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Dr. Ir.

Mohammad Hafidz
STT PLN
September 2015
1. Pendahuluan
2. Kondisi Kelistrikan di Indonesia
3. PLTU Batubara
4 PLTGU
5. PLTN
6. Generator sinkron
Setelah mengikuti kuliah ini mahasiswa :
1. Mengerti dan memahami jenis , prinsip
kerja dan karakteristik PTL.
2. Mengerti dan memahami jenis sistem
kontrol yang bekerja pada PTL
3. Mengerti dan memahami masing-masing
sistem kontrol pada PTL secara garis besar.
Pendahuluan : Pembangkit Tenaga Listrik
Jenis dan karakteristik Pembangkit T.L.
a. PLT Thermal
b. PLT Air
c. PLT Nuklir
d. PLT Alternatif ( surya, angin dsb.)
Karakteristik beban (load characteristics)
Generator sinkron dan Exciter
Konfigurasi sistem kontrol PTL.
Kualitas daya listrik
Sistem kontrol tegangan exciter
Sistem kontrol putaran turbin
Sistem kontrol daya reaktif
Sistem proteksi sistem
The Supply Chain of Electricity
Primary
Energy

Market Price
Generation
OIL

Geothermal PLNs
Power
Plants

Gas
GAS Transmission Sales
Companies
and and Customers
PLNs Distribution Services
Subsidiaries
Power Plants PLN PLN Regulated
Coal Tarrif
COAL
Companies

Regulated Price
Independent
Power
Water Producers
WATER
Authorities

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INTERKONEKSI TENAGA LISTRIK

PEMBANGKIT PLTA / PLTGU

GARDU INDUK UNIT PENGATUR


PEMBANGKIT PLTG
STEP UP DISTRIBUSI

SALURAN
TRANSMISI
INDUSTRI
BESAR GARDU INDUK
70 kV
PEMBANGKIT
PLTD
GARDU INDUK SALURAN
150 kV TRANSMISI

JARINGAN KANTOR / PERTOKOAN


INDUSTRI TM / TR
MENENGAH / KECIL

SEKOLAH / PERGURUAN PERUMAHAN


TINGGI

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POWER PLANT AND TRANSMITION
IN JAWA BALI ISLAND
PLTU M. KARANG
PLT(G)U PRIOK 500 kV Java-Bali System
PLTU SURALAYA BEKASI

PLTGU M. TAWAR

PLTA CIRATA PLT(G)U SEMARANG


CILEGON

PLTG SUNYARAGI
PLTGU GRESIK

GANDUL GRESIK

CILBINONG
PLTU PAITON
PLTA SAGULING UNGARAN
KRIAN PLTG PEMARON
M. RANCAN
BDG. SEL.

PLTP KAMOJANG

Power System Sub System Main Control


PLTG GILIMANUK
Plant Control (Load Dispatcher)
PLTD PESANGGARAN

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Kondisi Sistem Tenaga Listrik (Grid) Saat Ini

Beban Puncak : 217 MW Beban Puncak : 183 MW Beban Puncak : 247 MW


Daya terpasang : 262 MW Daya terpasang : 240 MW Daya terpasang : 485 MW N
G. Induk : 4 Unit, 160 MVA G. Induk : 7 Unit, 390 MVA G. Induk : 11 Unit, 539 MVA
T/L : 180 kmc T/L : 292 kmc T/L : 818 kmc W E

S
Beban Puncak : 1051 MW
Daya terpasang : 1460 MW
G. Induk : 49 Unit, 2358 MVA
T/L : 3274 kmc
Beban Puncak : 261 MW
Daya terpasang : 393 MW
6 G. Induk : 10 Unit, 289 MVA
Grid 4 Grid 8 T/L : 431 kmc
Sumatera 2 Grid
Grid Kalimantan
Utara Sulawesi
Kalimantan 5 Timur Beban Puncak : 502 MW
Utara
Barat Grid Daya terpasang : 558 MW
Sumatera Kalimantan G. Induk : 26 Unit, 792 MVA
Grid KalimantanSetalan/Tenga 7 T/L : 1835 kmc
Sumatera h Grid
3
Selatan Sulawesi
Selatan Sulawesi
1
Beban Puncak : 15396 MW
Beban Puncak : 1372 MW Grid Jawa Bali Daya terpasang : 22126 MW
Daya terpasang : 2019 MW
G. Induk : 396 Unit, 45600 MVA
G. Induk : 63 Unit, 2606 MVA
T/L : 19386 kmc
T/L : 5637 kmc

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KOMPOSISI PEMBANGKIT 2008
PLTU PLTA
34% 14% PLTD
12%

PLTP
2% KOMPOSISI PEMBANGKIT 2009
PLTG/PLTGU
PLTA
38%
13%
PLTD
11%
PLTU
39%

PLTP
1% PLTG/PLTGU
36%

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KOMPOSISI PELANGGAN TAHUN 2009
Publik
Komersial 7%
16% Industri
38%

Rumah KOMPOSISI PELANGGAN TAHUN 2009


Tangga
Publik,
39%
Komersial, 2,924,738 Industri,
6,565,003 15,319,424

Rumah
Tangga,
15,544,835

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Komposisi Produksi Tahun 2009
Hydro
Panas Bumi 7% BBM
3% 23%

Gas Alam
26%
Biaya Bahan Bakar Tahun 2009
Panas Bumi Hydro
Gas Alam 3% 0%
Batubara 13%
41%

Batubara BBM
24% 60%

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BIAYA PRODUKSI 2008
Depresiasi
Pembelian 6% Bahan Bakar &
Energi
Pelumas
12%
Administrasi 68%
Pegawai 3%
6%

Pemeliharaan
5%

BIAYA PRODUKSI 2009


Depresiasi
Pembelian 8%
Energi
17%

Administrasi
3%

Pegawai
8%

Pemeliharaan Bahan Bakar


6% & Pelumas
58%

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PREDIKSI KEBUTUHAN ENERGI 2004 S/D 2010

TWh 180

160
36.6 Luar Jawa-Bali ~10%
140
32.5
120 29.6
27.0
100 24.3
22.2
20.3
-
Jawa Bali ~8.1%
80

60 128.4
117.9
100.6 108.7
84.9 91.8
40 78.8

20

0
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Pertumbuhan permintaan energi di Luar Jawa-Bali melebihi Jawa-Bali , dengan


pertumbuhan mencapai ~10%, maka strategi untuk mendapatkan proyek-proyek
dengan bahan bakar non minyak di luar Jawa-Bali akan meningkatkan
keuntungan dan mengurangi resiko portfolio aset.

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Types of Power Plants
Classification by the mechanical means used to
turn the generator...
Thermal (water steam by burning Coal, Oil, NG)
Nuclear (water steam by Uranium or Plutonium fission)
Geothermal
Hydroelectric (falling water)
Wind

Solar...

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Presentase Penggunaan
Energi Primer

Municipal Solid
Hydroelectric Waste and
Natural Gas 7.2% Nuclear Landfill Gas
16% 20% Wood 0.6% Other Waste
1.0% 0.1%

Petroleum Wind
2.9% 0.1%
Other
Solar
2.6%
Coal 0.02%
52% Other Gas and
Geothermal Waste Heat
0.4% 0.4%
KONVERSI ENERGI
Principles
energy = the ability to do work
measured in Joules
power = rate of energy generation
or use
measured in Watts = Joules / sec
current = rate of charge flow
measured in Amps Water pipes analogy

voltage = pressure pushing current


measured in Volts
PLTU SURALAYA

3/18/2017 21
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PT PJB UP PAITON

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UNIT BISNIS PEMBANGKITAN PRIOK
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PLTU MUARA KARANG
ALUR PROSES PLTU
LOW Nox
BURNER

200 M TURBIN
STACK
GENERATOR
500 Kv
TRANSMISSION LINE

EP

FLY ASH SILO


BOTTOM ASH .
. SILO MAKE UP DEMINERALIZER
COOLING WATER
WWTP INLET

COOLING
WATER OUTLET
COAL UNLOADER JETTY
PNEUMATIC FLY
ASH TRANSPORT
COAL YARD
ASH DISPOSAL
AREA

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Thermal Power Plant

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DIAGRAM ALIR TRANSPORTASI BATUBARA
PLTU PAITON 1 & 2

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Main Components of TPS
Coal & Ash handling plant
Steam generating plant
Boiler
Superheater
Economiser
Air-preheater
Steam turbine
Feed water
Cooling arrangement
Electrical apparatus
Prinsip kerja Pembangkit Thermal
1) The fuel (pulverized coal, atomized oil or gas) is mixed
with pre-heated air and injected into the boiler, where the
high temperature ignites the fuel.
2) The fuel burning produces ashes and sulfur dioxide.
The ashes are filtered out from the exhaust and washed
away by water. The sulfur dioxide is washed by
scrubbers. Powerful exhaust fans drives the smoke out
to the atmosphere through the stack.
3) Pre-heated water is pumped through the tubes covering
the boiler walls. The high heat evaporates the water and
generates steam, which is collected in the steam drum.
4) The high pressure steam drives the turbine, which has a
high pressure and a low pressure stage. For some
turbines the steam is re-heated between these two
stages.
5) The water-cooled condenser condenses the steam into
water. The water is pumped back to the boiler.
6) Both, the air and the water are preheated to increase
efficiency.
7) The turbine drives the generator which produces
electricity.
EFFICIENCY
1. Thermal Efficiency
2. Electrical Efficiency
3. Overall Efficiency
Heat equivalent to Mech. Energy
produced at Turbine shaft
THERMAL EFFICIENCY = ---------------------------------------------
Heat equivalent to coal combustion

Heat equivalent to Elect. Energy


produced at generator terminals
ELECTRICAL EFFICIENCY = ---------------------------------------------
Heat equivalent to Mech. Energy
produced at Turbine shaft

Heat equivalent to Elect. Energy


produced at generator terminals
OVERALL EFFICIENCY = ---------------------------------------------
Heat equivalent to coal combustion

OVERALL EFFICIENCY = THERMAL EFFI. X ELECTRICAL EFFI.


Power Plant Components
ELECTRICAL MECHANICAL
Generators & Turbines Conveyors
Transformers Silos
Switches Boilers
Busses Scrubbers & Stacks
Circuit Breakers Pumps
Capacitor Banks Cooling Towers
At the front end
Conveyors
Boilers
Scrubbers and Stacks
Pumps
Cooling Towers
Generators

The whole point of the


power plant is to turn
the generators to
produce electrical
energy.
Turbines

Difficult to replace
A spare is often kept
Busses
uninsulated electrical conductors
large cross-section = low resistance
must be far from ground and other
components to avoid arcing

flirthermography.com
Switches & Switchyards

http://www.learnz.org.nz/trips06/images/big/b-switchyard.jpg
Transformers

PURPOSE: to change the


voltage
increase = step-up
decrease = step-down
Often run hot, must be
cooled, prone to explode.
oil inside
cooling fins and fans
blast walls
DEMO: pass around small transformer
DEMO: two coils, one with meter, other with
battery
Circuit Breakers

PURPOSE: stop the


flow of current if too
much flows (due to
short circuit or excess
demand)

DEMO: blow room breaker


230 kV breaker
Capacitor Banks

Purpose: to smooth
out spikes or
glitches in the line
voltage.

DEMO:charge/discharge a cap
DEMO:Lenzs Law
Transmission Lines

and the grid


STEAM TURBIN BLADES
Steam Turbin Open

Shaft with Low-pressure High-pressure


moving blades turbine turbine

Middle
bearing

Stationary part
Moving and Stationary Blades

Moving Stationary Moving Stationary


Blade Blade Blade Blade

Nozzle
Blades

High pressure steam enters


through nozzles.
The stationary blades direct the
steam flow towards the moving
blades.
The direction of the steam flow
changes as it flows through the
moving blades.
The change of flow direction
generates a force on the moving
blades.
This force drives the turbine.
Turbin, Generator & Exciter
Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generator

Turbine D1m

L 10 m
Steam d-axis
Stator winding

High speed N
Uniform air-gap
3600 r/min 2-pole
Stator
1800 r/min 4-pole
q-axis Rotor winding
Direct-conductor cooling (using
hydrogen or water as coolant) Rotor

Rating up to 2000 MVA


S

Turbogenerator
Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator

Stator
Salient pole rotor
North
Poles

South

Slip
ring
Pole
North winding
Diagram Generator Sinkron
Arus Eksitasi Medan Rotor
Teg.output utk 2 dan 4 pole.
PLTGU
GAS POWER PLANT
Main Components of Gas Plant
Compressor
Regenerator
Combustion Chamber
Gas Turbine
Alternator
Starting Motor
Combined Cycle Power Plant
The plant contains a gas and a steam turbine.
The hot exhaust gases of the gas turbine feed a
steam generator which supplies a steam turbine.
The gas turbine is similar to a large aircraft
engine.
Both turbines drive a generator and produce
electrical power.
The plant efficiency is high.
PLTU cooling tower
COOLING TOWER

Vapor
Outflow
Vapor Outflow Drift
Mechanical Fan
Water Inflow Eliminators

Baffling

Baffling

Air Air Air Air


Inflow Inflow Inflow Inflow

Water Water
Drift Return Return
Eliminators
Water Inflow
Electrostatic Precipitator
Nuclear Power Station
Definition : A generating station which converts
heat energy produced by nuclear materials to
electrical energy.

NPS Components :

1. Heat Exchanger
2. Nuclear Reactor
3. Steam turbine
4. Alternator
Nuclear Power Station (PLTN)
The nuclear reactor is fueled by uranium dioxide and
moderated by water.
The nuclear reaction produces heat. The reaction is
controlled by boron-based rods.
The coolant pump drives water through the reactor,
where the nuclear reaction increases the coolant (in
most cases water) temperature.
The steam is generated in the heat exchanger/boiler.
The high pressure steam drives the turbine, which in turn
drives the generator. (usually at 1800 rpm)
The condenser condenses the steam to water, which is
pumped back into the boiler
Nuclear Power Plant
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