frictional losses in pipelines

© All Rights Reserved

12 tayangan

frictional losses in pipelines

© All Rights Reserved

- Dimensional Analysis and Hydraulic Similitude
- Kolmetz Handbook of Process Equipment Design
- Pump System Optimization
- 42542537-Energy-Loss-in-Pipes-1.pdf
- Line Sizing1
- Fluids Essay Report
- Lab 5
- Ht2 Sim Slides f09
- English 2013115144510
- 332_in_press
- Fluid Dynamics
- Affect of Reducing Drag
- 8.Mixing of Solids2
- Paper Conventional and NonConventional Wells
- a new pressure drop model for structured packing H.A. Kooijman.pdf
- Sw Flow Tutorial
- Ohnesorge
- CH E 356 AB Hebert or Vigil Chelsea Hebert Exam 1 Review Student
- Sump Pump Selection Final Report
- Chapt4-Mean Flow-Hydraulics.pdf

Anda di halaman 1dari 44

Pipelines for Single Phase Fluids

Contents

1 FLOW IN A PIPELINE ....................................................................................................... 3

2 INCOMPRESSIBLE ONE DIMENSIONAL FLOW EQUATIONS .............................................. 3

2.1 THE CONSERVATION OF MASS ............................................................................................ 4

2.2 THE ENERGY EQUATION ...................................................................................................... 6

2.3 SOME TERMINOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH FLOWING FLUIDS ..................................................... 10

2.3.1 Fluid Heads ............................................................................................................ 10

2.3.2 Fluid Pressures ....................................................................................................... 10

2.4 FLOW IN PIPES ................................................................................................................. 11

2.5 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT TYPES OF FLUID FLOW ................................................................. 13

2.5.1 Laminar Sub Layer ................................................................................................. 15

2.6 SMOOTH BORE PIPE FRICTION FACTORS ............................................................................... 16

2.7 THE EFFECT OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON FLUID FRICTION ...................................................... 16

2.7.1 Friction factor correlations .................................................................................... 18

2.7.2 Pipeline Roughness ................................................................................................ 18

2.7.3 Hydraulic Mean Diameter ..................................................................................... 18

2.8 PRESSURE LOSS DUE TO PIPELINE COMPONENT ..................................................................... 20

2.8.1 Flow in an Abrupt Enlargement ............................................................................. 21

2.8.2 Other Fittings ........................................................................................................ 22

2.9 .......................................................................................................................................... 24

3 PRESSURE LOSS OF COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS, GASES ...................................................... 25

3.1 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW KEY ISSUES. .................................................................................... 25

3.1.1 The relationship between pressure and specific volume for real gases. ............... 25

3.1.2 Critical Pressure Ratio ........................................................................................... 25

3.2 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN A PIPELINE ..................................................................................... 26

3.2.1 Isothermal flow of compressible ideal gas along a pipeline ................................. 28

3.3 GENERAL GAS FLOW EQUATION ...................................................................................... 28

3.4 GAS FLOW EQUATIONS ..................................................................................................... 32

3.4.1 Common Gas Flow Equations ................................................................................ 33

3.4.2 The American Gas Association Equation ............................................................... 34

3.5 GAS PROPERTIES .............................................................................................................. 35

3.5.1 Molar mass of gas mixture ................................................................................... 36

3.5.2 Density .................................................................................................................. 36

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 2

3.5.4 Absolute and Gauge Pressure ............................................................................... 36

3.5.5 Viscosity of Gas Mixtures ...................................................................................... 37

3.5.6 Compressibility Factor ........................................................................................... 37

3.6 PIPELINE DIAMETERS AND RECOMMENDED VELOCITIES ........................................................... 40

4 LONG PIPELINE CALCULATIONS .................................................................................... 42

5 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................ 44

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 3

1 Flow in a Pipeline

Fluid Dynamics is the study of fluids in motion. It has applications to many products

and processes that have to be engineered. Fluids may have to be transported, as in

the distribution of water and gas supplies, or they could be used for heating or cooling

purposes, as in domestic heating systems. These applications cover a broad

spectrum of engineering industries. However, all of them require knowledge of how

fluids pass through lengths of pipes, valves, orifice plates and other pipeline

components, the topic of this section. In analysing these components, the problem

can be thought of in terms of knowing the inlet conditions to the component, i.e. the

pressure and velocity, and wanting to establish the exit conditions of pressure and

velocity. To do this the energy loss has to be found. Flow through these systems is

based on one-dimensional formulations of the mass, energy and momentum

equations, giving three unknowns and three equations, so that in principle, the system

is solved. In practice, some systems do not lend themselves to simple theoretical

treatment and require the use of empirical information to complete the analysis.

The basic expressions for fluid flow start with flow of fluid which is

Incompressible the density does not change with pressure and temperature

Homogeneous the properties are uniform and can be represented by single

values

One dimensional flow is in one direction

Steady State the flow properties are not time dependent.

But real fluids we deal with are anything but homogenous, or incompressible, and

often are 3 dimensional in their flow patterns. When we consider turbulent flow, then

the flow can be considered unsteady.

This topic will review basic fluid mechanics as applied to single phase,

incompressible, homogeneous systems in 1 dimension. We will then expand the

discussion to compressible flow. Topic 3 will continue with flows of multiphase

mixtures.

You may be familiar of course with the next chapter, and if you are 100% sure you will

not miss anything, the proceed to section 3.

Fluid motion is predicted in the same manner as solid motion, i.e. it is predicted by the

application of the conservation principles of mass and energy and by the application of

Newtons laws. The skills required in using these laws can be developed by analysing

some simple situations that, over time, can have their complexity gradually increased

until the model, the mathematical representation of the fluid flow, contains sufficient

detail for the physical processes to be satisfactorily described. Analyses can made

simple by making simplifying assumptions. Most assumptions are reasonably true in

some restricted circumstances. All analyses therefore have some applications. In fact,

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 4

skill.

Two of the simplifying assumptions imposed in this section are

The flow is steady state, i.e. at any location in the flow field, all quantities such as

pressure and velocity do not vary with time.

The fluid is incompressible, i.e. the fluid density does not vary in time or space.

In the absence of a nuclear reaction, the quantity of matter that enters a process must

be either retained within it, or exited from it. If the problem is steady state, the rate that

matter enters a system must be the same as that leaving, i.e. the mass must move

through the system at a constant rate. A section of pipe has a cross-sectional area A

and is approached by a fluid of density that is moving at a velocity u, as shown in

Figure 1. The mass flow rate of fluid in the section is M.

Figure 1 -

Fluid flow

in a

pipeline

In time t , the quantity of fluid that passes across face 1 is M t and the fluid that

was initially at position 1, reaches position 2. The fluid that passed across position 1

must therefore occupy the pipe volume shown. The mass contained within the pipe

volume is the product of the fluid density and the pipe volume, thus

M t = Ax

Since the leading fluid particles travel the distance x in time t the fluid velocity, u,

must be

x

u=

t

The mass flow rate can therefore be found from

M = Au

The unit of mass flow rate is kg/s. Notice that the two parallel lines used to obtain this

result could be extended from any part of a pipe or pipeline component. This

relationship can therefore be applied anywhere in a pipeline.

The above argument applies equally to the volume flow rate, Q. This leads to the

result that

Q = uA

The volume flow rate is measured in m3/s and is only constant for incompressible

fluids. The mass flow at any point in the pipeline must be constant so we can write:

M1 = M 2

Therefore

1 A1u1 = 2 A2u2

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 5

So for a pipeline where the fluid density does not change, ie. the fluid is

incompressible:

A1u1 = A2u2

In practice, the only assumption made in this analysis that is not entirely accurate, is

that the fluid velocity is not constant across the pipe cross-sectional area. In reality,

because of fluid friction, the fluid velocity is zero at the wall and achieves a maximum

at the pipe centre line. This is not a limitation to the use of the above equations

provided the average velocity is used.

So the velocity term in the equations above is often called the average velocity

Example

Water passes along a pipe 25 mm in diameter at 6 m/s, as shown in Figure 2. If the

pipe diameter is suddenly increased to 37.5 mm, determine the fluid velocity in the

larger pipe. What is the volume and mass flow rates of water? Take the density of

water to be 1000 kg/m3.

Figure 2:

Pipeline

expansion

A1u1 = A2u2

Therefore

A1u1

u2 =

A2

Replacing the cross sectional areas by the pipeline diameters gives:

2

A1u1 d1 d 2

u2 = = u1 4 = 1

A2 2 d2

d

4 2

2

m 25mm

u2 = 6 = 2.665ms 1

s 37.5mm

The volumetric flowrate is

m

( 0.025m) x6 = 2.945x103 m3s 1

2

Q = A1u1 =

4 s

The volumetric flowrate is also 176.7 l/min

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 6

kg

The mass flow rate is M = Q = 1000 3

x2.945x103 m3s 1 = 2.945kgs 1

m

At any location in a system, the fluid has a quantity of energy associated with it. In a

small time change, t , the mass that flows past that location is M t The energy that

this mass has takes several forms. These are categorised as follows.

Kinetic energy, KE: This is energy that the fluid has by virtue of its motion and

can be quantified as

1

KE =

2

(

M t u 2 )

Potential energy, PE: This is energy that the fluid has by virtue of its position in

the gravitational field. If the fluid is z above some reference point in a

gravitation field of acceleration g, the potential energy can be quantified as

(

PE = M t gz )

Internal energy, IE: This is the energy that the fluid has stored in the kinetic

energy of its molecules and, for a fluid of specific heat capacity C and

temperature T, can be quantified as

IE = ( M t ) CT

The total energy that the fluid has is E and is the sum of these energies. Thus,

u2

E = KE + PE + IE = ( M t ) + gz + CT

2

Since the fluid is in motion, this mass must alter location. The components of energy

associated with that mass must also change. However, since the flow is steady state,

the energy that any similar mass has at that location must remain constant over time.

Suppose the fluid enters the diverging pipe section shown in Figure 3 at position 1.

Figure 3 -

Energy

balance

for flowing

fluid

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 7

u12

( )

E1 = M t + gz1 + CT1

2

Some time later, the fluid mass has reached location 2 where its energy is

u2

E2 = ( M t ) 2 + gz2 + CT2

2

During this time period the fluid received a heat transfer q per unit mass of flowing

( )

fluid, i.e. M t q of actual heat, and does work W per unit mass of flowing fluid, i.e.

( M t )W of actual work.

As the particles of fluid moved across boundary 1 they had to overcome the boundary

pressure, p1. Particles of fluid upstream of boundary 1 must therefore have done

some work on those entering to get them across it. This work is therefore a transfer of

energy into the system. This work, w1, can be found from the product of the force that

the work was done against and the distance that the work was done through. In time

t the particles will have moved a distance x , where

x = u1t

Thus

w1 = Fx = P1 A1u1t

However, the mass flow rate can be expressed as

M = A1u1

The work done by fluid particles upstream of boundary 1 is therefore

P1

w1 = M t

Similarly, as the particles of fluid moved across boundary 2, they had to overcome the

boundary pressure, P2. Particles of fluid upstream of boundary 2, i.e. the fluid in the

system, must therefore have done some work on them to get them to cross boundary

2. This work is therefore a transfer of energy out of the system and can be evaluated

in exactly the same way as for the particles entering, thus,

P2

w2 = M t

The first law of Thermodynamics states that energy must be conserved. For a steady

state system, all of the energy entering the system must balance with that leaving.

The energy entering the system is TE1, where

(

TE1 = w1 + ( M t ) q + E1 )

and the energy leaving the system is TE2, where

(

TE2 = w2 + ( M t )W + E2 )

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 8

P1 u12 P2 u22

( ) 2

( )

M t + q + + gz1 + CT1 = M t + W + + gz2 + CT2

2

Thus,

P1 u12 P2 u22

( M t ) + q + 2 + gz + CT = ( M t ) + q + 2 + gz

1 1 2

+ CT2

P1 u12 P u2

(

+ + gz1 = 2 + 2 + gz2 + C T2 T1 + W q

2 2

)

Note that the unit of each component of this equation is that of specific energy, J/kg.

This is a GENERAL equation which accounts for the energy for a fluid. The important

element of this equation is the three main terms on the left hand side and the first

three on the right:

P1 u12 P u2

+ + gz1 = 2 + 2 + gz2

2 2

This is then a special form of the energy equation, known as Bernoullis equation.

Bernoullis equation is one of the foundations of fluid flow. As we have no energy loss

terms, Bernoullis equation applies to a non-viscous fluid, with constant density.

Work transfers to or from a fluid are achieved by passing it through a pump or turbine

and so in a pipe flow equation, we associate this work done by an increase in the

other terms. If there is no work done, then we have:

P1 u12 P u2

+ + gz1 = 2 + 2 + gz2 + C (T2 T1 ) q

2 2

There are two types of fluid flows that can be analysed, ideal and real. An ideal fluid is

one with zero viscosity and undergoes zero change in entropy when it flows. For an

incompressible fluid this corresponds to the flow being isothermal, i.e. of constant

temperature, and adiabatic, i.e. no heat transfer. A real fluid is one that has a

viscosity. This viscosity causes the fluid to dissipate energy to internal energy, as

discussed in section 4. However, the resultant temperature rise is usually small. Heat

transfer causes the fluid temperature to change. In pipe flow problems, temperature

changes due to fluid friction are usually negligible in comparison to those produced by

a heat transfer.

However, it is important that the energy losses due to friction are taken into account.

The energy loss is therefore removed from the temperature rise and included as

energy lost as . Thus:

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 9

P1 u12 P u2

+ + gz1 = 2 + 2 + gz2 +

2 2

The unit of each component of this equation is that of specific energy, J/kg.

In practice, errors arise in the use of this equation because the velocity distribution

across the cross-sectional area is not constant. This gives a non-uniform distribution

of kinetic energy. Since kinetic energy does not vary linearly with pipe position, it is

sometimes insufficient to use an average value of velocity. In these circumstances a

velocity profile correction factor is used. In general an average velocity is used and is

sufficiently accurate for most engineering applications.

Example

Water at a pressure of 2 bar, enters a short, convergent channel at 2.5 m/s, as shown

in Figure 4. If the upstream and downstream diameters of the channel are 50 mm and

30 mm respectively, determine the downstream pressure if energy losses can be

neglected.

Take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3.

Figure 4 -

Flow

through a

converging

nozzle

For an incompressible fluid, where there are no energy losses:

P1 u12 P2 u22

+ + gz1 = + + gz2

2 2

If the nozzle is short, or where the nozzle is level

P1 u12 P2 u22

+ = +

2 2

2 2

P2 = P1 + (u u2

2 1

)

The continuity equation can be applied to find the down stream velocity or we can

further simplify the energy balance:

2

Au d

u2 = 1 1 = u1 1

A2 d2

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 10

2 2 d1

4

2 2

2

( )

P2 = P1 + u1 u2 = P1 + u1 u1

2 d 2

N 1000kg / m3 m

2

50mm 4

P2 = 2x10 2 + 5

x 2.5 1 = 1.79x10 N / m

5 2

m 2 s 30mm

There are several definitions frequently encountered in fluid dynamics. These

definitions spring naturally from the energy equation, which was previously shown to

be of the form

P1 u12 P2 u22

+ + gz1 = + + gz2 +

2 2

If the energy equation is divided throughout by the gravitational constant, g, it

becomes

P1 u12 P2 u22

+ + z1 = + + z2 +

g 2g g 2g g

As is clear from the third term on either side of this equation, the units of this

equations components are that of height, i.e. m. When this form of the equation is

used, its component parts are known as,

The static head P / g

The dynamic head, u 2 / 2g

The hydrostatic head, z

The head loss, / g

The total, or stagnation head, P / g + u 2 / 2g + z

If the energy equation is altered by multiplying it throughout by the density, it

becomes

u12 u 2

P1 + + gz1 = P2 + 2 + gz2 +

2 2

As is obvious from the first term on either side of this equation, the units of each

2

component are those of pressure, i.e. N/m . This leads to the following terminology,

The static pressure, p, i.e. the pressure of the fluid

u12

The dynamic pressure, , i.e. the additional pressure that the fluid would

2

gain if it were brought to rest ideally

The hydrostatic pressure, gz

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 11

u 2

The total, or stagnation pressure, P + + gz i.e. the pressure that a fluid

2

could achieve if it was brought to rest ideally

In a pipe flow wall friction is the dominant cause of energy loss. When a fluid is

dragged across a solid surface, work has to be done on that fluid to overcome friction.

Friction causes a shear force to exist between the fluid and the solid surface. This

produces a shear stress, w , between the pipe wall and the fluid, as shown in Figure

5.

Consider an element of fluid of length L which is placed along the centre line as

shown below:

An element of the shear force, F , is given by the product of the shear stress and the

area that it acts over, thus

F = w A = w ( Dx )

Figure 5 -

Wall shear

stress in

element in

pipe flow

Work must be done against this force to move some fluid through some small distance

x . If the fluid has a velocity u and moves a distance x in time t , then

x = ut

The shear force can therefore be determined from

F = w ( D ) ut

The work done to move the fluid through this distance is w and is given by:

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 12

( ( ) )

w = Fx = w D ut x

This is the total work done on that element of fluid. What is required by the energy

equation is the specific work done, i.e. the work done per unit mass of fluid, The

mass of fluid that overcame the shear force, m , was

m = M t

Dutx w Dux w Dux 4 w x

= w = Au = D 2 = D

M t

u

4

When fluid enters a pipe, the velocity distribution that it has depends on how it is

delivered. As the fluid progresses through the pipe, the effect of fiction works it way

from the wall to the pipe centre line, altering the shape of the velocity profile and

damping out any swirl as it goes. When it reaches the centre line, and any swirl has

gone, the velocity distribution achieves a shape that remains fixed thereafter. Once

this velocity profile shape is achieved, the flow is fully developed. In a laminar flow, the

length of pipe required to become fully developed is proportional to Reynolds number,

and can be up to 100 pipe diameters. A turbulent flow achieves it in about 30 pipe

diameters. A fully developed flow has a constant wall-shear stress.

If the wall shear stress is constant, the energy loss can be integrated over a pipe

length, L, to give

4 w L

=

D

The wall shear stress is a difficult quantity to obtain. A friction factor, f , is therefore

defined to relate the wall shear stress to the dynamic pressure, thus

f

w = u 2

2

It should be noted that this is the Fanning friction factor and is not the only definition in

use. Care should be taken to ensure that the definition chosen is consistent with the

equation used.

Choosing this definition of friction factor allows the energy loss to be written as

L u2

=4f

D 2

The alternative form is shown in the next equation below. Note the 4 multiplier rather

than the 2 above.

L 2

= 4 u

D

This equation is the energy loss per unit kg for a fluid flowing in a pipeline.

Notice that the energy loss increases in proportion to the pipe length. This gives a

linear pressure gradient.

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 13

To determine the energy loss due to friction, the friction factor has to be specified.

This is found to depend on two quantities:

The type of flowing the pipe, laminar or turbulent

The relative roughness of the internal pipe wall.

There are two types of flow that exist, laminar flow and turbulent flow. The transition

between these flow types occurs at a critical velocity. Below the critical velocity the

flow is laminar, while above it, the flow is turbulent. Although we define a critical value,

the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs over a narrow range of flows.

Laminar flows move in planes concentric with the pipe wall. Turbulent flows have an

averaged motion that moves concentric with the pipe wall but they also have a large

random spin in them. In laminar flows viscous effects are dominant, whereas in

turbulent flows inertia effects are dominant. The transition from laminar flow to

turbulent flow is therefore determined from the ratio of the inertia force to the viscous

force. This ratio is known as the Reynolds number, Re. Thus,

Inertia Force F

Re = = I

Viscosus Force FV

A more useful expression can be obtained from a form of dimensional reasoning. A

more detailed account of dimensional analysis will be given elsewhere.

Reynolds number is defined as

uD

Re =

The derivation of Reynolds number can be achieved by dimensional analysis, or by

looking at momentum flow and shear stress

flow was established to be Re between 2000 and 3000.

If one imagines a stack of paper or thick card initially arranged as a rectangular block,

to be sheared as shown in Figure 6, it can be seen that the individual cards, or lamina,

slide over each other. There is no movement of material perpendicular to the shear

direction.

Figure 6 -

Shear

applied to

parallel

sheets

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 14

Similarly, in laminar fluid flow there is no mixing of the fluid and the fluid can be

regarded as a series of layers sliding past each other. If the flow is laminar a thin

filament of dye inserted in the fluid will remain as a thin filament as it follows the flow.

the velocity profile for a laminar flow of a fluid over a flat plate:

Free stream

velocity

Plate

Figure 7 - v

Velocity

profile in

laminar

flow over a

flat plate

dv

=

dy

where is the shear stress. At the wall, the velocity of the fluid must be zero, and the

wall shear stress is given by:

dv

w =

dy w

The kinematic viscosity of a fluid is defined:

=

In practice, laminar flow is observed at low speeds, in small tubes or channels, with

highly viscous fluids and very close to solid walls.

If the fluid layers seen in laminar flow break up and fluid mixes between the layers

then the flow is said to be turbulent. The turbulent mixing of fluid perpendicular to the

flow direction leads to a more effective transfer of momentum and internal energy

between the wall and the bulk of the fluid.

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 15

It should come as no surprise that man processes such as heat transfer and mass

transfer depend on the characteristics of laminar and turbulent flows are very different

in the two flow regimes.

For flow over a flat plate, as shown in Figure 8 we may determine whether the flow in

the boundary layer is likely to be laminar or turbulent by applying the following

conditions:

V x

Re x = < 10 5 Laminar flow

V x

Re x = > 10 6 Turbulent flow

where x is the distance from the leading edge of the plate

Figure 8 -

Development Laminar

Laminar Transition Turbulent

of the sublayer

boundary

layer over a

flat plate

For values of Reynolds number between 105 and 106 the situation is complicated by

two factors. Firstly, the transition is not sharp, it occurs over a finite length of plate. In

the transition region the flow may intermittently take on turbulent and laminar

characteristics. Secondly, the position of the transition zone depends not only upon

the Reynolds number, it is also influenced by the nature of the flow in the free stream

and the nature of the surface. Surface roughness or protuberances on the surface

tend to trip the boundary layer from laminar to turbulent.

Once the flow is fully developed, as would be some distance into a pipeline for

example, then the boundaries between the laminar sub layer and the turbulent core

will be uniform. Figure 9 illustrates what we imagine the temperature and velocity may

be doing in these regions.

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 16

Figure 9 -

Turbulent

and laminar

layers in

fully

developed

flow

For flow in pipes, channels or ducts the situation is similar to that for a flat plate in the

entry region, but in long channels the boundary layers from all walls meet and fully

developed temperature and velocity profiles are established.

For fully developed flow in pipes or channels the transition from laminar to turbulent

flow occurs at a Reynolds number, based on the channel hydraulic diameter, of

approximately 2000. As with the boundary layer on a flat plate, the transition may

occur at higher or lower values of Red. If the flow at entry to the channel contains no

turbulence and the channel is very smooth, laminar flow may be sustained up to

Reynolds numbers of 5-10000. Turbulence may occur at values of Red as low as

1000, but at low Reynolds numbers will decay if induced by, for example, sharp

corners.

Re<2000, the friction factor is linear with Reynolds number:

8

=

Re

Re>3000, friction factor is non-linear and depends on the roughness of the pipe wall.

For smooth bore pipelines, the friction factor is given by:

For 2.5x10-3<Re<105 = 0.0396 Re

0.25

( )

For 2.5x10-3<Re<107 0.5 = 2.5ln Re 0.5 + 0.3

Obviously, one of these equations (top) is easier to apply in calculations while the

other needs an iterative solution.

Surface roughness only has an effect on pipe friction if the flow is turbulent. In

turbulent flows, the fluid velocity reduces towards zero as the wall is approached. A

laminar sub-layer therefore exists very close to the wall. If the surface roughness

protrudes beyond this layer it has an effect, otherwise the pipe is hydraulically smooth.

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 17

Surface roughness increased the friction loss because a form drag, discussed in

section 4, is superimposed on the skin friction drag. This arises because the fluid

close to the surface cannot follow the shape of the surface. The effect of surface

roughness on friction factor is shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10:

The

Moody

chart

The Moody chart is a commonly recognised chart depicting the impact of fluid

velocity via the Reynolds number on he friction factor in horizontal pipes, with the

effect of pipe wall roughness. Unfortunately for us there are two friction factors, the

Moody friction factor and the Fanning friction factor. The conversion between the

two is given by:

f

=

2

where f is the Fanning friction factor that is given as the y-axis on the chart above.

There are three points to note about surface roughness. These are,

1. Roughness has no effect in the laminar flow regime.

2. Roughness increases the friction factor in the turbulent regime.

3. The friction factor is independent of Reynolds number for a rough tube if the

Reynolds number is sufficiently large. This is referred to as the fully rough

regime.

As with smooth bore pipes, there are correlations for rough pipes that are more

complex and some requiring iterative procedures to solve.

e

0.5 = 2.5ln 0.27 + 0.885Re 1 0.5

d

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 18

Although there is a lot of attention paid to friction factors, often in process applications

round the plant, pipelines are that small in length that frictional losses can often be

accounted for by a %age increase or x1.2 factor. However for long pipe runs such as

those carrying oil and gas from field to receiving terminal, the long length means that

friction factors and their estimation become one of the critical aspects of designing

pipelines.

Due to the use of spreadsheets and other computer based tools, several authors have

attempted to give correlations for friction factor which dont rely on iteration.

Colebrooks equation is defined as

e

f 0.5 = 2ln + 2.51Re 1 f 0.5

3.7d

Haaland (1983) re-defined this expression in explicit form

6.9 e 1.11

0.5

f = 1.8ln +

Re 3.7d

To be consistent with the pressure loss expression, remember

f

=

2

Internal roughness on the inside of a pipewall which is exposed to the flowing fluid is

thought to be a series of indentations and the size depends on the material of the

pipeline.

Pipeline Material Absolute Roughness (mm)

Drawn Tube

Copper

0.0015

Aluminum

PVC

Commercial steel pipe

0.046

Stainless Steel

Cast Iron Pipe 0.26

Galvanized Iron 0.152

Concrete Pipe 0.3 to 3

All of the analyses carried out so far have been for flows in circular pipes. There are

many other cross-sectional areas used to transport fluids. Frictional losses for these

other configurations can be estimated by replacing the pipe diameter by the hydraulic

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 19

diameter, DH. This is defined as four times the ratio of the flow area to the wetted

perimeter, i.e.

4 flow area 4A

DH = = F

wetter perimeter PW

For a circular pipe of diameter D:

2

AF = D PW = D

4

The hydraulic diameter, DH, is therefore D, as may have been expected.

For a rectangular channel of height H and breadth B:

AF = BH PW = 2 ( B + H )

The hydraulic diameter is only used for determining the effect of friction but also

average velocities and is often used in heat transfer when looking at the flow over

bundles of tubes.

Example

Water flows through a perfectly insulated, horizontal duct that discharges into the

atmosphere. The duct has a cross section of 100 mm x 125 mm and a length of 30 m.

The fluid velocity is 6 m/s. At some distance, x, from the duct exit the total head is 3.5

m of H2O. Determine,

a) The pressure of the water at the duct inlet,

b) The position x,

c) The temperature rise of the water as it flows through the duct.

Solution

Take = 1000 kg / m , = 0.001Ns / m ,Cp = 4.2kJ / kgK

3 2

4AF 4BH 2 0.1m 0.125m

DH = = = = 0.111m

PW (

2 B+H ) (

0.1m 0.125m )

The Reynolds number is therefore

kg m

uDH 1000 m3 6 s 0.111m

Re = = = 666700

Ns

0.001 2

m

Since Re>2000, the flow is turbulent and the friction factor is therefore:

= 0.0396 6667000.25 = 0.001386

The energy balance over the duct is

P1 u12 P2 u22

+ + gz1 = + + gz2 +

2 2

The frictional loss for the duct is then

2

L 30m kg m

= 4 f u 2 = 4 0.001386 1000 3 6 = 53935N / m2

D 0.111m m s

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 20

53935N / m2 J

= = 53.9

1000kg / m 3

kg

Since the duct is horizontal and does not change in diameter, then we can write

P1 P2

= +

Thus

kN kN kN

P1 = P2 + = 101.325 2

+ 53.935 2 = 155.26 2 (abs)

m m m

The gauge pressure is therefore 53.76kN/m2.

b) The pressure at point x is 3.5m of water, which is equivalent to a gauge

pressure of:

kg m kN

PX = gh = 1000 3

9.81 2 3.5m = 34.34 2

m s m

Then

P 53.9kN / m2

= = 1.798kN / m3

L 30m

So the distance from the end of the pipe where the pressure is 34.34 kN/m2 is:

34.34kN / m2

1.798kN / m =

3

x

so x=19.1m from end of the duct.

c) The energy lost due to friction will appear as heat, so the temperature rise is

going to be

53935N / m2

T = = = 0.0128K

C p 1000kg / m3 4200J / kgK

Fluids passing through a piping system may encounter pipeline components that

change the pipe size and/or the flow direction. Components that have a non-

streamlined geometry will produce eddies that can dissipate a significant quantity of

energy. Eddy-based losses usually occur in a pipeline component, such as an abrupt

enlargement, an orifice plate, an abrupt contraction or a valve.

If the fluid flow through a pipeline component is not ideal, an energy approach is only

possible if some estimate of the energy loss can be made. In general, theoretical

treatment is very difficult so that empirical results are commonplace. However, there is

a case which can be treated theoretically, the abrupt enlargement. The solution to this

problem leads to further solutions for the orifice plate and the abrupt contraction. The

type of solutions obtained from these analyses offer suggestions for correlating

empirically determined loss coefficients for other pipeline components.

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 21

An abrupt enlargement is a pipe section that increases in diameter over a negligible

length, as shown in Figure 11. The flow is unable to follow the abrupt area change and

energy dissipating eddies are set up in the corner of the enlargement.

Figure 11:

Flow

through an

abrupt

enlargement

To determine the fluid flow quantities a control volume is drawn as shown. The flow

can be considered in two regions, 1 to 2 and 2 to 3. In moving from 1 to 2 the fluid has

had no opportunity to enter the eddying region so that the flow is approximately ideal.

The fluid velocity at 2 is dependent on the flow area not the physical area. The flow

follows the mean path shown so that the flow area at 2 is approximately equal to the

pipe area at 1. Thus the velocity at 2 is approximately the same as that at 1. Also,

since energy losses are negligible in this region, the pressure at 2 must be the same

as that at 1. However, the pressure at 2 will act over all of the larger pipe area. The

momentum equation can therefore be applied to the control volume in the direction of

flow.

The force by the fluid upstream of the control volume, FP , is given by:

2

FP = P1 A3

2

3

FP = P3 A3

3

The distances upstream and downstream of the area change are so small that

frictional and gravitational effects can be neglected.

Since the flow through region 1 is ideal, the momentum into section 2 must be the

same as that entering section 1. Thus, the change in momentum across the control

volume, J, is given by

J = M u = M ( u3 u1 )

The momentum equation therefore gives

(

P1 A3 P3 A3 = M u3 u1 )

The mass flow rate through the system can be determined from

M = A3u3 = A1u1

so that the momentum equation becomes

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 22

A1 A1

P1 P3 = u3 ( u3 u1 ) = u12 1

A3 A3

Thus, if a known flow rate is passed through an abrupt enlargement, the downstream

velocity can be found from the continuity equation and the pressure from the

momentum equation. The downstream quantities are therefore known and the loss of

energy can be determined. The energy equation is

P1 u12 P2 u22

+ + gz1 = + + gz2 +

2 2

By convention, the energy loss in a pipeline component is expressed as a fraction of

the largest kinetic energy between the inlet and outlet. Thus, for an enlargement, the

upstream value is used, i.e.

u12

=k

2

The energy loss coefficient can thus be determined from

2 P1 P2 u3

2

k= + 1

u12 u12

Using the Momentum and Continuity equations reduces this to

2 P1 P3 u32 A1 A1 A12

k = 2 + 1 2 = 2 1 + 1 2

u1 u1 A3 A3 A3

2

A12 A A

k = 2 2 1 + 1 = 1 1

A3 A3 A3

Notice that the loss coefficient is a function of geometry only. This is a common result

for pipeline components and the reason for defining k in this way. Notice also that if a

pipe were to discharge into a large tank, where A3>>A1, then k = 1, i.e. all of the fluids

kinetic energy would be dissipated.

In the theoretical analyses so far considered, the energy loss coefficient has been

found to be geometry dependent only. It therefore seems reasonable to express all

energy losses in this way. For the more complicated geometries the loss coefficient is

found by empirical means, but it is usually expressed as a function of the fitting

geometry. A large amount of empirical data has been accumulated.

equivalent length of horizontal pipeline. The pressure drop along a length of pipeline

to be equal to the loss across a component. In order to express this as a useful

number the length of pipeline can be given by a number of pipeline diameters Table 1.

Be careful though, the values in Table 1 cover a range usually depended on the actual

pipe diameter. Always refer back to the manufacturers data sheet, or if for design

purposes, select the one that gives you the largest loss.

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 23

Diameters heads (u2/2g)

45 elbows 15 0.17 to 0.43

90 elbow standard radius 30-40 0.3 - 1.5

90 square elbow 60 1.2

180 Return bends 0.2 1.5

Entry from leg T-piece 60 1.2

Entry into leg T-piece 90 1.8

Sharp Reduction (Tank Outlet) 0.5 0.1 0.2

Sudden Expansion (Tank Inlet) 1 0.19 0.75

Unions and Couplings Very small Very small

Globe valve fully open 60-300 4.1 - 10

Gate valve fully open 7 0.15

Gate valve 75% open 40 0.26

Gate valve 50% open 200 2.1

Gate valve 25% open 800 17

Ball valve (100% open) 18 0.05 0.08

Ball valve (50% open) 5.5

Ball valve (25% open) 200 - 210

Check valve 150

Plug valve open 0.4 18

Table 1 List of minor loss terms for pipeline fittings

Example

A pipeline connecting two tanks contains 3 standard elbows, a plug valve that is

normally fully open and two gate valves that are normally 75% open. The line is

commercial steel pipe, 30mm internal diameter. Length of the pipeline is 25m.

Properties of the fluid are density 990 kg/m3, viscosity 0.85 cP. Calculate the overall

pressure drop for a mass flowrate 4000 kg/hr.

Solution

( )

2

Cross-sectional area for flow is = 25x103 = 0.491x103 m2

4

kg

4000 1hr m3

The volumetric flowrate is = hr x = 0.00112

kg 3600s s

990 3

m

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 24

m3

Q 0.00112 s m

u= = 2

= 1.59

A 0.000707m s

kg m

990 1.59 0.003m

ud m 3

s

Reynolds number is then Re = = = 55478

0.85x103

Absolute roughness for the pipeline is 0.046mm, relative roughness is then 0.046/30=

0.0015

So the friction factor from the Moody chart is 0.0025

Using the equivalent length of pipeline:

Fitting Type Number No. Pipe Equivalent Pipe

Diameters Diameters

Elbow 3 35 3x35=105

Plug valve 1 18 18

Gate valve 2 40 =2x40=80

Tank 1 outlet 1 25 25

Tank 2 inlet 1 50 50

Total 278

The overall pressure drop is therefore

2

L 25m + 278 0.03m kg m N

Pf = 4 u 2 = 4 0.0025 990 3 1.59 = 27736 2

D 0.03m m s m

2.9

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 25

Unlike liquids, gases are compressible thats is to say their density is a function of the

pressure and temperature at which the gas exists at any particular point. The flow of

compressible flow is complex and to study ths properly, changes in enthalpy usually

needs to be taken account of. When gases expand there is often a temperature

change due to Joule-Thomson cooling depending on the type of gas.

The study of compressible flow normally starts in dedicated fluids teaching but also in

thermodynamics. Analysis of compressible flow depends on changes in enthalpy. For

a refresher, see the appendix.

When a gas flows along pipelines, the reduction in pressure due to friction, although

slight, will reduce the density and hence the volumetric flowrate will increase as will

the velocity. For long pipelines if the exit pressure is reduced too far by friction losses

then in theory the velocity of the gas could increase and reach critical values. In

practice the velocity is likely to increase to a level which exceeds the normal limit to

avoid erosion inside the line.

This section looks at pressure losses for a compressible fluid flowing along a pipeline.

The appendix provides basic theory leaving this chapter to concentrate on the

derivation of pressure loss and the engineering equations that are normally used.

Two key issues with compressible flow of gases is:

3.1.1 The relationship between pressure and specific volume for real gases.

P k = P11k = P2 2k

The index gives the behaviour of real gases. Usually k is the polytropic or adiabatic

index.

A cursory analysis of the mass flowrate expression shows that that G=0 when P1=P2,

and when P2=0 and again the mass flowrate will go through a maximum turning point.

In other words, there is some downstream pressure P2 which is lower than P1, where

the mass flowrate will be a maximum value.

k

" 2 % k1

c = $ '

# k +1 &

If the process is isentropic (ie a process that is adiabatic and which there is no

frictional loss when work/energy is transferred from the system to/from the

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 26

surroundings. The process is purely reversible), then we can replace the polytropic

index by the adiabatic index:

cp

= =k

cv

where cp and cv are the specific heat capacities of the gas at constant pressure and

constant volume.

Flows through nozzles is straight forward to understand the theory but the application

to petroleum engineering is somewhat limited and orientated to safety and pressure

relief situations. A more relevant situation is flow along a pipeline. Compressibility of a

gas flowing in a pipe can have a significant effect on the relation between flow rate

and pressures at each end of the pipe. Changes in fluid density can arise as a result

of changes in either temperature or pressure, or both. The flow will be affected by the

rate of heat transfer between the pipe & surroundings; a particular issue if we have a

gas export line running along the sea bed, or flowlines from a well head to the

production platform.

Unlike the orifice or nozzle, the pipeline maintains constant flow area but we need to

take into account friction losses on the pipe wall.

To start, consider the flow of gas from a reservoir where the pressure is maintained at

P1. At the other end of the pipe, there is a second reservoir at pressure P2.

If P1=P2 then there can be no flow and G=0

If P2 is reduced, then G becomes +ve and gas flows from one reservoir to the

other. The limiting case will be where the value of P2 drops below a critical

value when the end of the pipe effectively reaches a maximum or choking

velocity.

As will nozzle flow, the first place to start is defining the governing equations as far as

we can. The energy balance is as it was but we have to account for energy loss due

to friction.

1

udu + gdz + vdp + dWs + dF = 0

For a fluid flowing through a length of pipe dl of constant cross-sectional area A:-

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 27

Our normal loss of energy due to friction of the fluid on the pipe wall is:

1

= 4 !

! ! !

= = using =

! ! !

Assuming that u is the average velocity and hence = 1, and if the pipe is horizontal

we have

+ + 4 ! = 0

To deal with the first term, we realise that the specific volume of the gas is a function

of the velocity (since the mass flowrate G and the cross sectional area of the pipe are

constant in this case). Therefore we have

=

And hence

!

+ + 4 =0

! !

+ + 4 ! =0

! !

+ + 4 =0

The friction factor is a function of Reynolds number, which on the first glance is a

function of the velocity and density of the fluid. However, closer inspection shows that:

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 28

= = =

So for a constant mass flowrate and assuming the viscosity does not change, then

Reynolds number will be constant along the pipeline. This means that the friction

factor will also be constant along the length.

We can then integrate the expression above, now that we are confident that can be

constant:

! ! !!

!

+ + 4 =0

! !!

This is then the integral form of the energy equation for a compressible fluid flowing

along a pipe segment of length L. The final solution can only be found by knowing the

relation between pressure and specific volume, as we have done with the nozzle flow

earlier.

For the idea gas we have:

!! !!

1 !! !! !!

= = =

!! !! !! 2

! ! !! !! !

+ + 4 =0

! 2! !

Likewise, with pressures to replace the specific volumes:

! !

! !! !!

+ + 4 =0

! 2! !

This gives us an implicit type of equation to solve and it can only be solved by

knowing either the upstream pressure or the downstream pressure. For non-ideal

gases, we can also include the compressibility factor.

For a real fluid, a gas, we can use the compressibility factor to relate density to

pressure. The derivation that follows is known as the General Flow Equation and

applies to real gases flowing under some specific assumptions. This forms the basis

of all gas flow equations in long pipelines. Derivations can be found in journal papers

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 29

(eg (Coelho, et al., 2007)but the proof here builds upon what you will have seen in

other courses.

Returning to the initial energy balance, using density rather than specific volume, we

have:

1 dP

udu + + gdz + dWs + dF = 0

No shaft work no addition of energy by external means Ws=0

Friction can be replaced by a friction factor term

We use alpha=1

Now we then integrate each term between two points along the pipeline:

P2 P2 P

P dP =

MwtP

P ZRT dP =

Mwt 2

ZRT P

PdP =

1 Mwt 2

2 ZRT

P2 P12 ( )

1 1 1

The temperature is assumed constant over the range the pressure will change. The

molar mass remains constant and we assume the compressibility factor remains at a

constant average value.

z2 z2

MwtP Mwt 2Pavg

2

2

( )

z1 1 avg avg

Here we realise that the compressibility and temperature will change over the vertical

height so we replace this by an average value. We do the same with the pressure.

This may seem counter intuitive since the pressure will change with height but its a

simple device to solve the integral.

( )( ) = 4 ( u) 2

x2

1 2 x 2 x1 2 L G L

x 4 du dL = 4 u = 4

2 2

1

d d A d

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 30

2 2

Q G

( u)

2

= =

( u)

2

A A .

(( ) ( )) 1 G G

u2 2 2

1 2 2

u udu = 2 u 2 u = = 0

2

1 2 A 2 A 1

1

Some references may conclude the kinetic energy term is small and this is going to be

true but since we use the mass flowrate and since mass must be conserved, then

the kinetic term reduces to 0.

2

Mwt 2P2 G L

0+

1 Mwt 2

2 ZRT

(

P2 P12 + 2 2 avg2

ZavgR Tavg

)g z 2

z 1

+ 4 (

A d = 0 )

Lets collect like terms

Mwt

0 +

(

P22 P12

+

)

2

Mwt Pavg

g z 2 z1 ( )

2

G L

+ 4 =0

ZRT 2 ZavgR Tavg A d

MwtP

Now since : = , we have

ZRT

Mwt

0 +

(

P22 P12 )

+ Pavgg z 2 z1 (

)

2

G L

+ 4 =0

ZRT 2 A d

Rearrange

G L Mwt

4

2

= 0 +

P12 P22 (

Pavgg z 2 z1

) ( )

A d ZRT 2

Isolate the mass flowrate

G

2

Mwt (

P12 P22 )

Pavgg z 2 z1 (

) 4Ld

A = ZRT 0 + 2

( )

0.5

d

G Mwt P12 P22

= 0 +

A ZRT 2

Pavgg z 2 z1 ( )

4L

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 31

( )

0.5

d

Mwt P12 P22 d2

G= 0 +

ZRT 2

Pavgg z 2 z1 ( )

4L 4

We make some changes to the expression to relate the Mwt by a specific gravity

Mwt

= =

air 29

( )

0.5

d

29 P12 P22 d2

G= 0 +

ZRT 2

Pavgg z 2 z1 ( )

4L 4

( )

0.5

29 P1 P2

2 2

d2.5

G=

ZRTL 2

Pavgg z 2 z1 ( )

8

We can now make the assumption of horizontal pipe

( )

0.5

P2 P2

1 2 d2.5

G = 29

2ZRTL 8

( )

0.5

29 P12 P22 d2.5

G=

8 2 ZRTL

( )

0.5

29 1 P2 P2

1 2 d2.5

Qs =

8 2 s ZRTL

Now we have a density and specific gravity term, that we can try and simplify down:

( )

0.5

29 P12 P22 d2.5

Qs =

8 2 s ZRTL

= = =

s 29 s 29 MwtPs 29 Ps

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 32

( )

0.5

29 R T P12 P22 d2.5

Qs = ZRTL

s

8 2 29 Ps

So collecting the constants together we have:

( )

0.5

Ts P1 P2

2 2

d2.5

Qs = a

Ps ZRTL

So a represents the numerical constants which include the molar mass of air and the

gas constant. The terms Ts and Ps are the pressure and temperature of the gas where

the volumetric flowrate is Qs.

Now if we think about what the friction factor is, we can make an assumption that at

high Reynolds numbers, the friction factors will more or less be independent of

velocity (lines on a Moody chart become horizontal). We could then incorporate this

into the constants. If we account for additional energy losses, we could use a pipeline

efficiency factor E

( )

b

Ts P1 P2 c

2 2

Qs = a d E

Ps ZavgRTavgL

Note that weve made it explicit that the compressibility factor and the temperature are

average values across the length L of the pipeline.

Terms a, b, and c are constants which vary depending who has looked at data sets

for particular pipelines.

The general gas flow equation was derived from the pressure loss across a horizontal

pipeline with a compressible gas. The basic assumptions are

a. The pipeline is horizontal although we need to assume an average pressure

value for us to incorporate a static head change.

b. We have an average temperature and so the gas flow equation is only valid for

small changes or isothermal flow.

c. We have neglected kinetic energy losses in the pipeline

As with all oil and gas industry equations, it is common to use field units mmscfd, d

in inches, L in miles, P is psi, T in Rankine. So we will find alternative constants to

take care of unit conversion. The General Gas Flow Equation has been quoted as the

Basic Flow Equation: as:

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 33

0.5

Q sc

T

= 38.774 sc

( )

P12 P22 d 5

E

fLT Z

P sc m m

Here we see the a constant becomes 38.774, there is also a factor f . These are

partly due to the unit conversion, and partly due to leaving the friction factor inside the

root term.

To simplify the equation so that friction factor can be removed, many companies and

researchers have fitted specific data sets on measured pipeline pressures and used

more detailed theoretical derivations to give a range of equations to use.

Four of the common ones are:

Weymouth Formula 0.5

Q sc

T

= 433.49 sc

(

P12 P22 d 5.333

) E

Psc LTm Z m

Q sc

T

= 435.87 sc

(

0.854

)

P12 P22 d 4.854

E

(Imperial) Psc LTm Z m

( )

0.5394

Panhandle A T

1.0788

P2 P2 d4.854

2 1

Qsc = 0.0045965 sc 0.8536 E

(metric) Psc LTmZm

(Imperial) Q sc

T

= 737 sc

(

0.961

)

P12 P22 d 4.961

E

Psc LTm Z m

( )

Panhandle B 0.51

(Metric) T

1.02

P2 P2 d4.961

Qsc = 0.010019 sc 1 0.961 2 E

Psc LTmZm

( )

IGT Equation 5/9

T P1 P2

2 2

(Imperial)

Qsc = 92.66 sc 0.8 0.2 d8/3E

Psc LTm

( )

IGT Equation 5/9

Tsc P1 P2

2 2

(Metric)

Qsc = 0.0012753 0.8 0.2 d8/3E

Psc LTm

Note each on the these equations uses an efficiency factor E. This is meant to

account for frictional losses since the equations do not have a term for friction factor.

As a consequence, pipe roughness is not accounted for.

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 34

There are some 20 different friction factor correlations giving 20 different pressure

drop type relationships. Unfortunately many of these are for the US/Imperial unit

system:

where

Units Units

P 1, P 2 are upstream and downstream pressures psi kPa

Qsc Gas flowrate at Psc and Tsc scf/d m3/day

Psc Standard pressure psi kPa

Tsc Standard temperature (absolute) R K

Tm Flowing Temperature (absolute) R K

L Pipeline Length miles km

d Diameter in mm

Gas viscosity lbfs/ft2 Pas

E Efficiency factor

Zm Compressibility factor

Specific gravity

The American Gas Association (AGA) uses what is called a Transmission Factor

that replaces the friction factor.

( )

0.5

Ts P1 P2

2 2

Qs = a F d2.5

Ps ZRTL

F is the Transmission Factor

The AGA uses the general flow equation and puts in the friction factor, thats defined

from the type of flow pattern:

3.74D

a) Turbulent flow F = 4log10 where is the absolute roughness of the

pipeline.

Re

b) Partially turbulent flow F = 4log10

1 0.6

f

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 35

Example

Calculate the outlet pressure in a natural gas pipeline, NPS 18 with 0.250 in. wall

thickness, 20 miles long, using Panhandle A and B equations. The gas flow rate is

150 MMSCFD at a flowing temperature of 70F. The inlet pressure is 1000 psig and

the gas gravity and viscosity are 0.6 and 0.000008 lb/ft-sec, respectively. Assume

base pressure = 14.7 psia and base temperature = 60F. Assume that the

compressibility factor Z = 0.85 throughout and the pipeline efficiency is 0.95. Compare

the results using the Weymouth Equation. Neglect elevation effects.

Solution

Inside diameter D = 18 2 x 0.250 = 17.50 in

Gas flowing temperature Tf = 70 + 460 = 530 R Upstream pressure P1 = 1000 + 14.7

= 1014.7 psia Base temperature Tb = 60 + 460 = 520 R

Base pressure Pb = 14.7 psia

Using the Panhandle A Eq. (2.34), we get:

Using the Panhandle B Eq. (2.36), we get:

P2 = 971.81 psia

Thus, both Panhandle A and B give results that are quite close. Next using the

Weymouth Eq. (2.30) we get:

P2 = 946.24 psia

It can be seen that the outlet pressure calculated using the Weymouth equation is the

smallest value. Hence we conclude that for the same flow rate, Weymouth gives a

higher pressure drop compared to Panhandle A and Panhandle B equations.

Therefore, Weymouth is considered to be more conservative than the other two flow

equations.

In the gas pressure equations, we used several physical properties. Since many of our

gases will be mixtures, it is worth spending some time reviewing the properties of gas

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 36

mixtures and how to calculate these. First lets look at a few definitions, then some

properties of pure single component gases then for gas mixtures.

Remember the molar mass of a gas mixture is given by

(

Mwt mix = yiMwt i )

Calculate the apparent molecular weight of a natural gas mixture that contains 80%

methane 12% ethane, 5% propane and 3% normal butane.

Molar mass

Component Mole % y x Mwt

kg/kmol

Methane (C1) 80 16.01 0.8x16.01

Ethane (C2) 12 30.10 0.12x30.10

Propane (C3) 5 44.10 0.05x44.10

n-Butane (nC4) 3 58.10 0.03x58.01

Avg Mol.Mass 20.37 kg/kmol

3.5.2 Density

Density comes from:

MwtP

=

ZRT

where Z is the compressibility factor.

This is defined as density of the gas divided by density of air at the same temperature

and pressure as the gas:

MwtP

ZRT Mwt

sg or = = =

air 29P 29

ZRT

It is important to specify if the pressure is gauge or absolute. Always use the proper

units e.g

psia or pisg

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 37

Viscosity of pure gases with temperature is shown as a graph below

( y i i

Mwt i )

mix =

(y i

Mwt i )

where y is the mole fraction of component i

Mwt is the molar mass of component i

All pure viscosities should be taken at the same temperature and pressure

The compressibility factor for gases is usually given as functions for the reduced

pressure and temperature:

P T

Pr = Tr =

Pcritical T

and critical

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 38

(

Pcritical mix = yiPci ) and T

critical mix (

= yiTci )

Compressibility factor would come from equations of state or be given by correlations

or graphical means. Some of the relations for hydrocarbon systems are given as

examples:

1) Natural Gas

As the gas from oil fields will be very similar to natural gas, properties of natural gas

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 39

The California Natural Gas Association (CNGA) for natural gas for pressures above

100 psig is given as

1

Z=

(

344400P 101.785

1+ avg )

T3.825

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 40

T is the gas temperature (deg R)

is the gas specific gravity

Example

Calculate the pseudo-critical temperature and the pseudo-critical pressure of a natural

gas mixture consisting of 85% methane, 10% ethane, and 5% propane.

Component Critical temp Critical Pressure

deg R Psia

Methane 343 666

Ethane 550 707

Propane 666 617

Ppc =(0.85666)+(0.10707)+(0.05617)=667.65 psia

The diameter of a pipeline is normally determined to minimise the overall

pumping/compression costs over the lifetime of the project. However as a first trial,

there are a series of rules of thumb that industry uses. Often the selection of pipeline

diameter is one of the more troublesome parts of pipeline deign especially at the

beginning of a project. Industry rules of thumb often come into the designers mind or

at least should.

There are a couple of thoughts adapted from (Silowash, 2010) on pipeline sizing are:

1. Pipeline size is usually a function of velocity

2. Keep in mind that the larger the pipe, installation costs will be higher as will

availability of the pipeline.

3. Standard lengths for pipes made offsite, these have to be transported by

road/rail so the length and diameter can be limited by what can be carried

4. Silowash says that it doesn't cost that much to increase the pipeline diameter

to reduce friction loss and to allow for future increases in capacity.

5. Just as you need to be aware of high velocities to protect against erosion, you

need to be aware of low velocities which could affect sedimentation especially

for slurries or fluids with any kind of solids

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 41

Low High Low High

Air Air or flue ducting 10 35 3 10

Air Centrifugal compressor 50 100 15.2 30

Air Piston Compressor 70 100 21 30

Chlorine Dry gas 33 83 10 25

Chlorine Dry Liquid 5 1.5

Natural Gas 75 psig 35 115 10 35

Natural Gas Cross Country 80 250 24 76

Oil Gravity Flow 2 3 0.6 0.9

Oil Heavy Viscosity 2 3 0.6 0.9

Oil Light Viscosity 3 6 0.9 1.8

Steam Boiler 100 135 30 41

Steam Long run 135 200 41 60

Steam Saturated to 15 psig 17 70 5.2 21.3

Steam Saturated to 50 psig 100 167 30 51

Steam Saturated to 200 psig 167 300 51 91

Water Centrifugal Pump 10 17 3 5.2

Discharge

Water Centrifugal Pump Suction 2 5 0.6 1.5

Water Fire Hose 10 3

Water General Service 4 10 1.2 3

Water Gravity 2 3 0.6 0.9

Water Sea Water 5 12 1.5 3.7

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 42

We realise that the flow equations use average pressure and temperatures so that the

compressibility factor and the temperatures may change along the length of a very

long pipeline. So to solve this type of problem its best to split the pipeline into

segments

Example

A natural gas pipeline, AB is 100 miles long and is NPS16, 0.250 in. wall thickness.

The elevation differences may be neglected and the pipeline assumed to be along a

flat elevation profile. The gas flow rate is 100 MMSCFD. It is required to determine the

pressure at the inlet A, considering a fixed delivery pressure of 1000 psig at the

terminus B. The gas gravity and viscosity are 0.6 and 0.000008 lb/ft-s, respectively.

The gas flowing temperature is 70 deg F throughout. The base temperature and

pressure are 60 deg F and 14.7 psia respectively.

Use the Panhandle A equation to solve the pressure drop over the entire line, and

other the line if it were split into two equally sized sections.

Solution

In the absence of tables, we will take the inside diameter of the pipeline as: D = 16-

2x0.250 = 15.5 in.

For the compressibility factor, we need to know the gas temperature and the average

pressure. Since we do not know the upstream pressure at A, we cannot calculate an

accurate average pressure. We will assume that the average pressure is 1200 psig,

since the pressure at B is 1000 psig. The approximate compressibility factor will be

calculated using this pressure from Eq. (1.12):

Z=1

Therefore, Z = 0.8440

This value can be adjusted after we calculate the actual pressures.

Using the General Flow equation considering the pipeline as one 100 mile long

segment, the pressure at the inlet A can be calculated as follows:

P1 = 1195.14 psia or 1180.44 psig.

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 43

Based on this upstream pressure and the downstream pressure of 1000 psig at B, the

average pressure becomes, from Eq. (2.26):

This compares with the average pressure of 1200 psig we initially used to calculate Z.

Therefore, a more correct value of Z can be re-calculated using the average pressure

calculation above. Strictly speaking we must re-calculate Z based on the new average

pressure of 1092.68 psig and then re-calculate the pressure at A using the General

Flow equation. The process must be repeated until successive values of Z are within a

small tolerance, such as 0.01. This is left as an exercise for you.

Next we will sub-divide the 100 mi pipeline into two equal 50 mi segments. We will first

calculate the upstream pressure of the second 50 mi segment based on a

downstream pressure of 1000 psig at B. This will establish the pressure at the mid

point of the 100 mi pipeline. Then, based on this mid-point pressure we will calculate

the pressure required at A, for the first 50 mi segment. Since the pressure at A was

calculated earlier as approximately 1180 psig, we will assume an average pressure of

the second 50 mi segment to be approximately 1050 psig.

Z=1

Therefore, Z = 0.8608

Applying the General Flow equation for the second 50 mi segment:

TOPIC 8: Frictional Pressure Drops Homogeneous Flows 44

P1 = 1110.38 psia, or 1095.68 psig.

As before, the average gas pressure in the second segment must be calculated based

on the above pressure, the pressure at B, and the recalculated value of Z. We will skip

that step for now and proceed with the first 50 mi segment.

Note that we have also assumed the same value for Z as before. Solving for the

pressure at A, we get:

5 References

Silowash Brian Piping Systems Manual [Book]. - [s.l.] : McGraw Hill, 2010.

- Dimensional Analysis and Hydraulic SimilitudeDiunggah olehinsaneabhay
- Kolmetz Handbook of Process Equipment DesignDiunggah olehachyutde
- Pump System OptimizationDiunggah olehweichieh1986
- 42542537-Energy-Loss-in-Pipes-1.pdfDiunggah olehJJ Sean Cruz
- Line Sizing1Diunggah olehGohar Ali
- Fluids Essay ReportDiunggah olehVamshi Krishna
- Lab 5Diunggah olehCem Usmangil
- Ht2 Sim Slides f09Diunggah olehstathiss11
- English 2013115144510Diunggah olehprashanthreddy26
- 332_in_pressDiunggah olehWagner Soriano
- Fluid DynamicsDiunggah olehAnoop Singh
- Affect of Reducing DragDiunggah olehpride3351
- 8.Mixing of Solids2Diunggah olehRohit Kumar
- Paper Conventional and NonConventional WellsDiunggah olehmejiasid
- a new pressure drop model for structured packing H.A. Kooijman.pdfDiunggah olehMichael Sutherland
- Sw Flow TutorialDiunggah olehDeniz ümit Bayraktutar
- OhnesorgeDiunggah olehEgonPittoors
- CH E 356 AB Hebert or Vigil Chelsea Hebert Exam 1 Review StudentDiunggah olehxtito2
- Sump Pump Selection Final ReportDiunggah olehEngr Saad Bin Sarfraz
- Chapt4-Mean Flow-Hydraulics.pdfDiunggah olehNaveen Reddy
- 0910SEM1-ME2134EDiunggah olehrevo17
- AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001-(B0)Diunggah olehamini_mohi
- ME123 Lecture 5 Head Loss in Pipe FlowDiunggah olehWaqarSaleemCh
- CFD ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSERDiunggah olehVishal B. Kadia
- Kmp Ijimt5 SusheelDiunggah olehDorry Prayoga
- Fluid-Flow-Through-A-Packed-Bed_REV1.pdfDiunggah olehJohn Louie Gresula
- TmrDiunggah olehEverRamirez
- engineeringpracticejuly2016.pdfDiunggah olehAgustin Haddad
- Reservoirs and Distribution SystemDiunggah olehNiteshKrJha
- Heat Transfer in All Pipe Flow Regimes_ Laminar, Transitional_intermittent, And TurbulentDiunggah olehLeoncio Santos Tress

- Cehs Plan TemplateDiunggah olehSabaSheri
- Certification DetailsDiunggah olehNil Pawar
- ACC 490 FinalDiunggah olehMelinda Shanley
- 2450APBCDiunggah olehperuingenieros
- As Collective Topics for Work SheetsDiunggah olehMehreenSaeed
- origami KingCobra Ronald KohDiunggah olehsfjgzycx
- soal final examDiunggah olehEga Alizar
- 565 -OBassignment No2Diunggah olehAmbreen Sultan
- 721hv3 Mu EnDiunggah olehAnibal Muñoz
- second draft rhetorical analysisDiunggah olehapi-279230389
- Microsoft Lync 2010 Attendant TrainingDiunggah olehmasonsierra
- 8-3.pdfDiunggah olehdeniden2013
- Velocity and Acceleration Before Contact in the Tackle During Rugby Union MatchesDiunggah olehpeterashcroft72677
- Excercise2-Freqquency-measure1Diunggah olehVinz Ienawi
- Salary Survey 2018Diunggah olehRedho Keizal
- res gDiunggah olehshastikumar
- 3944-11405-1-PBDiunggah olehUgonna Ohiri
- The ReliquaryDiunggah olehmichaelstarr1969
- T1 D1 S1 z Systems z13 UpdateDiunggah olehelias.ancares8635
- PETREL COURSE.pdfDiunggah olehFaishal Mahdy
- Director Integrated Marketing Channel in Washington DC Resume Raquel OkanlaDiunggah olehRaquelOkanla
- A Method for Game PlanningDiunggah olehsaintscoach
- AP Human Geography Chapter 11 NotesDiunggah olehSeth Adler
- full exp 4.docxDiunggah olehsarahina
- Lee Eating Christmas in the Kalahari (1)Diunggah olehlp_blackout
- STS Chapter 1Diunggah olehFrosty
- Circular c2dDiunggah olehJagdish Patankar
- Point Blank Course OverviewDiunggah olehRishav
- loloveDiunggah olehyosephineikaa
- Tracing Pastoralist MigrationsDiunggah olehFábio Vieira

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.