.00 30 600
process to meet the students needs
Assess the impact and scope of the current
42 foundation/common core/general 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
education courses in all the universities
Review curriculum to ensure that courses
on ethics, critical thinking and analytical
43 3 10,000.00 50 1,50
skills are incorporated into mainstream
university teaching/learning.
Establish events and programmes like
public debates, lectures, seminars,
44 orientation programmes that promote civil 2 10,000.00 30 600
and ethical behaviour
Assign/strengthen and train academic
45 advisors on mentoring and counseling 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
Establish guidelines for selection and the
46 teaching programme for pre-entry students 2 10,000.00 30 600

Assess the existing Information Systems
47 with a view to strengthening them. 2 10,000.00 30 600

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Develop advisory, monitoring and
48 evaluation systems and guidelines 3 10,000.00 45 1,35

Establish/Strengthen/revitalize an effective
49 career counseling centre. 4 10,000.00 50 2,00

Develop programmes/sessions for

50 interaction with students 3 10,000.00 40 1,20

Establish contacts and active interaction

51 with employment market for placement of 2 10,000.00 60 1,20
Determine ways to integrate
52 entrepreneurial/innovation in the regular 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
university academic programmes
Develop the criteria/indicators for
53 evaluating the quality of post-graduate 2 12,000.00 30 720
54 Assess the quality of existing post-graduate
programmes 7 30 21,0

Assess the capacity of universities to

55 provide post-graduate studies. 3 10,000.00 45 1,35

Improve the management and enforcement

57 of the quality assurance policies 2 10,000.00 30 600

Establish an orientation, in-servicing, and

58 mentoring systems for academic staff 3 10,000.00 60 1,80

Establish research projects in national

59 strategic areas 4 10,000.00 60 2,40

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Identify and seek funding to establish such
60 programmes; 2 20,000.00 60 2,40

61 Establish Post-doctoral programmes 2 12,000.00 30 720

Identify postgraduate programmes that
have potential to attract international
62 3 10,000.00 30 900
students; Identify scholarship funds for
international students
Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the
63 existing incentive systems, the terms and 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
conditions of service for staff
64 Enhance terms and conditions of service 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
Assess the national, institutional capacities
and geographical location for identifying
65 and establishing national centres of 4 10,000.00 40 1,60
excellence in specific strategic
Establish and annually avail a national
66 inventory of research. 4 10,000.00 90 3,60

Establish targeted funding for strategic

67 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
Build capacity for negotiating licensing,
68 4 10,000.00 30 1,20
transfers and patent rights.
69 Look for venture capital. 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
Develop policy and implementation
70 strategy on joint appointments; implement 3 10,000.00 60 1,80

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Identifying and engage individuals with
appropriate skills that would enhance joint
71 2 12,000.00 30 720
university-industry research/teaching
Identify the barriers and establish
72 incentives that would enhance staff 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
interaction with industry
Assess the current ratios of academic staff
73 with PhDs in all programmes; 2 10,000.00 30 600

Recruit scholars with PhDs (or equivalents)

74 for the institutions to meet the required 2 10,000.00 30 600
Assess the basis of university ratings and
75 design mechanisms to improve individual 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
university rating
CHE then publishes the basis for university
76 4 10,000.00 60 2,40
Establish policy to manage and direct
77 research to the critical areas of national 4 10,000.00 90 3,60
Build capacity for undertaking research,
78 dissemination and utilization of research 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
Review the existing research environment
especially funding, management, output
79 and utilization of resources at institutional 2 12,000.00 30 720
and national level

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Train staff on research proposal writing,
80 management and marketing 4 10,000.00 30 1,20

Establish and/or strengthen relevant

81 offices in Universities to assist the research 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
proposal process
Develop clear linkage between use of
scholars timecum-output and incentives
82 4 10,000.00 60 2,40
both at the institutional and researchers
83 Develop an inventory of funding sources 2 12,000.00 30 720
Mentor younger scholars on research
84 3 10,000.00 30 900
proposal and marketing of research
Universities to develop a clear policy and
85 guidelines on overheads that can be used to 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
negotiate with donors
Universities to establish research grants that
86 2 10,000.00 30 600
support new research proposals
Allocate sufficient maintenance and
87 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
operations budget
Train technical staff for maintenance and
88 operations of the teaching and research 20 300,000.00 1 6,00
Articulate protocols and guidelines for
89 collaboration 3 10,000.00 60 1,80

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Assess the capacity and need of
universities, and small and medium
90 4 10,000.00 60 2,40
enterprises to participate in collaborative
Establish joint research between universities
91 2 12,000.00 30 720
and SMEs
Assess the productive capacity of Kenyas
Researchers through assessment of the
number of copyrights, the number of
92 patents per year, the areas and kinds of 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
research that are being undertaken, the
areas that are not being researched, and the
kinds of innovations exhibited.
Direct research efforts to areas of weakness,
93 2 10,000.00 30 600
gaps and strategic priorities
94 Develop incentives and award systems to
recognize published works 4 10,000.00 60 2,40

Assess our national research status and

96 2 10,000.00 30 600
Develop legal framework, organizational
97 & governance structures and mandate for 2 10,000.00 30 600
Establish the institution and operationalize
98 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
Determine the appropriate institution to
offer courses; Develop course
99 4 10,000.00 40 1,60
programs/content and its management;
Operationalize it

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Assess the current level of library holdings
100 in terms of relevance and currency in 4 10,000.00 90 3,60
compliance with CHEs standards;
Assess the current level of teaching
101 equipment in compliance with CHEs 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
Procure necessary books/equipment
102 7 50,000.00 1 350
according to assessment reports
Each university to be compliant with
CHEs/UNESCOs benchmarks in the
103 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
purchase of relevant, up to date equipment
and library materials
Establish national holdings and digital
104 library of local and international materials 2 10,000.00 30 600

Increase funding to enable set up/run this

105 7 500,000.00 1 3,50
Introduce new methods of
teaching/learning; Assess impact of
107 4 10,000.00 60 2,40
improved environment on learning and
Expand and/or improve the sitting capacity
108 in lecture rooms, the libraries and staff 7 100,000,000.00 1 700
offices in the universities.
Assess the extent of modern technology in
109 3 10,000.00 30 900
110 Provide connectivity on/off campus 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
Assess the quality of learning environment
111 and programmes in satellite campuses 2 10,000.00 30 600

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Assess each universitys status in ICT
112 infrastructure in the light of emerging needs 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
and priorities
Develop guidelines for application of ICT in
113 4 10,000.00 40 1,60
university education and research
Establish an integrated campus and wide
114 4 10,000.00 90 3,60
area network with full internet access
Identify additional sources of funds for
115 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
institutional loans
116 Establish institutional loan products 7 10,000.00 30 2,10
Auditing/Inspection of all universities with
118 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
regard to CHEs guidelines
Assess CHEs capabilities and efficiency
119 capacity to handle compliance 2 10,000.00 30 600

Strengthen the coordinating mechanism for

compliance to ensure that the rules and
120 2 10,000.00 30 600
regulations are adhered to by all
Determine a schedule of compliance that
121 3 10,000.00 40 1,20
ensures that the process is time bound
Modification and/or Improvement of
122 4 10,000.00 60 2,40
universities to make them compliant
Establish formal and informal dialogical
spaces (forums) for enhanced
123 2 12,000.00 30 720
communication between various
Landscape, plant flowers and maintain
124 2 10,000.00 30 600
university environments
Have architectural designs that enhance
125 3 10,000.00 40 1,20
S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Create physical environments that exhibit
126 the creativity and sense of the art of the 2 10,000.00 60 1,20
Introduce core courses in leadership and
127 3 10,000.00 30 900
128 provide incentives/sanctions 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
Introduce orientation, leadership and ethics
129 programmes that are offered regularly for 2 10,000.00 30 600
Develop and establish a mechanism for
130 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
ranking programmes
Provide special funding incentives for the
top-ranked programmes and provide
131 4 10,000.00 60 2,40
opportunities for improvement for weak
Develop guidelines for identification of
132 strategic programmes; develop/identify 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
strategic programmes
Assess the current curricula and align them
133 4 10,000.00 40 1,60
to the strategic programmes
Develop guidelines for private sector
134 partnership in the provision of health 4 10,000.00 60 2,40
sciences university education
Develop guidelines on who teaches these
programmes and also establish Kenyas
135 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
capacity to retain the people it trains for
such programmes.
136 Assess adequacy of learning community in 2 12,000.00 30 720
accessing knowledge.
137 4 10,000.00 30 1,20

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Develop programmes that equip students
138 with multifunctional skills to enhance their 3 10,000.00 30 900,
employability and innovation.
139 Train lecturers on new ways of accessing 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
knowledge and innovative teaching
140 techniques 2 10,000.00 30 600,
Provide classrooms that are wired
141 appropriately for knowledge access 2 10,000.00 30 600,

Assess Kenyas capacity to offer foreign

142 languages like French, Arabic, Chinese, 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
Portuguese and Spanish.
Develop and/or strengthen these
143 programmes in designated schools and 4 10,000.00 60 2,40
Evaluate the QA structures and processes
144 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
in each university
Review/Develop guidelines that can be
145 used to establish Quality Assurance (QA) 2 12,000.00 30 720,
for all higher education courses
Design the process of internal and external
146 audit through visitations and develop 3 10,000.00 30 900,
structures that identify and justify them.
147 Develop clear guidelines for accreditation 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
Establish and strengthen a Quality
Assurance Unit in each university that
148 ensures that the rules and components for 2 10,000.00 30 600,
quality are implemented and followed.

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Duration (Days)
Develop mechanisms that ensure that
149 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
programmes adhere to guidelines
Outline the processes and structures of
150 relations between internal and external 3 10,000.00 30 900,
Develop institutional QA standards with
151 the universities and there from develop the 4 10,000.00 90 3,60
national accreditation standards.
Develop systems and incentives that
encourage linkages with reputable
152 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
international universities for achieving
quality education
Develop guidelines and modalities of joint
degree programmes between local
153 universities and between local and foreign 4 10,000.00 30 1,20
universities to safeguard the integrity of
programmes and such partnerships
154 Establish MIS system at CHE that 3 10,000.00 45 1,35
exchanges data effectively with all

university institutions

155 Recruit IT experts for CHE 3 1,000,000.00 1 3,00

Provide a forum for interaction and
156 discussion on the development of higher 3 10,000.00 60 1,80
Convene congresses on higher education
to deliberate on critical issues in the
157 1 10,000,000.00 1 10,0
development of higher education

Purchase of laboratory and research

158 7 800,000,000.00 1 5,60

Expand mathematics and science

postgraduate programmes
159 7 150,000,000.00 1 1,05


Annex IV: Cost for Improvement of University Education Financing
Financing is a very critical part of university education. The following projects and studies should be u
country put in place a viable and suitable financing mechanism.
No. Duration To
S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days) Co

Develop mechanism for establishing the National

Research, Foundation as an autonomous agency, for
assessing the quality of research proposal and for
1 3 20,000.00 40 2,4
allocating research funds from Government and other
sources, such a foundation should also seek funding from
science-based industries operating in the country
Develop guidelines for management of funds in
2 3 12,000.00 40 1,4
universities to enhance and ensure accountability.
Develop a Kenyan model for disbursement of grants to
3 2 12,000.00 30 72
Design mechanisms for funding strategic programs in the
4 2 10,000.00 50 1,0
universities to meet national interests and priorities.
Assess the capacity of HELB to raise and manage funds to
support the current and projected numbers of Kenyan students
5 4 12,000.00 60 2,8
who are eligible for scholarships, loans and grants and
disbursement of institutional loans

Assess and strengthen the capacity of HELB and universities to

6 6 10,000.00 40 2,4
introduce and utilize smart card
Review the existing means testing tool for the needy
7 3 12,000.00 40 1,4
Assess the proposed Kenyan funding model specifying sources
8 and application of funds in universities, and Propose how it 2 12,000.00 30 72
may be implemented.
No. Duration To
S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days) Co

Evaluate the performance and management of current income

9 2 10,000.00 50 1,0
generating activities in universities and propose reforms
Asses the current allocation and usage of income from IGAs and
10 4 12,000.00 60 2,8
propose reforms
Assess the current capacities for fundraising within the
11 3 12,000.00 40 1,4
universities and identify training needs
Develop sensitization mechanisms, materials and
12 2 12,000.00 30 72
communication channels
Identify criteria and guidelines for allocating merit points to
13 6 10,000.00 40 2,4
academic programs and research
Develop criteria for prioritization, location and allocation of
14 3 12,000.00 40 1,4
Identify suitable incentives and modes of co-operation for
15 2 12,000.00 30 72
attracting private sector and development partners
16 Needs assessment in HRD in strategic areas. 2 10,000.00 50 1,0

Develop legal and organizational framework for a national
17 4 12,000.00 60 2,8
agency for mobilizing and disbursing research funds
Carry out a study to determine the feasibility of a sustainable
18 6 10,000.00 40 2,4
National endowment fund.
Determine the types and amount of incentives which will enable
19 3 12,000.00 40 1,4
individuals industries to contribute to the fund

20 Assess future enrolment figures in projected strategic programs 2 12,000.00 30 72

21 Assess the potential for alternative sources of funding 6 10,000.00 40 2,4

No. Duration To
S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days) Co
Determine the current dormant university assets (land, houses,
22 farms), their value and propose how to prudently unlock them 3 12,000.00 40 1,4
to generate income for the universities
Assess the condition of stalled projects and cost of completing
23 2 12,000.00 30 72
them and propose a completion schedule

Assess the condition of existing infrastructure in private and

24 2 10,000.00 50 1,0
the cost of rehabilitating them
Undertake Audit of all University assets to facilitate
25 4 12,000.00 60 2,8
preparation of maintenance budgets and regimes
Develop mechanisms of identifying and monitoring of financial
26 4 12,000.00 35 1,6
assistance for students from disadvantaged backgrounds.


Annex V: Cost for Improvement of Students and Staff Welfare
There is a need for projects to develop clear regulatory guidelines for increased access and equity in Higher Educ
admission process. This will reduce the admission costs and increase competition for quality students among univers
A well structured funding mechanism will enable universities to enhance benefits to staff welfare through appropria
developed infrastructure. To achieve these, the following projects are necessary: -

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Total Cost(Ks
Student welfare
Develop clear regulatory guidelines for
increased access and equity in higher 3 12,000.00 60 2,160,000.00
1 education.
Develop criteria for direct admission by
individual university senates/ 3 12,000.00 40 1,440,000.00
2 Academic Boards
De-link admission from available bed
3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
3 space.
Synchronizes the time for all admissions
2 10,000.00 30 600,000.00
4 into universities to reduce wastage
Review the current functions of JAB to
serve the admission needs of all students 2 10,000.00 60 1,200,000.00
5 for all universities
Formulate new functions for the new
JAB which acts as a clearing house for
student admission for all universities.
3 10,000.00 60 1,800,000.00

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Total Cost(Ks
Develop guidelines and accreditation
criteria for admission and student credit
3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
transfers between universities and
8 middle level colleges
Develop mechanisms for funding out-
reach programs targeting talented and 3 12,000.00 40 1,440,000.00
9 gifted students.
Revise the current students Means
Testing criteria to enable HELB identify
various levels of need and the relevant
3 12,000.00 40 1,440,000.00
financial assistance required to
adequately cover both tuition and living
10 expenses

Assess the feasibility of Government
guaranteed loans that HELB can avail to
institutions for facility improvement as
3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
well as to students who are adjudged to
be able to pay but are facing cash flow
11 problems.
Conduct a study to establish the factors
impeding the provision of internal 2 10,000.00 30 600,000.00
12 university scholarships and fellowships.
14 Establish internal financial aid schemes 2 10,000.00 60 1,200,000.00
Review the current admission,
orientation and registration processes 3 10,000.00 60 1,800,000.00
16 for all universities
Develop guidelines for mainstreaming
3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
17 guidance and counseling services.

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Total Cost(Ks
Develop and establish as appropriate an
MIS for students that enhances effective
2 10,000.00 60 1,200,000.00
communication throughout the
19 university
Study and review existing policy
guidelines governing student and staff
3 10,000.00 60 1,800,000.00
conduct and develop remedial measures
20 as appropriate.
Study the current admission and
orientation process with a view to
3 10,000.00 60 1,800,000.00
incorporating and integrating
21 departmental inputs.
Review the current university calendars
with a view to digitalizing and availing 3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
22 them on-line on time.
Recruit and train qualified
administrative to manage teaching and 3 12,000.00 40 1,440,000.00
24 learning programs.
Develop appropriate software for
3 12,000.00 40 1,440,000.00
25 timetabling.
Assess registration procedures for
postgraduate students and factors
3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
hindering their course programmes
26 completion in specified time
Implement assessment report by
establishing appropriate and efficient
registration procedures and student 2 10,000.00 30 600,000.00
supervision system

S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Total Cost(Ks
Review the current accommodation
construction and rehabilitation policy
and develop new guidelines;
rehabilitate, remodel existing premises;
3 10,000.00 60 1,800,000.00
and promote private sector participation
in construction of student
accommodation, catering leisure, sports
29 and recreational facilities
Undertake needs assessment of available
3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
30 teaching and learning facilities.
Identify and rationalize the staffing
2 10,000.00 30 600,000.00
31 needs and recruit as appropriate.
Undertake needs assessment survey and
2 10,000.00 60 1,200,000.00
32 procure as necessary
Review existing policies on student
confidentiality and third parties, and 3 10,000.00 60 1,800,000.00
develop new and improved policies.
Develop policy on patents, business spin
3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
34 offs and licensees as relates to students.
Review the current policy on student
research and innovation with a view to 3 12,000.00 40 1,440,000.00
35 developing new policy
Needs assessment of facilities such as
special office space, accommodation,
3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
laboratory and lecture rooms, library,
36 recreation and ICT facilities.
Review the existing university statutes
governing students health, conduct and 2 10,000.00 30 600,000.00
37 safety
S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Total Cost(Ks
Sub Total 43,920,000.00
Staff Welfare
Identify weaknesses in the existing
terms and conditions of service; assess
the current staff workload and develop
guidelines on staff student ratios 3 12,000.00 50 1,800,000.00

Harmonize and rationalize the terms
and conditions of service to make them
2 12,000.00 60 1,440,000.00
comprehensive and competitive in local
2 and international environment.
Assessment of impediments to
university autonomy and management
by existing legal frameworks i.e. State 3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
corporations Act and University and
3 Universities Acts

Identify HR needs: needs analysis,
design and or source HR training 2 10,000.00 30 600,000.00
4 programs.
Assess the needs of facilities such as
special office space, accommodation,
2 10,000.00 60 1,200,000.00
laboratory and lecture rooms, library,
5 recreation and ICT facilities.
Assess the needs of infrastructure
requiring rehabilitation and
maintenance; development of 3 10,000.00 60 1,800,000.00
maintenance regime
S/No. Project Details No. Required Unit Price Total Cost(Ks
Review of existing policies on
confidentiality and third parties; 3 12,000.00 40 1,440,000.00
8 develop new and improved policies.
Take audit of university activities with a
3 12,000.00 40 1,440,000.00
9 view to out-sourcing non-core activities.
Develop guidelines on how staff could
be involved in other activities without 3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
10 compromising output in core activities.
Develop policy on patents, business spin
2 10,000.00 30 600,000.00
11 offs and licensees.
Initiate studies that would create
2 10,000.00 60 1,200,000.00
12 awareness and legally safeguard IPR
Develop mechanisms that enable
universities to communicate and 3 10,000.00 60 1,800,000.00
13 publicize findings of studies on IPR.
Identify and evaluate existing conditions
of research and innovation; develop
3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00
guidelines for improved research and
14 innovation output
Review the existing labour laws and
regulations governing occupational
10 10,000.00 90 9,000,000.00
safety to reflect current economic and
15 social realities, i.e. insurance schemes
Sub Total 114,480,000.00
TOTAL 158,400,000.00

Annex VI: Cost for Improvement of Science, Technology and Innovation
Kenya produces few goods and services based on Kenyan scientific and technological discoveries and innovations. In order
economy it is necessary to strengthen and improve science technology and innovation systems in the country.

The following projects are necessary to give guidelines on how best to do this:

No. Duration Tota

S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days) Cos
Develop a policy framework for ScTI taking into account
1 4 12,000.00 60 2,88
the existing Needs Assessment Report.
Assess the existing IPR and copyright legislation and
2 recommend mechanisms for strengthening it to allow 4 10,000.00 120 4,80
speedy IPR Court litigation system
Allow universities to retain patents and royalties on
government funded research projects and to share the
3 2 12,000.00 60 1,44
royalties with inventors and agencies at a ratio of 33%
inventor, 25% agencies and the rest to the university
Study how collective knowledge, know-how and learning
4 maintained by the organization-"core competency" may be 3 12,000.00 40 1,44
shared by universities and the private sector
Develop guidelines on how professional associations with
private sector, education institutions students and other
5 entities membership may be promoted to champion 2 12,000.00 30 720,
innovation issues
6 Develop technology business incubators 4 12,000.00 60 2,88
Establish mechanisms to fund and support non-profit
7 4 10,000.00 120 4,80
business incubators
Assess the capability of metrology and standards
8 institutions and design mechanisms for their 2 12,000.00 60 1,44
Review and harmonize institutional ScTI policies with
9 National Policy. 3 12,000.00 40 1,44

No. Duration Tot

S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days) Cos
Establish instructional capacity for ScTI policy studies,
10 analysis, and monitoring 2 12,000.00 30 720,

11 Develop a legal framework for National ScTI council 2 12,000.00 30 720,

Develop organizational structure and functions for the
12 4 12,000.00 60 2,88
Assess the need for ScTI advice to Parliament,
13 Government, and general public 4 10,000.00 120 4,80

Develop the guidelines for the establishment of a two tier

14 advisory system which encompasses formal and an 2 12,000.00 60 1,44
independent, impartial and informal person.
15 Establish a two-tier advisory system 3 12,000.00 40 1,44
Identify the potential impact of ScTI in National
16 development with a view to placing it in its rightful 3 12,000.00 30 1,08
strategic priority position
17 Develop National ScTI Strategic priority areas 2 12,000.00 60 1,44

Develop projects for Official Development Assistance
18 (ODA) negotiations 4 10,000.00 120 4,80

Assess the current capacity of universities and research

19 institutes to negotiate and enforce IPR and develop 2 12,000.00 60 1,44
guidelines and training programmes.
Establish the potential of FDI; establish the effectiveness of
the existing FDI regimes Assess the level of participation
20 3 12,000.00 40 1,44
of International SMEs and MNEs in value adding
Create the necessary conditions for attracting high value
21 adding multinationals and SMEs .e.g. identify National 3 12,000.00 60 2,16
platform technologies as in Taiwan, Mauritius

No. Duration Tot

S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days) Cos
Assess the level of participation of local SMEs in value
22 adding activities and establish mechanisms for university- 4 10,000.00 120 4,80
private sector linkages
Review the current level of collaboration and develop
21 guideline for increased collaboration. 2 12,000.00 60 1,44

Asses the existing infrastructure and develop guidelines

22 and mechanisms for establishing new facilities and 3 12,000.00 40 1,44
improvement of existing ones
Assess the capacity of all universities to offer ScTI degree
23 programmes and determine the constraints for expansion 2 12,000.00 30 720,

Harmonize, expand and modernize as appropriate the

24 existing ScTI facilities in all universities to support 2 12,000.00 60 1,44
increased ScTI student enrollment
Increase or introduce as appropriate strategic ScTI degree
25 3 12,000.00 40 1,44
programmes in private and public universities
Assess the capacity of all universities to offer ScTI doctoral
26 2 12,000.00 30 720,
degree programmes
Introduce ScTI post-graduate degree programmes in
27 emerging strategic areas such as Nanotechnology, 3 12,000.00 60 2,16
Biotechnology, and ICT
Assess the constraints and capacity of all universities
28 offering Masters in business or management degree 4 10,000.00 120 4,80
programmes to offer doctoral degree programmes
Expand and/or start as appropriate doctoral management
29 degree programmes in selected private and public 2 12,000.00 60 1,44
universities, where necessary using a consortium model
Establish multi-disciplinary and multi-stakeholder centers
30 of excellence in entrepreneurship and innovation in 3 12,000.00 40 1,44
selected private and public universities in Kenya.
No. Duration Tot
S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days) Cos
Establish local chapters of professional ScTI associations in
31 all universities to link universities to local industry and 2 12,000.00 30 720,
international associations
Support and fund student design projects and
32 2 12,000.00 30 720,
participation in local and international competitions

Establish National system for recognition and award to
33 4 10,000.00 120 4,80
encourage ScTI
Identify local innovations and recommend appropriate
34 support required. 2 12,000.00 60 1,44

Identify international innovations relevant to Kenya

35 whose patents have expired and recommend mechanisms 4 12,000.00 60 2,88
for modifying/acquiring them.
Assess literacy levels of all graduates in Math, Science,
36 and ICT in all universities 4 10,000.00 120 4,80

Review undergraduate curriculum of all degree

37 programmes to ensure that Math, Science, and ICT 2 12,000.00 60 1,44
included in the general subject areas
Assess the proficiency levels of ScTI graduates in
38 3 12,000.00 40 1,44
communications, social science, and humanities
Review ScTI curricula to ensure that a sufficient number
39 of communications, social science, and humanities courses 2 12,000.00 30 720,
are offered
Assess the level of integration of social and humanities
40 2 12,000.00 60 1,44
sciences in NIS
Evaluate existing capacity to acquire-adapt and absorb
41 new knowledge 3 12,000.00 40 1,44

Establishing guidelines for collaboration and setting

42 2 12,000.00 60 1,44
Developing guidelines and create enabling environment
43 for linkages and collaborations 4 10,000.00 120 4,80

No. Duration Tot

S/No. Project Details Unit Price
Required (Days) Cos
Mobilizing professional associations/societies for
44 knowledge gathering and standard setting. 2 12,000.00 60 1,44

45 Conducting research in strategic ScTI areas 3 12,000.00 40 1,44

46 Identify and establish International research partnerships 2 12,000.00 30 720,
Identifying barriers between universities and local private
47 sector partnership and recommend mechanisms for 4 12,000.00 60 2,88
eliminating them.
Identify barriers between universities and international
48 private sector partnerships and recommend mechanisms 3 10,000.00 120 3,60
for eliminating them.
Develop new communication channels that enhance
47 2 12,000.00 60 1,44
public awareness ScTI.
Assess the adequacy of the existing communication
48 infrastructure and develop programmes to strengthen it. 3 12,000.00 40 1,44

Design guidelines and mechanisms for research and

49 development funding. 2 12,000.00 30 720,

Develop projects for credit negotiations for both internal

50 4 12,000.00 60 2,88
and external funding
Establish guidelines and mechanisms for venture capital
51 activities and risk apportionment 4 10,000.00 120 4,80

52 Establish specific research based strategies for FDI 2 12,000.00 60 1,44

Establish specific research based strategies for local
53 3 12,000.00 40 1,44

Total 120,

Annex VII: Cost for Improvement of ICT in University Education
The advancement and integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at the universities is critic
centers of excellence. Integration of ICT in teaching, learning, research, governance and management of univer
priority. Effective achievement of this will require investment in modern, efficient appropriately and adequate ICT
and institutional level.
No. Duration
/No. Project Details Unit Price Total Cost(Kshs.)
Required (Days)
1 Develop an ICT policy template 2 10,000.00 40 800,000.00
Communicate an ICT policy
2 4 10,000.00 90 3,600,000.00
template to all universities
3 Develop and implement ICT policy 3 12,000.00 60 2,160,000.00
Undertake a detailed e-readiness
4 assessment of universities and 4 15,000.00 90 5,400,000.00
develop ICT ranking of universities
Publicize the e-readiness survey
5 results and application in 4 10,000.00 120 4,800,000.00
institutional ICT strategic planning
Undertake annual ICT self-
evaluation surveys in all
6 2 12,000.00 60 1,440,000.00
universities using the e-readiness
Develop/review ICT strategic plan
7 of universities using a participatory 3 12,000.00 40 1,440,000.00
process for all stakeholders

No. Duration
S/No. Project Details Unit Price Total Cost(Kshs.)
Required (Days)
Implement ICT strategies starting
8 with pilot and demonstration 2 12,000.00 50 1,200,000.00
programs in new areas
Revise curriculum to integrate ICT
9 in all academic programs of the 4 12,000.00 60 2,880,000.00
Implement integration of ICT in
10 academic programs 4 10,000.00 120 4,800,000.00

Develop and promote open content

11 2 12,000.00 60 1,440,000.00
development policies in universities
Roll-out e-learning and/or ICT-
12 enabled distance education 3 12,000.00 40 1,440,000.00
programs in all universities
Assess the ICT human capacity and
scheme of service for universities
13 and make appropriate 2 12,000.00 30 720,000.00
recommendations as part of e-
readiness assessment
Review the terms and conditions of
service of ICT staff in Universities
14 and develop a scheme of service 2 12,000.00 30 720,000.00
that includes ICT staff development

Recruit skilled ICT technical and
15 administrative staff 4 12,000.00 60 2,880,000.00

Establish an ICT staff development

16 4 10,000.00 120 4,800,000.00
and training program
Maintain an adequate complement
17 of ICT staff 3 12,000.00 30 1,080,000.00