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In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

DEEWAN-E-HAFIZ OF KHUWAJAH SHAMSUDDIN SHIRAZI


LETTER ALIF ( )
1. Loves Path



O you Saki! Bring the bowl and serve the liquor
Seen easy earlier, love developd difficulties later (1)


Musk-scent that breeze from his tress did scatter
How much bled hearts by his twisted musky hair (2)


Dye prayer-mat with wine if Magian Pirs order
Wayfarer isnt nave, of paths protocol, manner (3)


Theres no pleasure in staying at friends quarter
Bell keeps ringing, pack-up! lift (camel) pannier (4)


Dark night, ferocious waves, whirlpools danger
Light-loaded at the shore, of our state unaware (5)


My tasks end up in disgrace, my selfish nature
Cant stay as secret of which assemblies mutter(6)


Absent not from Him Hafiz, if union you desire
As ye meet desired One, quit world, let it wither (7)

1
Sharah Jalalian On Hafez (Dr. Abdul Hussain Jalalian Jalali, Tehran 1379):

Hafiz spent a life surrounded by many rivals, envious ones and jealous contemporaries
who considered themselves as the custodians of Islamic Shari'ah. This ode sums up
Hafizs ambitions, troubles and tribulations of his hectic life. Some even say that as
Surah Fatiha- the initial Surah in Quran is embodiment of the entire content of the holy
Book, so is Hafizs this ode vis--vis his entire Deewan; a microcosm of his compendium
of verses. Given ending letter in each ode in the Deewan following Persian alphabetical
order, this ode always appears first in all the editions of Hafiz.

Controversy about the First Stanza of this ode: Some of Hafizs critics alleged that the
initial two lines are replica of Yazid Bin Muawiyah (d. 683 A.D. second Umayyad
caliph who martyred Imam Hussain- the grandson of Prophet of Islam SAW)s couplet;



According to Paul Smith, Hafizs own reply to this accusation was Who would not want
to take away a pearl from the mouth of a filthy dog? But Allama Mirza Muhammad
Qazvini has strongly refuted this allegation (by Hafizs Bosnian-Turk Commentator
Sudi, d.1598), based on his study of more than 30 volumes and references in Arabic
language on Hafiz. He thinks it comes more from Saadi as shown in the following
resemblance:

"
There is likelihood that Hafizs detractors wanted him to be condemned eternally hence
they propagated the idea that Hafiz was not only using Yazid (a universally condemned
Umayyad ruler)s verses but wanted every one to start his Diwan with that accursed
figures verse. This seems to be far from the fact. It is worth mentioning that Hafiz never
compiled Diwan in his lifetime. It was compiled decades later by others including
Muhammad Gulandam. Many believe that Yazid who committed dastardly acts with
impunity, he could hardly utter such sensitive verses. Yet there are others who say that
not only Hafiz but some other poets also imitated Yazid in their poetry. For example:
Khaqani Sharwani- a highly orthodox, practicing Muslim said


Someone translated these into Persian as follows:

Mahdi Akhwan III used these two verses of Yazid in his Persian ode as follows:




Some other poets even tried to reduce this so-called ill-will against Hafiz on this account
through their own verses. For example: some attribute this Qitaa (piece) to Ahli Shirazi
in this regard:


Among Hafizs detractors was one named Najmuddin, a Minister of Sultan Yaqoob Aaq
Qavinloo. He had attained Ministership from rags to riches hence was known as
Najmuddin Gada (beggar). Envious of Hafiz, he said (though some say Kaatbi Nishapuri
said it):

2




Qazvini could not find such verses in Kaatbi and Ahlis versions. Also Kaatbi was not
that much immature as depicts the quality of these verses. Well, the story goes that Sultan
Yaqoob had good faith in Hafiz. One day he asked Najmuddin Gada to bring Diwan e
Hafiz for faal (to draw omen). Gada tried to desist Sultan from this. Gada then said: if
Khuwaja is truly Lisanul Ghaib (Tongue of the Hidden) then let him come up with what
transpired between me and Sultan. Angered on such a challenge, Sultan took Diwan e
Hafiz, closed his eyes and put his finger on a page with the intention of faal. While doing
this, Sultan said: O Lisanul Ghaib! Gada is so persistent against you, show him some of
your wisdom. Lo and behold! following befitting verse turned out in the faal (Ode
191/6).
!
Rivals arrogance Im taken aback, in stun
God! be it not, beggar gets good attention
Najmuddin Gada was humiliated. Sultan hit the volume of Diwan on his head right there
and then and said: Never ever say again anything ill against Hafiz in my presence.

1. Sharah Jalalian: This ode was probably written in 767 A.H. at a time when Shah
Mahmood, brother of Shah Shuja held Shiraz and Shuja was planning to invade Shiraz
for regaining the lost state. Second stanza shows this expectation of attack. Third
stanza speaks of insecure conditions under Mahmood. Fourth stanza predicts advent of
Shuja, coming up for an attack, this prophecy based on Hafizs 15-year age seniority and
experience over Shuja. Fifth stanza speaks of harassment and fear under Mahmood. In
sixth stanza, Hafiz admits of his known loyalty for Shuja which caused his disgrace in
Mahmoods brief reign. Last couplet expresses hope by the poet for meeting with Shah
Shuja. Here, poet has juxtaposed absence and presence (Ghiab and Huzoori).

Stanza 5 which is deemed as the core one, poet reverberates Hamam Tabrizi:

Even Hamam Tabrizi seems to have benefited from Saadi:

So the study of all three verses shows how Hafez excels others in echoing their theme.
On a poetic note, breeze (stanza 2) acts as messenger between the lover and the beloved
one. Having access to everywhere, breeze is close to the beloved, can blow his tress or
bring news from his side. Tress is used as symbol of plurality to hide the face of Unity.
Gulistan Razs Shabistari writes that tress is the chain for gripping the crazy lovers.
Tresses are trellis to conceal the glory of the Divine Countenance. Its an unquenched
quest for realization of the self-showing but also coyly self-concealing Divine for which
saucy eyes of Saki (Wine bringer) or the caprices of a benign Shahzada (prince) act as
symbolic.

1. Lisanul Ghaib (LG): In his literal translation of Deewan Hafiz published from
Calcutta in 1890, H. Wilberforce Clarke explains that not only the first but last verse of
this ode is a borrowing from Yazid Bin Muawiyah. Explained in detailed notes above.

First Stanza, in oriental poetry Saki is the one (handsome boy) who serves wine in a bar
or private session. Hafiz often uses this term for his beloved, sweetheart, intimate. In
Aarifs terminology (Gnostic knowers), he represents the eternal beloved.

3
Ishq (love, amour) comes from Arabic Ishqa which is shrub (also called Lablab) when it
ascends on some tree it dries/reduces the plant. And so does the love. Ishq can be for a
person or it can also develop from a feeling of pleasure, heart-ravishing scene or
environs. Unfortunately, this word has become cheap in use over the years like the titles
of the Muslim world such as Mullah and Maulana are now-a-days taken in belittling or
sarcastic sense. Ishq is perfection of love and when perfection of Ishq is attained it
reaches to the level of worship. Man wants to appreciate and love physical beauty
(Majazi love). Poet Iqbal even wanted to see the Divine beauty in physical form as he
says:

One really covets to see the beloved, touch him, serve him, oblige him etc. As Maulana
Rumis Masnavi mentions about the shepherds love for God:




Prophet Musa A.S. took this wording as insulting to be addressable to the Lord and said
to the shepherd:
The man stopped his love for God, felt depressed and left. God missed the true lover
and said to Musa A.S:



Sufis say that rewards and punishments are told in scriptures in physical terms so as to
entice man to do good deeds. Ghalib says:

So the essence of paradise and hell is yet some other entity through the medium of
love. Sheikh Azari says:


Humans have limited faculties; they want to treat love through physical looks tress,
eyes, waist etc. God has no hands but to let humans feel how He can help, Quran says;
and love is not only to be found in men or animals; every creature is
imbibed with love. Hali says what is a good commentary on "


Ghazali also says:

Having elaborated on love, let us see what is or being a lover. Anwari says:


An Arab poet said:

Another said:

Famous poet Bedil had to say on this theme as follows:


4


)

Ahl e Tasawwaf (Sufi Masters) describe 10 stages in love. They are i)Muwafiqat
to deem enemies of the friend as ones own enemies; ii) Mel Always focused on the
beloved (Lord); iii) Muwanisat Avoid other everything and only in the pursuit of
the truth; iv) Mawaddat with humility keep pondering in ones heart; v) Hawa
Exertion, meditation; vi) Khullat All organs in beloveds thought, all others out; vii)
Ulfat Good manners, attributes be adopted; viii) Shaghuf Remove hearts
curtains but disclose not the secret until one gets fully overpowered in love; ix) Tayam
Imbibed in love, distinct from within and without; and x) Wala Bring hearts mirror
before the beloved and keep looking at him, fully immersed, uncontrollably. Then is
attained the last stage of destination of love.

As regards Stanza 1 line two, yes love was easy at the beginning but then problems and
hardships befell. Soul sans body was pure. When it got into the body, trials and
temptations came around. See angels Haarut and Maaruts story in notes of Ode 14:





And (remember) when thy Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their
reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): Am I not your Lord?
They said: Yea, verily. We testify. (That was) lest ye should say at the Day of
Resurrection: Lo! of this we were unaware (Al Aaraaf-7, Verse 172)

Alast Covenant on the creation (of the human souls) day which seemed easy then but
later befell difficulties. So the poet now wants the cup of wine to lighten the burden and
be lost for a while hence demand from Saki to bring it. Ghalib says;

-
-
-

Thus, reason will always terrify the lover of dangers of the path. Hali says:

Yes, the path of love is twisted, tortuous with bends and too many provisions become a
hindrance. Nasir Ali Sarhandi uses Hafiz pattern to describe this situation:






"

Hafiz was not fed up with love in describing these hardships. He was weary of reason
which is a dilemma for the lover. To avoid this, he needed cup of wine. Loves craze will
sure continue. Maulana Rumi has described loves difficulties as follows:

5



Stanza 2, Naafa is the pouch in the belly of the male gazelle of Khata region (Aahoo e
Khatan) which due to blood changes converts into pleasant perfume called Mushk
(musk). Taab is twist, curl, Jaad is curl or ringlet, Mashkeen is musky, Turrah is lock of
hair, tress.
is tortuous curls of the beloved or the stages of love which a lover must
traverse to reach the beloved. These tresses Hafiz used at some other places too:

is hardships and disappointments which a lover faces on the way to meet
the beloved. Maulana Hali says:


Stanza 3, Pir e Mughan is the Magian Pir (of Zoroastrians) who is in-charge of temples
fire. If your mentor or Pir orders you for some anti0faith act, do it. Azazil- the chief
angel was asked to bow before Adams clay figure. He refused because of arrogance and
claimed to have been created from fire. Khizr A.S. did some acts which even a prophet
like Musa A.S. could not understand. So on this path of love, obey whatever you are
commanded by the Murshid.

Stanza 4, Jaras is the bell tied around the neck of camels in a Caravan that muleteers
and cameleers ring loudly to let travelers get up to alight or to mount the ride. Here it
could mean the bell of death. Faryad e Jaras means bell-ringing which is announced an
hour before the caravan departs again. Manzil e Janaan is a reference to the in-
between stations until one reaches the ultimate destination of love. This world is a mid-
path or station for overnight stop only:

Stanza 5, Mirza Ghalib Dahlavi says:

So much disappointment that Amir Menai has lost hope as to what is to be found on the
other side even if one crosses this dangerous ocean:

While one meaning is those at the shore remain unaware what is being
faced by those in the whirlpool. The other reference could be the angels who had
opposed the creation of human beings. See the story of angels Haarut and Maarut in ode
14:

Stanza 6, Toheed means no one else ever. You are non-entity. Until the lover thinks in
terms of I and you, he is not admitting Toheed (Gods absolute oneness and nothing
else ) . Hence some poet advises:

In loves path, if you retain self or then there appears multiplicity and loves
secret will not remain hidden. Prophet SAW said Some even say that
two is two lips, if any secret is out from the mouth it wont remain a secret any more.
Lovers self-showing will reveal the secret and cause disgrace.

Last Stanza is self-explanatory. Never give up the thought of


the beloved. Second line suggests that once you have achieved the audience stage and

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acquired union, then give up the world and become annihilated in the beloved Fana Fil
Mahboob.

2. Craving for the Beloved




Yr countenance shine lends beauty to every moon
Grace in things beautiful is by dimple of your chin (1)


O God! when would be that my desire I may attain
Yr ruffld hair with peace of my mind; whenll join 2)


Breath lingers at lip, intent for yr gracious vision
Be it back or breath it last, whats your decision? (3)


As ye pass by me; guard skirt from dust and stain
Many lovers lie in path, died for ye here umpteen 4)


Friends! tell beloved, my heart is in insubordination
For Gods sake, O friends! give him this intimation 5)


From yr ravishing eye, no one couldve any gain
Those crazy for ye, abstinence to them is in vain (6)


From its deep sleep could wake up my fortune
Yr shining face splashes water; eye could open (7)


Thru breeze, fragrance of yr face is in dispersion

7
Let me smell perfume from the dust of yr garden (8)


Live ye long, O Sakis of Jamshid's festive session
Though our cup never got filled in your rotation (9)


Breeze! tell from my side to citizens of Yazd town
Truth deniers be like ball in your polo game plan (10)


My spirit not dim, distant though seems union
Slaves of your Master, yr praise we utter even (11)


O lucky King! Do lend support to my resolution
As stars do, I touch the dust of yr high pavilion (12)


Hafiz says a prayer, listen and utter "A'ameen"
One day your sugar-scattering ruby lips be mine (13)

2. Sharah Jalalian: Khuwaju Kirmani says:



Salman Saujee says:

This is a famous ode of Hafiz, carrying metaphors in each stanza. According to some
sources, it was composed on the eve of his movement from Shiraz to Yazd. It refers
mostly with regard to conduct of Shah Yahya, the ruler of Yazd. In this ode, Hafiz moves
between spiritual and political for personal reasons. Yahya- a nephew of Shuja was
appointed by Shuja in Yazd in 1361-2. Another uncle Mahmood- ruler of Isfahan had an
eye on Yazd for revenues which was thwarted by Yahya. Hafiz received no favours from
Yahya at Yazd; he even received short shrifts from Yahyas courtiers there.
Comparatively, ruler of Hormuz had been kind to him. Hafiz never forgave his fortunate
trip to Yazd.

2. Lisanul Ghaib: In Stanza 1, ( moon of the beauty) is moonlight that


emanates from Prophet SAWs shining countenance. Just as the moonlight is reflection
from the sun, so the entire beauty of worldly beauties is a reflection from your (Prophet
SAWs) facial beauty.

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All other beauties borrow from your beauty. And this BEAUTY is from the light of Allah
SWT. Quran says: Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth
Thus, anything having beauty is not separate from the beauty of God.

Stanza 2, refers to beloveds tress which are disheveled. The pun is in
disheveled hair and contented or satisfied mind. When will it be that these unkempt
hair become source of my satisfaction (come in my possession Ham-dast suits more than
Ham-dostan). See ode 7/4 and ode 10/7.

Stanza 3
Some say the soul has come up to lips; permit it to see you from close. Save death one
can not attain union. Last breaths lead to or lifting of the curtain and after
death union between the creator and the created occurs.

Stanza 4, the beloved is advised to avoid blood stains of those killed on his path. But no
use; lovers will henna-dye beloveds feet and then claim it as the blood of (loves)
martyrs or may even say as follows which will, however, not exempt them from the
culpable murder charge:

Stanza 5, friends should let the beloved know of the poets condition. My heart is in
rebellion; secret will become disclosed. This stanza carries the same essence as reflected
in Ode 6, stanza 1.

Stanza 6, before sweethearts ravishing eye, expressing ones intelligence is not


befitting.

Another explanation is that your inebriate eyes gave peace to none, better lovers are not
sold the abstinence, let them remain intoxicated. In loves land, intoxication rules so
better lovers stay attached to it. General populace follow the rulers
religion. ( Hadith). World is transient and theres no luxury
therein. Let humans remain in the ecstasy of (Gods) love. Hafiz says:

Stanza 7, your face splashed water on my sleepy eyes, my sleeping luck will wake up.
Ill attain beloveds sight which itself is a great luck. Well, Mazhar Jan e Janaan got tears
galore but his luck did not rise:

Stanza 9, a drinker is never satiated even if Saki pours for him tons of wine. He will
always say: Hal Min Mazeed? Pour some more. So is the lover who is never satiated
with the beloveds proximity; more he is closer to the beloved, the more Aatash e Ishq
Tez tar Gardad. As regards Jamshid (line one), he was a Persian King who had a mirror
which reflected the events and happenings in the world (like the one Sikandar had built
in Alexandria). Incidentally, both these rulers did not gain Aabe Hayaat or Lifes Water
(Marifat or realization of God) due to preoccupations in battles and attainment of power
and pelf.

Stanzas 10 & 11, These two stanzas deviate from the mainly romantic content of the rest
of stanzas of the ode. This style is called Abtareeq Gurez- deviation from the theme. It is

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sub-category of poetic Qataul Kalam or interrupting the theme. Stanza 10 is Sanat e
eradh (disapproval) followed by Stanza 11 which is Duaiyyah (supplication or praise).

Stanza 12, even sky comes down to kiss your pavilion. Zaheer Faryabi had said the
following in praise of Qazal Arsalan:


On this Saadi had given a rebuttal:

Last Stanza, Hafiz invites the beloved to join in his prayer i.e. asks him to approve his
petition. And look! He has already pronounced Aameen in advance. A similar request
Hafiz does make to his beloved in Ode 13 Stanza 3:

3. Longing for the Tall Sweetheart




O Saki! enlighten our cup with a wine radiant
Minstrel, sing! world business is to our intent (1)


We saw reflection of beloved's face in the goblet
A dole due to habitual drink-habit, O ignorant! (2)


Never dies he whose heart love does animate
Our longevity, world journals amply exhibit (3)


Let tall stature beauties ogle or act with coquet
Here comes our cypress-tall sweet, in pine-gait (4)


Breeze! if ye cross by garden of sweetheart
Our message for beloved, must you submit (5)


From memory, my name ye wish to delete
Itll happen someday, us ye wont recollect (6)

10
Intoxication in our darlings eyes does suit
Hence to intoxication, they tagged our fate (7)


Judgment Day, I fear, it may gain more weight
Against our illicit liquor, Sheikhs bread so licit (8)


Like tulip (stain), my heart beloved does covet
Luck-bird! Whenll ye fall in lap, accept defeat (9)


Azure sky as waters, crescent sails in it like boat
Both avail bounties of Haji Kavam so abundant (10)


Hafiz! Let (grains) eye-tears drop in torrent
Perchance bird of union may trap in our net (11)

3. Sharah Jalalian: Mir Kirmani says:



A famous ode of Hafiz which refers to no specific event or political background. It
appears that the ode has been composed in the name of Haji Kavamuddin Hassan
Tamghachi (Keeper of the Seal) and dedicated to him (reference stanza 9). He must not
be confused with Kavamuddin Muhammad Bin Ali, also mentioned by Hafiz who was
Sahib e Ayyar or Chief Assayer/Minister of Shah Shuja from 1357-1384. Haji Kivam
was financial affairs administrator at the court of Sheikh Abu Ishaq Enju from 1343 to
1353 and was a friend of Hafiz. He had founded a Quran School for Hafiz. He was a
great man of Persia and died in Rabi Awwal (3 rd month of the Islamic calendar) 754 A.H.
(1353 A.D.) at a time when Shiraz was under the siege of Amir Mubarizuddin. It was a
big blow for both, Abu Ishaq and Hafiz in the loss of a sincere friend. In his Diwan,
Hafiz has referred to Haji Kavam at five places, one of them being a couplet about his
death. Apparently when Hafiz visited him on a certain day he saw in the image of wine
cup what is expressed in Stanza 9 above.

3. Lisanul Ghaib: In Stanza 2, Sharab e Mudam is intoxication day and night- an all
time inebriation. Stanza 3, leads one to Prophet SAW said; Allahs friends
do not die but transfer from one house to another


Amir Minai says:

If we take Quran as Jareedah Aalam (a book for the guidance of the entire world), it
clearly attests to this fact of no dying ever. Quran says;

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Translation: Think not of those who are slain in the way of Allah, as dead. Nay, they are
living. With their Lord they have provision (Surah Aal Imran 3 : Verse 169).

Stanza 4, tall-statured ones can play coyly only until appears our pine-gait walking
sweetheart.

Prophet Muhammad SAW has been compared to other prophets.

Maulavi M. Sadiq Lakhnavi says, people asked Ali A.S.
whats this so-called love between A & B, he replied:
Those who become forgetful of God are condemned
to this mundane love.

Stanzas 5 & 6 contain a sequence and can easily be read together; they are self-
explanatory. Regarding Stanza 6, someone said:

Stanza 7, its content matches with Stanza 6 of the previous ode. Since beloveds eye
likes inebriation, our reins too have been handed over to this inebriation (beloved). In
Sufi terms, beloveds eye is always inebriate. Author of Gulshan e Raz writes on eye and
lip:


He also attests Hafizs this stanza as follows:

Stanza 8, I fear refers not to Hafiz in terms of fear but he is putting fear to Sheikh. He
feels Sheikh will be interrogated more severely for his illicitly gained bread. Lisanul
Asrs author Janab Akbar says:

Hafiz feels that on the Last Day of Judgment, those who eat bread from illicit sources
they will bear the heavy consequences compared to the drinkers who do not usurp illicit
gains. For this Maulana Hali says:

See also Stanza 5 of ode 7 on this same theme. Also Ode 49/4 and ode 106/4.

Stanza 9, if tulips stain is taken into account as grain, luck-bird coveting after the grain
seems comprehensible.
Last Stanza, again grains of tears and bird seem fitting in the context. Poet Urfi seems
not sure about Hafizs technique of trapping the bird (of union) with tear-grains. He says:

Spiritual Context: In stanza 1, wine is love, Saki explains love mysteries and divine
knowledge, singer gives pleasure. Saki, wine, cup and singer make things merry. O
perfect Murshid! fill our heart with love, for love is just the medium which fulfills hearts
desires as per our wishes and takes us to the true beloved. Stanza 2, In our heart, we
have seen the lit-vision of true beloved, reaching to state of seen with my eyes
stage. Those ignorant are unaware of the taste of this sight which we behold. Stanza 3,
all previous Prophets were to be followed and obeyed until appeared the Seal of
Prophets Muhammad SAW, his appearance and gait obviates the need to look at earlier
ones.

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Since Allahs lovers are immersed in His love, they died in the way of Allah, they
are alive by sacrificing their existence for the sake of eternal-existing Allah. Stanza 5,
Hafiz feels Sheikh will be judged more and questioned about his licit (actually illicit)
bread than Hafizs interrogation about his liquor. Hafiz has compared wine with other
things as is also reflected in Ode 6 stanza 9. Stanzas 6 & 7, the two are connected.
Breeze is asked to carry the message contained in stanza 6.
Stanza 8, intoxication is vision of God, having no semblance of visible. They gave reins
of our choice to the Vision of God (wherever He looks, we follow). Stanza 9, one day
Haji Kavam, Minister of Abu Ishaq, ruler of Shiraz invited Hafiz. In Sakis cup of wine,
Hafiz saw sky with new moon like a barge in it. Haji Kavam signifies a Mentor or
Murshid through whom manifest heavenly things. Stanza 10, expansion and contraction
in tulip reflects the state of Hafizs heart (stanza 1, Hafizs heart is happy and in this
stanza 10, it is closed or sad). Tulip has a black spot (metaphor for grain), so is a spot on
the poets heart which he expects that the unions bird would rush at, in its desire for the
grain. Stanza 11, sky moves not according to our desire.

4. Advice to Sufi


Sufi! Come, the glass of the cup is crystal clear
You see the clarity of wine, bearing ruby-colour (1)


True secret, only intoxicated profligate can answer
This isnt domain of Zahid- the ardent worshipper (2)


Phoenix is nobodys prey, so remove your snare
In its case, its only wind that gets trapped there (3)


Take a cup or two in the party, then move farther
To be frank, for a permanent union, do not aspire (4)


O heart! youth gone, in life you pluckd no flower
How to develop name or fame; (now) grey is hair (5)


Strive for cash comfort! when supply did sever
Adam too quit paradises peaceful, lavish quarter (6)

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Our obligation, to keep serving at your quarter
Khuwaja! a merciful look at this servant, O Sire (7)


I gave up the hope of any comfort at the very hour
When my heart handd over reins in yr love affair (8)


O breeze! Of JAMs cup, Hafiz is a connoisseur
Convey devotion of dutiful to this cup's mentor (9)

4. Sharah Jalalian: This ode is in reply to staunch opponents of Hafiz like Sheikh
Zainuddin Ali Kilah and Abdullah Panjiri. They did not like Hafizs proximity with Shah
Shuja. Stanza 1, Sheikh Kilah was strongly anti-alcohol. Hafiz invites him to see how
clear the wine is. In stanza 2, Hafiz asks Sufi that the secrets of religions wisdom need
to be asked from a profligate. In stanza 3, Shah Shuja claims himself as a Phoenix ().
Phoenix or Simurgh is the mythical bird of fortune and the aura of power in Arabic
(Chinese and Shamanistic associations too). Stanza 6, poet advises to strive for luxury
living as Adam did the same. As contained in one Quran commentary Kashful Israr
(Surah Baqarah 2, Verse 35-36), Hafiz says; do not think Adam was expelled from
heavens. Adam had seen a beauty so immense that all the heavens were naught compared
to it. He was decreed; Adam, since you have stepped in on the loves path, whats the
concern of lovers with the comfort in paradise?
-
Stanza 7 refers to Shujas Minister Turanshah whose help is solicited against jealous
scholars. Last stanza refers to Jams Pir (Sheikh Jam 441-536 A.H.) who was rigid in
handing out religious punishments. Some say that it is not Jam but Kham ( raw).
Anyway, Hafiz had tough times from Sheikh Ahmad Bin Namaki Jami of Jam in
Khurasan (1049-50 A.D.) and Amir Mubarizuddin. This double entendre fits well that
Hafiz is a disciple of Jam (cup) as well as of Sheikh Jam who himself was an addict of
wine in his youth days and in later life he had become a prosecutor responsible for
punishing such vice. He was known as Zhanda Feel or the Great Elephant. He had
convivial youth but later wanted to drain off wine stocks when he was ordered to serve it
to the guests. Amazingly, the guests found it like honey without causing any intoxication.
At 22, Jam changed to a kind and pious individual and an upholder of Shari'ah. He had
considerable followers in Heart (somehow not mentioned by Attar in his Tazkiratul
Aulia).

4. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Sufi should look into the illuminated heart of truth-seeker
which contains nothing but true love of the Lord. That is why the Divine Loves radiant
wine is so clearly visible in it. Sufis are outwardly scholars who stress apparent
cleanliness and purification as qualities to enter paradise. They ignore the fact that purity
of the heart and inner-self comes with the remembrance of God. Stanza 2, Maulana
Abdul Ali of Bahrul Uloom writes that a Sufi has two conditions; Maghloobul Haal or
possessed by the passing moment when he has no control over his sayings and can reveal

14
hidden things involuntarily. The other state is Sahib e Maqam when he is in full
possession of sensory faculties, Shariah-observant and never discloses any divine
subtlety. Someone asked Sheikh Shahabuddin whether there could be a person who
drinks a cup and yet stays alert and without intoxication. He replied he had disciples who
could gulp rivers without any trace of inebriation. Prophets are aware of secrets but they
are not Maghloobul Haal hence they never reveal secrets. Walis (friends of God), on the
other hand, can occasionally become Maghloobul Haal and divulge secrets. Mansoor
Hallaj was such an example.

One day Sheikh Ahmad Jami was sitting under a tree wearing a felt cap. Allah
SWT asked him: will you sell the cap? He asked: What will You pay?. Allah SWT
said: whatever you ask? Then Sheikh replied: O Lord! If You give me the world and the
hereafter, I wont accept it as its price. You already are mine. What else lies with You that
You will then offer? Lords voice came: Ahmad! Dont be so audacious. I will make
fellow men withdraw their trust in you. Here, Sheikh said: enough! I will narrate the
(infinite) extent of Your favours and compassion to these folk at its fullest so that none of
them will then ever prostrate before You. This amply shows that it is always better that
some secrets remain hidden from masses.

Stanza 3, Phoenix or Anqa ( )is a long-neck, four-winged bird, with its face like a
human being. Anything which bears a name but can not be imagined for its shape, this
word is used (Maloomul Ism, Majhoolul Jism). Anecdote has it that shape-wise, Anqa
was part of every animal. Alongwith its female, God sent this species to Musa A.S. near
the Holy Sanctuary in Jerusalem. When Musa A.S. departed from this world, they
migrated to Hijaz. They devoured birds of neighbourhood and sometimes even harassed
wild animals. By the prayer of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), they were obliterated
forever. There are yet some commentators who say that Phoenix refers to the existence of
the Lord Whose attributes and persona is difficult to be judged. Bahrul Uloom says that
vision of Gods persona is impossible.

Hafiz says seeking Vision of God is a futile endeavour.

Khayyams quatrain indicates something similar:

Who limited themselves to merit, manner


Lit as candle in learned ones get-together
They even found no way out of dark night
They conjured stories and went in slumber

Bahrul Uloom writes quoting Maulana Jami that God makes one realize this aspect under
the verse So that they do not seek or covet Him in an unsuccessful effort.

Stanza 4, take a cup or two then leave the place; move on!

Stanza 5 is a lament over lost youth period.



Thus, one should spend ones youth span when one is in full bloom and strength in
remembering Allah.

15
Stanza 6 is about cash (Naqd) and credit (Nasya). One should strive for concrete luxury
and rely not on promises. When Adam was deprived of lux, he too quit the paradise.

Khayyam says:

They say Eden, Houris, Kausar shall be


Brook of wine, milk, honey, sugarll be
Fill the cup with wine, place in my hand
Cash, no credit, thousand times better be
At another place Khayyam says:

Lifes caravan goes on in a strange way


Find a moment that goes in a happy play
Saki! no worry of tomorrows adversary
Bring the cup, night passing on in hurry
Someone said: one should strive for remembrance of the Lord in this life. Otherwise
when death approaches, one will shed tears and regret the way Adam was regretting at
his ouster from the paradise.

Stanza 7, Hafiz deliberately stresses his services rendered for the beloved and seeks
compensation.

Stanza 8 is self-explanatory. Anwari says:


Thus, Hafiz says that attaining Divine glance is impossible, efforts will go in vain.

Last Stanza, Hafiz is a disciple of the Jams cup. Jam (a place in Khurasan province of
Iran; the birth place of Maulana A.R. Jami R.A.) is meant here to imply for some saintly
person or Khuwaja Qutbuddin Yahya Jami Nishapuri. See Sharah Jalalian in above ode;
its last Stanza. Hafiz is now a disciple of the cup. He does not need a Mentor or
allegiance to some Pir. And Hafiz had never adopted any Murshid, it is a well-known fact
(Nafkhatul Uns). See ode 24 last Stanza:

Someone explained that the is actually the blessed and highly elevated soul
of Prophet Muhammad SAW from whom Hafiz also had got a direct blessing.

5. Hope of Union


O Cup-bearer! rise and give me (wine) goblet
Worldly concerns, put them for awhile to rest (1)

16

Put wine cup in my palm, this blue garment
From my body I put it off, far away Ill cast (2)


Sages deem (drinking) a matter of ill-repute
Desire for name or fame, I would never covet (3)


Give wine, how long this air of being arrogant
Let go to hell any carnal lust, put on these dust (4)


By the smoke of sigh from my burning breast
Those despondent, immature ones got burnt (5)


No confidant for my love-sick heart's secret
I see none amongst ordinary ones or in elite (6)


My mind is quiet at ease with that sweetheart
Who, in one go, snatched ease from my heart (7)


No second look to gardens cypress will cast
Who saw our silver-figure cypress so delicate (8)


Worlds toil enough ye had; worry now quit!
Drink happily, days in ease-n-lux to be spent (9)


Hafiz! at the toil of day-n-night, be patient!
Someday youll attain your desires ultimate (10)

5. Sharah Jalalian:
This is an ode composed during a period of extreme jealousy shown against Hafiz by his
contemporaries, his failures and his encounters or engagements with adversaries, in the

17
times of Shah Shuja. Apparently, Hafiz had in mind the ode of Khuwaju Kirmani while
composing this ode

In the last stanza, Hafiz advises to bear with patience daily hardships. Quran says:




Translation: O you who have believed, seek help through patience and prayer. Indeed,
Allah is with the patient. Verse 153, Surah Baqarah-2. See also Verse 25, Surah Nisa 4:
but to be patient is better for you. And Allah is Forgiving
and Merciful.
Prophet (SAW)s saying: is Patience is the key to relieve stress. If you
bear with patience, it is better for you.

Stanza 7, according to Mirsad Al-Ibad:


Love it is that steals the delight of youth
Love it is that steals the eternal joy
Although love is the hearts water of life
Yet from the heart it steals the water of life

5. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, wine kills pain and grief. Khayyam says;


Also see ode 35 Stanza 3; wine as certified prescription.
Stanza 2, blue garment could be the sky. So with wine, the poet can cross to heavens
above. Hafiz asks Saki (Murshid) to give a cup of love-wine (to my heart) so it becomes
fit for revelation, I pull this patched garment (of hypocrisy) and this borrowed existence
and enter upon effacement and non-existence and the source of eternal existence and
lasting joy. Hafiz used this expression to cast ridicule upon the dervishes of the order of
Sheikh Hassan who were hostile to the dervishes of the order of Mahmood Attar towards
which he probably had a soft corner.

Stanza 4 suggests that drinking is at times necessary to ward off arrogance. Khayyam
says;


Ghalib says:

Another one said:
-

Stanza 5, Smoke-emitting chest; its sighs burn everything. Iqbal too mentions something
of this sort:

Stanza 6, again Iqbal says:

Stanza 7, restlessness of love is also comforting to lover:

Stanza 8, cypress is actually the tall height of our sweetheart:

Last Stanza, a lover should bear with fortitude all hardships in loves path which will
ultimately bring him closer to the hearts desire.

18
6. Two Worlds Comfort


My heart gets out of my control, O heart-holder!
Pity! the hidden secret now becomes disclosure (1)


Ten-day transit thru world is a myth, a whopper
Friend! Real good deed is, to do friends a favour (2)


Our boat is battered, to favourable wind I implore
May it be that well see again that friend familiar (3)


Last night sang a nightingle at Fete Champetre
Bring morn wine, come drinkers, rush over here! (4)


As thanksgiving for yr safety, O esteem-holder!
Someday, you too console this dervish so poor (5)


Two worlds' comfort is contained in twin letter
Compromise with foe, kindness to well-wisher (6)


Thru alley of honour, my passage decreed never
If You like it not, then my fate You must alter! (7)


Bitter wine Sufis often as 'mother of evils' refer
Is dear to us than a kiss of virgin, even sweeter (8)


Exert for luxury and intoxication in adverse hour
Its elixir; a beggar like Karun becomes millionaire (9)

19


Act not haughty; like candle hell burn ye in anger
Amour whose palm; hard stone to wax can render (10)


Look well! Jams goblet is the mirror of Sikandar
It gives affairs of Darius Kingdom good exposure (11)


Those Persian-speak Turks dole out lifes nectar
Saki! good news with aged sages, you must share (12)


This Farsi ode if our friends minstrel will utter
In spontaneous dance, old pious ones it will lure (13)


This wine-wet cloak Hafiz himself did not wear
Deem us excused, O Sheikh! the holy and pure (14)

6. Sharah Jalalian: Saadi says:


-
Ohadi, Hamam, Amad Faqih and others follow this rhyme but Hafiz seems impressed by
Saadi on this one. His third stanza above is from Saadis following verse:
-
This ode reflects difficult times for the poet who was then in exile. Stanza 1, poet
expects that political conditions are going to become worse, for him hardship are
forthcoming. In Stanza 2, he expects favour and assistance from Shah Shuja. In stanza
3, he is like a voyager at the shore, sitting in a boat, waiting for favourable wind. In
Stanzas 5 & 6, he asks for kind gesture for a penniless poet from Shah and asks him to
be kind to friends. Stanza 8, first half in Persian, second half in Arabic. A saying of
Prophet SAW labels alcohol as ( mother of all evils). Although apparent meaning
of this stanza seems contrary to Islamic spirit, a certain Raja Jehan Dad Khan of Ghakkar
saw Hafiz in dream wherein Hafiz explained that some of his contemporary religious
teachers used to give lessons in seminaries. Many used to kiss (even molest) female
students at opportune moments. This stanza is an affront to them, conveying that
drinking alcohol, in his opinion, is less sinful than kissing virgins. In fact, drinking is
restricted to myself but other acts affect other innocent humans also. In stanza 9, poet
asserts of his carefree nature, to keep looking for luxury- a message of audacity for Shah
Shuja. Karun (Biblical Korah) was the richest man of Israel so much that keys of his
treasures were loaded on animals. He had falsely accused Moses of adultery so God
commanded the earth to swallow him and his wealth which, according to traditional

20
sayings, will continue to sink until the Last Day (See ode 36/8). He had asked for mercy
from Moses three times but was denied. Had he asked the same from the Lord even for
once, God said I would have forgiven him. Bible xvi; Quran says:





Now Korah was of Moses' folk, but he oppressed them; and We gave him so much
treasure that the stores thereof would verily have been a burden for a troop of mighty
men. When his own folk said unto him: Exult not; lo! Allah loveth not the exultant;(Al-
Qasas-28, Verse 76)

In Stanza 10, the poet retracts from his rash attitude and talks about Shahs ability to
render stone into wax. Stanza 11, Darius III- the last Achaemenid Emperor died in
330/331 B.C. at the hands of Alexander. He is reputed to have a mirror which foretold
future events or the past happenings. In stanza 12, he praises Shah Shuja who was a
Persian ruler but of Turkic origin and lastly, he tells Shah (of the clean skirt) that it
wasnt my own wish to seek wine, singer or joy but these were forced upon me for which
I may be excused.

6. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, the more loves fire heats up, the more heart loses its
control. Help! otherwise loves so far hidden secret will be exposed. Similar theme
reflected in ode 109, stanza 4. Stanza 2, worldly life is a toy-play. If you can do favour
to anyone, thats the best asset.

Stanza 3, some people say it is ( we are sitting) and not ( broken boat).
Others explain that if you read then read the second line word ( friend or
familiar one) as ( who knows how to swim). Poets consider this worldly mundane
life as a boat journey. Some people took this verse to Nasiruddin Shah Qajar and asked
which word is correct, or ? He wrote the reply:

This episode is quoted in Qasasul Ulama and attributed to Mulla Naseeruddin Tusi.
Mahdi Akhwan III is of the view that Nasiruddin Tusi is impossible as he had died in 672
A.H. more than a century before Hafiz who died in 792 A.H. Qajar Shahs anecdote is
possible, albeit with slight variation in second line (Qasasul Ulama Tankabuni):

About sitting in a boat, Maulana Azad says:

Sheikh M. Ibrahim Zauq says:


Hafiz too used the words in ode 1 Stanza 5 and here, in Stanza 3 (line
one), he asks favourable wind ( Shurtah) to help.
Stanza 4, Mull is wine; hence Halqae Gul Mull is a party in the garden with wine and
roses and of course, nightingale cant be away from that place. Saboohi is morning wine;
evening wine is called Anbooq Sukari. Its party time in the club, drinks circulate,
nightingales sing, everything is in intoxication before drinkers;

Stanza 5, Dervish is derived from Dar Aaveez (hanging by the door). A beggar holds the
door while begging hence he is Dervish. Also this term is used for those saintly figures
who are Men of God or secluded-sitters and recluse who are in meditation of the Lord
and shun mundane desires. Tafakkad (line two) is asking for someone who is missing.

21
Here it means to console someone, to look after someone. Stanza 6, peace of mind is in
two things; be kind and helpful to friends and manage peaceful coexistence with
enemies. and refer to practical help and sympathies (for friends) and no-harm
or hostility (against foes) respectively. Saadi says;


For conduct with foes, another verse with similar sense is;



Stanza 7 touches a very sensitive, debatable issue of ( imposition and will). At
times, despite ones strong will to do or not to do a thing, one remains unable to decide.
While some Quranic verses say man can choose his actions, some other verses also set
limitations on these choices. See below:
And that man hath only that for which he maketh effort,(Al-Najm

53, Verse 39).
Lo! Allah changeth not the condition of a folk until

they (first) change that which is in their hearts; (Surah Al-Raad 13 Verse 11)



That is because Allah never changeth the grace He hath bestowed on any people until
they first change that which is in their hearts, (Surah Al-Anfaal-8, Verse 53)

Then there are verses such as:



Yet ye will not, unless Allah wills (Al- Insaan 76, Verse 29)

When Allah hath created you and what ye make? (Al-Saffat 37, Verse
96)

So it seems a man is free upto a certain extent in his act but has limitations beyond. Prof.
Holms says that man is like a water drop sealed in a glass jar. Within glass space he can
move here and there but not beyond. Hafiz himself aligned more towards JABRI
doctrine. He says:

It is a long and not easily resolvable debate. In short, man is free but also restricted.
Some say;
Hazrat Ali A.S. was once asked on this issue. He asked the enquirer to raise one of his
legs, the man easily did it. Upon being asked to raise the second leg simultaneously, the
man showed his inability. So Ali A.S. clarified that yes, some freedom of action was
available to every man but not entire freedom. An Urdu poet said:
"

Stanza 8, Khayyam says:




If you dont drink wine, blame not a bibber
Kindly resort not to ruse or pretexts conjure
Dont take pride that you take not the liquor
Hundred morsels ye take, wine is evil lesser

22
Stanza 9 (line one), Hafiz wants one to strive and exert for attaining luxury at the hour
of adversity. Urfi says: Mirza Abdul Qadir Bedil
says:

Hazrat Ali A.S. suggested a prescription for adverse hour.
"
Stanza 9 (second line), Karun (Biblical Korah) son of Yashar bin Qahash (Izhar) the
uncle of Musa A.S. was the handsome and richest of Israelis whose treasures earth
swallowed up in punishment for his arrogance. His origins were modest and he was a
kind and well-mannered man in the beginning. However, having become rich he became
arrogant. See Surah Al-Qasas Verse above. His riches were so big that 60 camels used to
carry just the keys of his wealth. When poor- tax (Zakat) became obligatory, Musa A.S.
asked him to give away one Dinar for each 1000 Dinars he possessed. The amount turned
out quiet big. Instead of paying Zakat tax, he incited a women named Sabza to allege that
she had been molested by Musa A.S. She implicated Musa A.S. However, she soon
repented and exposed Karuns drama. God punished him.


So We caused the earth to swallow him and his dwelling-place. Then he had no host to
help him against Allah, nor was he of those who can save themselves (Surah Al Al-Qasas
28, Verse 81)
Sahib e Labaab writes that Karun gets deeper into earthen layers every day by the size of
his height alongwith his treasures. Stanza 11, according to historical records in Hujjatul
Aalam, Sikandar had built a tower in Alexandria wherein he had fitted a telescope which
showed cities as far as Istanbul. Stanza 12, Hafiz himself says at one point:

Stanza 13, see pun in parsi- line one (Persian) and parsa- line two (pious ones). Last
stanza (14), the garment could be of divine love or inebriation. This stanza again refers
to the issue of as earlier explained in stanza 7 of this ode above. The contrast
between wine-soaked cloak and holy, pure Sheikh is so distinctly noticeable.

7. Corner of Contentment


Again, prime of youth has returned to the garden
Sweet-singing nightingale gets flower's intimation (1)


Breeze! If ye pass by budding trees of the garden
To cypress, rose and basil, convey our salutation (2)


If wine-seller Magi lad gives guile manifestation
Eyelash Ill turn into broom at the gate of tavern (3)

23
You target moon (face) with ambergris Chaugan
Turn me not distracted, Im already in confusion (4)


I pity those who toward dregs-drinkers show scorn
Someday will get to tavern and spoil their religion (5)


Be friend of God's men, Noahs ark did contain
Dust speck who to storm, small drop did reckon (6)


Quit this house under sky, beg no bread or Naan
Ultimately, guest by stingy host (world) gets slain (7)


Two handfuls earth is everyones last mansion
Say! what need to erect a sky-touching pavilion (8)


My Kan'ans moon! Yours is now Egypt's throne
Time has come, ye can bid farewell to the prison (9)


A single secret of Existence, you cannot attain
Even if circling in possibilities cycle ye carry on (10)


I know not, in yr tress-tip ye hold what design
Yr musk-diffusing tress does show perturbation (11)


A lavish estate, a content corner are such boon
Even a Sultan, with his sword power, cant own (12)


Hafiz! Be happy, turn to profligacy and get wine
But like others, do not use Quran for deception (13)

24
7. Sharah Jalalian: Saadi says:

Saadi also says:

Riazi Samarqandi says:

Amad Faqih says:

Khuwaju Kirmani says:

Apparently this ode has a background. Rivalry between Shah Shujas men led Ruknuddin
Hassan Yazdi, son of Shah Shujas Minister Mueenuddin Ashraf to forge a letter to Shah
Mahmood bearing fictitious signature of Turanshah- another of Shujas Ministers. Thus,
Turanshah landed in prison. Later, the facts of false oath by Ruknuddin came to light and
Turanshah was released and reinstated. This ode is composed after his release. In
Stanzas 5 &
6 is the mention of those who laugh at dregs-drinkers. This refers to Qurans Verse 38,
Surah Al-Hud about Prophet Noah A.S. who was building an Ark and people laughed at
him.



And he was building the ship, and every time that chieftains of his people passed him,
they made mock of him. He said: Though ye make mock of Us, yet We mock at you even
as ye mock (Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Hud-
11, Verse 38);
Be a friend of Gods men is advice to Turanshah that unlike Noah A.S.s son who
disobeyed his father, you should be a helper of Shah Shuja. Likewise, Stanza 9 has a
reference to Quranic Verse 54, Surah Yusuf when Egypts King Aziz had ordered the
release of Prophet Yusuf A.S. in order to assign him some important portfolio.



And the king said: Bring him unto me that I may attach him to my person. And when he
had talked with him he said: Lo! thou art to-day in our presence established and
trusted(Al-Yousuf- 12, Verse 54)

7. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2, you spread your disheveled dark hair on your moon-like
face; thus you put the lover in distress. Chaugan is the polo stick which because of its
resemblance with the curls twist is likened here. These twisted curls engulf the moon i.e.
the face of the beloved. Beloveds curly hair can cause problems as explained in notes
for ode 2 Stanza 2 and ode 10 Stanza 7.

Stanza 5, one should not belittle others or adopt holier than thou attitude. This theme is
also reflected in ode 3 Stanza 8 and ode 106 Stanza 4. Prophet SAW said;
Morally speaking, laughing at others defects is not good. Khayyam says:


If you dont drink wine, blame not a bibber
Kindly resort not to ruse or pretexts conjure
Dont take pride that you take not the liquor
Hundred morsels ye take, wine is evil lesser

25
Stanza 6, Noahs ark is the world, immersed in deluge of disasters. Other Prophets
cursed their nations at times of disobedience but Prophet Muhammad SAW always
sought for the wrong doers guidance from the Lord as at Taif for those at whose hands
he was severely injured. Dust is reckoned better than water. Noahs storm water was
impure (unlawful) so they did ablution (tayammum) with the dust speck stored into the
Ark, as advised by Gabriel- the Archangel. Reference to Khaki- dust is to the humbleness
and humility of the Gods man or the true Abd (bondsman or ardently obedient slave of
God)

Stanza 7, world is a betraying entity. One has to quit it one day. Hazrat Ali A.S. says:


Stanza 8, why build sky-rise mansions and towers when in lowly dust one has to live.
See the following advice:

See ode 43 Stanza 4 for this theme of mundane lifes transient worth.

Stanza 9, Kanans moon here refers to the soul of lover; Egypts throne is beloveds
union and prison is the bodily elements wherein the flight-worthy soul is trapped.
Maulana Toti Tarshizi says:

Stanza 10, Dairah Imkan or cycle of possibilities. Sages say there are three aspects of a
thing: i) it can be existent (Wujood) or non-existent (Adem) such as elements of any
entity like human beings, animals, plants etc. ii) its non-existence (Imtinaa) is a sine
qua non i.e. partners of God; also called Mahaal, and iii) Wujoob or something whose
Existence is must. e.g. God (also called Wajibul Wujood). So if one keeps exerting in all
these cycles of possibilities and probabilities, one can not resolve a single subtlety of
these issues. See ode 4 Stanza 3 and ode 8 Stanza 8 for these issues.
Stanza 12, a morale bearing stanza. Someone said:



Last Stanza is self-explanatory. Amir Khusro Dahlavi says:

8. Stringed Pearls


If that Turk of Shiraz grasps our heart into his hand
On his dark mole, Ill grant Bukhara-n-Samarqand (1)


Saki! give leftover wine, in heaven wont be found
Ruknabads water-bank or Musalla's flowery sward (2)

26


Woe! frolic, coquet-gypsies, towns uproar, so bold
Took my hearts patience as Turks plunder in raid (3)


Indifferent to my imperfect love is beauty of beloved
Luster, colour, mole or cut, lovely face has no need (4)


I knew it well, by Yusufs beauty growing manifold
Lovell rip Zulekhas chastity veil, bring her naked (5)


Ye talkd me ill, I'm happy, God forgive, well ye said
It suits to ruby lip- sweetsayer, to utter a bitter word (6)


Listen to the counsel darling! dear to soul they hold
The obedient youth, the advice of wise sage, so old (7)


Talk of singer and wine! dig not mystery of the world
A mystery, by logic none will solve nor earlier solved (8)


Yr ode, as if pearl pierced, come Hafiz! sing it loud
On your rhymes, sky showers the chains of pleiade (9)

Note on Turk Shirazi (See also the initial paragraph of Notes by Jalalian and
Wilberforce Clark below on this term): There are many stories, many of which are
fabricated including the one told by Dolat Shah Samarqandi about the Shirazi Turk
(beloved of Hafiz). Others like Maulana Fakhruddin Ali Safi son of Mulla Hussein
Kashfi wrote in Lataifut Tawaif and also contained in Azars Aatash Kadah. Dolat Shah
did real historical injustice by linking it to the second visit to Shiraz by Tamerlane in 795
A.H. and Hafiz (killing of Shah Mansur in this attack) when Hafiz had already passed
away 3-4 years earlier. This fact is reflected in Gulchen Maani; also by Ghani Qazvini
in the notes on Lataifut Tawaif and in Tazkirah ee Maikhana.

Late Danish Zia Lashkar Hakim Suri- a contemporary of Hafiz said:



27
Simply it could be like we say these days a Tabrizi Turk or a Caucasian Turk. We cannot
say with certainty that there must have been a character referred to as Shirazi Turk in
Hafizs ode. Allama Qazvini says that Saadi had earlier used this term:

However, we can not at the same time simply dismiss that this term was used just for
rhyme by the poet when two Shiraz poets have used the word. However, Qazvini quotes
from Aneesun Naas by Shuja Shirazi the actual encounter between Hafiz and Tamerlane
during the latters first visit in 789 A.H. which is credit-worthy unlike Dolat Shahs
version. They say that when Tamerlane overwhelmed the troops of Sultan Zainul
Aabideen (son of Shah Shuja), he demanded taxes from rich citizens of Shiraz which,
inter alia, included the poet Hafiz. But the fact was that the old and aged Hafiz was in
wretched condition and could not even pay one-tenth of such tax. He approached
Tamerlane and expressed his inability to pay the amount. Tamerlane then taunted him:
Isnt it you who had said this verse:

He who can dole out Samarqand and Bukhara can never be a penniless person. Hafiz
responded: It is because of such magnanimity and spendthriftness that I am a pauper
today. Tamerlane was amused at this and exempted Hafiz from the penalty (Tareekh e
Asr Hafiz).

8. Sharah Jalalian: Maulavi says:



Salman Saujee says:

Turk Shirazi in the words of Jalalian: Turk- Tatars from Siberia, came down to Asia and
east Europe by bloody invasions. Many from Helagus troops stayed behind in Shiraz in
two forms. Some settled out of Shiraz in tribes, still called Qashqai Turk tribes. Others
stayed in Shiraz like gypsies, their girls were known for singing, coquettish glances and
heroism. Gradually, they merged into the society. In Hafizs times it was a convention to
refer to the Beloved as Turk. Saadi also said at one point in his verse:
No one experiences as much cruelty from a Khatayan Turk
As I at the hands of a Shirazi Turk

In stanza 1, Turk Shirazis implicit reference is Shah Shuja himself whose mother was
from Karakhtai Turks (of Kirman). But explicit reference is to Turk aboriginals living in
Shiraz. A Shirazi Turk is one residing in Shiraz though still a Turk in manners, morals
and appearance. In the works of Rozbihan Baqli (1128-1209), by Hafizs times it had
become a convention to refer to the beloved as a Turk.

Stanza 2, Ruknabad spring which originates in the pass of Allah Akbar. In the
past, it was full of water and used to irrigate villages of Ruknabad. Nowadays little water
is left in it. Musalla was a green patch, stretching from Ruknabad to the town, used
for promenades by Shirazis and where lies Hafizs tomb (). The ode is composed
for Shah Shuja. Since all off-spring of Aal e Muzaffar had a dark mole on their face, the
reference of mole draws from there. Initial four stanzas and Stanza No. 6 are in praise of
Shah Shuja. It is about early times of Shah Shujas rule who was then close to Shariah
scholars and Hafiz had a concern on this. In 7th stanza, he says that whatever Shahs
attitude, the poet keeps praying for him. In stanza 5 and 8, he tells the Shah to stay
happy and to pay no attention to Zainuddin Kilah and Panjiri- two rivals of Hafiz at the
Royal court. Last stanza is a double entendre and tells that poet feels happy in singing

28
odes for others with his sweet voice and appealing people to his side. Late Dr. Qasim
Ghani believed that this ode was in all probability composed for Shah Zainul Aabideen
who had succeeded his father Shah Shuja in the late years of the poet.

Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, mole or Khaal is often called as Khaal e Hindu because of its
black colour. Other black things are also called Hindu. Arsalan Baig says:

In Persian, the word Hindu also means a thief or dacoit. Hafiz doled out the two
Central Asian cities to beloveds mole and replied to Tamerlane:
Lovers are ready to sacrifice the entire world for the sake of the beloved.
S. Akbar says:

Amir Khusro says:

Stanza 2, Jannat is that kind of a garden which hides the earth with trees (Arabic Jann:
cover, hide). Stanza 3, Lulian (plural of Luli) audacious, shameless, teasing (beloved),
appealing damsels.

Stanza 4, God is carefree.


But whoever disbelieves - then indeed, Allah is free from need of the worlds.(Aal Imran-
3, Verse 97)



But if you disbelieve - then to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is
on the earth. And ever is Allah Free of need and Praiseworthy.(Al-Nisa 4, Verse 131)

Maulana Rumi says:




So when one loves a beloved, that beloved is not dependent on being loved. If we
worship God, He does not need it to stay as God. Quran says:


And whoever strives only strives for [the benefit of] himself. Indeed, Allah is free from
need of the worlds (Ankaboot-29, Verse 6).

Stanza 5, see Notes above under Sharah Jalalian for Yousuf A.S. and Zulekhas affair. In
any case, Gods beauty brought the universe out and exposed it. Sheikh Fakhruddin Iraqi
says:


Another poet said:


But love could not remain hidden:


This ever-expanding absolute beauty is what Quran says about:


All that are in the heavens and the earth entreat Him. Every day He exerciseth
(universal) power (Al-Rahman 55, Verse 29).

Ghalib says:

29
Stanza 6, it is a sarcastic hit as well as a moralistic advice. These lines are used as
proverb too. If someone utters bad words, one can respond to him by uttering this verse.
Saadi says:

Stanza 8, Raaz e Dahr (secret of God, universe or epoch) is something no scientist or


philosopher has ever been able to comprehend or resolve until to-date. Prophet SAW
said: Dahr (epoch) is Allah, so utter no ill about it. People still keep wondering about the
persona and attributes of God. Urfi says:

A whole world admits this will continue to remain a secret. Fariduddin Attar says:


Even if one takes Dahr as the universe, cosmos or the creation, still it presents the same
enigma. Farabi in one of his quatrains says:


Maulana Shibli at some point said:

So keep indulged in drinking and with the minstrel (Gods love and intoxication):

Last Stanza, Thariya is Parvin (Pleiade) or the six stars which are quiet little in size but
stay close to one another in the sky.

Wilberforce Clark: Stanza1, according to Clark, Turk Shirazi is Hafizs beloved Shakh
e Nabaat or true beloved God; dark mole is seekers of the mean
world and Samarqand and Bukhara means Faith and the world (or this world and the next
world). Anecdote has it that when Tamerlane conquered Shiraz, he asked: Hafiz! why
you give away my hard-vanquished two cities on just a mole of your Shirazi
sweetheart? Hafiz replied; it is because of such largesse that today I am penniless.
Some others quote Hafizs response as follows; Shiraz is my beloved homeland and is
actually that Existence whose reflection is in everything. Samarqand is this world,
Bukhara is the hereafter. You seek worldly things; but if you seek hereafter, then you
must quit this world. I quit both the worlds as I am a Seeker of God only. Tamerlane
was impressed and said; Bravo, you quit worldly things yet desire not paradise. Hafiz
replied; Bravo applies to you. For a few days worldly mundane life, you quit eternal
pleasures of which the greatest is the vision of the Lord. Stanza 2, Ruknabad is a
stream, 4 feet wide, 1.5 km north of Shiraz, a rendezvous for the flirting youth. Its branch
traverses by Hafizs tomb . Musalla is actually a prayer ground where Eid prayer is
offered. Musalla-e Shiraz is a monastery place, half km west of Hafiziyyah. Stanza 3,
Lulian ( literal meaning: shameless, audacious, sweetheart) are those gypsy girls
(here a reference to Shakh e Nabat- Hafizs beloved). Turkmens loot of booty
(Khawwane Yaghma ) refers to their tribal custom of an annual day of food
festival held in the vast desert where they loot on food trays.

Stanza 4, one having black eyelash needs no Kuhl. Incomplete love (natamam ) is
endless love. Lovers love is increaser of the beauty. Persian women make moles; i)
either temporary ones with pitch and antimony oxide, or ii) the permanent, with

30
chelidonium (zard chub) and charcoal. Natural beauty is carefree. If we obey our
beloved, it is good for us. No harm for beloved in any case. Najmuddin Razi says in his
Mirsadul Ibad for this Stanza: Were the heart to be seething in desire for a gypsy/And
you to offer it a hundred Turks, it would take no notice. The context is Gods sustaining
love of Man and Mans commitment to assume the burden of the Trust he accepted from
his Lord in the primordial Covenant (See note including Quranic verse on Stanza 2 of
Ode 222).

Hafiz also seems to have in mind Najm Razis Stanza from Mirsadul Ibad which says:

Love came and plundered intelligence


O heart! take this happy news to the soul!
Know love is a Persian Turk,
For in the Turk, plundering is not strange.
Intelligence was desirous of bringing into a trope
His cheeks description by way of metaphor
His cheeks light thrust out a tongue of fire:
It burnt both intelligence and trope.

Stanza 5, logical arguments cant reveal the truth. Only perfect mentors training and
instructions can resolve this mystery.
Stanza 5, Zulekha was the wife of Prophet Yousuf (Potiphar: Genesis- 39). Quran also
mentions it in Surah Al-Yusuf-12, Verses 23-24):









And she, in whose house he was, sought to seduce him. She closed the doors and said,
"Come, you." He said, "[I seek] the refuge of Allah. Indeed, he is my master, who has
made good my residence. Indeed, wrongdoers will not succeed. And she certainly
determined [to seduce] him, and he would have inclined to her had he not seen the proof
of his Lord. And thus [it was] that We should avert from him evil and immorality. Indeed,
he was of Our chosen servants.

However, according to Sufi interpretations, actual reference is not Prophet Yousuf A.S.
There is a divine Hadith or saying;
. Stanza 7, Arab proverb;
The friends blow is sweet. Saki had rebuked the love-sick in earlier stanzas, turned
away and responded bitterly. Whoever is a path-shower, a rebuke on his part is welcome.
Prima facie, the entire ode seems influenced by Mirsadul Ibad.

Additional Note about Khaal or the mole of the beloved (Stanza 1): The mole (Khaal)
refers to Unity, a dot, a reference to the pupil of the eye and can embrace all phenomena.
Shabistari says:
On that cheek the point of His mole is single
It is a centre which is the basis of the circling circumference
From that centre is drawn the circle of the two worlds
From that centre Adams heart and soul

In Canto 28, of Paradiso, Dante makes Beatrice explain to him that :


Da quell punto
Depende il cielo, e tutta la natura

31
Translation: From that point hangs heaven and all nature.

Anecdote from Mahdi Akhwan: When Amir Taimur Gorkaan (Tamerlane) came to
Shiraz for the first time (789 A.H.), entire populace of town went to see him, whether
they liked it or not. He met them one by one, looking for Hafiz who had become
renowned in the Central Asia for his beautiful odes just as Tamerlane had become
notorious for the tyranny of his sword Not seeing Hafiz, Tamerlane asked his
courtier Syed Zenul Aabideen Gunabadi who had mentioned of Hafiz in Tamerlanes
court many a times where the poet was. Gunabadi said that Hafiz was an old man who
had become recluse but that he will bring him in. Hafiz came in, a figure depicting old
age, poverty, exertion and reclusive dervish features quiet visible in him. There was long
silence, broken later by Tamerlane in a whispering voice so that Hafiz could also hear it:
we had heard that rulers of the east and the west, from Arabia and India had been doling
out precious gifts and cash for the Khuwajas verses but what I see is quiet the contrary
of what I have been hearing. It seems this pennilessness has some other reason. Still
Hafiz kept silent for a while. At last Tamerlane stirred the discussion and asked Khuwaja:
Poorman! I conquered at least the quarter of the inhabited world by the power of my
sword. I plundered hundreds of towns so that I could beautify my native towns of
Bukhara and Samarqand which are my seat of power with these spoils and here you are
granting free my these towns at the dark mole of your so-called Turkish beloved. He
quoted Stanza 1 of this ode. Hafiz replied:

It is because of these doles-out that I have reached this penury state.

9. Venus Concert



O breeze! tell that lovely fawn with due respect
Youve made us wander in mountains-n-desert (1)


That sugar-seller, may he enjoy a long life, but
Why isnt compassionate to sugar-eating parrot (2)


O rose, your beautys arrogance doesnt permit
To ask about the nightingale, your lover-ardent (3)


By courtesy, people of vision one can captivate
32
Wise birds can not be trapped in chains or net (4)


I know not why no sign of intimacy they indicate
Those with dark eyes, moon-faced, of tall-height (5)


When with friend ye sit and wine ye measure out
Think of friends who measure wind; are bankrupt (6)


Yr beauty is perfect except for small complaint
Yr lovely face lacks any sign of mercy and trust (7)


In thanks for friends' union; lucks favour great
Cast a look at travelers of wilderness and desert (8)


No wonder, up in the sky, at Hafiz's couplet
Even Christ does dance at the Venus' concert (9)

9. Sharah Jalalian: Zahir, Maulana, Khojandi and Amad Faqih used this rhyme but
Hafiz was more inclined to follow Saadi.

This ode is in praise of Shah Zainul Aabidin son of Shah Shuja, at a time when Hafizs
relations with Shuja were not good. In stanza 1, fawn is Zainul Aabidin who in stanza 2
is asked why his father takes not care of Hafiz. In Stanza 3, the poet asks from the prince
as to why his father enquires not of him and if this because of his kingly arrogance? In
Stanza 4, Hafiz advises that men of vision should be entertained by kind gestures and
that imprisonment or exile is not appropriate for them. Stanza 5 is a complaint of
indifference against Shah Shuja. In Stanza 6, Shahs attention is solicited as an old friend
when he is in the drinking company of friends. Measuring the wind Baad Paimaee is a
metaphor for being destitute, bankrupt. Stanza 7 is a grievance against Shah Shujas
indifference. First line of this stanza is taken from Saadis comparable verse but Hafizs
is much more eloquent;

Last stanza, Hafiz appears a free man, full of pride and self-knowing who appreciates
his own verses. Most of Hafizs double entendre odes, after making demands in the ode
in dual meaning form, end up with last stanza expressing his carefree and prideful
posture as would appear in subsequent such odes as well.

Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Raana is Persian word meaning good-looking, handsome,


smart. Fawn or Gazelle is compared to the beloved as it has beautiful eyes. They are

33
found in mountains and deserts. Mirza Bedil traces his beloved, not in mountains and
deserts but within himself:

Stanza 2, Toti Shakarkha is a kiss-seeking lover.
Stanza 3 is a bit sarcastic. A poet said:

Stanza 4, men of vision Ahl e Nazar can be ensnared by good manners. Maulana Hali
says:

But remember that a wise lover can be allured by good conduct; beauty alone doesnt
work.

Stanza 5, Seema is forehead which indicates whether one is good or bad. Complaint is
about lack of fidelity amongst the beautiful lot.

Zaheer Faryabi says:

Amir Khusro says:

Stanza 6, Baad Paima means destitute, bankrupt.

Stanza 7 is again a complaint like in previous Stanza.


.

Last stanza, Venus (Zuhra) is the guardian of music and musicians. She dwells on the 4th
heaven where ascended Jesus Christ (some say on the 3rd heavens). Dancing and singing
are part of Sufi practice, as in SAMA- audition. As Prophet Da'ud (David) A.S. had a
sweet singing voice, so there is no disrespect if such Davidian lyric (Lahne Da'udi
( brings Prophet Isa A.S. (Jesus) into ecstasy.

10. Our Pir- a Tavern-haunter



Last night quit mosque, to tavern came our Pir
Fellas! tell me what then should be our measure (1)


How we face to Ka'ba, being a faithful follower
Our Pir's face is directed to the house of vintner (2)

On the tavern path, better we stay as co-traveler

34
So was decreed since eternity by destinys scriber (3)


If reason knows how glad heart is in his long hair
Men of reason will become crazy after our fetter (4)


A verse of mercy exposed, yr pretty face favour
In our commentary ye find only kindness-n-care (5)


Not one night, on yr stone-hard heart did occur
Any impact of my sigh, chest-burn of night entire (6)


As prey of tranquility entered in my hearts snare
It soon fled away when ye loosened yr long hair (7)


Wind stird yr tress (hid face), our world went blur
See our craze for yr tress and yr reward so meager (8)


Arrow of our sigh'll cross skies, watch out dear!
Have mercy on your soul! avoid this! stay clear! (9)


Like Hafiz, Ill become dweller at the tavern-door
Friend! our Pir himself became a tavern-haunter (10)

10. Sharah Jalalian: This ode bears the impact of great poet Khuwaju Kirmani on Hafiz
who, like other prominent Persian poets, was Hafizs source of inspiration. 3rd stanza,
second line is exactly from Khuwaju;

or

Salman Saujee says:

Hafiz spent his entire life studying and selecting the best of the verses from other poets
of repute and standing. In this ode too, the subject of love and disgrace of Sheikh Sinan
was expressed. Words at the end of first stanza- Pire ma ( our Pir) have no any

35
relation of Pir and disciple between Hafiz and Sheikh Sinan. This was simply borrowed
as the rhyme-ending from Khuwajus ode which begins with:

This odes timing coincides with the period Hafiz was studying commentary (exegesis)
of Quran. In stanza 5, he mentions that save grace and mercy we found nothing else in
the Quran commentary (Verse- Ayah in first line requires Commentary or Tafseer-
Exegesis in 2nd line in Stanza 5). Exposure (Kashf) refers to a detailed Persian
commentary on Quran called Tafseer Al-Kashhaf . Hafiz had in mind Sheikh
Sinans affair and Hussain bin Mansoor Hallajs case when outwardly scholars by their
superficial knowledge annoyed the true path-seekers. Hafiz at one point appreciated
Sheikh Sinans boldness and said;
,
Accordingly, it appears that figures like Sheikh Sinan and Hussain bin Mansoor Hallaj
held a special place in Hafizs overall thinking. Sanai- the father of mystical Ghazals had
many poems on this theme. He says:
O my Kasbah is in your mansion
For me body and soul and heart are on your behalf

10. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 3, we will follow our Pir as obedient disciples towards the
tavern:



Some editions use the words Kharabaat e Mughan instead of Kharabaat e Tareeqat.
Possibly, these verses tell about descent of Prophet Adam A.S. on earth. High up in
heavens is the place of prostration for angels (Masjid) where Adam was too engaged in
this act and this mundane world is rather a site akin to a tavern (Kharabaat e Mughan).
Because Adam left that high place to become a dweller down here, we too were destined
or condemned from the outset to stay here.

So if our Pir dwells in the tavern, his robe is in mortgage of the wine house, we cant be
different from such a state.


Stanza 4, only if the wise ones know of my joy in the captivity of the beloveds tress,
they will want to be chained by these and make a beeline for the fetters (tress). Khuwaju
says|:

Stanza 5, beloveds beautiful face is Gods beauty. Sufi says:
Whoever observes traits of Gods beauty, his entire conduct will turn to kindness and
mercy.
Stanza 6, Shabgeer means later part of night; travel at night; bird who wails at late
night; or a person who rises from bed to worship the Lord at mid-night.

Stanza 7, see for similar theme in ode 2 Stanza 2. The lover was `fully focused in ogling
at the beauty of the beloved, tress loosened, an outside thought intervened and the whole
pleasant view was gone.

Mirza Abdul Qadir Bedil expresses this condition as follows:

Dr. Iqbal says:

36

See ode 7/4 and ode 2/2.

Stanza 8, a similar reference to loose tress of the beloved as shown in previous Stanza is
given in the following verse:

Again, a moral advice and lovers lament in Stanza 9. Saadi says:

Hafiz too warns this tyrant beloved to avoid loud wails consequences; for lovers
lament does not get hindered at the skies but transcends beyond.

Another Urdu poet said:


Khuwaju says:

Last Stanza carries the same meaning as the First Stanza. However, the word
Kharabaati (tavern resident) has been beautifully explained by Mahmood Tabrizi in his
book Gulshan Raz. A few of his couplets are as follows:





As regards ( our Pir or Mentor) mentioned in the first and last stanza, some
translators assume that Hafiz had some Mentor or Murshid, some even say it was Attar.
Still many believe Hafiz was divinely bestowed in spiritual matters and had never
attached himself as a disciple or Mureed to any particular Pir or a c

11. Cypress-tall Stature



Who will convey to courtiers of Sultan our prayer
In thanks for Kingdom, do not neglect the beggar (1)



I seek refuge from a rival bearing demon-nature
Only if shooting star, Gods sake! be my helper (2)


If your dark eyelash does intend for my murder
Beware of its deceit dear!, make no (such) error (3)

37


By yr radiant cheek, million hearts ye set on fire
What ye gain, by not becoming courteous-n-tender (4)


All night I wondered, morning breeze- a courier
Will carry lovers message to the friend familiar (5)


()
A tumult creates as ye before yr admirers appear
Your moon-lit face and cypress-tall lovely stature (6)

!
My grieved heart bled by yr eye acting as sorcerer
Look at me dear, how was committed my murder (7)


In God's name, give a sip for an early-rising lover
Be it that you might avail from his morning prayer (8)


Hafiz's grieved heart bleeds by separation dagger
What a wonder will happen if it gets union? dear! (9)
11. Sharah Jalalian: Salman Saujee says:

Amad Faqih says:

Kamal Khojandi says:

Hafiz must have thought of Jamaluddin Isfahanis Qaseedah: Who will take my message
to the city of Shirvan Who will carry my word to that man of eloquence. This ode was
composed on the eve of Shah Shujas attempts to regain Shiraz from his brother
Mahmood. Shuja had camped at the rear gate of the city. Message of the ode is; Who
can convey to Shah Shuja our message that people are expecting you. We seek refuge
from the occupying, demon-natured Shah Mahmood. You may descend like lightning
upon him. While attempting a comeback, beware of bloodshed as people are weary of
such a fatality and it is useless. Find some compromise. I pray for you day and night and
look forward to see you in town so that you come and take care of Hafizs comfort and
stipend. Hafizs early morning prayer has a great influence in your favour. In stanza 2,
Hafiz eliminates demon-nature by a shooting star (Shahab Saqib) which refers to

38
Quranic verse;

(Quran, Surah Mulk 67, verse 5). Translation: And verily We have beautified the
worlds heaven with lamps and We have made them missiles for the devils and for
them We have prepared the doom of flame. Stanza 3, Sultan will regret the ouster of
sincere lover and stop favours to false rivals. Stanza 4, cheek is the beauty of God- the
Divine Essence manifested in His names and qualities.

Dr Qasim Ghani in his book History of Hafizs Epoch writes that on 16 Dhil
Qad 767 A.H., the two brothers (Shah Shuja and Shah Mahmood) battled near Fasa
bridge and Shah Shuja came victorious. He appeared from the gate of Saadat Square
( Medane Saadat). Some of the stanzas, it can be said, are uttered during the
camping of Shah Shuja in Saadat Square near Shirazs outer gate.

Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, similar sense is also conveyed in Ode 6/5. Stanza 2, Demon-
nature rival is Nafse Ammarah or the carnal desires of man. A shooting or guiding star
(Shahab Saqib) is required to overcome it. Stanza 6, some odes show the second line as

Beloveds face is like shining moon but his heart is stony hard. For lovers it is a chaotic
situation. Beloved shows his beautiful face to allure the lover but ignores lovers pleas:

Last Stanza, early morning supplication gets answered quickly. Mir says:

Spiritual Context: Second line in stanza 2 can be paraphrased as follows:


Pure You are, O God and deserving praise, and blessed is Your name and exalted Your
glory.
There is no god save You, Protect us God from demon (Shaitan) the accursed
Recitation of Holy Quran is always started with ( Translation: I
crave Thy protection from Satan, the outcast). See Quran, Surah Aal Imran 3: Verse 36
. Also see Surah Al-Hijr 15: Verse 34 (
Translation: Then go thou forth from hence, for lo! Thou are outcast. Avoiding evil
designs of Satan is difficult but if Almighty showers His grace and mercy then there is no
fear. Satan has been called a demon because Quran says; ( Surah
Yousuf 12, Verse 5), ( Surah Al-Isra 17, Verse 53),

( Surah Al-Fatir 35, Verse 6), ( Surah Al-Zukhruf 43,
Verse 62). Satan is demon-natured because its from Genie specie which is created from
the fire.


Stanza 3, Quran says; When (Moses) said; My Lord! Show me
(Thy Self), that I may gaze upon Thee. He said; Thou wilt not see Me (Quran, Surah Al-
Aaraf 7, Verse 143). First, He made us a lover by showering His lights, He then hid His
face. Now when a request is put for vision and a look, reply comes that you cannot see
Me.

12. Memories of Union




39
Where stand pious ones, where I, the evil-doer
See difference in direction, at distance measure (1)


My heart weary of garment of guile and cloister
Where's Magian's monastery, where wine pure (2)


What relation of bibber with piety and character
Where violin song, where a sermon of preacher (3)


Of friend's face, enemys dim heart avails cipher
No match- a fused lamp to a sun-like chandelier (4)


Dust of yr pavilion- an antimony, vision sharpener
Where to go? Tell us, from this court go us where? (5)


His chin-dimple; deem it a pit on the path, beware!
Where you rush O heart! Why this much scamper? (6)


Good memory of union left only; his departure
Gone is his tender glance, so gone his censure (7)


O friend! seek not from Hafiz, rest or solitaire
What rest, which patience, where is slumber? (8)

12. Sharah Jalalian: This ode was said at the times when Shah Shuja under the
influence of Hafizs rivals (Sheikh Zenuddin Kilah & Abdullah Panjiri) took a Sharaee
approach (religious code) and distanced himself, as it so appeared, from Hafiz. Stanza 1
refers to this distancing, the hypocritical conduct of Shuja compared with the poets loyal
conduct. In stanza 2, he is averse to Shah Shujas hypocrisy and seeks for winehouse. In
stanza 3, he expresses devoutness for profligacy, instead of hypocrisy and ostentation. In
Stanza 4, he feels that in his place, now opportunists have surrounded the Shah Shuja. In
stanza 5, he is nostalgic about the days spent together in the company of the Shah and is
longing for these to be back again. In stanza 6, he warns Shah not to be defrauded by

40
such companions. In Stanza 7, he feels nostalgic about days gone in the company of
Shah Shuja. Any changing of words in this Stanza brings the same meaning:

In the last stanza, he admits about his restlessness, impatience and discomfort.

Spiritual Context: Stanza 1, pious ones rely on God with the approach combining both
high hope in Him and due fear as well. Need of good deeds is for him who seeks
paradise as a reward. Our state is such that deeds whether good or bad occur not from us.
We have ruined our existence. Now . He is
the One Who sees , listens and does, we are but mere puppets. Stanza 2, a bibber is a
profligate and signifies the one who is cut off, in action and conduct, from friends and
strangers. See ode 321, stanza 4. Sermon (Waz ) is the talk of men of abstinence of
the promise of promiser (Wade Waid). Violin song is the talk of Murshid of the time who
are profligate, world-consuming and feel like a candle, a guide-illuminating. Stanza 3,
monastery (Sawmah) is the temple of rectitude, the place of escape from sin and of
refuge. Dair Mughan ( Magians cloister or monastery) signifies the place of
profligates which is a place of effacement, where this existence feels fit. Pure wine
(Sharab e Naab) is the mysteries of love , the cause of joy to people of love. In stanza 4,
union had been such a long time ago that the period of union is now forgotten and those
favourable looks and censures witnessed then are no more. In stanza 5, the friends face
is likened to the sun, enemys heart to the extinguished lamp. In stanza 7, Sibe
Zanakhdan ( chin-dimple) signifies the grace, mixed with wrath, of the
beloved. Although it is joyous in appearance and makes men fascinated with its colour
and perfume, yet in the path comes a pit in which the traveler once confined remains
trapped.

13. Thirsty Lips, Eyes Wet



We move, you know and knows this my sad heart
Where move victuals, where takes us wretched fate (1)


Like yr gold tress, my eyelashes shall encapsulate
A messenger who from you side brings us a salute (2)


I intend to pray, you too lift hands and supplicate
Fidelity be your attribute and God be my support (3)


Against you-n-me, if entire universe inconsiderate
Be sure! their injustice, revenge our Lord will exact (4)

41

Let me swear by yr head, if entire world is against
Your craze deep in my head, none can ever eject (5)


I am being pushed here and there, by firmament
Its envious against the darling mate that Ive kept (6)

Deeply anguished I am, my inner pain is manifest


By my dry mouth, thirsty lips and my eyes so wet (7)


As we took to writing yr facial beauty's attribute
Petals of rose feel humiliated at seeing our note (8)


The day will come when friend is back sound-n-fit
What a good day his safe return; to us he pays visit (9)


May sans yr pain stay not my grief-stricken heart
Burn, my heart! nothing better than this does suit (10)


Im happy since the day you asked my antagonist
Whos this unrelenting beggar, never quits our gate (11)


For Gods sake, whoever asks where Hafiz went
Say! painfully he set into motion and from us left (12)
13. Explanatory Notes: Last stanza carries two meanings. Firstly, Hafiz left from us;
secondly, Hafiz addresses his beloved and says that after I leave, if someone asks where
did go Hafiz? Tell him that in tears from us he departed.

Spiritual Context: Stanza 1, the mistress of Hafiz wished to go from Shiraz to


Baghdad. Hafiz had to see her off. At the departure of beloved ones, it is respectful and
of good omen to say; Ma Birafteem: We went (instead of; Oo raft- she
went).

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So you have not gone from us and from you we are not gone. In your separation where
our victuals are taken, for without you I cant live.

In his Notices of Persian Poets, Sir Gore Ousley renders this stanza as follows:
We have departed as you know and our grief-worn heart can tell
To where does bad fortune direct our unhappy residence
Ousley adds that this ode was written when Hafiz was himself leaving Shiraz, on his way
to exile in Yazd.

14. Your Face



Your favour if you, from the poor, hide not face
Heart can attain aim, eye can see yr countenance (1)


Like Harut angel, we in perpetual love menace
Only if our eye had not seen your appearance (2)


Harut never to be a prisoner of mid-chin space
If Marut had not told him a little of his elegance (3)
!

Rose-scent spread, appears in garden yr face
Having seen yr face, nightingales are in trance (4)
!

In separation dear! I suffer tyranny-n-violence
Show Hafiz yr face, bestow on him yr grace (5)
14. Explanatory Notes: Many a Hafiz experts are of the opinion that this ode does not
come from Hafiz. The content and style also confirm this. Given its presence in some
versions, it has been retained here. Paul Smith says that besides Iran, this ode is also
popular in South Asia; especially in Kashmir and it is also sung by the boatmen on the
Ganges.

Spiritual Context: This ode is found in only two editions. In stanzas 1,2 and 5 is Iham
( mystery) or double entendre. For, the final word is ma rut: the name of an angel, ii)
ma rut, ma ruyat, ma ru (our face), tura (your face). Stanza 2, Harut (first line), Marut
(second line), their story is in Quran







43
Translation: but the devils disbelieved, teaching mankind magic and that which was
revealed to the two angels in Babel, Harut and Marut. Nor did they (the two angels)
teach it to anyone till they had said: We are only a temptation, therefore disbelieve not
(in the guidance of Allah). And from these two (angles) people learn that by which they
cause division between man and wife; but they injure thereby no-one save by Allah's
leave. And they learn that which harmeth them and profiteth them not. And surely they
do know that he who trafficketh therein will have no (happy) portion in the Hereafter;
and surely evil is the price for which they sell their souls, if they but knew (Surah Al-
Baqarah 2, Verse 102).

Also see Genesis (VI:2). In Prophet Daud (A.S.)s times, there were two angels. They
used to criticize sinful human beings. As a trial God sent them to earth with a human
nafs (desires) and they fell in love with a beautiful lady (Zuhra )who was crazy
to learn Isme Azam (the great name of God). The two angels drank wine, worshipped
Zuhras idol, slew her husband and taught her the great name of God. Zuhra having
gained a power went up in the sky and mingled with Venus. As a punishment of their sin,
the angels were hanged down in a well near Babylon (Iraq) where they adopted the
profession of teaching men the art of magic and sorcery. God, however, commanded
them not to teach anyone this art until they had said; Verily, we are a temptation,
therefore be not an unbeliever. With the help of a Jew traditionist, Mujahid visited their
place and removed the rock hiding the two angels in Babylon. When he beheld the angels
like mountain-masses, suspended heads downward, with irons about their necks and
knees, he uttered the name of God. Immediately, the two angels became extremely
agitated and tried to break the chains upon which Mujahid and the Jew traditionist fled in
terror.

15. Grief My Only Gain



Ever since your beauty invited lovers for a union
By yr mole-n-tress, heart-n-soul sufferd affliction (1)


What lovers' souls suffer because of separation
Save Karbala martyrs, no one else has ever seen (2)


If our Turk beloved in profligacy, in intoxication
Piety-n-chastity, O dear! you must also abandon (3)


Pleasure period, happy hour, drinking duration
O heart! these five days as a windfall ye reckon! (4)

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With whom should I sit and heart's secret open
In his love, my assets nil, grief is my only gain (5)


Hafiz! if worthy of feet-kiss Shahs benefaction
Dignity-n-grandeur in two worlds, youll attain(6)

15. Spiritual Context: Stanza 1, tress (Zulf )is the attraction of love to lovers.
Mole (Khal ) is the black point of the soul/ hearts centre. Stanza 2, Karbala is a
reference to the sacrifice of Imam Hussain A.S.- the grandson of the Prophet SAW and
the second son of Ali A.S. who was martyred by Yazid- the ruler of Umayyad dynasty
alongwith his 72 followers in a state of thirst as water supplies were cut for his comrades
during the fight in the desert of Karb o Bala- trial and tribulation (now a town by this
name in Iraq). Stanza 3, profligacy (Rindi ) signifies one colour of unity.
Intoxication (Masti) means non-existence, disregard. Masturi sleeping within the veil
which means holy existence in the veils of qualities which human understanding has not
the power to discover. Piety (Zuhd )signifies abstinence from unlawful things of God.
The whole Stanza 3 could make a sense as follows:

O bold one! If my soul practise profligacy and intoxication i.e. if it become a seeker of
oneness and unicolouredness, it will be necessary for you to cast off veiledness
(modesty) and austerity and to come unveiled. O soul of mine!


Letter BA
16. Stranger in Despair


I said; beauty-leader, have a look at this poor
Said; you are lost in love O destitute stranger! (1)


I requested; stay awhile', he said; "stay clear!"
Used to home lux, he felt not pain of stranger (2)


Rests on royal ermine, how can a prince consider
Of thorn-n-stone which is poors pillow-n-sleeper (3)

45


In your tress-chains you locked the life of lover
Fine fits the musky mole on yr fresh face so fair (4)


On your face give appealing look sprouting hair
Though in Painter's studio, such growth not rare (5)


From your moon-lit face radiates a wine colour
Like love-tree leaf (purple) on a red-rose paper (6)


I said; your night-dark hair, twilight for traveller
So at mornin hour, beware! if wails this stranger (7)


I plead: my moon, hide your rosy cheek never
Lest ye make deplorable-n-dejected, this beggar (8)


He said; Hafiz! friends are in stage of bewilder
No wonder this stranger (Hafiz) poor, in despair (9)

16. Sharah Jalalian: Stanza 1, The term Ghareeb (stranger, in foreign land) in
Persian rhyme of each stanza indicates that this ode could have been composed during
the days spent in exile at Yazd by Hafiz. Poets talk with Shah Yahya and a sense of
despair from him is mentioned here. Shah Yahya was the son-in-law of Shuja and the
ruler of Yazd. He wanted not to be courteous towards a political exile and thus spoil his
own relations with Shah Shuja. In Stanza 1, poets appeal for mercy was responded by
the advice that following hearts desires and ignoring others viewpoint creates trouble.
In Stanza 2, Hafizs request for company deserved not merit as how a Shah could put up
with an asylee. In Stanza 3, a satiated one cares not of hungry one, a royal-court member
knows not the worries of a troubled one. SANJAB ( Ermine) is an animal whose
skin gives fur. Stanza 4 refers to hereditary mole that was Shah Yahyas familial inborn
trait. In Stanza 5, he refers to a meeting with Shah Yahya after many years and speaks of
his virtues. In Stanza 6, Hafiz talks of happy days that Shah Yahya was spending in
Kharababad district (still in Yazd, but now-a-days called Pusht Bagh District)
where he had built for himself a palace and a garden. Arghvan- love tree is Cercis
siliquastrum cf. redbud. Frequently alluded to in the context of red wine. In Stanzas 7 &
9, he talks a last word about Shah Yahya who told the poet; Shah Shuja himself is in

46
troubles and baffled these days. You should also bewail not so much. Your troubles are
nothing what Shah Shuja is facing these days.

16. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, after listening to beloveds indifferent taunt that yours is
the fault; Mirza Ghalib had said:

Urfi says the same theme as follows:

Stanza 2, Khana Parvar (well-bred, in affluence and enjoying home comforts) and
Gharib (someone away from his native land, in pitiable condition); see the contrast.
Stanza 3, Sanjab (ermine or stoat) is the carnivorous animal of the weasel family with
chestnut fur (white in northern animals in winter, white underparts and a black-tipped
tail. Stanza 4, mole on the cheek of the beloved:

Let us see how mole is treated in Tasawwaf (Sufism):







Stanza 5, though in the studio a musky line is not something strange, but the musky
mole on your cheek is something worth reckoning.







Stanza 8 is a plea to the beloved not to hide his face which is hidden after the locks of
tress covered it as reflected in Stanza 7. Last Stanza, when the familiar ones are wonder
struck, what will be the situation of the middle-path stranger; naturally tired, in wretched
condition.

Spiritual Context: Stanza 1, the epithets may be addressed to the Murshid. The
stranger is the holy traveller, the lover of God in the path of effacement. When I begged
to beloved to have mercy on me and to see how I was suffering the pain of separation, he
replied, those who give up heart they complain not and avoid worldly desires, so how
can your desire be fulfilled. Stanza 2, excuse me- my nature is independent, I care for
none. Here this could be Hafizs own thoughts. But this may not be true because God
puts his friends in different types of trials and tribulations which then become a source
for these friends to come to His proximity. In stanza 4, whenever a rude reply comes
from beloved, the poet flatters him. Stanza 5, as regards Khatt, Shabistari defines it as
the margins of Almightiness." This Khatt by Lahiji (commentator of Shabistari) is the
world of pure spirits who are close to divinity. The line has become the verdant field of
the world of the spirit. For this reason it has been called the Water of Life. On a mundane
level, however, it refers to sprouting beard of a youth considered attractive. Hafiz might
have used it both ways; mundane & spiritual one. Next line, painters studio-
Nigaristaan is the place where beauties abound. This was the name of the gallery created

47
by Iranian painter Mani in 273 A.D. during the reign of Shahpur I. Last Stanza,
Maqaam Hairat is the state of confusion- at the point of being on the verge of gnosis;
state of amazement in which the seeker falls. Stanza 7, feeling that beloved seems kind,
poet again reiterates his desire but gets an unkind reply. Morning time is the effacing of
separation and appearance of sense (divine knowledge) in the holy traveller. Stanza 9,
astonishment (Hairat ) is a stage wherein the lover of the light of the beauty of the
beloved becomes astonished and careless of order and prohibition of shar (evil). This
stanza also signifies that while those well-versed in the secrets (acquaintances) are in a
state of astonishment, then a wayfarer who is in the early course of travel, how can he
escape fatigue and exhaustion.

17. Morning wine



Morning appears and the cloud builds a screen
Fellas! bring morn wine, morning is now seen (1)


Dew drops on the tulip faceve so lavishly fallen
O friends, bring wine! without any interruption (2)


The paradise's breeze is blowing in the garden
Ye keep drinking happily, that pure, old wine (3)


Flowers make an emerald throne in the garden
You also acquire and drink that ruby red wine (4)


It seems they have closed the doors of tavern
O the Opener of gates! let these become open (5)


It looks so odd that in such a pleasant season
They started closing the tavern doors so soon (6)


Yr lip, teeth enjoy salt right, yr smile so given
By these, my soul-n-breast like Kebab did burn (7)

48


Drink wine with all profligacy O ascetic puritan!
Only they must fear God who in comprehension (8)


Lifes water if ye are looking for; wish to obtain
Seek the wine cup besides the play of harp tune (9)


Like Sikandar, if you covet for a life long one
Then from beloveds ruby lips, you will attain (10)


()
In front of Fairy-faced Saki, yourself position!
Like Hafiz, drink pure wine with full devotion (11)
(Happily devour wine; for its the spring season)


Hafiz! worry not, luckll oneday turn, so happen
From face belovedll lift the veil-n-give his vision (12)

17. Sharah Jalalian: Stanza1, Hafiz follows Khuwaju Kirmani in first stanza;
Tala Assubh min WaraI Hijab- Ajjilu birrahil Ya
Ashab. This refers to Shah Shujas people-deceiving policy when he, like his father,
closed the tavern houses. Initial 5 stanzas encourage friends to drink wine. This shows
poets independent mind and audacity, telling Shah that this is what we are and this how
we shall be. In stanzas 7 & 8, he talks about Shujas rights of salt on his consumed
heart (when you serve someone and you have shared his meals or bread, you never harm
him seriously- an oriental custom termed as the right of salt or Huqooqe Namak) by
which he is not uttering much harsher words against the Shah. This ode varies in terms of
number of stanzas. Given above are 12 stanzas, some editions such as Qazvini-Ghani
give only 8 stanzas. This variation requires consultations and finalization by scholars of
an official, authentic version about it. Amir Mubariz (1353-57) was a harsh and rigorous
ruler until he was blinded by his son Shuja who was a libertine in alcohol matters and
singing. Stanza 5, Mufattehul Abwaab- opener of shutters of wineshops is Shah Shuja.

17. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Kalla is tents or canopy. Cloud layers are often likened to
tents by poets. Stanza 2, most often poets use the word ( white drops). Qaani
says:

Saadi says:

49
Stanza 4, with flowers all around, it looks like a flower bedding in gold is spread:

Stanza 5, Muhammad bin Mubarizuddin upon taking over Shiraz and Faras had closed
down the taverns. Like some other poets, Hafiz also said this verse and also mentioned
this incident at two other places in his odes. Meaning is self-explanatory. See Stanza 1 of
Ode 57 and Ode 188 Stanza 1 which bear a similar theme. Stanza 7, beloveds mouth
(Dahne Mashooq) is compared to Namakdan (salt vial) and Tabassum (smile) is also
termed as Namakpashi (salt-sprinkling). Thus, beloved has shown lips and teeth i.e.
smiled at the wretched condition of the lover, this suits him as he has a salt right on the
chest of the lover (such salt sprinkling on the wounded heart of the beloved).

Stanza 8, O Ascetic! You also drink like profligates and stay inebriate. Because the
Quranic injunction to fear the God holds good only for those who are in full senses
not those who are lost in intoxication.

Stanza 10, if you seek long life like Sikandar then look for the beloveds ruby lip which
is a nectar for the lover. Amir Khusro says:

Zaheer Faryabi says:

In Sufi terminology, author of Gulshan e Raz writes about (beloveds) eye and lip as
follows:





Last Stanza carries the same aspiration as shown in ode five (last stanza).

Spiritual Notes: Stanza 1, the morning (sun of fortune) has appeared from behind the
thin veil, my heart expands like the morning. O friends! to repel wine sickness of past
night, drink morning cup and await the rising of the sun. Stanza 2, tulip signifies a red
flower with a black spot in its heart. When hail (Zhaleh )falls on the tulip, it is
destroyed Hail is not from the sky but it is actually the drops of dew that freeze on the
tulip. Mudam is love. So friends, as long as you reach not natural effacement, engage
in love so you may obtain everlasting life. Stanza 8 has two meanings. Zahid, if you
drink, do it like real profligates do. Not like the hypocrites who hold rosary beads in one
hand and a bottle in the armpit. Secondly, you too should drink like profligates so that
you get drunk, intoxicated, uncontrollable and are exempt from responsibilities and
obligation attached with Zuhd ( asceticism). Because ( only they
fear God have comprehension) applies to those who are in full senses. Those in
intoxication or drunk ones are exempt from this injunction. Stanza 10, for an account of
Sikandars seeking the Water of Life, see Wilberforce Clarkes Sikandar Nama Nizami,
p. 785.

18. Cozy corner, friendly Saki, sweet singer

50

A shiny morn appears, where a sun-like goblet?
Theres no better opportunity, give me wine pot (1)


A cozy house, Saki's company, a singer humorist
Time of joy, cup's rotation and of age adolescent (2)

Beloved-n-Sakis hand gesture, singer on his feet


Sleep in lovers eyes, Saki's ogling did eliminate (3)


Cozy privacy, tranquil haven, a park concordant
Is it a dream or reality? O Lord Compassionate! (4)


Smart beauty-dresser, fancying for wine taste
Added rose-water discreetly in rose-leaf's cleft (5)


To enhance beauty in lyrics; more entertainment
Combination of golden cup with ruby wine so apt (6)


Cozy corner, Saki so friendly, rival put so distant
By luscious eye of Saki, winelovers went decrepit (7)


Ever since for Hafiz's pearls, that moon is a client
To Venus' ear comes the melody of lute constant (8)

18. Sharah Jalalian: It appears that this ode was composed by Hafiz during the heydays
of youth. It depicts a happy picture of wine, luxury and comfort so explicitly. The Last
Stanza has a reference to that moon becoming a buyer of Hafizs verses and Venus too is
full of its melody which could allude to Shah Shuja- a man of lust and luxury about
whom Hafizs odes contain lute, harp and violin. This ode is missing from Hafizs
Qazvini-Ghani versions. Given light words, this audacious verse could be attributed to
Hafizs vagaries of youth and is contained in Hafiz Khanalri and Nisaris versions.

51
Stanza 3, Shahid is beloved, darling or sweetheart but actual literary meaning is a
witness (of Divine Beauty) or rather the evidence for it (Annemarie Schimmel- Mystical
Dimensions of Islam, p. 291; 1975).

18. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Subhe Daulat (shining morning) is actually the beginning
of auspicious hour. Sun is mentioned to show the arrival of the day. As appearance of sun
is obligatory to begin the day so is wine necessary to bring the morning of union. Stanza
2, Khana Be Tashweesh (cozy house) actually means a place where no one can disturb
the lover and the beloved. In this stanza and next two stanzas, Hafiz draws a picture of
union which is ideal.

Stanza 4, second line is used as a common proverb. Stanza 5, Mashshata Chalaak could
be either Saba (breeze) or Qudrat (smart mother nature); its literal meaning is a lady
hair-dresser. Last Stanza, Gulbaang is the voice of Qalandars (mendicants);
nightingales chirp; good news or the noise made at happy occasions or weddings. Ever
since that moon of the planet Jupiter or Mushtari (other meaning of Mushtari is a
buyer) started listening to Hafiz odes, Venus too hears that melody. Venus is a planet
that is associated with the music.

Spiritual Notes: Stanzas 1 to 5 convey a sense like this First dawn appears, then sun
gets exposed. So when it is a morning time of wealth, union, and happiness then the sun
of cup should also rise. And what a time better than this when it is privacy, no tension of
any external factors or persons, place of peace, Saki available etc. In short, this world is a
place of materials and equipment. Whatever is available in it should be used in a way so
as to produce good results. Opportunity and time is available in this world which will not
come again in the hereafter. Subhe daulat is the time of perfection. A time
better than this when shall one find? Explain the divine knowledge of truths (Jam e
Sharab). In stanza 2, Saki is either Murshid who gives explanation of mysteries or a
Mutrib ( singer) who gives consolation and joy to the heart. Bazla (humour) is the
truth which disciples seek. The Wali is Aarif who has 3 degrees; i) Bidayah
(beginning) when what he sees he utters not, ii) Wasat : what he sees he utters, iii)
Nihaya : Perfection; adopting silence as if one is ignorant. Unfit things are not
uttered. Stanza 6 has been explained in many ways. But poet knows the true meaning. It
is said that once Hafiz was passing through the bazaar of Shiraz. A scholar was
explaining this stanza. When he heard, he appreciated it but said that while composing it,
he had different idea in mind. Then Hafiz explained; I had a singular theme in this ode.
Early morning hour gives glad tidings of union with beloved. God bestows His blessings
at this hour. Loves wine cup is bright like sun, privacy is there, peace and tranquility
reins, no one from the exterior comes to ones mind, His remembrance holds sway, lights
dawn, echoes indicate heavenly sounds. This is a time and assembly when someone is
eagerly awaited. All the paraphernalia is there, all comforts and luxuries are available but
all are useless without the true beloved. Lover is helpless. All this can be had but holding
or having beloved is not so easy or accessible at the sweet will. Then beloved himself
becomes kind and comes out of the veil and completes the joy of union.

Last stanza, Mushtari ( client) is also the name of a planet (Jupiter) but
here the meaning of client befits.

19. Attainment of life


52

Yr union lends to the garden of paradise lifes nectar
Yr partings pain is the cause of intensity in hell fire (1)


My eyes do all night; so does Eden-gardens river
Thought of yr inebriated eye, in dream we conjure (2)


The two take refuge by yr cheek beauty and stature
Eden and Tuba; best for them- what a fine quarter (3)


Spring season gives your beautys details every year
Paradise has made mention of you in every chapter (4)


An inalienable salt right yr mouth and lip do savour
On this roasted heart of mine and on wounded liver (5)


My heart got burnt; still I attained my desire never
Had I got it, my heart won't have shed blood so pure (6)


Assume not that only lovers around you in hang-over
About the inebriate state of ascetics, you are unaware (7)


With yr lips, Im convinced the way pearls appear
As turn stones to ruby under sun; globe-illuminator (8)


O heart! By the grace of love, youve attained desire
From the path of sin to righteousness ye made detour (9)


Lift the veil, for how long this curtain youll wear

53
By this veil, what is it that you possess and cover? (10)


Flower beheld yr face, couldnt help jumping in fire
Sensed your smell, in shame turned into rose-water (11)


In love of yr face, Hafiz drownd in sea of torture
He's about to die, come quickly and be his helper! (12)


Hafiz! why let life be spent idle, allow this never
Exert yrself! try to find attainment of life so dear (13)

19. Explanatory Notes: This entire ode worth writing in gold water. It is a
translation and commentary of Quranic passages which also contains some delicate
points about Tasawwaf . The first stanza signifies that paradise is where one will
have the vision of the Lord and hell is the place which will be consummation on account
of separation from the Lord.
Believers will see in
paradise their Lord (the way the full moon appears).

Stanza 3, Lotus tree (Tuba )is a prickly shrub (Zizyphus Lotus), Arabs call it
Tuba. It belongs to Rhamnacoe family. (Quran; x.9, xiii.28,lvi.25). The words
and are Quranic words. This Stanza uses Quranic words. Quran says;


( Quran, Surah Raad 13: Verse 29) Translation: Those

who believe and do right, Joy is for them and bliss (their) journeys end. Paradise,
Tuba and other heavenly favours is the name of that luminous Countenance which will
come to the portion of Gods lovers of Whom they are seekers. The stanza can also be
explained as follows: The one who sought refuge in your cheeks beauty and height, his
shelter is paradise garden and Tuba. See also ode 4 stanza 3. Stanza 4, both worlds are
like a book which contains many parts and chapters. Spring explains your countenance in
detail. Paradise which has many sections is full of your blessed mention. This world is
the exposure of the hereafter. Hereafter is the hidden of this world. Some say how will
one see God? These eyes cant see the Lord. One shall see the Lord with Lordly eyes.
. For those blind in this world, they shall stay so in the next world.
. Reason cant see these secrets. Only lovers of Lord see and
experience these things.

Stanza 5, similar theme is contained in ode 17, stanza 7. Regarding stanza 6, in many
versions, this stanza is missing. Stanza 8, in the times of Prophet Musa A.S., it was
believed that the ruby or precious stones are, by their origin, ordinary ones which get
converted to such forms only after long years of sun rays fall on these. Solar and
chemical reactions over the years turn these into rubies and gems.

54
19. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Sufis think that whatever the luxury and comfort one will
get in the garden of paradise will be because of seeing Your Countenance. Whatever
pain and torture one will experience in hell will be because of deprivation of that Vision
or Divine Look

Stanza 2, all night long paradise streams too covet to see you the way I long for you.
Stanza 3, Tuba (Lotus tree; from Arabic Teeb- pure, fragrant)) is a tree of paradise a
branch of which hangs over the door of every resident of paradise. Paradise, with all its
beauty and charm, seeks refuge in your countenance (Persian word Panaah means to
seek from someone protection; also to accept someone as greater than oneself). Tuba
(tree) too, despite its tall height, seeks refuge by your taller stature. Author of Gulban
Maarifat explains this verse: whoever sought refuge by your cheeks beauty and your
tall height, he earned paradise and Tuba both. Jami says:

Stanza 4, Spring season and paradise garden; their beauty comes from your grace and
reflection:

For Stanza 5, see notes in Ode 17/7.


( )
Another one said:

Stanza 6, Lisanul Ghaib reads second line as Mudaam Agar Biraseedi (only if wine I
had attained) instead of Bakaam Agar Biraseedi (only if my goal I had attained).

20. My tears and Noahs tempest



I swear by Khuwaja's life, longtime trust-n-covenant
To pray for yr welfare, at morn hour my daily habit (1)


My incessant tears surpassed the Noahs tempest
These couldnt wash yr love-print from my chest (2)


Let us make a deal and you buy this broken heart
Broken yet worth hundred thousand hearts intact (3)


Blame not my drink-habit! Loves mentor Great
Assigned my affairs to tavern from the very outset (4)

55


Ant scolded A'sif (Solomons deputy) and so right
He lost (Solomons) ring, in search made no effort (5)


Heart! dont be disappointed, friend's bounty great
Present your head promptly, in love if you do boast (6)


In yr loves craze rushed I to mountains-n-desert
O merciless! Ye still ease not the ropes on my feet (7)


By your breath sunll rise if with sincerity you exert
Shun lies! By lies early morn into dark does convert (8)


Grieve not Hafiz, seek not fidelity from sweetheart
If grass didnt spring what in it is the gardens fault (9)

20. Sharah Jalalian: This ode refers to the Minister of Shah Shuja named Turanshah.
Sudi, however, thinks this Khuwaja is Haji Qawwam al Din Hassan. In Stanzas 1 & 2,
he renews his covenant and expresses about his long time relationship with the Minister.
In Stanza 3, he asks Turanshah to buy his broken heart which is worth hundred intact
ones. Shikasta (broken) is in contrast to complete one. In old times even until the Qajar
dynasty, Persians had two types of coins, official state mint used to issue round coins
with teeth-imprint on the brim. Its back side had Emperors emblem, his name and value
as is done on currency notes these days. It was called currency (complete). Since such
coins were inadequate, so each town or district had crude, round metallic coins based on
the weight of metal. Their value outside that particular area was counted less, their round
brim was not intact and such coins were called Pool Shikasta (broken currency).
Sometimes they coined Rials (Iranian currency) from lead which changed to dark with
the passage of time, it was called Black currency. The one coined from silver stayed
white and was called white currency. Stanza 5 is self-address to be sincere otherwise
face will turn black as turns the false morning before the start of white dawn. In Stanza 5
is the story of Prophet King Suleman A.S., his Vizier Aasif, loss of Kings ring and the
talk of ants. Suleman A.S. lost kingdom for 40 days when he got it back after getting the
ring from the belly of a fish. According to Jalalian, both Khuwaju and Aasif refers to
Turanshah who created difficulties for Hafiz by pressing Shah Shuja to be strict and act
the orthodox way in applying religious code. In Stanza 6, he assures himself of friends
endless mercy. In Stanza 7, all complaints accumulate that while I went to exile for your
sake and you even utter not one word for my solace. Last Stanza shows, as usual, his
indifferent and pride-filled attitude. He tells himself not to expect from friends that they

56
shall provide him security. This garden gave no grass since long but there is no fault of
the garden in it. It suggests that if God created not fidelity in sweethearts, it is not their
fault. If garden is taken as this world and sweethearts as the worldly possessions or
ornaments, poet suggests that the world and its materials are mortal hence harbouring
hope of fidelity from such things is futile.

20. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Khuwaja is a term with many connotations; it means some
noble man/from elite in a society; it is used as title like Rt. Honourable among the
English; it means perfect Murshid or mentor etc. Stanza 2, the same theme is contained
in Ode 25/7. Stanza 3, my heart bears pain of love hence worthier than cold-blooded
ones. Iqbal says:

Stanza 4, the world is an inebriation inn. God sent us here by His decree, not by our
choice. Same theme is contained in Ode 6/7, Ode 10/stanzas 1, 2 & 3. Stanza 6, now that
you have boasted about love, go ahead with giving life on this path in anticipation for
union with the beloved:

A lover should stop boasting about love without believing in its true spirit which requires
sacrifice of wealth, family and even surrendering ones life. Stanza 5, Asif was the chief
Vizir (Minister) of Prophet Suleman A.S. This prophet was put to trial with loss of his
famous ring (seal) which helped him run the affairs of the State because he had not relied
on God on a certain occasion. A demon called Sakhra somehow usurped it while
Suleman A.S. was doing ablution for prayer. Thus, for 40 days, this demon ruled the
world when God returned back the seal and the kingdom to Suleman A.S. So without this
ring (Seal), Suleman A.S. was so helpless that even ants used to taunt him. Thus, when a
nation loses its dignity and faith, God punishes them and inferior people too dare cast
sarcastic remarks or belittle them. Hafiz has probably used Asif at times for Qivamuddin
or for some other minister or some high-level dignitary. Stanza 8, Subh e Kazib (false
morning) is a transient whiteness that appears in the early hours of dawn and which is
followed by darkness again until the Subh e Sadiq(true morning) appears. Telling lies
will darken your face in the long run. Nafas is breath; also means the morning. Last
Stanza, if we take Baagh (garden) as this world and Dilbaraan (sweethearts) as the
worldly luxuries and assets which appeal us, then the verse tells us that the world and its
contents are all transient so hold no high hope in these possessions. There is no fidelity in
the garden of beauty. Iqbal says:

Spiritual Notes: Stanza 1, we are committed to the DAY ONEs covenant and each
breath is in your remembrance. Stanza 2, although our tears and lamentation is heavier
than Noahs storm yet they cant wash out your imprint from our heart. Stanza 3, broken
heart is strange thing. Its buyer is none other than God only hence it is
priceless. In Stanza 5 is the mention of ant who became outspoken against Aasif for
Khuwaja lost the ring and never made an effort to find it. Once, Suleman A.S. lost his
blessed ring which went to a demon who sat on Suleman A.S.s throne for 40 days. Then
Suleman A.S. got back his throne. Lack of ring gave courage to ants to scold Asif.
Nations which loose the light of faith, they get insulted by every other unworthy nation
and turn into servitude. Another explanation of this stanza says; ant is nafs (egoistic

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inner self) which is outspoken before Aasif- the Vizier (soul) because of the lost ring,
soul had no control on ant (nafs). Likewise, when heart went astray from remembering
Lord, it got trapped in lusts and worldly craze. Stanza 8, they call the false dawn Subhe
Nakhust or Subhe Kazib . During the false dawn, spreading of light
resembles a wolfs tail. The true dawn or Subhe Sadiq appears broad and low on the
earths horizon. In Stanza 7, at the Murshids direction, the holy traveler goes into
mountains and plains and there beholds the perfection of God. Stanza 9, Jam when
associated with i) Khatam (seal ring) signifies Suleman; ii) Jam (cup) signifies Jamshid.
Mur (ant) signifies bestial lust that is in man and Asif and Khuwaja signify celestial lust
that is in man. The apparent meaning is The ant reproached Asif (Prophet Suleman
A.S.s minister) because he, without cause, lost Sulemans seal, ring and in its search
engaged not himself.

21. Sweetest Treat




Your abode suits best in my eyes socket
Be kind and come over, my hut is yr hut (1)


By mole, beauty line, stole ye A'arifs' heart
Your mole (grain) and trap (line) so attract (2)


Flowers bloom, nightingale! happy yr heart
In the garden all notes join in yr loves toast (3)


Our weak heart's cure, let yr lip to treat it
What a comforting ruby youve in yr closet (4)


Bodily Im weak to do duty to due extent
Yet, my life is nothing but your doors dust (5)


To everyone, my heart I can not present
Treasury door sealed with yr sign, signet (6)


A master rider! ye are player of masterly feat
Skys unbridled horse at yr whip, is obedient (7)
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Who am I? shivers even sky- a trick expert
At your trick-bag containing many a deceit (8)


Yr party's lyrics lead sky to rise on its feet
Sweet Hafizs verse at yr lip does resonate (9)

21. Sharah Jalalian: Undoubtedly, this ode is of times when Shah Shuja was on a
trip to Isfahan or Tabriz and invited Hafiz to visit him there. He missed poetic and
literary company of learned people. In reply, Hafiz sang this profligate ode with due
respect and regretted this invitation. In stanza 1, Hafiz speaks of keenness to see Shah
back in Shiraz, in his home (eyes). In stanzas 2 & 3, he says that you have charmed and
enchanted me with your kindness and courtesy, wherever you are, be happy, we always
remember you. In stanza 4 and 5, he expresses his inability of travel but is longing to
see Shah in Shiraz. Stanza 6 expresses fidelity. In stanzas 7 & 8, a carefree reply to
Shah, saying you are such a tricky and gift of gab person who frauds a simpleton like me,
even tricky with heaven. In the last stanza, he says that this ode is being sent which will
be sung in your assembly by singers and it will bring to dance the Zuhra (Venus) in the
skies. Stanza 1 is comparable to Nizamis line;

Stanza 5 resembles from Nizamis Laila Magnum;

Also see Nizami in Khusro Shirin:



or when he says in Hafte Paikar


21. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Rawaaq is that part of roof which extends out beyond the
covered area of the house. Hafiz says that the field of vision of his eyes) is the place he
wants to seat his beloved. Come and sit in my eyes. Stanza 3, some commentators
refer Wasl e Gul as the visit to Makkah and Madinah- Islams pilgrimage sites and
nightingale is the person of Khuwaja Baha'uddin Naqshbandi referred in additional
notes below. Stanza 2, beloveds gestures and mole appeal to lovers:

Stanza 4, Mufrah Yaqoot is a traditional medicine formula that strengthens and energizes
heart and liver. It contains mineral and nutritious elements. Stanza 5, physically I am
unable to come and serve you but spiritually I am present at your doors dust and serving
you. Stanza 7, Labat is something with which one plays, toy, doll, sweetheart etc.
Stanza 8, Anbaana is a leather sack used to fill in the grains in old times. Last Stanza is
a verse full of self-praise and pride. See ode 8/ 9 and Ode 9/9.

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Additional Notes: Maulana Jami, in Nafkhatul Uns says that it is not known whether
Hafiz had formally adopted someone as a Murshid (mentor). However, some historians
believe that Hafiz had adopted Khuwaja Bahauddin Naqshbandi R.A. of Multan
(Pakistan) as Murshid. Khuwaja Naqshbandi, on his return from Hajj journey, had spent
a few days with Hafiz in Shiraz. This ode was sent by Hafiz inviting Khuwaja to visit
him in Shiraz. Stanza 2, beneath the snare of your grain are wondrous subtleties. You
snatch the heart of seekers to yourself, to the longing ones you show your independence.
In the holy travelers existence, all the amorous warbling is yours. Every subtlety you
explain affects his heart and brings tranquility to his limbs. Mole of the sweetheart s
cheek is taken as grain. We Muslims believe that it as grain )Dana_ not the apple which
Adam had been tempted to eat. Stanza 3, flower )rose_ is silent but it is the nightingale
which sings. In stanza 4, the lip is the sweet stream from Gods grace from whose water
up-springs the souls garden. Mufrah Yaqut ( refreshing ruby) signifies an
exhilarating medicine used for heart palpitation and for insanity. Hearts gets strength and
face gets colour by its usage. Its composition is turquoise, emerald, chrysolite, cornelian,
the lapis lazuli and un-pierced pearl. Here are different kinds of ruby such as i) the Yakut
(red as pomegranate, yellow and blue); ii) the Lal (a ruby of the most brilliant luster).
Here it means the talk of the perfect Murshid possessing all these heart-strengthening
qualities. The true Murshid is Hakikat and the memory of him is majaz . Stanza 5,
bodily I am unable to come at your court but my heart and soul send kisses at your feet.

22. Loves Depository



Hearts tent holds his love with intensity
My eye too ever reflects his facial identity (1)


Before none my head I bow; my dignity
Yet head is held low before his benignity (2)


You seek Tuba, his height my only activity
Each has concern, upto level of his avidity (3)


No issue if Im soaked in sin, skirt is dirty
Whole world for testimony of his chastity (4)


How come I dare enter into that sanctuary
When breeze acts as curtain for his sanctity (5)

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Now came our turn, gone Majnoons day
Sure, everyone has got five-day periodicity (6)


The kingdom of Love and a haven of joy
All I own, is from his largess generosity (7)


If my heart-n-soul sacrificed, no worry
My ultimate aim is to guard his safety (8)


Sans his thoughts may never be my eye
This corner (eye) is place of his privacy (9)


Every new flower addin to garden beauty
Bears colour and smell from his company (10)


Do not look at his Hafizs apparent penury
Hafizs chest full of his love; big depository (11)

22. Sharah Jalalian: Shah Namatullah Wali says:



This ode was said in response to Shah Namatullah Walis ode. Hafizs aim in such
encounters had been to show his ability and upper hand or to find fault and challenge his
opponents viewpoint. This ode bears the trait of former kind. Shah Wali says;

Hafizs verse takes a lead in all respects of composition or eloquence. Before Hafiz,
Sheikh Fariduddin Attar has also said on this subject: Others
opine that this ode is not from Hafiz. But it seems not so. Stanza 6 is in fact a proverbial
one. An allusion towards Shah Shuja in this ode.

22. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, heart is in his thoughts constant; in eyes his image
stays ever. Mulla M. Saeed Ashraf says:

Maulana Rumi says:

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Lovers eyes reflect beloveds face only.
Stanza 2, this theme is reflected in ode 109/2. Stanza 3, poet tells the seekers of paradise
that he is looking for beloveds vision and not the comforts of Eden.


Stanza 4, my obedience adds not to His stature, my disobedience can not lessen His
sublime Existence. Asmat means absolute chastity and not escaping or shunning sins. So
if Gods praise I do not utter, no big difference, there are umpteen doing this. Stanza 5,
who am I to enter into that holy premises where even breeze cannot enter. I have no entry
into the secret subtleties of the Lord. Stanza 6, poet, instead of citing Darius or
Alexander, gives examples of lovers like Majnun to show that the world is transient.

Stanza 7, king of lovers must bear a treasury which is devoid of happiness or cash.
However, in lieu of loves burden and pain, they are exempt from many other worldly
sorrows. Pain of love itself is delicious.

Stanza 10, this theme is contained in Stanza 5 of Ode 40. Last Stanza, similar theme in
ode 42 stanzas 3 and 7.

Spiritual Context: -
In stanza 1, the first line may mean: I, from perfection of independence, incline not to
the two worlds. Stanza 3, Hafiz ridicules those who have left God and are seekers of
Tuba. Tuba literally refers to pure or good things, best ones. Quran says; Surah Al-
Raad-13, Verse 29:
Translation: For those

who believe and work righteousness, is (every) blessedness, and a beautiful place of
(final) return.
It is also the name of a blessed tree in Paradise, the Elysium promised for doers of good
deeds who will inherit paradise. In fact, first three stanzas, Hafiz tells that we do not
covet for this world or hereafter. But Gods remembrance is our asset. Stanza 5, word
his may refer to; the illusory beloved or Murshid; the stanza may be addressed to
slanderers, all the world bears evidence of my innocence (third person could change to
first one). Stanza 6, Magnum (around 721 AD) literal meaning is crazy, lunatic was a
lover of Laila. His real name was Qais. He was opposed by Lailas father. Majnuns
father, a tribal chief tried to reconcile matters but to no avail. Wandering in mountains
and wilderness, he starved to death oneday. Laila too threw herself on his grave and
expired. Of the true loves epics, Nizamis Layla and Magnum surpasses all others. Some
believe that Nizami inspired Massuccio Salernitano in Europe. Later, Luigi da Porto was
inspired from Massuccio. It was Da Portos story which in turn led Shakespeare to write
Romeo and Juliet. In stanza 7, in all stanzas namely 3, 5, 6 (every one) and 8 th, word
his could refer to illusory beloved or Murshid; in other stanzas, to the true beloved
(God).

Anecdote from Mahdi Akhwan: There was some bitterness between Shah Shuja and
Hafiz created by envious lot always engaged in machinations at the court in Shiraz. Once
Shuja called in Hafiz and asked him: we hear many things about you, sometimes your
news comes from cloister (Khanqah), sometimes you show objection at other Sufis, at
times you talk of difficulties in gaining livelihood, yet you utter about wine and love.
Some literary elites even comment that your recent poetry is not that sublime or of

62
spiritual value but mentions of mundane beloved; say fulan or fulan ( a certain person).
So what you say about all this? Hafiz replied (verses of this ode):



He completed the entire ode. Shuja was impressed by the content, courage and flow of
the verses and the jealous ones present in the court had to keep quiet.

23. Attaining the Object



Our devout head at friends pavilion-gate
Whatever inflicted upon us, is His intent (1)


Moon, sun, none I saw like my sweetheart
Matchin friend's face, no mirror can reflect (2)


Breeze cant define our sick heart's state
As wrinkles folded on a rose-bud's leaflet (3)


In tavern, Im not the only one profligate
Many a head in this brewery turned goblet (4)


Ambergris-scatterin hair ye combd straight
Winds perfumed, dusts ambergris-fragrant (5)


Every garden petal, for your face falls flat
Cypress on river-side envies your height (6)


I saw your face, now Ill attain my object
Good omen brings the affairs to the best (7)

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Me- eloquent yet his beauty cant narrate
Silly is my scribbling, my tongue too cleft (8)


Hafiz's heart fiercely covets; its not nascent
From eternity as wild tulip, is brandd, burnt (9)

23. Sharah Jalalian:


Saadi:

Amad Faqih:

Saadi:

Nazaari Qahstani:

Stanza 1, two meanings; nearest meaning signifies that whatever happens to us. Farthest
meaning is that I am fallen at someones head, and passers by are crossing over my head,
but my friend remains indifferent. Stanza 2, friend is incomparable to any one. Stanza 3,
so many problems and wild thoughts are cooking in my mind that breeze which opens up
buds can not understand these complexities. Stanza 4, penniless drinkers used to purify
wine at tavern basements, sending it to clients through Sakis but used to drink residual
sediments hence called dregs-drinkers. They also shared with those helpless persons
lying at the tavern door who waited like beggars in the hope of getting a few sips. Hafiz
alone is not such a broken pitcher of dust. Stanzas 5 & 6 are in praise of Sheikh Abu
Ishaq. Stanza 7, keen to visit the Shah and seek his company but can not speak his
desire utter due to feeble tongue. Stanza 8 refers to Oracle tradition in the East. In Arab
culture, they used to do Istakharah (supplication followed by sleep which induces a
response in the form of a dream or some invisible voice) from Quran to resolve
unsettled confusions. Diwan e Hafiz is also used for drawing oracles. If heart accepts the
words as good, so it happens and vice-versa. As Nizami says;
,
Last stanza says that this desire is of long standing.

23. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Iraadat is to become a disciple.

Stanza 2, entire universe, according to Sufis, is a reflection of the Divine Existence. If a


mirror is placed before the sun, the reflection that falls on it will not be something
separate entity but mere reflection of the sun; so are the stars, planets and heavenly
bodies \ reflection of that Divine Entity.

Yet His example is not to be found anywhere, only its reflection. Stanza 4, many are
drinking in this tavern, not me alone. At another place Hafiz says:

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Stanza 5, Ghaalia is a famous perfume made up from musk, ambergris, camphor and
Alban tree oil. So all fragrance in the world dust or wind is from the sweethearts tress.
Stanza 7, having seen your auspicious face, my desires I will now attain. Hassan says:

Stanza 8, pen is always treated as a sharpened tongue (Bureedah Zabaan).

Last Stanza, wild tulip or Lalah Khudro is a tulip specie with a brand in its middle part
which poets often compare with brand (burn scar) on the hearts of lovers. Amir Minaee
says:


Another poet said:

Spiritual Context: Stanza 1, we have adjusted ourselves at the will of Beloved. So


whatever is occurring or passing, is according to His will. Not a single particle can move
without Hs decree. In fact, meaning of Islam is to surrender oneself to the will of God. In
stanza 2, in mirror, exact reflection of the item/stander is seen but the poet denies this- in
exaggeration of the peerlessness of the Beloved. Mirror reflects the exact image. But
since beloved has no match, even a mirror as bright as sun or moon can not reflect his
facial reflection. Sun and moon, do not have that light which sparks on the
bright face of the beloved. In stanza 4, Rind ( profligate) signifies a lover of God.
Stanza 9, the wild tulip of Shiraz has white petals. It is pink-streaked and is puce-marked
at the lower end.

24. Breath of Jesus Christ



A wheat-tanned who bears entire world's sweet
Drunk-eyes, smiling lips, he has a happy heart (1)


There are many beauty kings who talk sweet
But he is Solomon of the universe, has signet (2)


That dark mole on his wheat-cheek bears secret
Of the grain that led Adam from Eden to evict (3)


Fellas! Now sets off on journey my sweetheart
What I do of wounded heart, my healer to quit (4)

65

Beautiful face, perfect skills, and a chaste skirt
Yes, he enjoys two worlds pious ones support (5)


Stony-heart; with whom should I share this fact
Killed us and with him lies breath of Jesus Christ (6)


Count Hafiz among disciples, give him due respect
Many a noble souls' remission he does accumulate (7)

24. Sharah Jalalian: This ode was said at the times of Amir Mubarizuddin when his
son Shah Shuja was the Heir-Apparent/Crown Prince. In stanza 1, Hafiz addresses Shah
Shuja (who was 15 years junior to Hafiz) as a black-tinged lad. In fact. Shah Shuja was a
very handsome man and had a mole on the face as was the birth trait of Muzaffar
dynasty. So beautiful that women waited on his passage to have a glance at him. Despite
this, his father who was ill-tongued and lustful man used to call his son Ugly-sighted in
his public assemblies. Hafiz has made an ironic expression in stanza 2 saying that
although the King is sweet-tongued but this-dark-tinged (Shah Shuja) who is the Crown
Prince is the Suleman of times as he has the Sulemans ring. In stanza 3 is the talk of his
dark mole. In stanza 4 is a reference to travels of duty by Shuja with his father for
battles/hunting sprees. Hafiz feels deserted and pained by his distancing. In stanza 5, all
virtues gathered on Shuja, with supplication of best wishes of the two worlds holy
spirits with him. 6th stanza is an expression of extreme love and attachment. In the last
stanza, he desires from Shah Shuja to take Hafiz under his protection and sponsorship
and accord him due esteem.

24. Lisanul Ghaib: Many commentators believe this ode is said in praise of the Prophet
SAW (Naat). It seems so. However, the style is romantic and can be taken as routine
lovers talk for the beloved. Stanza 1, Siyah Chardah is black colour. At times it is taken
as green tinge or light skinned which suits here. Prophet SAWs skin colour was graceful
which is referred here. A Hadith says:

Stanza 2, Prophet SAW had the Seal of the Prophethood stamped between his two
shoulders. Like Prophet Suleman A.S., Prophet Muhammad SAW also commanded the
Jinns. Quran says:




And when We inclined toward thee (Muhammad) certain of the jinn, who wished to hear
the Quran and, when they were in its presence, said: Give ear! and, when it was finished,
turned back to their people, warning (Al-Ahqaf 46, Verse 29).

Prophet SAWs manners were perfect, complete, excelling and unmatchable.



Another Persian poet said:

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Stanza 4, that black mole on his cheek bears the secret of Adams eviction from
paradise. Adam knew that this Prophet SASW will be born on the earth so he too quit the
paradise. It was his love for this grain which took him down to earth.
( )
Stanza 5, Prophet SAW said:
Stanza 6, Jesus Christ used to reanimate the dead ones by saying Here the poet
complains that my killer is none other than that re-animator. To whom I take my
complaint now. Same theme explained in ode 517 stanza 5:

Last Stanza, the word Bass can be taken as many (noble souls) or even as
adequate/enough f the remission and compassion from the Prophet SAW received by
the poet. Maulana Jami R.A. writes in Nafakhaatul Uns that we do not know if Hafiz had
formally adopted someone as his mentor but his entire work is full of Tasawwuf which is
unmatchable. Hafiz tries to respond here that yes he has enough bestowing from the
Prophet SAW (or noble souls). It is believed that many a friends of God get direct
blessings from the Prophet SAW without any intermediary or mentor. See last Stanza of
ode 4.

Additional Notes: Stanza 1, Siyah Charda ( black-tinged) signifies fresh of hue


or beautiful (malih); malih is from Malahat (beauty having blackishness and sabih is
from Sabahat- beauty having fairness). This ode is in praise of Prophet Muhammad
SAW who is Khatamul Anbya (last of the Prophets). In fact, Prophet SAW was on the
highest rank among prophets including Suleman A.S.
Stanza 3, according to Islamic belief, Adam was expelled from
paradise because of eating a wheat grain (unlike Christian belief of having eaten an
apple). Someone explained that the is actually the Blessed and highly elevated
soul of Prophet Muhammad SAW from whom Hafiz also had got a blessing.

25. Not a Bad Deal




From friend's house, I bear hope of courtesy
I breeched the trust yet I hope for clemency (1)


I wept so much; anyone who passd this alley
Took it as stream as he saw my tears fluency 2)


I know, he shall overlook my fault certainly
He is fairy-faced and also has angelic potency (3)


Like a ball, we threw our head in your alley
None understood what this ball, what a play (4)

67


Your tress sans talk, our heart carries away
Before your beau-tress, who can dare parley 5)


His mouth, it has no sign, so small-n-teeny
Waist hair-breadth, a hair that I cant fancy (6)


His thought print, I wonder it erased not why
Though its eye-duty off-n-on to clean-n-tidy (7)


I smelled yr musky tress, a lifetime went by
Fragrance still stays in my heart's olfactory (8)


Hafiz! In bad condition, bears concern, worry
Its worth it worrying in friends tress memory (9)


25. Explanatory Notes: Some of Hafiz experts count this not as an ode from Hafiz. No
final verdict. Also there are two versions, possibly some raw version and a later version
got mixed. Some believe that this is an exile period ode at Yazd. Hafiz knew the reason
of his exile was judiciarys punitive posture and a relief from that end could be obtained
in the form of exile, not an amnesty from Shah. He also knew that his old friends Shah
Shuja and Turanshah had advised him (Hafiz) to flee into exile, so as to escape prison.
Hafiz anticipates some favour from the Shah vis-a-vis the judiciary. In the last stanza ,
Hafiz admits his distraught condition explicitly in anticipation of some favour from the
Shah.

25. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, the breech in trust is mentioned in Additional Notes for
Stanza 1 below. Trust is also referred in ode 222 stanza 3.

Stanza 2, beloved is not only beautiful but kind-hearted too. Well, this time Hafiz is
different about the sweetheart than when he said:

Stanza 8, see similar theme in ode 109 stanzas 9 & 12.

Additional Notes: Stanza 1, breeched the trust is actually a reference to that


trust which is mentioned in Quran.


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( Quran, Surah Al-Ahzab 33, Verse 72) Translation:
Lo! We offered the Trust unto the heavens and the earth and the hills, but they
shrank from bearing t and were afraid of it. And man assumed it. A trust that skies
and earths declined to bear, man accepted by his folly and tyranny. Although we assumed
the trust, we have not been loyal in its custodianship. Poet expresses that he is hopeful
that Lord will grant mercy on our negligence and weaknesses. Stanza 2, Fairy (Pari)
signifies an exalted kind of Jinn renowned for beauty whereby a world is inflamed. But
to whomsoever she appears, she causes his destruction; ii) the wrath and omnipotence of
God. The nature of Pari signified by the word Jabbari means; i) tyrannous when applied
generally; ii) Omnipotent when applied to God. Stanza 4, ball (Go ) and alley (Koo
) is alliteration. It signifies that the secret of our love and sacrificing spirit is so hidden
that no one is aware of it. Stanza 5, this could possibly refer to the incidence of Musa
A.S.s desire of seeing the Divine Vision at Mount Sinai. Nizami says; In this path (the
world), even the angel errs- When one demon (lust, avarice) comes, ten (laudable
qualities) take fright (and go). Stanza 6, smallness of mouth was always deemed as
beautifully attractive. Stanza 7, Ghanni Kashmiri says;

Also Mazhar Jan e Janan talks of that mouth;

Last stanza, since disheveled tress is actually a beauty and style of hair hence the
commotion caused in the thought of tress is also good. Lovers always attribute their
worry and distraught state to the disheveled hair of the beloved. This theme also comes
in ode 10, stanza 9.

26. Destinys Night (Shab e Qadar)



Tonight is 'destiny night' as God-lovers reckon
O God! this attainment, by which constellation (1)


Access to yr tress, for undeserving forbidden
In Zikr circles all hearts O Lord! do beckon (2)


For your chin-dimple I yearn, in all direction
Umpteen lovers, necks sacrifice on your chin (3)


Our horse-rider whose face does reflect moon
Dust of his horse's heelpiece, high sun's crown (4)


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Sweat shines on his cheek, even oven hot sun
Seeks his sweat, is in constant febrile condition (5)


I'll quit not beloveds ruby-lip, nor cup of wine
O ascetic puritans! excuse me, it's my religion (6)


Beau-writing beak, like life waters distribution
By God! so highly placed is the nib of my pen (7)


Breeze was Solomons saddle in his procession
Little ant my carrier, I can't race with Solomon (8)


Casts arrow at my heart, Im target of his vision
From his smiling lip, Hafiz soul has its provision (9)

26. Sharah Jalalian: Stanza 1, Destiny Night (Shab e Qadar- Quran 97: verse 1)
Translation : We revealed it on the Night of Power. It refers to a
night in the last ten days of the Islamic month of Ramadhan (9 th month in Hijrah
calendar). On this night, holy Quran was revealed to the Prophet for the first time in the
year 622 A.D. Its a blessed night wherein angels descend to earthly skies and prayers are
accepted. This ode is in praise for Shah Shuja, for a night of luxury spent with him as he
was a fan of poets and a generously rewarding ruler. In stanza 2, the poet wishes not
undeserving rivals to avail this company. Prophet SAW was reputed to have two locks
which fell from the crown of his head down to his shoulder. Hafiz must have known this.
3rd stanza is expression of devotion for one held in esteem by thousands. In stanzas 4 &
5, Shah is titled Shah-suwar (Abul Fawaaris) or the Master horse-rider; Father of
Knights and is alluded to Shah Shuja (1357-84) given his maternal link as descendent of
Nusrat ud Dunya Abul Fawaaris Qutlugh Sultan Buraq Hajib who ruled over Kirman
from 1222 to 1234. Stanza 6 shows the distance with hypocrite Zahids and his pride in
desiring wine or companion. Stanza 7 brings him to trance by his own verses (prime
stanza of the ode). Fable has it that Khizr (the long life bearer) had found life-water and
after drinking himself was carrying it for Sikandar (Alexander) in a skin-pot. At the town
exit, he hanged it on a tree (of cypress) and napped a while. A crow came and drank it by
piercing the pot with its beak. Thus, water split out in the roots of cypress. For this
reason, crow and cypress have a long life and Sikandar was deprived of it. He compares
his pen with that beak of eloquence and asks God to preserve it from worldly injuries.
Stanza 8 brings him to a great low, as a the feeble one among Shahs entourage. In the
last stanza, a reference is to Shah Shuja who at times protested at Hafizs discussions,
verses and dialogues and argued with him. But deep down in his heart, he knew the
actual worth and merit of Hafizs eloquence. This stanza indicates that Shahs attitude
towards him is like poison and its antidote-both.

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26. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Shab e Qadar see notes above. Stanza 2, all those who
have access to your tress are engaged in your Zikr (remembrance of the Lord). For Zikr
definition, see notes Additional Notes below.

Stanza 4, see Stanza 2 of ode 23 for similar theme. Stanza 7, truly Hafizs verses are
still fresh like roses despite a lapse of more than seven centuries. Stanza 8, a reference to
the crossing from the Pulsiraat (a bridge to reach the paradise) on the Day of Judgment.
Some will cross it at the lightning speed; others (sinners) will keep dragging for very
long period.

Additional Notes: Stanza 1, Hafiz is wondering, can there be a Night of Power (see
definition in explanatory notes above) better than the one when I have got the sight of the
beloved. This is the night sought after by Gods lovers. What lucky stars influence that I
availed this Night. It is the favour from perfect Murshid. Stanza 2, Gesu ( tress) is
manifestation, Nasazayan (undeserving) is Shaitan (demon), lust, a barrier in the path of
God. Those in your remembrance are happy but cry O Lord O Lord so as to give the
impression that this path is full of pain. This is done so as to distract ineligible fools from
following this path. Zikr means repeating is an essential part in Sufi way to gain
concentration on God to the exclusion of everything else; it means remembrance of God
induced by and manifest in constant repetition in praise of Him, through such
expressions as are exemplified here by the phrase O Lord! Stanza 3, Tawq or collar
refers to bondage (ring in a slaves ear). Fleshy parts of chin, the jowl or dewlap were
deemed alluring ones among the beautiful. Stanza 5, fever is decreased when one
sweats. Likewise, sun which witnesses the beloveds sweating cheek desires the same
hence overheating and overspeeding on its part. here means both i.e. hot faced
(Garam Roo ) or in hot speed (Garam Rau ) . Stanza 4, that rider who
crossed the heavens in few moments on the Night of Journey refers to
Prophet SAWs meeting with the Lord mentioned in Quran (Surah Bani Israel 17, Verse
1 & Surah Najm 53, Chapter 1). Stanza 7, dribbling of life-water from pen is correct.
Because pen-writing stays for a long time. See even Hafizs odes have stayed intact since
more than six centuries. Stanza 8, probably Hafiz refers to passage on a bridge on the
Day of Judgment (). Hafiz talks of his weak position and less goods/good deeds
hence inability to compete. The story goes that Suleman A.S. was about to crush the ant
when it spoke to him and made him understand that God was in everything, even in an
ant, and that Gods power was much greater than Sulemans power. This was the last
lesson that Suleman had to learn and so he received Gods realization. Last stanza,
Hafiz says that although beloveds slanted eye acts as an arrow, but his smile acts as a
life-giver. The wound from eye-arrow gets healed by the smile.

27. Empty Hands- My Asset in Union



I cant reform, do trust compliance Im profligate
Notorious bibber I became, from the very outset (1)

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I did ablution in loves stream, from that moment
I read four calls (obituary) on all things that exist (2)


Give me wine, Ill reveal to you the secret of fate
Fell I on what face, what smell turnd me inebriate (3)


Mountain pass looks here less than ant's waist
Be not hopeless at the mercy-door, wine-devout (4)


Save that intoxicated eye, may evil-eye stay distant
Under this turquoise sky, no one stayed in comfort (5)


My life I sacrifice on your mouth, for in my sight
Better rose-bud, the globe-gardener didnt create (6)



Hafiz became like Suleman, your love's dole out
Wind in hand, nothing else as your union's asset (7)
27. Sharah Jalalian: No doubt, Hafiz composed this perfect, beautiful ode in the last ten
years of his blessed life when he had attained the height of Marifat (true destination
path). This ode confirms Hafizs firm belief in the destinys assigned fate, an issue that
gripped him entire his life. After explaining destinys decree, in the last two stanzas he
turns to his illusory beloved whose eye, eyebrow and mouth get his attention- all three
appeal to anyone usually in the very first sight. Last stanza, Saadi also tried in a
different way;
,

27. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, sure! I had the covenant to fulfill and obey but loves cup
overwhelmed it.

Stanza 4, humans rely on His (Gods) infinite mercy. Maulana Hali says:

Last Stanza, Hafiz became Solomon like in your love i.e. he got only wind in the end
and nothing else. Maulana Shibli too when got shot in the leg, he had started claiming
himself to be Tamerlane (Tamer the one legged).

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Additional Notes: Stanza 1, exertion and obedience is practiced for the sake of
paradise. We want it not. On the contrary, we wish to see God and are looking forward to
it by drinking wine. Seek not obedience from profligates. Even from religious point of
view, they are intoxicated and exempt. Roze Alast is the Day of the Covenant when
Adam acknowledged God as his Lord. Reference here is to the Trust that God reposed in
man; a Trust that mountains, heavens and earth refused to bear (Quran; XXXIII, 72) but
which man accepted though he fell into ignorance and disobedience. Stanza 2, four calls
(Takbir) is Allah Akbar - Allah is the Greatest are usually offered on funeral biers.
This is called Takbir Tahreema which is recited before starting a Muslim prayer. It means
every worldly thing becomes prohibited or forbidden (Haraam) until the prayer ends. We
did the same in the way of our love for the beloved. Stanza 4, sins even greater than
mountains are just comparable to an ant. So one should not despair from the mercy of
Allah. Ant and Sulemans story is in Quran; XXVII, 17-19. Ant symbolizes Gods
compassion; also how God communicates wisdom even to his most petite creatures. The
ant impressed Suleman and partook in mercy and wisdom that God granted Solomon.
Stanza 6, someone said:

Stanza 7, line one, Sulemans fortune refers to wind since Suleman also had authority
over the wind. Second line means Hafiz obtained only wind (empty handed) not any
thing else from your union.

28. Hafiz holds the Chair



Ascetic sees outward, of my inner state unaware
I dont mind at whatever about me he does utter (1)


Any difficulty a true-Path traveler faces is better
On righteous path, heart! goes one astray never (2)


Lets see how turns the game, I am a pawn mover
At profligates chess-board, no King's manoeuvre (3)


What's this high ceiling (sky), plain yet chequer
This mystery, no worldly sage about it is aware (4)


So big indifference, God! What sort of justice here
Entire wound is hidden, no permission to murmur (5)

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As if treasury accountant in calculations is weaker
His stock sans Hisba Lillah- (alms for poor) share (6)


Anyone for leavin or comin, he may go or enter
This court has no barrier, gatekeeper or a janitor (7)


Any deficiency has to do with our own unfit stature
Otherwise never short on anyone, your kind favour (8)


Passage by tavern only for those who are sincere
No room in wine-sale alley for a conscience-seller (9)


I 'm slave to the Pir of tavern whose mercy is ever
Sheikh, Zahid's mercy, at times yes, at times rare (10)


His ambitious heart that Hafiz holds the Chair
Never slave of treasure or fame is any lees lover (11)

28. Explanatory Notes: This ode is from the times of Shah Shuja and Turanshah on
account of Hafizs differences with Sheikh Ali Kilah. Sheikh was Sufi of Shariah but
hypocrite and called Hafiz away from Sunnah ( Prophet SAWs way of living) and
Shari'ah and an adherent of Bid'ah (inventor of new, ill things in faith) who avoids
religious injunctions but follows impermissible things. Sheikh Kilah also blamed Hafiz
on outwardly conduct, worthy of beheading, no heed to actual intentions (Niyyah ) .
Stanza 1 is a reference to that but Hafiz is not angry on such proclamations. Second
stanza, he says that any Salik (wayfarer on the path of truth) is never astray. Siraat e
Mustaqeem means straight/good deed path; also it is a hair-breadth bridge that is to be
crossed by the dead , upright ones crossing it swift like at lightning speed but sinners
falling off into raging fire below. Stanza 3, he knows that the game has a long thread
where even Shah can not rescue him or assist.. In stanzas 4 & 5, asks God what an
indifference when You know the facts. With all divine decrees and wounds, we are
content with them and can not make complaints. In stanza 6, its a complaint against the
treasury in-charge who gives not Hafizs share. In stanza 9, tavern has no gate-keeper or
room for arrogance, its a place for uni-coloured (not turncoats), not for those who sell
conscience and call themselves religious scholars. Stanza 10, I am a tavern man where
favours are constant, unlike Sheikh and Zahid whose mood keeps changing. Agha

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Hashim Javed (a Shirazi scholar) is of the view that word Sadeh (plain) in stanza 4 is
actually Estadeh ( standing high) which would render the verse as; Cheest Een
Saqf Buland estadeh Bisyar naqsh.

28. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, so if someone does not comprehend the hidden
meaning of Hafizs verses and goes after their literal or outwardly meaning then it is his
bad luck. Stanza 2, according to Sufis whatever actions are committed by the humans in
this world or whatever occurs to him is all by the way of divine wisdom and ultimately it
is in our benefit. Sheikh Mohyuddin Ibne Arabi writes in Fusoos ul Hikam vis--vis this
Quran verse:



Translation: Not an animal but He doth grasp it by the forelock! Lo! my Lord is on a
straight path.(Al-Hud-11, Verse 56).
Allahs mercy wraps all big and small things. So every one who is in movement is
treading on His path. He is not amongst the ( those gone astray) or among the
( those cursed ones). These states are transient and the infinite mercy
overwhelms these phenomenon. Stanza 4, words plain yet chequered seem opposite.
However, this is the beauty of the sky that it is simple or plain yet its patterns are also
great. Nobody resolved its subtlety so far. See ode 8/8. Stanza 5, a proverb in Urdu says:

Stanza 6, Tughra is a special calligraphy or writing pattern which was used for royal
decrees. Hisba Lillah was a mark on these decrees to exempt poor ones from tax etc. In
this stanza, Hafiz complains of his revenue collector or ombudsman who is ignorant of
such a provision. For the word Diwan, some say King Noshervan had ordered his
accountants to do a certain calculations within 3 days in state treasury. Next day when he
visited them, all were busy and acting in crazy manner to fulfill the time-bound duty. He
uttered at them: Diwan Hastand (they are crazy). Stanza 7, Maulana Shibli too said: our
sessions are public, no preferences; whoever comes we treat them on equal footing. We
care not about Muslim, non-Muslim, friend or foe, relative or stranger. Another meaning
could be the court of the Lord. If someone comes not to God approaches God
but if someone comes with a hope
Stanza 8, Lords blessings are vast and abundant if we act like saline earth and receive
these not, it is our fault. See ode 12 stanza 4. Hali says:

Amir Khusro says:

Nazir Nishapuri says:

Stanza 10, Sheikh and Zahid are not constant in their approach. If you act not according
to their wish they will not forgive you. On the contrary:

Last Stanza, Hafiz cares not for worldly pomp and show. It is his high determination
that he sits at the high seat in the assembly. They hate mundane, worldly honours
because:

Spiritual Context: Stanza 1, Zahid is outward worshipper, knows not pleasure of


Divine Vision and seeks paradise. Stanza 2, path (Tarikat) is a
stage of which there are four; Shari'at (code of Islam), Tarikat (the Path), Hakikat (the
Truth), and Marifat (Divine Knowledge). A holy traveler must preserve all four stages
otherwise he becomes infidel. Righteous path (Siraat e Mustaqeem) signifies the strong

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Faith in Mohammadan religion. A bondsmans heart is a field of excellent grass, Zikr
(remembrance of God) and Fikr (thought of God) its sowing, impure thoughts; their
weeding. Stanza 3, pawn (Rukh) signifies the i) castle at Chess, ii) The face, iii) The
great mountain bird, the Roc, that carries off the elephant and Rhinoceros (See Lanes
Arabian Nights). Hafiz says that we shall play with pawn, for King (Shah) has no place
on profligates chess board. Stanza 5, when trouble comes upon the oppressed one, he
heaves a sigh. Here power to heave a sigh is not allowed to him. Stanza 6, Diwan
(Secretariat) the stage of love, stage of people of love. Royal seal (Tughra) means this
writing. Hisbat Lillah (for the sake of God). It is the custom of people of the Diwan who
exempt poor fellows from taxes. Hafiz complains that our accountant knows not
calculation for in his orders there is no sign of . in pre-Pahlavi period, it
invariably appeared on official documents and on coins of the State as sign of humility
before God. Here, the poet complains of strictness of beloved and seeks grace and
favour. This stanza is in accord with stanza 5. Stanza 7, the court may be that of
Kawwamuddin, the poets greatest patron. See ode 3, stanza 9. He presented Hafiz with a
dress of honour which on being put on, proved to be too short. Stanza 9, uni-coloured or
simple-minded (who exhibit the same outside what they hold inside; one-coloured) are
fit for pure wine, not the hypocrites or the doctors of religion. Stanza 10, if Hafiz accepts
not worldly honours or chairs assemblies, it is his great grace and great drinking.
is all mundane play and futile. (Some versions say great drinking;
others say great ambition.

29. Friends Courier



That courier came from the Friend's territory
Brought musky-letter, my amulet, my vitality (1)


Gives good account of friend's grace, beauty
Glad I, at the tale of friend's grandeur, dignity (2)


Gave him my life on glad news yet I feel sorry
I sacrificed on my friend, a low-value currency (3)


Thank God, with favourable fortune, I am lucky
All my business goes as per the friend's avidity (4)


Skys circlin or moon movement not voluntary
They move as desired under friend's authority (5)

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If wind of discord turns two worlds topsy-turvy
Me and my eyes shall wait on friend's trajectory (6)


O morn breeze! bring the pearl-mixed antimony
From blessed dust on which did the friend ferry (7)


Behold me at friend's pavilion, my head is lowly
See, by friend's side takes whom the sleep Fairy (8)


Enemy intends for Hafiz's life, Hafiz has no worry
Thanks God, in front of the friend, he is not guilty (9)

29. Sharah Jalalian: Saadi says:



Stanza 1, This ode from Hafiz goes at the time when Shah Abu Ishaq was in travel and
Hafiz waited for his return. He is happy from a reply that Shah has sent him. In stanza 2,
he takes Shahs name Jalaal, translated as grace (double entendre) which was also
another name of Shah Abu Ishaq. Another explanation could be that Jamaal (beauty) and
Jalaal (glory) are the names of God which denote His grace and His power. Stanza 4 is
happiness that Shahs tasks are going well. Stanza 5 is a reference to his power and its
appreciation. Quran says;



( Quran, Surah Al-Aaraf
7:Verse 54) Translation: And hath made the sun, moon and the stars subservient by
His command. In stanza 6, he grieves about troubles and conspiracies of Amir
Mubarizuddin, a rival of Abu Ishaq. Still, he looks forward to see a triumphant return of
Shah. In stanza 7, Shahs feet-dust is requested from breeze that Hafiz wants to apply to
his eyes with all humility. In the last two stanzas, counts his own services for Shah in
implicit terms, saying that we are in looking forward to receive you. If rivals are
slandering against me that I am an obedient servant of Shah, I am not ashamed of
labelling.

29. Lisanul Ghaib: Initial three stanzas are inter-related. Hirz is refuge, fortified
place; also an amulet to protect someone from the evil spell. Pek e Namwar (courier) is
the breeze which carries fragrance from place to place. Some say, this refers to arch
angel Gabriel and the Khatt (letter) is Quran. Second Stanza, Nishan e Jalal O Jamal is
descriptions of Gods various attributes. Stanza 3, Ghalib says:

Stanza 4, thanks God things are fine as desired for the friend. Saadi says:

Quran says:



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He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then turned He to the heaven, and
fashioned it as seven heavens.(Al Baqarah-2, Verse 29)













Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of night and day, and
the ships which run upon the sea with that which is of use to men, and the water which
Allah sendeth down from the sky, thereby reviving the earth after its death, and
dispersing all kinds of beasts therein, and (in) the ordinance of the winds, and the clouds
obedient between heaven and earth: are signs (of Allah's Sovereignty) for people who
have sense (Al-Baqarah-2, Verse 164).

Stanza 5, all heavenly bodies move under His direction/orders. That


power belongth wholly to Allah (Baqarah-2, Verse 165) or

the sun
and the moon are made punctual (Al-Rahman-55, Verse 5). Jami says:

Stanza 6, winds to be faced by the lamp of eye. Stanza 7, Kuhl ul Jawahar is


antimony (formula) mixed with grinded pearls to sharpen the eyesight.

Also see ode 12/5 for similar theme.

Additional Notes: Stanza 1, that Envoy (Angel Gabriel) who arrived from the Friends
country brought lifes amulet from the Friends dark writing. That pleasantly gives trace
of Friends grandeur and grace. Some versions say that this ode is in praise of Prophet
Muhammad SAW. The word ( courier or messenger) refers to Prophet Muhammad
SAW who brought a message from Almighty and is Quran which relieves fear
and sorrows. Stanza 2, Prophet SAW has described the attributes of Lord in a way which
are exalted and peerless. His beauty and grandeur, His power and Authority, His mercy
and other attributes are contained in Quran. Stanza 3, I have sacrificed my soul on this
Messenger who has come from the true Beloved. Still, I feel ashamed of my low-value,
broken heart. Stanza 5, all heavenly planets which are a decoration of this world revolve
at His will and are a reflection of Divine Light. Stanza 6, the second line, we keep the
eye in expectation of the arrival of the Friend. Stanza 8, the first line; I choose the
Friends threshold and place my head in supplication.

30. Friends Pain sans Cure



O lovers courier! with friend's message, welcome!
Give message, I let my life gladly on friend's name (1)


Crazy, lovesick like nightingale in cage I stay dumm
Parrot-natured Im, lover of friend's almond-n-plum (2)

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His hair a net, his mole net-feed, and (badly) I am
Fallen in friend's net, hoping the feed Ill consume (3)


Cant raise from hang-over head till the day of doom
Who sipped from friends wine in eternity at anytime (4)


I didnt tell him long story of my keenness for him
Such a litany could cause my friend head-spasm (5)


If ever I get, as antimony for my eyes I will assume
Dust treaded by friends footsteps, I hold in esteem (6)


I wish for union but intent on partin he does seem
I give up my intention, let my friend attain his aim (7)


Hafiz! burn in pain, anguish; sans cure or nostrum
For the friend's pain is cureless, theres no balsam (8)

30. Sharah Jalalian: This ode from the period when Hafiz had no audience or company
with Shah Shuja, probably on account of Shahs travels outside and separation. Stanza 1
is not actual courier coming but a fancying for him on the part of the poet. Second
stanza shows his wait as lovesick man. Stanza 3, he has fallen in love for Shah Shuja. In
stanza 4, he has assigned himself to destinys decree. In stanza 5, he is encountering
hypocrite companions of Shah and on the other hand, he vies for help from Shah, here he
seems under intense pressure. In stanza 7, the more he tries to be closer to the Shah, the
more Shah distances himself. Last stanza is of extreme hopelessness when he tells
himself to endure this cureless pain. This kind of odes depicts the political culture and
psyche of those times. There was no tradition of bringing auto-biography to vent out
feelings. Thus, Hafiz tries to cover the situation in double entendre and in between the
lines his predicament and feelings.

30. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, welcome is actually Durood or blessing which


Muslims recite invoking Gods blessings for the Prophet SAW and his progeny. Lovers
messenger refers to Prophet Muhammad SAW and Friends message is
Quran-the word of God. After presenting Durood in the court of Prophet SAW, Hafiz

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requests that O true Messenger and news-bringer! impart me the message of oneness of
God so I can sacrifice my life on this true word. To say I am your sacrifice is still an
epistolatory convention. Stanza 2, almonds are the eyes and the plum (or sugar) refers
to the mouth, lips or conversation. My soul is caged like a nightingale in this
worldly cage on the hope to see friend and hear his words one day. That is the nutrition
of soul. Stanza 3, poets often use beloveds tress as trap or net and his mole as nets feed
or grain.

Stanza 4, see ode 109 stanzas 9 & 12. Stanza 6, this refers to surrendering our will to
the pleasure of the beloved. Apparently, his will seems against my aim but in fact, it is in
my own interest. Similar sentiments expressed in ode 29, stanza 7. Stanza 8, Hafiz urges
that loves pain should be endured as it is remediless.

31. By Friend- Our Worth Not Good



O breeze! if you pass by the territory of friend
Ambergris-waft from tress of friend, to us send(1)


By his soul, as thanksgiving, my life I shall end
If youll bring to us a message from the friend (2)


If it occurs that ye get no access to his abode
Bring the whirling dust from friend's threshold (3)


Im a beggar yet a longing for loves union I hold
Only if friend's vision-n-beauty in sleep I behold (4)


Like willow shivers my weak heart pine-shaped
Envy of friend's cypress-height and his altitude(5)


Though friend buys us not, our worth no-good
We sell not, against all world, a hair of his head (6)

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What will happen if his heart from grief is freed
For poor Hafiz is slave of friend, in his servitude (7)

31. Sharah Jalalian: This ode said in times of Shah Abu Ishaq who had gone on a long
journey out of town and had been incommunicado with Hafiz. Stanza 5, line 2 has a
beautiful double entendre. Cypress tree has three attributes; one, its fruit and seed are
cone-shaped, more like a heart shape in the eyes of poets; two, its leaves shake even at
slightest sigh of the wind; third, it has a tall height. In the first line of this stanza, Hafiz
compares his pine-shaped heart with a shaking willow. In second line the cause of this
shaking is again his coveting for the cypress-like height of the friend. It also alludes to
one of the battles to which Abu Ishaq was shaky to participate and was a bit fearful in
going to. Such double meaning odes are a great beauty of Hafizs verses.

31. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, the lover swears by the life of the beloved- the most
precious thing to him and deems his own life as a sacrifice for the beloved. See ode 29/3.
Stanza 3, even wind has no entry in the beloveds threshold. Maulana Jami says;

Stanza 4, union seems impossible but at least a glimpse in dream could quench my
thirst.

Seeing that DIVINE EXISTENCE seems a futile attempt on the part of man. Quran says:
Quran, Surah Aal Imran 3, Verse 30)Translation: Allah

biddeth you beware of Him and Allah is full of piety for (His) bondsmen. So do not
waste time on this. But Existence can be seen indirectly in the shape of existing
reflections which bear a reference to the attributes and beauties of the Ultimate
Existence. But this way of seeing is like seeing someone in dream. Mirza Ghalib says;


Stanza 5, heart is pine-tree shaped. Nafaaisul Lughat defines it zwah Sanobari Shakl- a
pine shaped organ. A Sheikh (Murshid) should recite with his heart, the basic starter or
Kalmah Tayyiba of Islam which is also the purest form of Zikr (remembrance of God)
i.e. La ilah Illal-Allah, Muhammad-ur-Rasul ullah There is no
god but God and Muhammad SAW is His Prophet. The cone-shaped heart stays in the left
side of the breast, it contains the whole truth of man, comprises the whole of mans
existence, the essence of Gods book and of His mysteries. Who finds a way to the heart,
obtains his desire. To find a way is, by a heartiest service and a heart accepts the services
of the heart- a reference touched in the last stanza. A constant Zikr and service will draw
the man nearer to God and make him, without difficulty, turn his face from all exterior to
Him. Then, he will know the true meaning of Tark (the abandonment of the world),
Hakikat (the true stage of Truth), Harid (living in solitude) and Zikr (the repetition of
Gods name). Stanza 6, poet says that although he has no esteem or value in the eyes of
the beloved but on his part, he values a single hair of the sweetheart precious and
priceless which is dearer to him compared to rest of the worlds material assets.
-

See also ode 172, stanza 4.

32. Word-Power is Gift of God



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Come! palace of hope has very weak foothold
Bring wine, life's foundation rests only on wind (1)


Bow before courage; salute him; hes so bold
Whos sans relation, free from link of any kind (2)


What to tell, last night at tavern, I intoxicated
Invisible world's angel gave me tidings so glad (3)


O far-sighted falcon, on Sidrah tree top ye stand!
This isn't your abode, the toil-town of the world (4)


They beckon you from the high-heaven side
I know not why in this snare did you descend? (5)


I give you advice, do act on it, dear it ye hold
For this piece from the Pir of Path, I obtained (6)


Seek not promise-keeping from fickle world
A thousand bridegrooms holds this aged bride (7)


Forget not my advice, worry not in the world
I got this anecdote of love from a vagabond (8)


Accept whatever ye get, no frown on forehead
For ye or me, opened not the door of command (9)


No sign of fidelity found in the smile of rose-bud

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Cry O lovesick nightingale!, it is a wailing abode (10)


Why envy Hafiz, pathetic poet! bore yr ballad
Word-power, audience acceptance- gifts of God (11)
32. Sharah Jalalian: Shujas court had many poets who attempted to impress Shah
through their verses. At times, good poetry by one led to jealousy from others, as is a
natural tendency. Amad Faqih also had a verse ( first stanza
of this ode is comparable. Also see the 1 st Stanza of ode 33- next one). Resulting
closeness with Shah Shuja might have affected Hafiz who expressed himself as a
rejoinder in this ode. His last stanza of this poem also refers to this. Hafiz deems himself
to be a falcon of Sidratul Muntaha ( the berry tree up above the seventh sky).
He finds signs within himself about recognizing God and attributes of Prophet
Muhammad SAW. Hence his concept of God and the secret of creation differs from those
unity believers who had superficial vision. He talks of voices heard in dark late nights
conveying heavenly messages to him. In 7,8,9 & 10 stanzas, he comes to a basic
conclusion that this world is not the end in itself, we as travelers have to go to a greater,
eternal world, as is decreed much earlier. Quran says;

( Quran, Surah Al-Mominoon 23, Verse 115) Translation: Deemed Ye then that
We had created you for naught and that Ye would not be returned unto Us.

Shah Shuja had liked a couplet of poet Ohadi:




Hafiz has taken note of this advice from Pir in Stanza 6. Last stanza, Hafiz seems like
poet Ibne Yamin who said; ,
Even stanza 4 of Hafiz matches with Ibne Yamin:
,

Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, this entire ode is full of valuable advice about this mundane
world and its weak foundations. Transient stay and structures are to be destroyed by
death in the end. One should drink wine of true love, disconnect from other attachments
and orient oneself to God.

Stanza 2, the world is a snare of relations and possessions. Poet is slave to him who
severs these links.

Truly a man feels disturbed and in despair in his lifes last hours due to these relations
and links. Malik us Shuaraa Shahjahan (Abu Talib Kaleem) says:

Stanzas 3, 4 & 5, though man is created in this world, his actual link lies with the high
world above. It is a transient stay here only. The words Surosh (angel Gabreil or any
news bearer), Buland Nazar, Sidrah Nasheen, Shah baaz, Kingrah, Safeer (birds voice)
etc come in that context here. Stanza 7, world is concordant, sometimes with this one,

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sometimes with that one. If it had possessed fidelity with one only, it could have been
deemed as concordant and a place to consider staying in it. Khuwaju says:

Hazrat Ali A.S. said:


Jesus asked the world how many bridegrooms you have? She said: many. Asked Jesus
again: are they divorced or you killed them? The reply was. Everyone got killed in the
end. So Jesus said: I wonder they see your infidelity and yet learn no lesson. Rather they
love you despite that. ( Source: Keemiyaa e Saadat). Amir Khusro
Dahlavi says:

Stanza 9, one must put with what is decreed in ones fate. What can not be cured must be
endured. ( Khayyam). Sheikh
Saadi says: See ode 49/5.

Stanza 10, cry O nightingale! there is no fidelity in the rose. It will wither in no time.
Iqbal says:

See ode 52/3 on rose departure and nightingales cry. In the last stanza, Hafiz, as his
usual, proudly says that O apprentice poet! Why you are envious of me. My command
and popularity is Gods gift.

Additional Notes: Stanza 3, Surosh (Shraosha), according to Zoroastrian faith, is


archangel type among the sevenfold Godly Directorate for the welfare of the world. Its
literal meaning is obedient, this angel was associated with death and hovered around
pious souls bodies after their expiry until 3 days. Muslims believe him to be the
Guardian angel for keeping believers obedient to the Divine law. Stanza 4, Sidrah or the
Lote tree (Quran LIII, 14 & 16) is a tree on the boundary between the terrestrial and
celestial worlds; on the night of Prophet SAWs Ascension, Archangel Gabreil had
stopped at this point. It is near the Garden of the Abode

33. Grief- My Permanent Partner



The breeze plays with tips of your long hair
My jealous heart gets ripped apart in anger (1)


You magic eye is a prescription very clear
Yet your eye is ill, for lover its magic a killer (2)

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Whats that dark spot in your long curly hair
As a muscara dot, in the circle of JIM letter (3)


Dark locks on your cheeks garden wander
Like a peacock enjoying paradise's pleasure (4)


My soul! Im crazy for your face whichs so fair
As lowly dust seeking breeze to reach your hair (5)


Like dust, my dust-made body cant move easier
In yr alley lie I, sheer weighty one, cant slither (6)


Earlier always around Ka'ba, now your lip-seeker
I saw him at tavern-door, hes taken new shelter (7)


Yr heights shade cast on me , Jesus-breather!
This reflection revives my bones which totter (8)


Dear! to Hafiz- lost one, yr pain is old partner
An old covenant to which since long we adhere (9)

33. Sharah Jalalian: Hafizs romantic poems, as is this one, belong to his youth days.
First stanza is matching one of Amad Faqihs odes whose second line Hafiz liked not
hence his aesthetic version (see Explanatory Note in previous ode). Second stanza,
Saqeem ( darker) is a reference to the black of the beloveds eye which is in excess
proportion. At the same time, Saqeem also means weak or sick, so the meaning can be
fitted beautifully in both ways which is a beauty of Hafizs odes. In stanza 3, in reply to
Amad s Meem Hafiz speaks of Jeem ( j- ink blob that has dropped into the ring of
letter jeem ( which is a reflection of curly hair, falling on the face of the beloved and
the Jeems dot is the friends mole surrounded by tress. In stanza 4, dark tress is
compared to peacock. No apparent link. But, as the fable, goes, Shaitan (devil), on
expulsion from paradise, wanted to punish Adam who had replaced him there. One day,
he saw a serpent at the paradise entrance whom he pleaded that having prostrated all
places, the only site left was serpents head. Thus, he rode on it and lured it to attach to
the feet of paradises peacock who was walking nearby. Serpent attached itself below the
peacock wings and thus entered into paradise. Once inside, Shaitan misguided Adam and

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Eve which led them to eat forbidden grain (fruit). Hafizs reference is to that peacock
(giving tress an allusion to serpent would have been unpalatable). In stanza 6, a fallen,
broken Hafiz seems lying in the friends alley. In stanza 7, he pleads the bearer of Jesus-
like breath to give new life to his tottering body and bones- what a fine allusion.

33. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, ever since your tress has been disheveled by the wind, our
mad heart has broken into two, firstly by seeing distraught tress, our heart is distraught,
secondly, because of seeing tress in someone elses hands who is a rival. Stanza 4,
beloveds cheek is like paradise garden and his disheveled tress is compared to peacock,
loitering in paradise garden. Stanza 5,
Stanza 6, my body is lying fallen with a weight that it cant be uplifted easily from your
door, nor it can fly like dust from there to some other place.
Stanza 7, thousands are such who were
Shariah observant earlier, are now lying mad in your love:

Stanza 8, Isa A.S. (Jesus) is called Ruhi-izame ranun, the life-restorer of rotten bones. I
was only rotten bones, beloved gave me life and soul. Quran says;

( Quran, Surah Yasin 36, Verse 78-79 ) Translation: Saying
who will revive these bones when they have rotted away? Say He will revive them Who
produced them at the First. Last stanza, the Covenant refers to that of Alast- Day One;
between God and man on the latters creation. The whole ode pertains about mans
coming from the spiritual world to the material one.

34. Tavern Corner- My Habitat



Rose close by, wine in hand, desired sweetheart
The world's emperor is my slave on such a date (1)


Tell 'em! bring no candle in this company tonight
In our assembly is the face of friend, full moon-lit (2)


In our religious faith (order), wine is permitted but
Minus yr face, O flowery cypress! It is illegitimate (3)


No need to sprinkle Ittar (rose water) in our tryst
Your musky tress gives out perfume every minute (4)

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My ears listening the reed which harps a couplet
My eyes too gaze the ruby-lip and circling goblet (5)


Say nothing of candy or sugars sweet content
For me, sweet lip of yours, is the desire ultimate (6)


Till stays stock of your grief in my deserted heart
Always the tavern corner, that remains my habitat (7)


Whats disgrace? my notoriety is truly my repute
Whats good name-n-fame? Such fame I do hate (8)


Me- drunkard, wild-headed, ogling-n-profligate
Is anyone in this town who is without such trait (9)


Mention not to Muhtasib (Ombudsman) my fault
Like us, he too is in search of such a joy constant (10)


Hafiz! stay no time without wine and sweetheart
It's time of rose, jasmine and Eid that follows lent (11)

34. Sharah Jalalian: This ode has many peers. Saadi says;

Amad Faqih says;

Kamal Khojandi ;

Shah Namatullah Wali says:

Khuwaju says:

Manochahri says:

Another ode from Hafizs youth time. It gives his frame of mind. In love, wine
consumption, listening to harp tune or lute, profligacy, intoxication, carefree attitude

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against the ombudsmen type scholars and custodians of Shariah. In addition to literary
value and poetic beauty, these verses speak volumes about poets truth-speaking nature,
his one-track approach of this libertine poet. What is said in this ode is also reflected in
other odes here and there.

34. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 3, wine is only permissible in my order when you are
present. For true divine lovers, even Kauthar drink is not worth it unless it is combined
with Divine Vision. Urfi says:

With friend around wine is legitimate otherwise not permissible. Saadi says;

Stanza 4, Ittar, is made when 40 lbs of fresh roses are boiled in 60 lbs of water. After 4-5
hours, a distillation leaves 30 lbs, pour this on 40 lbs of fresh roses again until only 15-20
lbs of rose water is left. Pour into pans to be left in open air for one night. Next morning
Ittar can be collected congealed on top of water (remaining rose water is used for
distillation again). Quantity of Ittar depends on the quality of roses and the distillers
own techniques. Tachenius got only half an ounce from 100 lbs roses, Hamberg got one
ounce and Hoffman got two ounces. In Kashmir, they add sweet-scented grass in
distillation to give it green colour. In the sub-continent, it used to take 2,000 trees to
supply two ounces of Ittar. In Turkey, Adrianpole, vast rose farms exist that supply pure
Ittar even today. Roses of England are bright, of France and Damascus are brighter and
of Kashmir, the brightest (W.F Clark). Stanza 6, beloveds lips are honey, candy, sugar
Tam Tabrzo etc.
Stanza 7, treasures (stocks) are usually hidden in deserted ruins after the city is sacked.
People buried their treasure under the cellar floor. So lovers too become Kharabaati-
tavern residents after engaging in loves sickness.



Stanza 8, what to the wise is shame, is for a lover renown; what to the wise is
renown, is to the lover, a shame.

Someone said:

There is reversal of and See also ode 5/3.

Stanza 9, Hafiz tells that others also drink and are profligates. The difference is we are
transparent others act hypocrite. Hafiz said at some other place. Hafiz said in ode 139/2

Stanza 10, Muhtasib is also intoxicated with worldly material pleasures. Allama Iqbal
liked this verse not and said; Stanza 11,
Eid follows Ramadan fasting (Eid ul Fitr), in Turkey it is called Eid Bairaam or little
Eid. Eid on 10th D. Hajj is called Great Bairaam. Hafiz says we missed wine in
Ramadhan, now we must not stay without wine in this festive period. (see ode 106,
stanzas 1&2).

35. Certified Prescription

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My garden does not need any cypress or pine
Our shade-giver boxtree (love) less than none (1)

O coquettish boy! what you adopted as a religion
Our blood, like mother's milk, ye got its sanction (2)


Whenever sorrows afflict, always ask for wine!
We've diagnosed, it's the certified prescription (3)


Why turn head away from abode of Pir Magian
Prosperity is at this inn, wealth lies in this den (4)


Last night drunk was he but promised union
See what says today, now whats his opinion (5)


In my alley, they only buy hearts thatre broken
Self-sellers' market is in some other direction (6)


Strange; love pangs (story) is a tale of routine
Yet whoever tells (is different tale), no repetition (7)

Shirazs Rukna stream and breeze in its environ


Deride not; its mole (pride) of continents seven (8)


Different is Khizr's water, from dark is its origin
Ruknas source is Allah Akbar; God-glorification (9)


Poor yet Im content, on this Ill never bargain
Tell the king! My livelihood they did preordain (10)

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Hafiz! Of what sugar-cane branch is your pen?
It's fruit, more delicious than honey or bonbon (11)

35. Sharah Jalalian: Many odes from other great Persian poets like Saadi Maulavi,
Khaqani, Humam, Khuwaju, Salman and Mir Kirmani (some were Hafizs
contemporary) carry similar rhyme and content.

Humam:

Humam:

Saadi:

Saadi:

Khuwaju:

Salman:

Mir Kirmani:

Since Shah Shuja was a keen and generous appreciator of poets and companies,
there was a natural rivalry amongst high-level court-sponsored poets in those days. Some
poets might have thought that Hafiz- a young poet was a seeker of money or stipend
from the royal court. Hafiz said this ode specially for Shah Shuja. In order that Shah may
not have a wrong opinion about him as seeker of prize money or tips, in stanza 10 Hafiz
declared; We disgrace not pride of contentment and tell the Shah that livelihood is from
the Lord. In the last stanza, he is glad and content about the power of his pen.

Just a word about stanza 2, some people tried to change coquettish boy (Pisar)
into idol (Sanam)- even till now-a-days which is not fair to the poet and against the
meaning and actual intent. In the last stanza, sugar-candy is Shakhe Nabat
literal meaning is candy bar (Hafizs biographers tell that this was the name of Hafizs
sweetheart at whose house, he went to deliver bread one day and fell in love. This was
when he used to apprentice at a bakers shop). Shakhe Nabat is actually made from
highly-heated sugar in boiling water, then admixed with honey and cooled into bars
which are then sold. So gives a comparison Hafiz to his pen.

35. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 3, wine as treatment of sorrows also reflected in Ode 1/1,
Ode 5/1 and Ode 54/9.

Stanza 6, broken heart means a heart shattered and bearing pain of love which is liked
by God even. Iqbal says:

See ode 20/3 for similar theme. Stanza 7, loves story is unique that its repetition too
has new dimension. Saadi says that
So this bidaani lets not repetition spoil the storys savour
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. Nazeer Nishapuri says:

Someone said:

Maulana Jami says:

Stanza 10, Hafiz seems a contented man. Unlike Anwari, Zaheer Faryabi or Salman
Saujee who never hesitated in composing derogatory verses against their benefactors
(Shahs) if they received less stipends. On the contrary, Hafiz always maintained dignity
and a posture of contentment.

Additional Notes: Stanza 1, Cypress or pine (Murshid); types Zahiri (apparent), Majazi
(illusory), Kamil (perfect), Hakiki (true), Ghaibi (hidden- God), La-raibi (doubtless).
Stanza 2, by forbidding love, the admonisher spilled the blood of Hafizs heart. Stanza
3, take to wine and senseless state to counter grief. Stanza 5, broken heart and humility
is accepted by God, not arrogance. Stanza 6, union promise refers to covenant of Alast
day. Stanza 7, secluded find Him in seclusion, desert-dwellers see Him there, monastery
or church-goers locate Him there. Each one tells his own version

Stanza 9, Allah Akbar is a Muslim Moazzins call to prayer, also called Adhan. The
days fourth prayer Maghribs Adhan, announced at the sunset hour, allows the break of
Muslim fast. Allah Akbar is also uttered at the start of each Muslim prayer, five times a
day (called Takbeer). Khizr is the Green Man of Islamic legends- the keeper of water of
life located at some dark place. Allah Akbar used to be the northern gate of Shiraz where
arriving caravans chanted this Takbeer in thanks for safe-journey. According to Paul
Smith, the Water of Life is in the Land of Darkness or the form or the world. Because
God (Light) needs the dark to manifest Himself through; the reason for Him manifesting
the Creation. This is also symbolical of the Dark Night of the wayfarer on the Spiritual
Path which must be passed through before the Light of Divinity or Eternal Life shines
within and is recognized. Same Stanza (continued): life water is in darkness, of no ones
use but our Rukna stream is better whose source is Allah Akbar (God-glorification)- a
place wherefrom originates the Rukna river of Shiraz. Allah Akbar (Gods glorification)
is also the name of a pass in mountains near Shiraz. According to old Persian maps,
world was divided into 7 climes (or kishwar) and the town of Shiraz falls into fourth one.
For Khizr (see Quran xviii. 64). Stanza 11, Hafiz tells asking from the King is disgrace.

36. Dervishs stature




High-paradise garden is the retreat of Dervish
Amasses majesty who is a servant of Darvish (1)


Many a talisman in their secluded corner put
Whose key lies in blessed far-sight of Dervish (2)

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Paradise sward guarded by Rizwan at gate
Is just a view from the walk-tract of Dervish (3)


What turns to gold even black (sinner) heart
Such alchemy, for party-attendant of Dervish (4)


Sun puts off its crown of arrogance in dust
Such a grandeur is in the pageant of Dervish (5)


From shore to shore is an army tyrant, unjust
Yet from beginning to eternity, act of Dervish (6)


A wealth that does not have any fear of theft
Listen carefully! possesses such ingot Dervish (7)


Karun's cursed wealth digs deep every moment
Ye know why, this is the revilement of Dervish (8)


O wealthy one! dont be haughty or arrogant
Yr health, wealths from the grant of Dervish (9)


Worldly kings seek fairy face, so their intent
An image visible in facial manifest of Dervish (10)


Im a slave of this period's Asif, see his state
A Khuwaja face with temperament of Dervish (11)


Worldly kings dole out to needy, yet it is a fact
They perform servitude at the court of Dervish (12)

92


Heart! if ye seek lifes water to live permanent
Its source is, dust of private retreat of Dervish (13)


Hafiz behold! here King-n-courtiers in respect
All in obedience at the austere court of Dervish (14)

36. Sharah Jalalian: Stanza 1, Hafiz was anti- Sufi and anti-Zahid but pro-Dervish and
pro-Aarif (Gnostic knowers). Dervish is a conscience-follower, bright-faced, dignity
preserving, empty of worldly wealth, content on fate, in fact Aarif without demand, not
self-showing, treading his own path and annoying none. Hafiz sang this ode in praise of
Khuwaja Jalaluddin Turanshah, a Vizier of Shah Shuja whom he calls an inwardly
Dervish.

According to Paul Smith, Dervish, for Hafiz, was the word he used to signify a
spiritually sincere seeker or the one who had attained Realization. He himself preferred
to be called a Dervish and not a Sufi which often meant ritualistic connection with a
sect which had little to do with the essence of Sufism: the love of God, respect for all
approaches to God and the belief in the need to have a Perfect Master to attain God-
Realization. In this ode, Dervish refers to all those who have reached the goal and have
become Perfect Masters.

Stanza 2, in the past, people either took Chemistry to learn converting metals into gold
or followed Ganj nama- a book of talismen with charts and tables which were used to
treat troubles, save from thieves etc. Hafiz calls the Dervish, a key to decipher the
contents of Ganj nama. Stanza 3, Rizwan is the name of the angel who controls the
garden of paradise. Stanza 4, Rizwan is paradise gatekeeper. Stanza 6, from Azal to
Abad ( beginning of world till eternity), Dervish holds respite. Stanza 8, Karun s
tale is how he disobeyed Prophet Musa AS in paying Zakat (poor tax). Rather he incited
a woman to blame Musa AS for adultery. Musa AS sought Gods help and thus, Karuns
immense wealth goes down to earth each day. Hafiz calls Musa AS, a true Dervish who
wanted not to own Karuns wealth but its disposal to earth. The ode depicts a positive
picture of Dervish.

36. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, the word Dervish has been explained in ode 6/5. Hafiz
had great regard for sincere Dervishes but not for ritual-observing hypocrite ascetics who
preached one thing and acted the other way. Also see ode 58 and Dervishes by J.P.
Brown 1868. Stanza 4, Qalb has many meanings i.e. i) upside down ii) heart, and iii)
impure gold or counterfeit coins. Here the meaning could be that even counterfeit
currency can become gold in the company of Dervish. Someone rightly said:

Stanza 8, Quran in Surah Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-Al-
Qasas Verses 76-80 says; ( Karun was from Musas nation) then
says; ( We gave him so much treasure), then further says;
(His nation told him, Exult not), Finally it says; ( So we caused the
earth to swallow him and his dwelling place). See details of Karun in Notes for ode 6/9.

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Stanza 11, Asif Vizier- most probably it refers to Haji Kawwamuddin Hassan Haji, the
patron of Hafiz, see ode 3. Mughal Emperor Zaheeruddin Babur had attacked Herat.
Usually successful in campaigns, he was defeated by storm and subsequent attack by
Herats Governor. The Governor had got the blessings of Dervish Obaidullah Ahrar who
had informed that Babur, usually a conqueror and victor, would be vanquished in that
particular battle. Stanza 12, Khusro is ancient Persian Kings title. Last Stanza, even
Kings stay respectful in Dervish courts. Urfi ended one of his Natiyyah Qaseedahs as
follows:
!

37. Burning like a Moth




Friend came to Magian cloister, cup in his in hand
Drinkers sipd at his drunk eye, he himself fuddld (1)


New moon sprung from the heelpiece of his steed
His tall stature atop, leaving even pine tree behind (2)


How to say "he exists", oblivious of myself I stand
How can I say "not exists"; my eye on him is fixed (3)


As he rose to leave, lit-hearts of friends did fade
As he seated, cries of an ogling crowd grew loud (4)


Civet found its fragrance when to his tress it tied
Mascara got archery when to his eyebrow applied (5)


Like a candle, all night until dawn, on feet I stood
Kept burning like moth, until the daylight dawned (6)


Come back! Hafiz's life gone, a comeback may find
Though when an arrow is cast, does never rebound (7)

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37. Sharah Jalalian: Stanza 1, See Namatullah;

Iraqis ode;

In every epoch, odes have been popular when poets attempt to produce more versatile
and appealing versions with the objective that their own version must come better. We
have seen many such examples and this ode of Hafiz is in the footsteps of Iraqi. Hafiz
had extensive grip on Divans of many great poets, his contemporaries and earlier ones.
He chose many a odes and presented version of his own, albeit, replicating their rhyme
but with his own original contents in way that these odes superseded the original ones.
This is one of such innovative odes with romantic touch, indicating his original thinking.
Comparison of heelpiece of horse (stanza 2) to the new moon (crescent) is from
Zaheeruddin who says;

Stanza 3, Hazrat Ali A.S. Prophet SAWs cousin and son-in-law says:
He who knows himself, knows his Lord. Stanza 4 is done by Khuwaju as
follows:

Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2, see ode 3/2 for pine tree height simile. Mirza Bedil says:

Some one said in Urdu:

Stanza 3, when no knowledge of myself is mine, how I tell the wayfarer; Exists. Also,
when with Him, my glance ever is (or my expectation to be with Him is), how can I say;
Not Exists. Ghalib says
When I know not whether I am or I am not, how can I say if the world exists. But on
the other hand, I cant deny that it is non-existent. Because my eye is on the absolute
beloved. This proves that both, the Creator and created ones exist. Also a relationship of
lover and beloved exists.
Stanza 4, line one, friends (Damsaz) signifies the desirous ones and seekers of the heart-
binders (the Murshids).

Someone said on the same pattern:

Stanza 5, is a famous fragrance made up of camphor, ambergris and musk. This


word is also used in Persian as fragrance only. or dye are the leaves of NEEL tree
which are used to dye eyebrows. These leaves are long like a bow and have a curve.
Muscara (or indigo) is used to colour the eye-brow, draws the bow of the eyebrow. Attar
says:

Last Stanza, since they call the beloved life & soul, so when beloved comes back, you
may say; spent life will certainly come back. Although an arrow once shot or time from
hands gone never come back again.

38. Dolor de lAmour (Pain of Love)

95


Your enchanting eye in sleep, not without reason
Curls of your dishevelled hair, not without reason (1)


Milk dribbled; he was infant when I made it clear
Sugar at yr lips; like salt-cellar, not without reason (2)


As regards your mouth, it is a spring of life-water
Under this mouth chin-crater, not without reason (3)


May you live long life; for you firm belief I bear
Yr eyelash-arrows act archer, not without reason (4)

!
Sorrows, suffering, parting pain, despair I endure
O heart! Yr cry and clamour, not without reason (5)

!
Yesterday, breeze of his alley blew through potager
O flower!, this tear in your collar, not without reason (6)

!
Though heart hides from people the pain of partner
Hafiz! yr tearful eye full of water, not without reason (7)

38. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanzas 1 to 4 are addressed to the beloved. The words not without
reason signify without something of captivation. Stanza 1, your riot-creating eyes in
sleep means riot is in slumber and your tress curves are planning to captivate and trap
someone. Beloveds tortuous tress and drunk eye will play havoc with the lover. Stanza
2, when beloved was a child I had then realized he will become something;

Mouth has been called salt-cellar and lips are called sugar (see ode 8 stanza 6). Stanza 3,
although your mouth is life-water giving, the road to it not without danger (chin-crater).
See ode 12/6. Stanza 6, In the first line, the addressee is beloved and in the second line,
the addressee is flower. Yesterday, the wind after having passed through beloveds alley
went to the garden and since it had taken along the ambergris fragrance of beloveds

96
tress, flower became crazy on that fragrance and started tearing its collar. Naturally, wind
opens flowers to make them blossom and opens their petals. But Hafiz excels in
explaining this blossoming in a different way. Last Stanza, poet tried to control his heart
and its pain but the tear-shedding eyes expose the secret of love. In famous Qaseedah
Burdah Shareef by Egypts Imam Sharfuddin Bouseri R.A. is a verse:






Does the lover think that love will remain hidden
Between the flowing (eye) and a heart full of burn
Hafiz himself said:

Another poet said:

39. Captive by Your Knot




Mind your business preacher! why this clamour
My heart asunder; ye arent afflicted by disaster (1)


Until his lip, like a reed, does not fulfill my desire
All the world's counsel is like the wind to my ear (2)


His waist, God created from naught- a slim figure
Is such a mystery which no one did ever uncover (3)


Carefree of seven heavens is your street's beggar
Caught in your knots, free of two worlds forever (4)


Though love inebriation ruined me but remember
My existence base is due to the house of vintner (5)


Heart! do not cry over friend's cruelty-n-torture
He destined this fate for you, His justice is fair (6)

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Be off, tell us no tales, spell no magic Hafiz dear!
So many such spell and tales, I am quiet familiar (7)

39. Spiritual Context: Stanza 1, go about your own work, sow the seed of counsel in
the field of reason and scratch not your heart about counseling me. Stanza 3, waist
(Mian, also means middle) is the connection between the Desired and the desirer. This
connection is a gift that God has created out of naught. Ion us was no merit. Purely out of
His infinite grace, God gave the connection. That is a subtlety that none has resolved.
Last Stanza, blowing on knots to induce magic spells with evil intention was practiced
in Arabs during Prophet SAWs times. A female opponent had tied seven knots on a piece
of rope and blowed on them so Prophet SAW was bestowed with Muawwizatain- last
two chapters of Quran to ward off evil (See Bess Allen Donaldsons The Wild Rue,
London 1938 pp. 13-14).

39. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, means calamity or untoward happening to


some one.

Stanza 2, If someone sings near the reed, it will be as if wind goes from end to its other
end. However, when one joins his lip to the brim of the reed, sweet tones emerge. Rumi
says:


Stanza 3, beloveds waist such that God created it from naught. Mazhar Jaan e Jaanan
says about smallness of beloveds mouth:

Ghani Kashmiri decides about non-existence of waist and mouth in the single verse:

Poet Jurat was already of poor eyesight as he said:

In the first line are words and The same two words have been used in the
second line but with entirely different meaning/context. This is the beauty of Hafiz. If the
waist is deemed as the relation that mundane world has with the heavenly world or the
temporal powers with spiritual ones then the second meaning becomes clearer.

Stanza 4, True lovers paradise is in getting vision of the Divine Lord. For them,
paradise is nothing.

( )
Love has apparently ruined me but it has in a way strengthened my lifes foundation.

Another meaning could be that although loves intoxication has spoiled me, but my
existences foundation is based on Kharaab Abad (spoiled town) hence being spoiled is
better. Last Stanza is often used as proverbial whenever some induces someone or
imposes ones will on some one or tries to lecture/sermonize someone and is used
frequently in daily life.

40. Vial of Rose Perfume



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Though ruby like, my friend's lip is blood-sucker
Just for a look, sacrificing life would be my chore (1)


His black eye, long eyelash are real heart-stealer
Whoever saw the stealing act cant refute me ever (2)


Do not take my luggage to the door, O cameleer
Road to mountain top where lies friend's arbour (3)


I am lucky, these days when fidelity is found rare
Love of that frolic gypsy has become my purchaser (4)


This fragrant ambergris-casket or vial of rose itr
Is just one puff from my sweet-smelling Itr-seller (5)


Drive me not, like wind, out of garden, O gardener
My pomegranate tears provide yr rose-beds water (6)


Draft of sweet rose syrup from loves lip, my cure
His narcissus eye which is my sick-heart's doctor (7)


He taught Hafiz wise words in the ghazal manner
Is such eloquent-speaker-n-wise-orator; my amour (8)

40. Sharah Jalalian: An ode when Hafiz was under 30 in age- the days when he was an
apprentice of Khuwaju Kirmani, a senior and experienced court poet of Shah Abu Ishaq.
This is indicated in the last stanza. Eloquent-speaking is none other than Khuwaju for
whom at another place also Hafiz said; However, some
sources refer to be Ohadi of Maragheh (d. 1338 A.D.). Also compare this last line with
the first line of stanza 4 of the next ode- 41). Stanza 1, that ruby lip of the beloved is
thirsty of blood. In second stanza, the poet reaches to beloveds eye and eyebrows.
Stanza 3 refers to the beloved of Hafiz who is stationed at the Towns gate. Stanza 4,
line 2 talks of gypsies who had settled in the suburbs of Shiraz a hundred years before

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Hafiz during Mongol attacks. They were the ancestors of modern day Qashqai tribes,
under the obedience of a tribal chief. They worked as ironsmiths (knives, spades,
sickles). Their girls frequented in town selling iron appliances and stealing the youth
hearts by their coquettish gestures and amorous glances.

40. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 3, this stanza gives an indication that the beloved place is
not attainable on easy, straight path but it is far off, on a high winding road requiring a
mountaineering, hardy approach. Stanza 4, Lulian (plural of Luli) audacious, shameless,
teasing (beloved), appealing damsels. See ode 8/3. Stanza 5, Tablah is small perfume
box, Darj is small box for putting ornaments. Same theme as in ode 23/5 or ode 22/10.
All colour and fragrance in flowers is because of him. Stanza 7, draft of rose syrup from
beloveds lip. Possibly the beloved has permitted the poet a kiss here. Poets doctor
probably forgot one thing in this prescription which he did prescribe later in ode 141/4.

Rose-candy mixture is not our hearts medicine
Some kisses mixed with abuses is a better option
Last Stanza, it is a well-known fact that as long as there is no pain in the poets verse, it
does not affect the soul. And pain can not come until the poet is afflicted with pain of
love. Hence it is rightly said that the there is a mentor or maestro to every poet who is
none other than his sweetheart/beloved.

Spiritual Context: Stanza 3, cameleer (Sarban) is the fate and destiny, effects (Rakht) is
borrowed existence of the holy traveler. O cameleer! My beloveds pavilion is in a very
far place, not on plane but on top of mountains, a difficult path to be traversed. Stanza 5,
rose (holy traveler), Ittar-seller (God) (Muhammad SAW). Stanza 6, You brought me in
existence, as in Your need I am, in Your dominion and creation, You are also in need of
me. If creation exists not, the Creator exists not. Although, ever are the wounds of
affliction, the plaster and antidote He is. This stanza explains that garden needs water for
which lovers tears are must. Stanza 7, herein Hafiz prescribed a prescription as is also
reflected in ode 141, stanza 4).

41. Passion for Idols is My Religion



It's been ages; passion for idols is my religion
Toil of this task is pleasure of my heart forlorn (1)


A soul-seering eye needed to see your vision
In my world-watch eye, no such appreciation (2)


Be my love! Sky beauty and world decoration

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Is from my pleiade-like tears-n-yr face moon (3)


Since your love taught me the art of oration
Public started uttering my praise, admiration (4)


God! give me wealth of Fuqr sans limitation
This miracle is my honour-n-powers reason (5)


God! Ka'aba is rendezvous, homage pavilion
Like roses to me are its paths pointed thorn (6)


Preacher! pride not ye have police connection
This poor heart of mine is Sultan's destination (7)


Killing his own lovers-n-creating riots in town
My wheat-tan beloved likes this kind of action (8)


From whom you learnt river-flow; its patron
My pleiade-like tears led ye to such condition (9)


Hafiz! tell no more tales of Pervez's ostentation
Pervez sips from my Khusro's candy confection (10)

41. Sharah Jalalian: This ode said when the rivalry between him and Sheikh Ali Kilah
at Shujas court was at its peak. Stanza 1 expresses his perennial keenness with Shah.
Stanza 2 takes from old Greek philosophy that world is made up of two types of things;
one is matter (Maddeh) and the other is virtual (Maana) i.e. material is body and
Spiritual or virtual is Almighty. Hafiz says that to see your life-bestowing face, one needs
an eye that is capable to see spirit and soul. My world watching eye has no such capacity
or ability. This also refers to Quranic verse;
(Quran, Surah Anaam, Verse 103) Translation: Vision comprehendeth Him not, but He
comprehendeth all vision, He is the Subtile, the Aware. Stanza 5 is a pray by the poet for
himself, to make him free of needs and supplication at worldly kings door, seeking
contentment and Fuqr . Material needs take him to one direction and self-dignity
drives him to opposite direction. This is an indication that Hafiz is weary of flattery or

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sycophancy. In stanza 6 is a reference to Sheikh Ali who wields power. This is a
concern for Hafiz but he also expresses his indifference and undaunted spirit.

41. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2, Quran says:




Translation: Vision comprehendeth Him not, but He comprehendeth (all.) He is the
Subtile, the Aware (Al-Anaam-6, Verse 103)
Stanza 4, the second line may be i) the people praise me, ii) the odes that I utter are
popular in the people. When love taught me, I reached this stage. Thought concept is
similar to one expressed in the last stanza of the previous ode. Stanza 5, Prophet SAWs
saying ( Poverty is my pride) carries a similar meaning. Stanza 6, Sultan is
absolute King. O counsel utterer! boast not of your grandeur to me, scratch me not in
reproof- for my wretched heart is Gods dwelling. Preacher has been called or
Commissioners friend. This is said sarcastically since the preacher is engaged in evil
acts just because of his friendship with the Police Commissioner. Challenge is that I also
befriend the King who has appointed the Commissioner. Last stanza, Hafiz mentions no
more of Pervezs grandeur. The meaning is that the one who is praised by me (my sweet
Khusro), against him Pervez the King even holds no worth. Even Pervez gets his sip
from my beloveds lip. Khusro was a lover of Shirin and was the son of Parvez bin
Hormoz bin Nosherwan. Khusro was also the title of Persian Kings. The story, as quoted
by Paul Smith, goes that Shirin was the beautiful daughter of Byzantine Emperor
Maurice. She married Pervez (ca. 591 AD) and became the Queen of Persia. It was
Pervez who invaded Jerusalem and carried away the original cross. A sculptor by the
name of Farhad fell in love with Shirin and she with him, Farhad made an agreement
with Pervez that if he could cut a pass through a mountain for a water-channel, h would
be given Shirin. After many years he achieved this remarkable feat but on hearing this,
Pervez sent him a messenger to convey the (false) news that Shirin had committed
suicide. On hearing this lie Farhad threw himself off the mountain and died. Pervez
himself was violently put to death by his son who then proposed to Shirin. Shirin
promised to marry him provided she was shown the body of her husband. When she was
taken to the corpse she drew a dagger and killed herself, falling over the body of Pervez.
The story is very popular in Persian literature.

42. My Aim is Your Union



I have taken taverns corner as my residence
Prayer for Magian Pir is my morning service (1)


What if no harp, hymn or morn wine service
My early morn wail, is enough for my solace (2)


Praise to God! free Im of the King or populace
Sweeping beggar at friend's door is my prince (3)
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My aim is yr union, be it mosque or alehouse
No other thought I have; to this God is witness (4)


Eversince I bowed my head at this Residence
The high seat of sun is my head-resting place (5)


Death alone could uproot me from your place
Its not my way to flee from a door auspicious (6)


Im better off as yr beggar than being a prince
Yr tort-n-tyranny adds to my honour and grace (7)


Khusros royal crown before my eyes useless
Dust from yr street gives my cap good grace (8)


Hafiz! committing sin was never by my choice
Be humble-n-obedient, admit mine is the vice (9)

42. Sharah Jalalian: An excellent ode with outward and spiritual meanings. First
stanza reflects poets differences with Sharaee (orthodox) opponents and hypocrite
Sufis. They had been pressing Shah Shuja to give Hafiz cold shoulders. Hafiz came out
in bold, in his defence admitting innocuous drinking, his profligate ways which were in
contrast to the orthodox clergys hypocrisy, superficial view of things, lies and usurpation
of trust properties. In stanza 2, his tight monetary conditions but still no regret on his
love for wine, in quiet without harp or singer. It was customary for the rich to drink wine
at early morn, in the company of singer and tune to get ecstasy and trance. Due to Hafizs
poor financial conditions, his wail replaced these paraphernalia. Stanza 3, he calls Shuja
as friend despite latters indifference towards Hafiz which he attributes to jealous rival
factors. Stanza 4, he tells Shah Shuja that his drinking is not with the intent to find ill in
Shah, to antagonize him or discourage him but to be closer to him. In stanzas 6 & 7, he
reiterates that affiliation even at the cost of his life, after having attained friends sunny
face. Last stanza relates to his arguments with Sheikh Ali Kilah and Panjiri. Belittling
them in appropriate words, he then admits his own sin; purpose being to reconcile with
Shah Shuja in a way that the poets free spirit is not hurt.

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42. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2, hymn (Taraneh) signifies devotion, harp (Chang) is piety
and the morning cup (Sabooh) is austerity. Melody, the harp and the morning cup are the
requisites of the people of song. Here they mean devotion, piety and austerity, the ways
of the people of the world (hypocrites). Sabooh is the morning cup. It means may be
people would rely on their worship content but to me, my admission of sins in the shape
of wail and morning sigh is enough. Saadi says:


He also says:


Khayyam says:

An Urdu poet said:

Hafiz relies more on his wail and lament than on the ritual worship:

See ode 93/7 for similar theme.

Stanza 4, a lover who, with sincere heart, is a seeker of God, can attain his object
irrespective of his place of meditation or worship. But if his heart is not clean, he cant
get blessings in temple or in mosque (See ode 216, stanza 3 also).

Mulla M. Saeed Ashraf says

Allama Abul Fazal had built a worship premises in Kashmir to be used by a worshipper
belonging to any religion. At its entrance, he had affixed a tableau saying following
quatrain;


Stanza 6, similar theme in ode 83 Stanza 2.

Stanza 7 also reflects thoughts expressed in ode 83 stanza 2.Also see stanza 3 of this
ode. Last stanza relates to the issue of the extent of freedom in mans actions and the
role of destiny in the occurrence of such acts. Hafiz who is a strong believer in the JABR
( uncontrollability of man) against IKHTIAR ( freedom in action) advises that
although a man is helpless, he should remain low-headed, with full respect and in
repenting mood. So sins should be adopted as ones own acts of commission or
omission. Although all things including movements of leaves, good and bad are
controlled by the Lord, one should pray to avoid them and take the responsibility for
them, should repent on them and be sorry for them.

43. Gone with the Wind



Red flower bloomed, nightingale hopped inebriate
Wine-lover Sufis! Its invitin (time) for merriment (1)

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Foundation of repentance that seemed concrete
Have a look! how did it smash by a glass-goblet (2)


Bring wine! all are equal in that indifferent court
Watchman or Sultan, be in sense or in drunk state (3)


Exiting from this double-door inn oneday is a must
Portal or ceiling of livelihood, whether tall or short (4)


Without toil, one cannot earn place of comfort
Tied to tribulation- Alast is the eternal covenant (5)


Be happy! boil not over what is or what is not
For everything perfect, its ultimate end is naught (6)


A'sif's majesty, mustangs, knowing birds' dialect
Gone with wind, from these no Khuwaja got profit (7)


Pride not yeve wings, feather! ponder one minute
Even speedy arrow in air awhile, then fells to dust (8)


Tongue (nib) of your pen Hafiz, how to appreciate
Its wise words, from hand into hand, they transmit (9)

43. Sharah Jalalian: Saadi:



Fariduddin Attar:

Salman Saujee:

Khuwaju:

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Second stanzas background is that Shah Shuja had an agreement with
Muhammad bin Ali Kavamuddin Sahib Ayyar that all secret news of the court should not
reach to any of his brothers or other aspirants to the throne. And it seems that in the end,
this Vizier got killed, rightly or wrongly for disclosure of some repentance-break or
covenant-leak. Stanza 5, a tender topic as Quran says;

( Quran Surah Aaraf, Verse 172). Arabic word bala means YES. But it also means
troubles. So when man made the covenant, he implicitly said yes to both meanings. It
also indicates that this job of Ministership is not without risk of life. Worlds transient
and mundane nature and advice to pass it peacefully in calm is expressed in stanza 6.
Stanza 7, references to Asif and Khuwaja even the powerful King Suleman, all went
with wind in the end. It may refer to Amir Mubarizuddins decision who appointed
Mohammad Ali bin Khuwaja Kawwamuddin (Sahib Ayyar)as his sons tutor and mentor.
The aim was to assign him Vizarat (Ministership) during the sons reign. And so did
happen. However, at some stage, Shah Shuja, in his wisdom and dishonesty, got him
killed and his body parts hanged on the gates of various towns. Asif and Khuwaja words
could refer to that episode. Stanza 8 carries this theme advising that even if you have
wings, feathers, fly not beyond the trajectory, for arrows too kiss the ground in the end.
Probably, Sahib Ayyar at some stage breached the trust and crossed his authority which
resulted in his death. God knows.

Additional Notes: Stanza 1, some say it is not Badah Parast Sufis but Waqt Parast
(opportunist or Ibnul Waqt) Sufis. Sufis stay carefree of time gone or time to come but
focus on that fleeting moment for meeting the Eternal Present. He (the Divine) alternates
between He shows Himself and He snatches Himself away. Prophet SAW said: I have
a time with God in which not any angel of those closest nor any prophet of those sent has
access to me. So Hafiz may have used double entendre. Stanza 2, Salman Saujee says:
Did you see how one glass of wine smashed
That stony repentance of mine.
The word for crystal is Zajaji (See Quran XXIV, verse 35):







Translation: Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The similitude of His light
is as a niche wherein is a lamp. The lamp is in a glass. The glass is as it were a shining
star. (This lamp is) kindled from a blessed tree, an olive neither of the East nor of the
West, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself) though no fire touched it. Light upon
light.

Stanza 3, Istighna (is indifferent or self-sufficient). See Quran LXIV, Verse 6:




Translation: So they disbelieved and turned away, and Allah was independent (of them).
Allah is Absolute, Owner of Praise.

Stanza 4, Alast is the eternal covenant between God and man. However, Hafiz takes the
Arabic Bala (yes) into Persian context which means calamity, trial, catastrophe or testing.
Ali Hajveri says in Kashful Mahjub: the probation of the bodies of Gods friends by
diverse troubles and sicknesses and tribulations). (See Quran VII, Verse 172):



Translation: Am I not your Lord? They said: Yea, verily. We testify. (That was) lest ye
should say at the Day of Resurrection: Lo! of this we were unaware;

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Stanza 6, see Quran LV, Verses 26-27:

Translation: Everyone that is thereon will pass away; There remaineth but the
Countenance of thy Lord of Might and Glory.
Last Stanza, there is pun. (Jinas Emali). Hafiz appreciates/thanks the pens nib Shukr
but in Persian, the word Shakar (sugar) is also written in the same alphabet and seems
befitting in this context.

43. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, merriment (Sar Khushi) is moderate intoxication. It is


spring time which is suitable for drinking. Hafiz also refers three months of spring
season for drinking in ode 320, stanza 2.

Stanza 2, a glass cant smash a stone but Hafiz has made this possible. The glass cup
has smashed his stone-hard repentance.

Stanza 3, in short, no need to be intelligent or inebriated in Gods Court, He is above all
such considerations (See also ode 524, stanza 4).
-
Stanza 4, world has two doors, birth door, enter and fully gaze then is death door,
proudly depart. See ode 7/8. Stanza 5, for Alast, see notes in odes 1 and 120).

See also 109/12. Stanza 6, life and death are complimentary


Stanza 7, Suleman had Asif as his Vizier, the east wind as his steed and knowledge of
the language of birds ( Quran, Surah Naml 27, Verse 16)
Translation: And he (Suleman) said: lo! We have been taught the language of birds.
So all these strengths never came to assist. Suleman too had to depart.


Stanza 8, at first you have a few days of youth and the substance of the worldly dignity,
the source of pride. Then death places you in the dust of the grave. Whoever sits in the
dust of the worlds borrowed (illusory) goods, what erring from the true path is his. See
ode 7, stanza 7. Wings and feathers (Bal O par) mentioned in Stanza 8 signify the
wealth and rank, obstacles to the holy traveler.

44. Broken Repentance



Disturbed hair, sweat-soak, smiling lips, drunk
Shirt torn, Ghazal-saying, hand in a wine-flask (1)


His eyes chaos-creating, lips in lament talk
Last night drunk he came, sat near my neck (2)

107


Took head near my ear, said in tone traumatic
My distraught lover! re you asleep? he did ask (3)


Lover given wine at night this way, runs amok
Hes unbeliever of love if he didnt turn drunk (4)


Go Zahid, we are dregs-drinker, dont nitpick
Alast day only this thing they put in our trunk (5)


Whatever he poured in our cup, we just drunk
Knowing not, was worldly wine or Edens drink (6)


An enticing wine-cup and beloveds curly lock
Like Hafiz, many others their repentance broke (7)

Some word meanings: disturbed, distressed, dishevelled


perspire, to sweat
brawling, hollering, quarrelsome
sad, grieved, sorrowful
frenzied, mad, in revolt
night, early dawn, late night, to travel at night

44. Sharah Jalalian: This ode echoes lines from poets of 5th century onwards. It refers to
objections by coquettish sweetheart against pious Aarif and Zahid. Stanza 1, Sanai was
the first to utter the contents similar to this ode as follows:



Then came Anwari this way:


Then followed Anwari on the same rhyme. Then tried Zaheer Faryabi on these lines until
Sheikh Fariduddin Attar gave it a different meter;


Khuwaju Kirmani also had his hand before Hafiz:

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It may be mentioned that the introductory stanza is epithet-strung opening- a distinction
in Persian and Urdu poetry and is called Husne Matlaa or beauty of introductory verse.
Stanza 2 speaks of lip lament spreading (Labish Afsoos kunan ) is a type of
melancholic voice which is soft, warm and sliding into ear. It translates the hidden love
and the worried condition of the lover. Saadi says:


At another place Saadi says:

44. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanzas 1, 2 and 3 describe the state in which the beloved visited
Hafiz. It is very comprehensive, only a few words but unparalleled. When one faces
difficulties in the path of love, then one becomes compelled to take a cup. The first stanza
of the very first ode of Diwan e Hafiz also matches to this theme. Stanza 6, Edens drink
(paradise wine) is mentioned in Quran Surah Al-Saffaat-37, Verses 45-47:



Translation: A cup from a gushing spring is brought round for them, White, delicious to
the drinkers, Wherein there is no headache nor are they made mad thereby.
Or at another place in Quran (Surah Muhammad-47, Verse15):
( Translation: and rivers of wine delicious to the drinkers and rivers

of clear-run honey)
Also Surah Al-Tur-52, Verse 23:
Translation: There they pass from hand to hand a cup wherein is neither vanity nor
cause of sin.
Last Stanza, when beloveds tress and wine-cup are presented, Hafiz cant hold to his
repentance.

45. Circumambulation sans Ablution

Your tress with its each hair tied thousand heart


Way of thousand healers, at four corners obstruct (1)


To induce lovers to offer life on his hair fragrant
He opened musk-pod, but the door of desire shut (2)


I got infatuated, as the beloved like new crescent
Showd eyebrow, gracious glared then did retreat (3)

109
So many colors of wine, Saki mixed in the goblet
See how patterns so beautifully in pumpkin he put (4)


God! what a magic, flask with blood in its goglet
It pours and tickling songs from its throat emanate (5)


In Sama's circle, the minstrel stirred what a note
Doors of Ha, Hu on ecstatic, mystics did it shut (6


The sage, on seeing the tricks of the firmament
Closed conversation door, packed his play-mat (7


I wanted to define his beauty and facial attribute
He showed his face but shut the door of tet-a-tete (8)


Hafiz! one wantin union sans doing loves effort
Dons Ahram sans ablution around Kaba of heart (9)

45. Sharah Jalalian: A youth time ode in praise of Shah Abu Ishaq whose reign was the
best of times for Hafiz. First stanza starts with friends tress which has tied so many
hearts. While lovers intended giving life on tress smell, he opened them suddenly,
stopping them to do so. 3rd stanza goes to an old belief that on full moon nights, oceans
change in wave pressure and so also mental delusions occur to some persons/lovers
(brain matter is also surrounded by fluid cerebro-spinal fluid and affects such changes)
resulting in cyclic hysteria bouts. Poet also had a glimpse of the beloved who later went
in retreat. This glimpse has caused him infatuation (Sheda- delusion), like full moon does
to the afflicted people. in the hard pumpkin skin, they used to store wine
Artists used to draw dancing girls and Sakis
giving away wine sketches on the outer layer of pumpkin. Stanza 5 refers to the moment
of wine pour from flagon which due to air entry makes sound and drops then stops and
so on, making tickling sound. Stanza 6 is the perfect performance of singer in giving
tunes which cause ecstasy in Sufis during Sama ( listening divine words from a
singer in an assembly). Last stanza, Kaaba is compared to the heart of the beloved. As
ablution and Ihram (special pilgrim dress) is obligatory for Kaaba circumambulation, so
to get friends union, also one should practise love, experience failures and go through
the state of hope and despair.

Additional Notes: Stanza 4, Rang is colour, seduction, desire. Wine bowls usually had
designs, verses and patterns inside. It could also refer to shifting colours of wine in the

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cup when changing hands. Stanza 6, Ha and Hu means He- remembering God in Sama
session in a state of ecstasy and dancing. Ahram is special pilgrim dress seamless after
donning of which other worldly acts of routine become unlawful. But donning such dress
without pre-wash and ablution is also unlawful, not permitted. Hafiz has used the word
as pun.

45. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, with the ease of its delights, the world has bound a
thousand heart-possessors, shattered their wing and made them distraught. Alas! a
thousand men of wisdom have, by this mean world, become distraught. Stanza 3, my
beloved showed eyebrow only, face appeared then it went in hiding, I am getting
distraught by this. Stanza 4,
Saki is fate or a connection between Desired and desirer and wine is mysteries. Lord has
created many colours in this worlds pumpkin (globe). Many types of animals, plants, etc
with multiple colours, shapes, styles, forms and tastes. Stanza 5 relates to the ASRA
night (Ascension) of Prophet SAW to heavens when God- the Almighty, with His own
tongue, imparted to Muhammad SAW, thousands of precepts fit to be uttered and forms
of forms to be concealed and with them filled Muhammad SAWs heart, saying: Utter
that is fit to be uttered, conceal that is fit to be concealed. Notwithstanding his eloquence,
he revealed no mystery of mysteries that dwelt in his heart. ( he who
knoweth God his tongue is dumb). Stanza 6, Sama is the hearing of a pleasant sound that
brings into motion the hearer. When the motion is modulated, it is called Raqs
(dancing); when not modulated, it is called Iztrab ( agitation). If in Sama , a
state of ecstasy (Wajd )is involuntary (not like a sinner), Sama is lawful otherwise
unlawful. Lovers of God are all Mast va Bekhud (intoxicated and out of self-control).
Sama is lawful to one whom the sound of harp or shutting of door seems same in terms
of giving pleasure. Here, singer has stirred a song that the normal Hu and Hi has even
stopped by those who came into trance Wajd. Stanza 8 has terms which come from
Muslim pilgrimage performed in the last month of the Islamic calendar in Makkah.
Ahram is a white, two-piece of un-sewed cloth, one piece tied around the loin and other
one put on shoulders and Tawaf Baitullah is circumambulation around
Kaaba. In this stanza, Hafiz says that the one who wants to attain aim without struggle
can not succeed.

Despite being a believer in JABR (see spiritual context of ode 42), Hafiz says that one
should not become inactive. This is against the Quranic teachings. A man should always
exert ( )irrespective of results or outcome. ( Quran, Surah Najm
53, Verse 39) Translation: And that man hath only that for which he maketh effort.

46. In Beloveds Bondage



As Lord, your heart-ravishing eyebrow did create
Getting my desire, in yr fetching glances He put (1)


Me and the garden cypress were thrown to dust
As He wove narcissus-brocade and yr garment (2)
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Peace of my heart or of garden-bird's heart went
Two hearts at morn time, assignd to your lament (3)


My problem resolvd, rose bud opend, eased knot
When morn breeze tied our heart to your thought (4)


Given to yr bondage by the firmament, Im content
But what gain? This threads end is tied to yr assent (5)


Apply not a knot, like musk-pod on my poor heart
My covenant with yr knot-solving tress stays intact (6)


Ye were another life, union-hour! (worth no trust
How mistaken was I, fidelity from ye I did expect (7)


Someday relief will attain from your breeze waft
And blossom all hearts which fell for ye infatuate (8)


By torture at his hands, I said; "your town Ill quit"
Smilingly he retortd, "go Hafiz! who tied your feet" (9)

46. Explanatory Notes: Sheikh Abu Ishaq and Shah Shuja had distinguished poets in
their court who recited Qaseedahs (elegies) for them. Such poetry is available in
Deewans of poets like Ubaid Zakani and Khuwaju Kirmani. Hafiz was capable of saying
Qaseedahs (elegies) as is evident in his specimen about Shah Mansoor. But Hafiz chose
ode (Ghazal) pattern for his expression, to do both objectives, praise of Shah or even a
grievance or complaint, on account of his profligate nature. He knew that rulers would
keep changing so he did praise rulers in ode form, knowing that ardent lovers of Ghazal
will read them more readily in the days ahead. This ode is both, a praise of Shah Shuja as
a lover showing his heart pain as is also a grievance. Stanza 1 is Shujas beauty,
eloquence and favours to Hafiz. Stanza 2, your accession to throne led to many aspirants
bowing their heads down. Stanza 3 & 4, a favourable wind blows under your banner we
surrender but we need your patronage too. Stanzas 5 & 7 refer to hearts covenant of
fidelity then same stanza 4 content that initially you were kind but I was mistaken. Last

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stanza says that one day I gestured that youre not giving heed and due appreciation to
my verses, I shall go into exile and you said be off- free you are. It shows rivals and
jealous ones were in constant act to bring a bad blood between Hafiz and Shah Shuja.

46. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, from eternity which has no beginning, my attachment is
with you. Stanza 2, Nargiseen is a type of cloth. Apparently, Hafiz sent this ode to a
friend in a distant country whom he had not for a long time seen. Some say that he sent it
to Sultan of the Bahman dynasty who desired to see him. Stanza 4, morn breeze opens
knots but it also opens the knot from the lovers heart. Since it crossed beloveds path, it
brought along beloveds tress waft. See also Stanza 8 of this ode. Last stanza, of course,
sweetheart says go no one has tied your feet. The point worth attention is the fact that
despite not being tied physically by feet, a lover always feels hands or feet tied at the
sweethearts door. That is why beloved tortures him by saying these words with a smile.

47. Ever Inebriate



These days if there is any friend sans defect
It is flagon of pure wine and Ghazals booklet (1)


Walk alone, the passage of comfort is too tight
Get a goblet, this dear life is without substitute (2)


Sad though I am at my idle ways, sans any act
Scholars of knowledge sans practice; so regret (3)


Cast careful look, this passage is full of tumult
Worldly business is untenable and so transient (4)


To see yr face, how high hoped my heart
Deaths dacoit is in ambush, it does await (5)


Hold the tress of moon-face, dont tell anecdote
That fortune or bad luck is Venus, Saturns effect (6)


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If someones fate is decreed dark at the outset
Can never turn white, proverbially they narrate (7)


Every foundation that you see, will deteriorate
Foundation of love however, is free from defect (8)


In no hour hell be seen in a state of being alert
For our Hafiz, from eternal wine is ever inebriate (9)

47. Sharah Jalalian: Many of Hafizs odes reflect hopelessness and melancholy. This
ode also seems from the worst times in Hafizs life, following the assassination of Shah
Abu Ishaq until the advent of Shah Shuja. Such odes refer to transient and mundane
nature of the world, suggesting to avail of the present happy times and practicing a
carefree attitude. Contents of the ode indicate that Hafiz had good knowledge of
astrology and stars. Stanza 6 talks of lucky and ominous stars. In old days, they believed
that good luck came from two stars at the juncture of 22 nd station in moons stages and
bad luck was related to Mars and Saturn. Poet refers to 365 day rotation of earth around
the sun. Azzalis ( Zarwanians) held the belief that rotating planets were doing their
duty from eternity hence called Azzalis. Last Stanza, Hafiz says that in any cycle of
years, he will remain intoxicated from eternal wines effect. He uses extra pronoun (our
Hafiz) in the last stanza for the sake of beauty and better understanding of the verse.

47. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1,


Stanza 2, increase not relations, go ahead without a companion, spend time happily.
Stanza 3, Hafiz says that not alone me is sad on shortage of good deeds but those who
call themselves as scholars are also without action and this is the cause of their
condemnation. Hafiz reveals his own failure to reach the perfection of ecstasy; You we
recognized not as was due to You. Clarke has given a lengthy discussion about the virtue
of acquiring divine knowledge but also its limitations. As it has been likened to milk. As
long as milk is in its own milky state it is sweet and good. But knowledge can become a
barrier between God and the seeker, by way of arrogance as happened to Satan.
Malamati group advocates that learning knowledge , vanity and pride become
skirt-seizer and the capital of egotism and self-seeing enters him. When the sage learns
the common mans state, he says; Knowledge is the evil (in mans path) to the Great
God- Would that I had been a common man. The Ummi ( not-seminary-taught or not
formally literate). Prophet Muhammad SAW without knowledge reached to where he
reached, a lofty stage. Musa A.S. with the quality of knowledge, gave four replies to one
question from God (Quran Surah Taha 20, Verse17-18)
And what is that in thy right hand, O Moses?


He said: This is my staff

whereon I lean, and wherewith I bear down branches for my sheep, and wherein I find
other uses. Then God said; You shall never see me.

Although the Sage is known to God, the common man unknown, it is the work of Gods
favour, the rest is the pretence. Whom fate and destiny call even if he is in sleep, they
arouse, whom they call not, though he be at the door, they drive away.

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Stanza 4, Stanza 5,
hope of union I hold but life is not trustworthy. Death is a highway robber for the
caravan of hopes.
-
Khaqani says:

Stanza 6, fortune from Venus and misfortune from Saturn. Quit these tales that good or
bad luck comes from Venus or Saturn because the entire authority is in beloveds tress
and radiant face. Get hold of these two and become free from tales of good or bad stars
and their effects. ( is dark tress) which is on the head (of the beloved) brought as
antidote to the ill fate bringer Saturn which is on the 7 th heaven. ( luminous face) is
brought vis-a-vis Venus which is a bright star.
( Urfi)
Stanza 7, In Qitaa No. 575, Hafiz says:

Stanza 8, world and its contents are all mortal. Only a heart full of love will last for ever.

Last stanza, -
(See also ode 109, stanzas 9 & 11)

48. Sans friend



Ye are in thoughts, we care no more about wine
Tell wine-vat to do its own, tavern is now in ruin (1)


Sans friend, throw off even if it is wine from Eden
Whatever sweet drink you give, for me it is a pain (2)


Alas! sweetheart departed, my tearful eyes swollen
His thoughts image is writin on water; erase soon (3)


Wake up eyes! For peace is not possible to maintain
This rising flood can ruin your (eye) sleeps mansion (4)

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Before ye beloved openly walks, veil he does don
That others look not at him so covered in curtain (5)



Eversince rose saw yr face dipped in perspiration
Envious; heart-burn thus in rose-water immersion (6)


Green is the plain and the valley, let us not loosen
Hand from blue water, all the world is hallucination (7)


In hearts assembly, by yr face lit candles umpteen
Despite the fact yr face hidden under many screen (8)


Seek not space for advice in the cavity of my brain
This cell is full of the hum of the harp, Rubab tune (9)


Your path is what (sort of) path, even in veneration
Skys vast ocean is nothing but a bubble Lilliputian (10)


Without yr soothing face, O my hearts illumination!
My heart sizzles in fire as do roast Kebabs in an oven (11)


Hafiz is a lover, profligate, ogling eye; what then?
In youth span many strange things in life happen (12)
48. Sharah Jalalian: Manochahri:

Khuwaju Kirmani:

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Shah Namatullah Wali:

Saadi:

Amad Faqih:

Kamal Khojandi:

Stanza 1, ripe wine was kept in barrels, their head covered with cloth and under the
brick so that its taste did not spoil. When client came, they would lift the brick and sell it.
Poet is intoxicated by the taste of beloveds face and needs not the wine of grapes. So
better if barrel of wine remains covered under lid and brick as the tavern is without
clients. Stanza 3, in old times, they drew lines on white paper before writing in straight
lines to give symmetry and beauty. Likewise, poet writes on his weeping face, his writing
about the features, cuts and beauty spots of the beloved which get washed away by tears.
Stanza 5 is Gnosticism. Aarifs (Knowers) have a hidden eye that takes them to see the
hidden mysteries of the universe. These darlings , vis--vis the strangers and those who
in the path have not reached to eligible stages, do not lift the veil as they are Na-
Muharram (legally not eligible to see or meet). Stanza 6, as rose, under heat in a
cauldron, changes into rose-water, drop after drop. Having seen sweat drops on your
face, it has gone crazy by its regretting heart. Before Hafiz, Saadi had also touched this
rose attribute;

In the last stanza, Hafiz calls indulging in love/romanticism, profligacy and ogling
during youth as permissible things.

48. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, when the guide (the Murshid) causes the seeker to reach
the Sought, the seeker has no need to be guided. The seeker and the Sought become one.
The distraught lover Majnoon (721 A.D.) said; I am Laila, Laila is myself. We are two
souls in one body. Mirza Bedil, drunk by beloveds inebriate eye says:

Stanza 2,


Someone said:

Stanza 3, the second line may be; the fancy of a letter from Him is only the picturing of
a picture on water. There is no guarantee of an imprint on water to last long. See ode
25/7. Stanza 4, torrent shall destroy eye accommodation (blindness). Stanza 5, the
beloved is evident to the eye of vision of seekers but since He beholds strangers who
wish to pluck a rose from this rose-bed, He has cast a veil before Himself, hiding
Himself. Maulana Rumi says;
Mirza Ghalib addresses the undeserving one as follows:

Stanza 10, Absolute Beloveds existence is beyond thousand veils but the light is so
powerful that it illuminates the world from across those veils. Who can watch this light
in unveiled form.

Last stanza, not only Hafiz, every one in youth is a lover, an ogler. Saadi says:

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An Urdu poet said:

49. Sakis endowment



Now that rose-palm has the pure wine goblet
Thousand praises its nightingale does narrate (1)


Get a book of verses, head towards the desert
No use going to seminary or religious debate (2)


Shun masses and like solitary Phoenix you act
Fame of solitude-lovers is from the east to west (3)


Yesterday drunk, issued Fatwa seminary jurist
Wines illicit but better than (usurping) Trust (4)


Wine pure or dregs, youve no choice; accept!
Whatever Saki gave us is from his endowment (5)


Rivals say or comrades fancy, both so different
As differ gold-lace sewers from weavers of mat (6)


Your wise words like red gold, Hafiz! keep quiet
Watch out! Towns counterfeiter acts gold expert (7)

49. Lisanul Ghaib: Atmospherics of this ode resemble those in ode 52. The two odes
talk of spring time and drinking season, advising to avoid people because heart is
melancholic and the spirits are down during these times. Also Hafiz seems complaining
of a rival poet or colleague who might have misjudged or underestimated his odes. The
last stanza bears testimony to this. In a literary meeting where they were assessing and
evaluating poetic presentations, the man whose name, like a mat-weaver, is not known

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has been niggardly to Hafizs labour either by jealousy or narrow-mindedness or in the
weighing scale of rules and criterion. Stanza 2, Kashshaaf is famous Arabic commentary
on Quran by Jarullah Zamakhshari (1074-1143 A.D.). Reportedly Hafiz had annotated
this famous commentary book which seems to have been lost somewhere in a library in
Persia o Tashkent. Stanza 3, Anqa or Persian Seemurgh lives alone in Qaf mountains; in
Persian lore (Arabic Phoenix), Qaf is a legendary mountain that encircles the world.
Stanza 4 is a replica of Nizami in Hafte Pekar-

Likewise, stanza 6 is from Nizamis Khusro Shirin;

Hafiz himself says the same content; .

Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, a rose, after blossoming gets a cups shape. Being red in
colour it resembles the glass of wine. Stanza 2, desert is the world of love, the cause of
acquisition of love. Kashshaaf is a renowned Quran commentary by Jarullah Zamakh-
shari (b.1074, d.1144). Kashf refers to revealing mysteries. Saadi says:



In spring season, both day and night are equal (Tafawut Nakunad Le O Nahaar). Stanza
3, Phoenix (Anqa), see ode 4. One should seek seclusion like Phoenix and see how he
gets elevated and becomes popular. Stanza 4, just as in todays world, Trust properties
(bequeathed by believers in the way of God) are usurped by Trust Management, Hafiz
may have seen this practice in his times as well hence its condemnation.

(Also see ode 3/8).

Or Ode 106/4:

The jurist had this lip of tongue in the intoxicated state otherwise he would not have
done so in his senses. Stanza 5, its a matter of Qaza Va Qadr (decree of God) then be
content and strain not the hearts blood. Because God has some benefit for you in this
arrangement. (See ode 32, stanza 9). Stanza 6, a gold-stitcher (of lofty spirit) and a mat-
weaver (of mean spirit) from lack of concordance show animosity to each other. Their
company suits you not and leads you away from the path. God has severed your
connection with the stage of outward worshipper (mat-weaver) and drawn you to the
stage of Love (gold-stitcher). It also signifies that Hafizs ode craft is like Gold-stitching
compared to his jealous rivals whose work is of low quality (mat-weaver). See ode 50,
last stanza also. Stanza 7, the counterfeit money-changer may be the inferior poet who
tried to pass, as his own, the work of Hafiz. Alternately, it means that todays religious
clergy and scholars are devoid of sincerity and are outward worshippers so keep your
golden words to yourself, they will take a wrong meaning and context therefrom. In a
town where adulterers are doing exchange business or gold selling, what could be the
worth of pure gold? See next ode 50 (last stanza) also.

50. Loves Face- a Scripture

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If you call us in, this would be a great favour
If angrily expel us, still my conscience is clear )(1


Giving your description is beyond any sphere
For your description goes beyond any picture )(2


My hard-heart love! like cypress ye are arrogant
Cypress! on both sides of my face springs erupt )(3


Loves eye alone can see the face of my amour
Light of fair-faced radiates from here to there )(4


Beloveds face; from it read a verse of Scripture
It explains Kashf- Kashaf Exegesis; even better )(5


Youve the blessing of Eden, you are sans peer
Were in A'araf between heaven-n-hell; nowhere )(6


Enemy who craves to copy Hafizs poetry genre
How falcons and sparrows act, one can compare )(7

50. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1,



Saadi says:

At an other place he says:


Stanza 2, Saadi says:


(see ode 8, stanza 5). ;Prophet SAW said

120





Stanza 3, is often found by the streams side hence cypress and spring- Chashma fit well
here. Stanza 4, is a mountain range which, according to old geographers,
surrounded the globe. So one needs an eye capable of seeing the beloved. Otherwise His
illuminating faces brilliance is spread in the entire world. One should create love in
heart, vision would follow automatically. Jalal says:

Stanza 5, a lover needs nothing else but beloveds sight only which reveals to him all
secrets and mysteries. Just learning few Quranic verses or religious lessons cant make
one a perfect man. Divine love requires exertion so that a capability to see the True Light
is attained. Quran says; ( Quran, Surah Ankaboot 29, Verse
69) Translation: As for those who strive in Us, We surely guide them to Our paths.
And this exertion lets the lover attain the Vision ( Surah Al-Noor 24,
Verse 35) Translation: Allah guideth unto His light whom He will. Gulshan Raz
rightly says:

Another poet Hassan says:

Stanza 5, Kashshaaf is famous Arabic commentary on Quran by Zamakhshari (1074-
1143 A.D.). Stanza 6, Aaraaf is a place in the world hereafter which shall be the abode
of those whose sins and good deeds are balancing so that they qualify neither for the
heaven nor for the hell. Last Stanza 7, Huma (Falcon) is a good-figured, auspicious
bird. It is a bird of luck and one becomes a king or achieves best luck when a shadow of
Huma (Falcon) falls upon him. ( Swallow) is a boasting bird, unmatchable to
Falcon. It appears in spring, creates nest in homes, faces not humans, fears bats and
lightning and also shivers. ( means loss of sight at lightning). There is an anecdote
to this ode. They say that Hafiz had a beloved. A rival also fancied for this lady. Since the
lady was inclined more towards Hafiz for eloquence of his verses, the rival also learned
the art and started sitting in poets company. This reduced the ladys attention from Hafiz
and instead, she oriented herself towards the rival. Hafiz came to know this and
addressed to her this ode.
51. Friend is Clairvoyant



A solitude-seeker needs no any entertainment
As friend's alley is there, why go to the desert (1)


By that desire, you have with God, Sweetheart!
Please ask us at some time, whats our request (2)

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King of beauty! For Gods sake, we are burnt
Ascertain what is the beggar's desire ultimate (3)


We are needy ones yet our lips utter no request
No need to open mouth, yr court is beneficent (4)


If you attempt for our life, no need for a pretext
All is yr booty; by force no need to appropriate (5)


Like Jams globe-view cup, friend is clairvoyant
Why express need, theres no such requirement (6)


Gone are days seaman's mercy I used to solicit
Once jewel is gained, of ocean theres no quest (7)


Be off, we need you no more, O complainant
As friends are there, no need of an opponent (8)


O beggar lover! Loves soul-sooth lip is present
Knows your right, theres no need for a contest (9)


Hafiz! End up yr verse, let skill become evident
With contender is no need to quarrel or dispute (10)
51. Sharah Jalalian: Stanza 1 requires full attention to the objective and the theme of
this ode. Attention is needed to look into complaints and grievances which have been
repeated in different ways in same atmospherics of these odes. Some words require a key
to get to the hidden meanings. Probing them and their comprehension can lead to
understand the target aim of the poet. At times, it is possible that none of these mentioned
points are open to our understanding. This occurs when poet himself has uttered the
meaning and intent of his verses in a secretive manner, giving no one entry into its
exposure. It appears that this ode was said in Shah Shujas times, during an interlude
when he was not well-off financially or expecting more of stipend and his repeated

122
requests in this regard have not been attended to. This resulted in his seclusion from the
centers of power that be.

Stanza 6, Jams globe-showing cup was, like Alexanders legendary mirror, possessed
by Jamshid in which he could look into the things of the past, present and those to
happen in future. Stanza 7, a reference to the pearl fishers of the Persian Gulf.

51. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1,( from Arabic word means to walk with friends,
loiter around) hence it means to see a spectacle or entertaining scene, event. A secluded
man should close eyes and meditate in beloveds thoughts. When friends corner is
available, no need to traverse deserts. Bedil says:

Stanza 2, Saadi says:

He also said;

Prophet Muhammad SAW said; ( God is not Merciful to those


who are not kind to men). ( He who is in fulfilling his
fellow brothers needs, Allah does fulfill his own needs), or
( Creatures are Gods family. So he who is good to Gods family is
closer to God). Stanza 4, we are in need but do not ask because, in Beneficents court,
there is no need to demand.

Stanza 5, life is your grant so my heart or soul if you need , its yours, no need to
plunder or snatch it. - ( Urfi).
Stanza 4, no need to express the needs before the beloved. His conscience knows the
inner desires of lovers acting as a Jam e jam.

Stanza 5, this life is your endowment; you can get it back anytime without contest or
bloodshed.

Stanza 7, once pearl is obtained, destination achieved, no need of diver or guide.
He who relies on God even seeks not favour of the boatman in the middle of sea.

Malah (boatman) signifies the Love or Murshid of Love and gawhar (jewel) is
divine knowledge. Passed is the tie when between you and me was mediator to whom I
represented my state and whose load I bore on my head. Now I have attained your
audience with your grace, I directly seek my answer, by representing myself. Prophet
Muhammad SAW said; At the time when I am with God, I hear neither those angels
near to God nor those Prophets sent to earth by God. Of all, I am indifferent (Even angel
Gabriel had no access to him when he was with God.).

52. Shunning the World



Garden court joy-giver, friends' company is sweet
Happy spring time, by it drinkers' times pleasant (1)

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By breeze is my souls happiness each minute
Sweet-breath waft of belovds lovers is fragrant (2)


Rose opend not its veil, now it wants to depart
Cry nightingale! wail of heart-broken does befit (3)


Good news for night-singing bird, in love's tract
Friend is happy as lovers keep vigil; cry at night (4)


Therere hardly any cheers in the world market
Profligacy or fast playing method is appropriate (5)


From lily's mouth, my ears overheard this fact
In this old abode, light-weight manage prompt (6)


Hafiz! shunning the world can lead to comfort
Deem not the state of worldly rich as exquisite (7)

52. Sharah Jalalian: Stanza 1, in Jalalians version is Subhe Bustan ( morning


of garden and not the Sahne Bustan or court of garden). This ode was written
after Shah Abu Ishaqs assassination, in a state of disillusionment when Hafiz is fully
disappointed. He takes refuge in wine and travels with same-flock friends. After praising
friends company in stanza 1, he touches Shah Abu Ishaqs murder in stanza 3. He says
that the flower had not blossomed when it exhausted. Its a time of wail and cry. A
reference to spring and drink in the first stanza, soon followed by a sudden death of rose
shows that the poet in a short ode, tells of his hearts pain, beginning with wine and
friends company. 3rd stanza tells of his inner pain. Later stanzas carry sense of
hopelessness, his giving up of night vigil and wail and not being happy in this world. He
talks of life enjoyed by cunning and the strides of light-weighted ones. Last stanza is a
reference to Amir Mubarizuddin which tells that the state of worldly people is even
worse than those who have severed their attachments with the mundane.

52. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, garden-court (Sahne Bustan) is the field of this world, for
sowing for the next world. In the non-existing world, soul had a union with the Sought,
but when into this world it came, it realized the worth of (earlier) union. This world now
becomes a (sowing) field for the next. Murshids presence is the spring time. Hafiz often
talks of garden, friends company and spring time (See such thoughts in ode 17, ode 55/1;

124
also ode 43/1, entire ode 17 and ode 524/1). Stanza 2, breeze is also a lover of our
beloved, hence it is fragrant. When it brings the fragrance of perfumed tress of our
beloved, our brains too enjoy the odour. It means that lovers of Truth lend happiness to
heart and soul when they are met and whatever comes from the friends end gives
pleasure to the lover. Stanza 3, nightingale is holy traveler, who, from loves attractions,
is in perils. O holy traveler! Bewail, bring into wail and weeping the wounded heart of
the friend; for the plaint of the wounded-heart is effective. And the weeping of the fallen
ones is the cause of cure. Flower withers soon after blossoming but here it intends to die
before budding (see ode 32/10). Stanza 4, prayers of night-vigilant worshippers are
always accepted. Accordingly, every night-waking, sleepless lover has the good news
that his nightly cries are effective and are liked by the beloved. Stanza 5, there is not
much happiness in the world. Khayyam says:

Stanza 6, means carefree, having no concerns or worries and duties. After seeing
lily, I am convinced that as little as be the attachment with worldly things and relations,
better it is. The more light weight one is here, the easier will feel.

Sheikh Saadi has rightly said;



If we take the meaning of this stanza that light-weight, low character people are being
rewarded in todays thankless world; then one may say:

Stanza 6, ( a fast-mover, derived from which is the haphazard moves of a horse
in the race; also means a cunning person). The stanza tells that although there is not
happiness as such in the world and living happily is impossible, ,
Still, one should try to pass time with contentment and in merry. A jolly-natured man can
spend time in peace, entertaining himself and even others at any place and seems not
subdued by the daily lifes horrors. Stanza 7, shunning the world means taking things in
light-load and in light vein. The stanza conveys the same thought as in the previous
stanza.

According to Wilberforce Clarkes commentary, Hafiz wrote this ode at the time of
sickness of his Murshid (his approaching death) and expressed regret at his own non-
acquisition of the object. Probably, stanza 3 could bear testimony to this conjecture.

53. Cri de Coeur



God! heart-illuminating candle in whose arbour?
Our soul burnt, please ask "hes whose amour? (1)

125
Now to my faith-n-heart, he attacks as a robber
For whom his embrace, with whom co-dweller? (2)


His ruby-lip wine from my lip may be it not far
Whose soul's comfort he is or whose cup filler? (3)


That lucky candle's company, a great treasure
Ask, for God's sake, which moth does share? (4)


All attempt sorcery to win him yet its not clear
His delicate heart, is inclined for which thriller? (5)


God! Hes kingly, moon-lit, Venus forehead bearer
An only pearl, a unique jewel, whos the owner? (6)


Hes ruby wine, sans drink soiled my character
With whom is co-sitter, cup-filler, drink-sharer? (7)


I said: crazy is Hafizs heart sans ye, in cri de coeur
For whom is he mad, with nave smile hed enquire (8)
53. Sharah Jalalian: Nasir Bukharai:

This ode is romantic, without any double entendre and reflects the spirit of poet and his
ideas and thoughts about beauty that is inaccessible that has been poeticized. It is
probable that in the lines of Nasir Bukharai and to add his own powerful fancy of flight,
a sensational ode has been brought with force.

Spiritual Context: Stanza 1, Hafiz wrote this ode at the start of his loves beginning
(possibly for Shakh e Nabaat- branch of candy). Stanza 3, the ruby wine may signify
glories which with complete beauty, come not into view. Stanza 4, every one is in
demand of him but it is not known whom he loves.

Stanza 8, beloved naively says that I do not know Hafiz is crazy in whose love. A singer
is made to utter a sigh from the love-smitten heart of Hafiz in response to which the
sought after patron smirkingly asks: Who Hafiz is crazy for?
126

54. Morning Wail, Midnight Supplication



Showing skill before the beloved, it is disdain
Eloquent in Arabic, yet silence is better option (1)


Fairy hides face, demon displays ostentation
Burnd at this non-sense is the baffled reason (2)


Ask not why evil-doers bestowed by heaven
Goal they attain, it has pretext but no reason (3)


No one plucked thornless rose in this garden
Prophets lamp, Bulahab's flame had to contain (4)


I buy not at half grain, monastery-arch or inn
Tavern my palace, curved pitcher my pavilion (5)


Grape-daughters beauty is my eyes vision
Covered is in crystal veil and grape curtain (6)


Khaja! in sense behave I with manners, reason
Now inebriate, this invites for some dereliction (7)


Basri Hasan, Bilal Abysinian, Suhaib Syrian
Lo! from Makkah soil enemy Abujahl grown (8)

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From that exhilarating drink seek cure of pain
Found in the Chinese vial and Halab's flagon (9)


Give wine, like Hafiz Im in constant contrition
Through morning wail-n-midnight supplication (10)

54. Sharah Jalalian: Stanza1, Jalalian says Arze Adab (Not Arze Hunr - show
of skill). Ode from Shah Shujas times. Shuja was a learned man, knew Quran by heart,
and had command to utter verses; both in Arabic and Persian. He admits that unlike other
court poets, he deems not appropriate to utter verses of praise in Arabic and explains
Shahs Arabic poetry skills. Such acts are of the outwardly, low-natured sycophant poets
who were not appreciative of Hafizs due stature. Stanza 1, being Hafiz e Quran
(Knower of entire Quran by heart), the poet was well versed in Arabic. Stanzas 3 & 4,
he consoles himself that roses are always surrounded by thorns, as were the Prophets by
antagonists. This sphere, without any reason, awards high offices to ineligible ones. Abu
Lahab was Prophet SAWs uncle (Actual name Abdul Uzza). He was a die-hard
opponent of the Prophet SAW. In Quran is chapter (111) about him:








Perish the hands of the Father of Flame! Perish he! No profit to him from all his wealth,
and all his gains! Burnt soon will he be in a Fire of Blazing Flame! His wife shall carry
the (crackling) wood - As fuel!- A twisted rope of palm-leaf fibre round her (own) neck!

Stanza 5 is his usual indifference and how esteemed is tavern to him than paintings and
drawing-decorating a monastery or Sufis inn. Stanza 6, grapes-daughter (Persian.
Dukhtar e Riz ) is Arabic Bintul Inab or wine- a term used frequently in
his odes. Here, he calls it as eyes vision (Noor Chashm ) . This Noor Chashm is
used in Persian, as ones own, dear son. It also means that wine is our eyes light which
lies in our eyes glassy layer. Stanza 7, until in senses I was most well-mannered. In the
ultimate stages of love, distance between lover and beloved is reduced, mannerism is
gone. Rumi says:

Stanza 8 gives excuse of intoxication and admits that he should not say what he says but
he may please be excused. Last stanza, see ode 42/2 for morning wail.

54. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, we are silent not because we cant utter anything. It is
respect for the beloved that keeps us mum.

Stanza 2, demon signifies the desire of lust, rejected in the court of God. God said;
Verily who are my slaves, over them you (Shaitan) shall never rule. Many incidents
occur in daily life where reason and logic are stunned. Bad ones are respected and in
repute , good ones stay in low profile. Stanza 3, same theme as in previous stanza.
-

Sheikh Saadi says:

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Stanza 4, Abu Lahab (d. 624) was Prophet Muhammad SAWs uncle. He was one of
bitterest enemies of Islam and the Prophet SAW. (See Quran, Surah Masad 111). Stanza
5, monastery arch or inn (Khaneqah va Ribat) are the places of religious men, with
devouts around. Against dry worship, Hafiz holds in esteem Divine love. Stanza 6, glass
(zujaj) and grape (inab) are also the names of eye layers because eye is a replica of single
grape piece and glass. Stanza 7, Halab (or Aleppo is a town in Syria, a great east-west
entrepot city under the Mamluks from 13-16 century export quality glass brought there
from other countries). Chinese flagon and Halabs glass goblet ( )
were afterall world-renowned. Stanza 8, at the height of love, formalities between lover
and beloved are obliterated. See Rumis verse above. Stanza 9, Hassan Basri Khuwaja
(b. 642, d. 728) was a renowned pious, God-fearing Muslim scholar, noted for self-
mortification and devotion. Bilal of Habsha (Abysinian, d. 641) was an African, freed
slave who was the official Muazzin (Prayer-caller for five times a day) because of his
sweet voice. Suhaib, a native of Mosul, educated at Constantinople came to Makkah,
gained freedom and embraced Islam and in 622, quit Makkah and his properties there,
joining Prophet SAWs emigrants camp. Abu Jahl (d. 624) was an inveterate enemy of
Prophet Muhammad SAW. (See Quran Surah YaSin 36, verse 8). It means while people
from far off areas came to embrace Islam, Abu Jahal, a Makkan could not see the light
and died as unbeliever. Last stanza, Hafizs repentance is to wail in the morning and beg
with humility in the mid-night (see ode 42, stanza 2).

55. Kauthar vi-a-vis the Worldly Goblet



Now weve luxury, spring time, garden, sweetheart
Where is Saki? Ask him, what is the reason of wait (1)


Whatever time pleasant ye gain, avail it you must
No one has information, what is the end ultimate (2)


Life's knot is attached to one single hair, be alert!
Be self-soother! Worrying about the worlds waste (3)


Meaning of life-water (nectar), Iram paradise-tract
Is nothing else but a river-bank and wine pleasant (4)


One austere, other profligate, both frm same caste
We powerless, on whose coquetry we let our heart (5)

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Secrets beyond veil, ask from inebriate profligate
Why you argue with veil-bearer, O Complainant! (6)


Mistake or blunder of the slave, if Ye dont accept
Then whats the mercy from God Compassionate (7)


Zahid seeks Kauthar, Hafiz worldly wines goblet
Lets see for the two, what desires the Omnipotent (8)
55. Sharah Jalalian: Ohadi Maraghai says:

Hafiz had come under Khayyams (Omar) influence about life, after seeing its unstable
and short span. Initial four stanzas repeat this theme-a subject that matured with the
passage of time that he said;
Stanza 4, legend has it that Iram was a paradise-like great city, its builder was
Shaddad bin Aad who was destroyed for his presumption. In Iran also there is a famous
garden called Bagh e Iram. Stanza 5 shows his belief in Jabri ideology (i.e. helplessness
before destiny) as was Khayyams thinking. Stanza 6 has this thing in between the lines
as is also explicit. Hafiz, a Unitarian and believer in Divine decrees, asks himself and
others in this verse; This hesitance and objection or unhappiness is for what? This all is
as if one is in dispute with and antagonism of the Creator. In stanza 7, he readily
implores Gods mercy and forgiveness. Last stanza is his clear conscience and frankness
when he says that unlike orthodox Zahid (the pious) who is in the expectation of a
Kauthar wine (a stream a paradise for those with good deeds) in the world hereafter, I
choose this grapes wine. Let us see what is the Lords treatment to us. Kauthar
(abundance) is also a chapter in Quran at no. 118.

55. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2, someone rightly said;



Also fits this verse;
Stanza 4, paradise-garden Bagh e Iram or Irams garden is actually a beautiful,
historical, flower-studded, famous garden by this name located in Shiraz. Garden of Iram
is also referred to in Quran xxxviii). God said; Iram is possessed of pillars like to which
nothing was made in cities. This stanza confirms stanza 1. Town of Aad and Aads
father was called Iram. Shaddads paradise was named Iram which was located between
Hadarmaut and Sinan. Shadad was the son of Aad who was the grandson of Iram. Iram
was the son of Sham son of Noah. Aads tribe had settled in the desert near Aden
(Yemen) and Aad started to build a fabulous city which was finished by his son Shadad.
Shadad had created a wonderful garden around this palace which he thought will rival
the garden of paradise. After it was completed, Shadad came out to visit it but a great
sound destroyed it when he reached near it. It is said that ruins of this garden still exist
near Aden. Hafiz takes wine and river bank as life water near Iram Garden. Stanza 5,
Veiled (Mastori) refers to Abid and Zahid ( worshipper, austere) and intoxicated (Mast)
who all are seekers of God. Hafiz wrote this ode at the beginning of state (haal) when

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initial perturbations appeared to him which later continued till the end. Men of
discernment say; Those who are near to God have more perturbation. Even Quran says;
( Of Gods men, the most fearing are those who are the most
learned ones). Stanza 6, veil-holder is revolving sky. O claimant! Your contention with
the sky is what? And wherewith you come into opposition i.e. sky did so and so and
brought not forth my desire. Worshipping Zahids know not the internal affairs, they are
only veil-holders. The secret lies with intoxicated lovers. This theme also appears in ode
4, stanza 7. Stanza 7, Prophet SAW said; ( Allah will
overlook mistakes and omissions of my Ummah). If our acts would determine our
salvation in the world hereafter then whats the meaning of His being the Most
beneficent, the Most Merciful. Khayyam says;

Nizami Ganjawi says;
Then Omar Khayyam added his voice;


Stanza 8, lets see whom God prefers, the Zahid or Hafiz. Zahid wants Kauthar drink
which is a stream in paradise but we want a wine cup to see the reflection in it of our
beloved. (see also ode 3, stanza 2).

56. Grief of Separation



It's a week, my moon left the town, a year I reckon
You know not parting pain, so bad is the situation (1)


My eye pupil, in his mirror-like face, saw reflection
Assumed it is musky mole on beloveds face skin (2)


Milk still oozes from candy-lips, appears little one
Though in coquetry, each eyelash is an assassin (4)


Ye, in the entire town for yr generosity well-known
Bravo! for us poor lot, why such negligence shown (3)


I doubt no more that essence which is sans division
Your mouth (small-n-fresh) itself the best indication (5)

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Good news weve got, he is to pass by our region
Change not your good intention, its a good omen (6)


How bear this mountain heap of separation pain
Exhausted Hafiz in wail, like reed his body is thin (7)

56. Sharah Jalalian: Hafiz had many odes where he had two meanings; one apparent,
other in between the lines. Hafiz knew the worth of his versatile verses. Almost each ode
has a few stanzas carrying dual meaning wherein he tries to have beautiful, romantic
contents, free of sycophancy and begging. Identifying these couple of stanzas in some
odes sheds light on the background behind composition of the ode, the intent of the poet
and ultimately probing the inner sense of him. Since Hafizs odes lack a chronological
record, deciphering these dual meanings can lead to their timing of original composition
as also to the historical facts and age of Hafiz. This ode is very beautiful one, leaving no
doubt for a true lover. In its true spirit, it refers to the journey on which Shah Mansour
went. Stanza 2 refers to his mole in a lovely description. Stanza 4 has indirect reference
to indifference of Shah after having praised him for his favours on a universal scale.
Stanza 6, he announces that that Shah Mansour will be back to Shiraz. The whole idea
behind the ode was to convey the contents of stanza 4 to the Shah in a velvet glove-
wrapping in a beautiful ode pattern.

Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2, mole and eye pupil are similar in colour and shape. If the
world is a mirror, then whatever one sees is a reflection of ones own thoughts.
According to Barkley, whatever one sees or feels is a sensation in ones brains only, no
matter thing exists. Also human brain and soul are a reflection of that Great Existence, a
concept of Stanza 5, Jauhar e Fard signifies a jewel which on
account of its exceeding smallness cannot be divided. Muslim sages, according to
Clarke, deny that such a jewel exists. Geometrically, point is an insignificant thing
without length or breadth and almost indivisible. Hafiz says, earlier he doubted that
there could be a unique jewel or indivisible point but after seeing your slim mouth, I
admit its existence. Also see ode 25, stanza 7 about beloveds mouth. Last line of stanza
7 conveys; like the fibre that, at the time of mending a reed-pen, comes forth from the
reed (something equating to the fibres that come out from a sharpener after sharpening a
lead pencils nib).

57. Ombudsman is a Tease




Though wine pleases, rose-scented is the breeze
Drink not openly by lute, Ombudsman is a tease (1)

132
If wine-flagon and friend you happen to seize
Drink in sense, for the days are of great unease (2)


Hide cup in the sleeve of cloak, dont it expose
Like flask-mouth, in the world blood bath flows (3)


Wash yr robe with tears, wine stains thus erase
It is the period of piety and abstinence nowadays (4)


High heaven is a sieve, only blood it does ooze
It's outpour is crown of Kisra and cap of Pervez (5)


From this reverse-revolving sky seek no ease
In it's curved flask, all is dregs, no pure booze (6)


Divine light for those who at night in God praise
In night-vigil who hands in supplication do raise (7)


Hafiz seized Iraq, Persia by his poetry-n-prose
Come! now is time to conquer Baghdad, Tabriz (8)

57. Sharah Jalalian: Shah Shuja says:




Stanza 1, this comes from early years of Amir Mubarizuddun Muzaffar who was after
breaking wine-cups and closing down tavern joints. His son, Shah Shuja, on the other
hand, was not agreeable to fathers such conduct and titled him as Muhtasib
(Ombudsman). Hafiz always used this title for Mubarizuddin. As was his practice of
double entendre, Hafiz uses the word tease (Tez) for Muhtasib which also belittles the
person to whom it is applied here. Hiding the cup in cloaks sleeve (Stanza 3) is used as
in those days, Sufis wore long cloak with wide sleeves and used to keep things within
their sleeves. A sarcastic tinge in washing of patched robe.

Stanza 4, when its time of apparent austerity and piety, we too are forced to wash our
robe by tears to remove wine stains and spots. Stanza 5, a clue to rotating sky, saying if a
certain state of affairs remained not for long, this existing situation would also not
continue for ever. From last stanza, it appears that Hafiz, during his middle age times,

133
had become renowned in Iraq and Persia for his verses (Hafiz even thought highly of his
verses which uttered the angels in the skies, see last stanza of ode 132). In his mind, he is
aware of his influence on an entire region and undoubtedly, Hafiz still occupies a
prominent place not in Persia or the Arabian Peninsula but also in the Pakistan-India sub-
continent. First Stanza comes from Nizami Ganjawis Laila Majnoon;

Stanza 5 also comes from Nizami who says in his Sharafnama;



Last Stanza, compared to Muzaffarids of Shiraz, Jalayarids patronized arts and poetry,
were more liberal. Hafiz is threatening to accept/desire to quit Muzaffarid patronage for
the Jalayarids.

57. Lisanul Ghaib: Hafiz refers this closure of taverns at other places. See ode 17,
stanzas 5, 6 & 7. Stanza 1, although love gives delight, Murshid (Bad) is swift in
explaining divine knowledge, secretly drink the cup of love and spread not its mysteries,
lest the concealers of mysteries call you atheist and infidel. Stanza 2, if from union with
the true Beloved, ecstasy and intoxication occur, strive with reason and sense and fear
times tumult, for contrary to the Shareeah, nothing appears. Time is tumultuous and the
gibbet of followers of Hussain Bin Mansour Hallaj is fierce. God forbid if one of such
mysteries is revealed to you as happened to Hallaj.
Amir Minaee says:

Stanza 3, conceal your love in the garment of patience. Divulge nothing or punishment
of Shariah will befall you. From you issues something (word or deed) which befits not
Shariah. People of the times shed blood like flagon eye oozes red wine. Concealers of
mysteries are in strife and pass none by them lest he should bring into revelation the
mysteries of love.

Urdu poet Zoq also said a quatrain on this;
-

Stanza 4, for divulging loves mysteries involuntarily, this tinged the colour of our
religious robe, we wash this robe with penitential tears and seek escape from that
suspicion. It is the season of austerity, not of strife (against Gods commands). Stanza 5,
Kisra signifies Cyrus, a title of the Sassanid Kings. Pervez (ruled from 590 AD till death
in 628 AD), full name Khusru Pervez. is sieve and was King Noshervans
son. Meaning of the stanza is advisory i.e. sky had bled many a Kisra and Pervez. Stanza
7, Irak, Faras (Persia), Baghdad (capital of Irak) and Tabriz (in West Iran, a Turkic-
speaking province bordering Turkey and Azerbaijan) are towns/countries as well as the
names of musical notes. Iraq then included central and west Iran and Mesopotamia. Fars
was his native Shiraz. Baghdad and Tabriz were the winter and summer capitals of
Jalayarid Kings (1336-1411 AD) who were contemporaries of Muzaffarids if Fars (1313-
1357 AD). Last Stanza signifies as follows: O Hafiz! Since you have turned into the
path of love and traveled some of the stages or degrees (4 stages namely; Shareeat or
religious Muslim law, Tareeqat or the Path, Haqeeqat or the Truth and Maarifat or the
Divine Knowledge), sit not at rest; for long is the path and endless are the stages. When
Nadir Shah was at war with Afghanistan, he visited Hafizs tomb and cast an omen (faal)
from Divan, stanza 7 came out which he took in his favour. Accordingly, he attacked
Baghdad and Tabriz and rescued them from the Turks. Encouraged he took another faal.
This time it said (Ode 111/1):

134

They say that this divine indication prompted Nadir Shah to rebuild the tomb of Hafiz in
a befitting and stylish shape. Another explanation says that Baghdads ruler Sultan
Ahmad bin Owais was a poet and appreciated people of wordcraft. He invited Hafiz
many a times to Baghdad but Hafiz could never quit Shiraz.

Anecdote One from Mahdi Akhwan: Shuja had some courtiers who were seeking
opportunity create rift between Hafiz and the King. He asked in one of sessions from
Hafiz who was being referred in Hafizs this ode (Stanza 1) as Muhtasib and what
bloodshed as indicated in Stanza 3. Hafiz knew that Muhtasib was the title
earned by Shujas father Amir Mubarizuddin Muhammad for his dictatorial approach,
severe punishments for drinkers when he had also closed down the taverns. Hafiz said
that he meant from Muhtasib exactly what Abul Fawaris Shuja e Zaman (Shah Shuja)
himself had said in one of his famous quatrains which he then read:


Shuja smiled at this and never talked about this issue again. The reply also shut up the
envious lot. (Majalisul Ushaq)

Anecdote Two: Shah Abbas II of Safavid dynasty wanted to attack Tabriz. He drew faal
and the last stanza of this ode came out. He went ahead and conquered the town.

58. Loves subtleties so difficult



Wail nightingale! if for my amity your intent
Our job is bemoaning, we both lovers ardent (1)


Land where beloveds tress whips air current
How will dare Tatari muskpod in that habitat (2)


Bring wine, so that we color the robe of deceit
We drank arrogance-cup yet claim as intelligent (3)


Craze for yr tress, not every immature to covet
Walkin under chains (death) is act of great tact (4)


Wherefrom love arises is a subtlety so secret
Not just ruby lip or nascent hair of adolescent (5)

135


Eye, hair, cheek or mole not the sole attribute
In this task of amour, many a thousand aspect (6)


Path-knowing Qalandars at half grain buy not
Satin coat of someone, if devoid of any talent (7)


Of course, reaching yr pavilion is task difficult
Very difficult toward sky-heights is the ascent (8)


Morn-hour I saw a miracle, his union I dreamt
Stages of sleep are better than the wake-up state (9)
)
( )
Get up! The door of repentance is not yet shut
Repentance from love in spring season is inept (10)


Hafiz stop it! by wail, tease no more his heart
For a durable relief is in reducing the torment (11)

58. Sharah Jalalian: Mir Kirmani:



Amad Faqih:

Stanza 1,Hafiz followed Khuwaju Kirmani in this ode. Kirmani, in his 9 stanza ode says

-
In response, Hafiz has widened the scope of Turrah Mushkeen and Khatte Zangari in
Stanza 5.

This shows his vast grip on the subject of love. In the next stanza, he says that beauty is
not only something found in eye, mole, colour or face, there are a thousand other things
that weigh in this scale. These are judged by a knowing lover (Aarif) and he then points
to one such thing in stanza 8, showing worth of satin robe devoid of talent.

136
Hafiz has been proverbial in this ode having a keen eye on the beauty of the friend,
drawing attention to his versatile, distinctive features that are bound to produce a lasting
love and in deep. Khuwaju says;

Hafiz gave a rejoinder, elevating the elegance of friends tress;

Khuwaju referred to grace and indifference of the Beloved;
-
Hafiz came forward (stanza 9);

Khuwaju had concluded his ode;

Hafiz countered ;

In Persian literature are such indications found in Qaboosnamah, Keemyaae Saadat,


Makhzanal Israr Nizami on not annoying others. Nizami says:

58. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Saadi says;



On the same pattern is:

Stanza 2, With ambergris tress there is no need of musk-pod.

Stanza 5, eye, tress, cheek, mole etc are not the things to increase beauty. When I think
deep, I find that beauty consists not in arraying of the exterior, the display of austerity
and the revealing of chastity.

Sheikh Saadi calls it a divine secret:



Stanza 6, beloveds gesture that captivates the heart of lover is a secret subtlety, not lips
or hair but any gesture or coquettish manners can attract a lover.

When Hasan Memandi was asked that Sultan Mahmood had many servants more
handsome than Ayaz, he replied (in the words of Saadi):

Stanza 7, Qalandars are those without attachment. Qalanadar Yousuf of Spain found the
order of Qalandars. He was a disciple of Haji Baktaash (d. 1361 AD). But was dismissed
for arrogance so established a Dervish order of his own, with obligation to be in constant
travels (and hatred of Baktaash and Maulavis). The title Qalandar which he assumed and
also gave to his disciples means pure gold. In allusion to their purity of heart, to their
spirituality of soul and to their exemption from all worldly contamination. The Qalandar
lives on alms, travels shoeless, and practices severest austerities to get Heavens favour.
From among Qalandars have sprung fanatics, assassins and Mahdis. See ode 36, stanza
1. As regards satin coat purchase by Qalandars (Stanza 7 content), true Qalandars never
buy such things for the price of half a grain even.
)
Last stanza, annoy not any ones heart even by a wail.
There is a Hadith: A Muslim is one from
whose tongue and hands another Muslim gets no harm. See ode 92/6 and ode 106/6.

137
59. From Tavern to Eden



O Zahid, pious-pot, slur not against the profligate
For others' sins, they ll not write in your account (1)


Good or bad Im, ye go! on yr issues concentrate
Each one to ultimately reap what he did cultivate (2)


Each one seeks beloved, be in sense or inebriate
Be mosque or synagogue, each place is love spot (3)


My head bowed before the brick of tavern gate
If plaintiff heeds not, tell him, at stone head hit (4)


What decreed on Day One, put me not disappoint
Ye know not across the veil whos right who unjust (5)


From the pavilion of piety not only I alone fell out
My father too handed over his heaven permanent (6)


If decent is yr disposition, it is a disposition great
If this is your temperament, what a temperament (7)


Count not on your (good) action, at the outset
You know not, what Creator's pen wrote in script (8)


The garden of paradise is pleasant but watch out
River bank-n-willow-shade here, avail at its best (9)
138


Hafiz! on the death day if ye can acquire goblet
Theyll take ye from tavern-alley to Eden prompt (10)

59. Sharah Jalalian: Kirmani says;



Hafiz seen in this ode in the footsteps of Khuwaju, to respond superficial Zahids who
were all opposing him. First stanza alludes to Quranic verse;


( Quran, Surah Anaam 6, Verse 164). Translation: Each soul earneth
only on its own account, nor doth any laden bear anothers load. Word pious-
figured is a sarcastic one attributed to Zahid. 2nd stanza also asks Zahid to be off, what
concern with others, look at your own self (Bash here means look at). Nizami in his
Sharafnama had earlier said;

Stanza 3 warns him; how can a Zahid prejudge the methodology of judgment by the
Lord on the Final day. In stanza 4, he apprises Zahid that anyone, sensible or mad is in
search of beloved and this does not necessarily require one to access mosque or church.
Stanza 5, comparing himself to Adam, he admits his helplessness. Stanza 6, he
confirms his viewpoint saying if you comprehend not my words, go hit your head at
grave stone. In the last stanza, Hafiz whenever you proceed to death, drink wine. Be
content that there shall be no graves pressing punishment, resurrection days torment or
scale weight. Since you are intoxicated, in trance, you shall find yourself in paradise.

59. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, ( Quran, Surah Baqarah 2, Verse


139)Translation: Ours are our works and yours your works. Allah says in Quran;

( Quran, Surah Zukhruf 43, Verse 80) Translation: but Our envoys,
present with them, do record. So no one else should be counting others faults.

Stanza 2, Quran says, ( Quran, Surah Kafiroon 109, Verse 6) Translation:
Unto you your religion and unto me my religion. Stanza 3, this stanza refers to holy
travellers arrival at one of the stages in the path when effacement is his. In all places,
from all persons, the manifestations of true Beloved God comes into his vision and out of
every act, the truly Sought (God) appears to him.
Khuwaju says;
Mulla Saeed Ashraf says:

Abul Fazl built a prayer site in Kashmir and inscribed on it:


Arif Jami says:

For Aarif every place there is God. Urfi says:


Urfi also said:

Stanza 6, Hafiz at another place says;
Stanza 7, although the garden of paradise has grace and nothing is

139
comparable to it, yet the worldly garden and the shade of willow are also to be reckoned
as plunder of this mundane world. Khuwaja Abdullah Ansari said; O Ansari! the world
is a dust-heap, whereon wise men sow, it is not a place wherein ignorant men wander.
Shah Abdul Maani in his Muqaddima Suluke Maani said; O distraught one, what is the
world? It is the illusory, truth-displaying. It is not the truth, illusory displaying. Stanza 8,
Saadi says;

At another place, Saadi said;

Stanza 9, see ode 4/6. Last stanza, Mir Wali says that readers should judge themselves
whether Hafiz wanted worldly intoxicating wine or the pure, drink of paradise called

in Quran.

60. Soaked in Sin, Heads to Heaven



Now that from garden blows the wind of heaven
Myself, sweet wine and a Houri -like companion (1)


Why not a beggar boast of kingship on this boon
His tent clouds cover, his party is on grass green (2)


Garden talks of Urdi Behesht- the spring season
He is no A'arif who quits cash (here), buys loan (3)
(Iranian calendar month)


Seek not fidelity from enemy, no light shall turn
If ye torch mosque-candle by flame of pantheon (4)


Build hearts house of wine, world plans our ruin
Bent to make bricks from our dust and skeleton (5)


Intoxicated I am, blame not my scroll full of sin
Who knows, on forehead what fate has written (6)

140


Please step not yr feet away from Hafiz's coffin
Though soaked in sin, he heads towards heaven (7)

60. Sharah Jalalian: Jalalian thinks Hafiz uttered this ode in the month of April-May
(Ordi Behesht, Iranian calendars second month when tulips grow) during his prime
years, on the plantation side by a river bank. His thoughts about life can be summed up
as follows: i) luxury, comfort, drinking in the company of beloved in the spring season;
ii) His inner vision lets him pretend his state of affairs is kingly and not less; the existing
cash (luxury) can not be exchanged for credit (the promise of paradise); iv) fully
conscious of the fact that his body will turn to dust; v) advice to others, based on his own
bitter experiences, that enemies and unworthy people will not prove loyal or come to aid,
nothing results from mirage. Given Hafizs general ideas and ignorant masses
unfavourable judgment against him, Hafiz lamented his hearts pain in the last two
stanzas; O admonisher! No man has any role in his creation, acts and deeds, we do
accept destinys decree and shall die soon. Just come along a few steps in my funeral.
Although I am a sinner in your opinion, but be known to you that I shall directly land
into paradise.

Spiritual Notes: Stanzas 1 & 2,





Stanza 3, Khayyam says;


Take the present times joy; why wait for the promised bliss of the hereafter. Revealing
of God is every where, your existence is the veil-shower (See ode 308, stanza 9).
Compare this with Hussain Bin Mansour Hallaj (d. 919); Uplift the mantle of
carelessness from the eye and display the path of unity. Be traceless of all name and
trace; That you may clearly behold the face of the Beloved (God); Every jewel (mans
existence) is for the concealing of we and I; Intoxicated it (mans existence) became
with the wine of union with the Beloved; Then, wise is not he, who passes from the view
of cash and falls into the view of credit; Aarifs have the glory of God here and the
Companions of the Exterior have the hope of tomorrow; It is necessary to move and
falling and rising (struggling) to reach the Friend (god); When veil-less Your beauty is
manifest today, in astonishment I am for What is the promise of tomorrow. Stanza 4,
Quran says; ( Surah Al-Rahman 55, Verse 26-
27) Translation: Everyone that is therein shall pass away. There remainth but the
Countenance of Thy Lord of Might and Glory

.
Stanza 5, enemy is the world and its people. Seek not fidelity from the world and its
people. Fall not in worldly pleasures. Prophet Muhammad SAW said; Abstain you from
the pleasures of hot-bath, the dust heap, and the green of its vegetation (Khadraud
Daman).Ten things can come under the green of its vegetation namely; i) a beautiful
woman of bad stock will produce bad vegetation like dust heap; ii) the world and its
rootless nature/decorations; iii) hypocrisy, sweetmeat wrapping in poison; iv)
illegitimately obtained wealth; v) advice of a fool; vi) the gift of a vile one or kindness of

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a worthless one; vii) piety of hypocrisy and of austerity; viii) Alchemy, like the
vegetation of the dust-heap, it appears pleasant, yet it gives nothing save infirmness and
speciousness, all Alchemy is false, hasten not to Alchemists, all are liars; ix) magic, for it
has no solid roots; and x) one with unusual miracle power.

Stanza 6, blame me not of bad record. Who knows what God has destined in my act-
sheet. And in the end who will have the last laugh. Last Stanza, it is well-known fact
that when Hafizs soul departed from this mortal world, some religious clergy decided
not to offer funeral prayer (like on the demise of Firdausi) on the dead before its
internment into the ground. This was because Hafiz had his entire life struggled against
outward worshipper and his verses bear testimony to their double standards. Thus,
clergy and jurists were always against him. Shah Mansoor was also among those who
had come to say final prayers. When he asked about clergys hesitance in offering final
prayers, he was told that this was because of Hafizs verses which contained profligatic
and so-called anti-Canon (Shariah) contents. Demanding a proof, Shah asked to bring
the verses of Hafiz. When the script of odes was brought, the very first page that
spontaneously came out read (last stanza of this ode):

This divine intervention silenced every one. Many a participants became enthusiastic
disciples of Hafiz. Funeral prayers were immediately offered and henceforth, Hafiz was
referred to as or the Tongue of the Hidden. From then onwards, DIWAN also
came into wide use for or drawing of oracles. This stanza also shows continuity with
preceding stanza (6).

61. Hells Horror, Paradises Pleasure




Be off Zahid! invite me not towards the heaven
God destined me not from eternity for the Eden (1)


From harvest of existence none can reap a grain
In self-efface, truth-search if one sows not a corn (2)


You- rosary, pray-mat, path of piety-n-devotion
Me- tavern, carillon, monastic mode, pantheon (3)


Pure Sufi! bar not wine, its Wise Creators vision
In eternity kneaded my body clay with pure wine (4)


This so-called pious Sufi is unworthy of heaven
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He too mortgaged against wine, his robe woolen (5)


Joy of heaven life or Hour company cant attain
The one who, the skirt of beloved, let abandon (6)
!

Hafiz! if ye are granted Gods great compassion
Be free of hells horror or paradise pleasing pun (7)

61. Spiritual Context: Stanza 1, we are lovers and our aim is the sight of beloved. We
seek not your heaven and nor are we created for it. Stanza 2, he who steps not on the
path of effacement and dies not in the way of Allah , he is spending a useless
life. Stanza 3,


Stanza 4, my body clay was mixed with wine. Creation of universe is also based on love.
Human body mixture is composed of love hence quitting love is not possible.
( Ghazali).
Ameer Minaee says:

At another place Amir says:

Stanza 6, it signifies that without friends vision, paradise is also not worth living.

Stanza 7, be free (careless of) the torment of hell; and (be free from) the happiness of
heaven.

62. Beloveds Haven




Morning breeze! where is the beloved's haven?
Where that moon, lover-kill, deceitful's pavilion? (1)


Dark night, passage falls thru valley of Aiman (Moses met God)
Wheres Tur's fire, where the promise of union? (2)


Whoever came into this world bears drink sign
Ask not if anyone in tavern bears sense, reason (3)

143


Glad tidings to one who knows frm the indication
Subtleties umpteen, no secret-sharer companion? (4)


With ye my each hair has got a thousand concern
Where stand we, wheres our condemner inane? (5)


Sense gone, Im crazy, wheres that tress chain?
Heart quit us, wheres eyebrow of our dear one? (6)


Saki, minstrel and rose, everything to us given
But no joy sans friend, where is the companion? (7)


From the dishevelled tresses, please ask again
This wretched heart engaged where? forlorn (8)


Fatigued lover burnt, by pain of your separation
You even ask not where is that grief-sharing fan (9)


My heart tired of cloister and Sheikh's pavilion
Where the fire-worshipping lad, where a tavern? (10)


Hafiz! worry not of autumn air in worlds garden
Think rationally, where is a flower without thorn? (11)

62. Sharah Jalalian: In 754 A.H. Shiraz came under Amir Mubarizuddins siege and
Shah Sheikh Abu Ishaq fled. After getting help from Sheikh Hassan Elkani, he attempted
a recovery but failed again and got refuge in Isfahan until he was arrested and killed by
Amir Mubarizuddin. With Mubariz at reign, Hafizs luck fell down and the four-year rule
of strictness prevailed. This ended with the advent of Shah Shuja who succeeded his
father Mubarizuddin. During these four years, almost each ode of Hafiz carries
complaint, hopelessness, and despair. This ode also belongs to the exile period of Sheikh

144
Abu Ishaq. In stanza 1, he asks Shah Ishaqs whereabouts. In second stanza, he looks
for a rendezvous, but knows not when victory would come to former Shah. Third stanza
tells that every created one is mortal. In stanza 4, he talks of unscrupulous nature and
free style living of Shah and says that whatever we point out at his court in this regard
goes to deaf ears. Stanza 5 refers to special relations he had with Abu Ishaq which were
a talk of the town, landing him in trouble at the hands of Amir Mubarizuddin. In stanzas
6, 7 & 8, he laments being away from Shah, of hard times and his own bad luck. In last
stanza, he gives hope to Shah Abu Ishaq, urging him to cope with difficulties boldly and
not to be disappointed: Think rationally and work out your way to success.

62. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2 (line one), Aiman alley is the one wherefrom passed
Prophet Musa A.S. alongwith his wife who was then pregnant. He needed some fire and
saw it a far place where upon approach he also had divine voice. Word Aiman is from
Arabic Yameen i.e. on the right. The valley was on Musa A.S.s right side or
probably to the right of Mount Sinai hence named Aiman.




Translation: But when he came to it, he was called from the right side of the valley in a
blessed spot - from the tree, "O Moses, indeed I am Allah, Lord of the worlds. (Quran
Surah Qasas28, Verse 30)
The stanza conveys that the world is dark like Aiman valley which needs light. It can
come from Sinai fire or light of guidance without which traversing this tight passage is
difficult. Stanza 2 (line 2), See Quran Surah Al-A'araf 7 Verse 143:





Translation: And when Moses arrived at Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him,
he said, "My Lord, show me [Yourself] that I may look at You." [Allah] said, "You will
not see Me, but look at the mountain; if it should remain in place, then you will see Me."
But when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He rendered it level, and Moses fell
unconscious
This incident is also mentioned in Exodus 33.

Stanza 3, has two meanings, one translated above as it matches with second
line of this stanza. Other literal meaning is imprint of ruin which every thing created in
the world bears. Quran says; ( Surah Rahman
55, Verse 26-27) Translation: Every one that is therein shall pass away- There
remaineth but the Countenance of thy Lord of Might and Glory. Someone rightly
said;

Stanza 4 matches this Urdu couplet:

Indication or Ishaarat is without words sufficing to the adept one. Stanza 5, Amir
Meenai went a step further:

Mirza Ghalib indicated at this same point:

Stanza 6,
The purpose of the chain is to arrest the lunatic crazy reason. Also heart has taken leave
from us, where are the heart-keepers eyebrows?
Stanza 7, without beloved paradise is also like hell.

145

Sheikh Sa'adi says:


Namat Khan also says:

True lovers are never content with Huri, heaven, streams , flowers, gardens, fruits etc.
But seek the sight of the beloved.

Stanza 10, fire-worshipping lad is wine-selling boy.
Stanza 11,

63. Magians Wine Goblet



Curve that yr audacious eyebrow in the bow cast
It's intent to take my feeble life so that I decimate (1)


Drunk state, sweat oozed as to garden you went
Yes, your sweating face blazed the purple rosette (2)


One glance of narcissus eye, a flash of self-manifest
Yr sorcerer eye umpteen troubles in the world cast (3)


Lily ashamed when with yr face they did simulate
A peck of dust from breeze snatched, into mouth put (4)


As violet (flower) was smoothening its tress twist
Breeze came in; tale of your curly tress it did start (5)


Piety made me shun wine and minstrel permanent
But craze of Magian lads led me to do this and that (6)


Now with ruby-wine I do wash my coarse garment

146
What is predestined one can never so easily delete (7)


No trace of two worlds was, but love was in effect
Its been ages, not nowadays that love did initiate (8)


World will now tune to my wishes; now firmament
Has put me in service of worlds Khwaja- holy saint (9)


Last night I went by the garden-party in drunk state
Rose-bud looked like your mouth, thats how I felt (10)


O God the Most High! Im ruined by his facial trait
Which pen, this heart-throbbing portrait did create? (11)


Perhaps Hafiz's ease from day one was tied to draft
His forgiveness eternally put in Magis wine goblet (12)

63. Sharah Jalalian: Iraqi:



:Imami Harwi

:Saadi

Hafiz sings two odes on the same theme (See Ode 90, stanza 5) where also the arrow
misses its target.

In Stanza 6, exposes he the secret. Before this I was a pious man, now this Mogh-boy
has led me to this state. However, at another place he clarifies himself:

Stanza 8, Ulfat means love here, although literal meaning is intimacy. In second line he
uses the word Muhabbat again for love. Love of God for men and that of men for God.
As Quran says: Translation: But those who believe are stronger in
love for Allah(Surah Al-Baqarah-2, Verse 165) or Surah Aal Imran-3, Verse 29:
Translation: "If you should love Allah, then follow
me, [refers to Prophet Muhammad SAW) so Allah will love you.
Wordsworth in Prelude Book III line 38-39 says:
the pervading grace
That hath been, is, and ever shall be.

147
63. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2, Arghvan is a flower which is red in colour and compared
with beloveds face here. Sweat drops on face look like dew drops on the rose.

Stanza 3, lily flower feels ashamed at this comparison.
Stanza 6,Mirza Ghalib also has a reason to quit piety:

Stanza 8, this love was the raison detre for the creation of the world. Saadi says:

Someone said:


Last Stanza, from eternity wine is decreed in my fate and in this inebriation is my
elevation. Azad says:

64. Cups Exaltation



Any devout wayfarer who knew the road to tavern
Knocking at any other door hell deem destruction (1)


Whoever able to find the path leading to the tavern
Attained monastery secrets through the cup of wine (2)


World gave Crown of Profligacy diadem to no one
But who knew that profligates cap bears exaltation (3)


Ask us not anything other than service of mad one
Our faith's Sheikh, deemed the reasoning but a sin (4)


Whoever read secrets of both worlds in cup's line
Secret of Jam-cup, in path-dusts print did he gain (5)


My heart wont lifes safety from narcissus beckon (Sakis eye)
It knew the nature of hard-hearted sweet Turkmen (6)
148


See star's cruelty; my eyes at the early morn- dawn
Wept bitterly, Venus saw it, also moon had known (7)


Lofty-rank King is he who, nine layers of heaven
Like a curve of the arch of his pavilion did reckon (8)


Blessed is eye that cups rim-n-Sakis face has seen
Deemed two as crescent (new) moon and full moon (9)


Hafizs secret drinking, deem not, knows it no one
Knows it king, what to say of police or ombudsman (10)

64. Sharah Jalalian: Stanza 1, Mekadah is also called Kharabaat or ruins and were
usually located in deserted or dilapidated parts of a town so it is already a place of ruin
why knock at any other place. In Stanza 3, Hafiz defends his profligacy. Kulah or cap
also refers to crown, diadem. It could be Tatar cap of Shujas maternal dynasty. Shah
Shujas mother was the last of Qara Khitayan line, which in the person of Buraq Hajib,
comprised Qutlugh Khanid dynasty of Kirman (1222-1303 AD). See the beauty of
Stanza 4. In Stanza 6, Hafiz believes that stars whenever they get birth turn bad or
ominous based on their location. So is our destiny defined and destined from the
beginning.

64. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2, drinkers come to know about good and bad of Zahids.
( )
Urfi also said:
( )
Stanza 4, we are the mad ones in love. Love is our worship:

( )
Stanza 5, at another point Hafiz says about Khatt e Saghar (cups line).

Initially, lovers look for beloveds vision. Once the union is achieved, no intermediaries
are needed. Eyes see everything themselves. Khayyam says:


Koran that is called the greatest scripture
Recited occasionally, continuously never
Round the brim of wine cup is inscribed
In its entire inner side, they do recite ever

149
Stanza 8, if one exaggerates not, then a King who deems all 9 layers of skies as an arch
of His pavilion, such an Existence can either be a reference to God or to his beloved
Prophet SAW who crossed beyond skies on the Night of Ascension (Miraaj). Last
Stanza, Shihna is an administrator appointed by the King for public service.
Ombudsman checks violation of Shareeah Canon and checker/conductor. Hafiz could
mean two things here; one is that woolen garment wearer Zahids shun wine in public but
drink it in private. Other explanation could be that while it is rumoured that Hafiz drinks
(wine) in secret though no one has ever seen him drinking and he never drinks. It is only
an untenable blame.

65. Broken Repent



Burning heart in friend's grief consumed my chest
Such was the fire in this cell that my shelter burnt (1)


My body melted, on being distant from sweetheart
My soul, far from beloveds face, as if in fire burnt (2)


See hearts burn! Last night my tears intense heat
So that candle-heart burnt moth-like in my support (3)


Anyone who saw on yr fairy-face tresses pendent
His crazy heart, for me- the made one, sure burnt (4)


An acquaintance, not stranger consoles my heart
As I was beside myself, strangers heart too burnt (5)


Liquor of tavern took away my pietys garment
My brain chamber, by the fire of tavern did melt (6)


Heart shattered like broken wine-goblet at repent
My liver, like branded tulip, sans wine and dry left (7)

150


Cut the talk, now be back, my eye-pupil in revolt
Has put off its robe-cover, in thanks on fire it set (8)


Hafiz! Keep drinking awhile, no fables ye narrate
Whole night I slept not, story went, candle burnt (9)

65. Sharah Jalalian: Separation from the beloved is shown here. Jalalian thinks it is the
complaint against Hafizs own spouse here. See Stanza 5. Dil Soz (heart burner) has two
meanings; either one who soothes the heart or is a teaser. At another place Hafiz says:

Stanza 8, Cut the talk or leave aside past grievances, let bygones be bygones. Peter
Avery opines that in Sufi terms it is called Majara falling out, quarrelsomeness which
is reconciled by the Sufis elders. Having quit false Sufi gown of hypocrisy- a barrier
with the beloved, Hafiz pleads with the beloved to come back. Sheikh Sinans story in
Mantaq al Tair when he fell in love with a Christian girl, burnt his gown, repudiated
Quran. May be Hafiz had this story in mind. In the last stanza, he refers to eye we did
not sleep, the eye wept dry while candle kept burning in vain.

65. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, from hearts fire burnt my chest, now see chests fire
burns heart.

Stanza 5, see the beautiful wordcraft in the use of words acquaintance or
stranger (line one) and myself or stranger (line two). Stanza 6, see the
wordcraft in the use of ( water of winehouse) and ( fire of tavern).
Contrasting words of water and fire used for the same place (winehouse). Stanza 8, I
have put off garment from the pupil of my eye. In love, eye has removed the curtain of
modesty, now I remain indifferent to advice etc. Last Stanza, Hafiz, you spent life in
futile tales and achieved nothing, now be a little careful and pay heed.

66. Baade Yamani (Yemeni air-current)



By the sparkling wine, Sufi did realize a deep secret
Everyone's mettle, by this ruby, easily gets estimate (1)


Morning bird alone can appreciate the rose-bouquet
He who read a page or two cant fully this interpret (2)

151

Ye want to know loves verse through reason's note
No, not discernible through research this anecdote (3)


Bring wine, of worldly gardens rose hell not boast
Whoever has ever witnessed the autumn wind's loot (4)


I presented both the worlds to this hard-toil heart
Save yr love, everything it deemed mortal, transient (5)


By a look; stone-n-clay into ruby and agate convert
By those who know the worth of Yemni air-current (6) (God's friends)


Gone are the times I fear public gossip on my state
Ombudsman knows my secret and my hidden taste (7)


Love saw not for our union, time to be appropriate
Otherwise hes well aware of our hearts penchant (8)


This poetic jewel that comes from Hafizs talent
A'sif-the seconds training; its effect did so result (9)

66. Sharah Jalalian: Stanza 6, Baade Yamani Hafiz advises the Shah about what is the
straight path. There was a belief in the olden times that under the impact of sun and
effects of winds and rain and with the passage of time, some stones got converted into
jewels and some categories of dust turned into Agate (Aqeeq) stone. A reference from the
Baade Yamani (literal meaning: a cool, joyful, refreshing breeze from the Yemen side)
could also be likened to Prophet SAWs Hadith regarding Owais Qarni R.A.
I smell the scent of God-the Merciful from the quarters of
Yemen. Prophet SAW uttered these words for this blind man from Yemen who had never
in life been able to see the Prophet SAW. However he was a faithful lover of the Prophet
SAW even in absentia. He had pulled out his all teeth just over the thought that on the
day of battle of Ohad, one of the Prophet SAWs teeth was broken. Hafiz wants Shuja to
know that one needs that divine comprehension (Baade Yamani) to be able to convert
stones into rubies. Last Stanza, Asif-the second is most probably Haji Qavam al Din
Hassan Tamghachi (Keeper of the Seal- a patron of Hafiz).

152
66. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, in drunken state one utters the truth. Seminary jurist
(Faqeeh-e-Madrasa) too had said: Usually such plain
utterance hardly comes from these people. Also see ode 64/stanzas 2 & 5. Stanza 2,
Subtleties of love only true lovers can discern. Just as the petals of rose (Majmooa Gul)
can be appreciated by no other bird but the nightingale.

Stanza 3, in loves path, stop following reason and obey the beloveds command. Seek
no proof or argument. Qaani says:

Mirza Abdul Qadir says:




On the same theme Khaqani says:




See this theme in ode 127/6.


Stanza 4, seek inebriation from loves wine. Love is immortal, world is transient. Loves
wine will free you from the worries spring and autumn. Khayyam says:


Lifes caravan goes on in a strange way
Find a moment that goes in a happy play
Saki! no worry of tomorrows adversary
Bring the cup, night passing on in hurry

At another place Khayyam says:




How long your life in self-worship will pass
Going after the existence and non-existence
Drink wine for death is (aiming) at your life
Best if spend time in sleep or in state of trance

Stanza 5, save your love world and the hereafter is futile for me. Words ( immortal)
and ( mortal) used in contrast.

Stanza 6, please see the Hadith of Prophet SAW above. Maulana Rumi says:




Such blessed souls if they cast just one look at a sinner he will turn into saint. If cast a
look on stone it turns to ruby stone. Stanza 8, we always think that whatever we desire is
the best. But God the Creator knows well what is in our true interest. Quran says:

153



Translation: But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye
love a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knoweth, and ye know not.(Al-Baqarah-2,
Verse 216).

Some Urdu poet said:


Last Stanza is self-explanatory. Asef Sani is Amad bin Mahmood. He was a Minister in
Hafizs times and appreciated the learned ones. Asef also was the name of Suleman
A.S.s Vizir.

67. Ruddy Arghavan for Matured Ones




Yr beauty added with panache conquered the world
Yes, by this composition entire world can be thrilled (1)


The candle desired to expose secrets of secluded
Good! the secret in flame of its tongue got held (2)


This (love) fire which in the bosom of mine I hide
Sun is but just its one spark which got the sky-ride (3)


Rose wished to brag about color-n-smell of friend
Jealous breeze had its breath in mouth strangulated (4)


Like tulip, in arrogance his cap hell wear slanted
Whoever heart-staind, had his wine arghvan red (5)


On sideline I used to stroll freely in compass mode
At last by times, at the centre-point, I was dragged (6)


That day my love for wine cup burnt my crop yield
When fire reflected from Saki's cheek had it alighted (7)

154


To Magians alley, sleeves flapping I intend to head
To escape troubles that are unfolding by times end (8)


Drink wine, for whoever has seen end of the world
From grief got lightened, instead a heavy flask held (9)


On the rose-petal they have written with tulip blood
Whoever got mature, red arghvan wine cup he held (10)


Seek opportunity! whenever troubles hit the world
Sufi got hold of wine cup-n-from sorrows detached (11)


Give wine in Jame Jam! for dawn of morn drunkard
Grips the world the way King does with gold-sword (12)


Hafiz! yr verses pour water of grace in tonnes load
How can the envious one bring about the broadside? (13)

67. Sharah Jalalian:


Nizami seems the source. Hafizs First Stanza in Laila Majnoon of Nizami Ganjawi
says:

rd
Hafizs 3 Stanza is from:

th
Hafizs 9 Stanza is in Laila Majnoon as follows:

Hafiz sings victory of Shah Shuja in one of the battles in this ode. Yes, he is also aught in
political turmoil at the court, conspiracies which he compares to the chaos of the times of
Armageddon. Last stanza is about jealousies from contemporary poets.

67. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 4,



Stanza 6, earlier I was free from worldly relations and attachments now I am gripped
with these. It could be that earlier I was like a free bird in the spiritual sphere now I am
in bodily cage and suffering like in a prison. Stanza 7, I saw the beloveds face reflected

155
in wine cup, see ode 3/2. Stanza 8, troubles; of the End of the Times is something
which can be likened to the eve of the Armageddon when chaos and tumult at global
scale will be at its unprecedented height. Thus, the poet wants to become profligate to
escape these troubles. Hafiz says:

Urfi also said about Muslims present state of affairs:

Stanza 9, Ratle Giraan is big goblet. Drink and let worldly pains shrink! See ode 1/1
and ode 5/1. Stanza 11, is about Sufi. Some versions say Aarif and not Sufi. See Ode
35/3.

68. Golden Amulet



Come Saki!, beloved has lifted the veil from face
Affair of the solitude-lovers picks up by this grace (1)


That consumed candle, see its face did resurface
This weary aged man regained his juvenescence (2)


By beloveds coquetry piety of preacher did efface
Friend did favour that even foe did feel embarrass (3)


Watch out! sweet words attempt to (ye) seduce
Beloveds utterances, coated in sugary embrace (4)


Broken was back by a load of grief, so in excess
A Jesus-breath bearer God sent for relief, solace (5)


Tall-beauties belittling moon-n-sun, in arrogance
As you made entry, they took to other pretence (6)

156

This story in the seven vaults of sky raised noise
See short-sighted one, he gave it no significance (7)


Hafiz! ye learnt this prayer from which source
Beloved did preserve as amulet yr golden verse (8)

68. Sharah Jalalian: Shah Shuja lost Shiraz to his brother Shah Mahmood for a while,
then occupied Kirman and soon recovered Shiraz again. Hafiz said this ode around that
time. Stanza 1 shows this recuperation in libertine ways. Stanza 2 Shuja is compared to
a candle which has restored Hafizs youth. Stanza 6 is to belittle Shah Mahmood.
Stanza 7, as regards Quran says:



Translation: Do you not consider how Allah has created seven heavens in layers (Surah
Noah 71, Verse 15)
Last stanza, he indirectly refers to his prayers (machinations) which contributed in
restoration of Shah Shujas luck and he resumed the reigns in Shiraz.

68. Lisanul Ghaib: This ode refers to the moments spent with Hazrat Khuwajah
Bahauddin Naqshbandi R.A. (of Multan, Pakistan) who, on his way to pilgrimage in
Makkah, had stopped by in Shiraz and Hafiz had earned blessed moments from this great
Saints company. Jesus breath referred in Stanza 5 is meant for this Saint. Stanza 2,
beloved vision sparks had remained in veil, now they lit again and the old lover is
rejuvenated with youth.

Stanza 6, all those sweethearts who excelled in light and height when you appeared, they
felt subdued. Urfi says:


Sheikh Saadi says:

Last Stanza, amulets are always wrapped in gold or silver wrapping. Hafiz addresses
himself, knowing that his verses have been accepted, he asks, from whom did you learn
this prayer that made acceptance of verses so readily coming?

69. Painters Stalk, Sheikhs Cloak



A rose-leaf of pleasant-hue in a nightingale's beak
Despite leaf-n-good food, it lamented with shriek (1)


"Amid union, why this much hue-n-cry?" I did ask
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Replied; "beloved's looks have put us to this task" (2)


If beloved sat not with us, complaint I cant make
Being a successful King, beggars he never did like (3)


Our humility, before friend's beauty, doesnt work
Glad is he who from capricious ones had good luck (4)


Get up so we sacrifice soul on that Painter's stalk
With twirling compass cute patterns He did make (5)


Disciple on love-path! worry not if ill about ye talk
Sinans Sheikh also mortgaged at tavern his cloak (6)


How happy a Qalandar who in his stages of walk
Contemplatd worry beads in girdle-wearers flock (7)


Aarif who in the path of self-effacement did walk
Of the world of deep mysteries he became drunk (8)


Hafiz's eye under the palace-vault of that Houri-like
Shed tears as flow in Edens garden many a brook (9)

69. Sharah Jalalian: This ode is likely produced by Hafiz between the age of 55 & 60
upon return from exile to Shiraz. Well, he couldnt gain the same status before Shuja (see
initial 4 Stanzas esp. stanza 4). In Stanza 5, everything is predestined from God. Stanza
6 is about Sheikh Sinan (d. 1159 AD). After a dream Sheikh went to Byzantium where
he saw a Christian girl at a house-window, fell in love, quit Sheikhdom's robe and stayed
among her dogs in the street. The girl made him quit Islam, wear Christian Zonnar
(girdle), drink wine and herd swine all of which he complied with. But later devoted Sufi
flock regained him upon return from Makkah into the fold. Even the girl followed him,
became Muslim and died with a blessed saintly passing away in Sheikhs arms (See
Fariduddin Attars Mantiq ut Tair). Hafiz recommends for himself and others to join
Malamati sect. Stanza 7, Qalandars are those who live carefree never worrying

158
after eating, drinking, dressing etc and shave hair of head and even eyebrows. Shirin
Qalandar is also referred to Sheikh Sinan. Some say this Stanza also refers to him as he
used to offer (Muslim) prayers despite having been converted to Christian faith for the
. Quran says: sake of a girl. Last Stanza,


Translation: those who believe and do righteous deeds - We will admit them to gardens
beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide forever (Surah 4 Al-Nisa, Verse 57).




Translation: Indeed, Allah will admit those who believe and do righteous deeds to
gardens beneath which rivers flow. They will be adorned therein with bracelets of gold
and pearl, and their garments therein will be silk (Surah Hajj 22, Verse 23).

This verse has appeared with slight variation in many chapters of Quran namely; Hijr
part-I, Zumr part- II, Muhammad Part-II, Rahman part-III, Dahr part-IV, Mutaffifeen
part-I, Ghashiyya part-I.

69. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanzas 1 & 2 give meaning when read together. Despite union with
flower leaf, nightingale wails as the union itself is also something akin to restlessness.

Mirza Bedil says:

Similar theme here:
See the following quatrain:


Sheikh Ali Hazeen says:

Saadi says:


Rumi says:


When divine reflection is received, a true lover wants more of it:

Lisanul Asr Syed Akbar Hussaini wrote a parody on these two initial couplets of Hafiz
9For a particular sect in India) as follows:

Stanza 5, Naqqash e Qudrat (Natures Painter), Saadi says:





Anwari says what follows about the Natures Pen:




Mirza Ghalib said:

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Compass (Parkar) is said because universe revolves in rounds. They say that the
movement of one point made these patterns possible.

Stanza 7, Qalandar is actually Kalandar which means uncarved, metaphorically a
Rind or profligate- the one who looks not in appearance or in outwardly acts as a good
man but deep down is honest and pure-hearted.

Paul Smith, on the contrary, thinks Qalandar means pure gold). He says that Qalandars
are always on the move and care nothing about their desires as they are only concerned
with the praise of Lord all the time. Hafiz says that the real meaning of Qalandarsdhip is
scrupulous attention to detail and never giving in. Paul Smith tells that Qalandars are
lovers of God and the name comes from a Master Qalandar named Qalandar Yousuf. He
further adds that John- the Baptist was probably a Qalandar type perfect Master.

Opposite to Qalandars is the lot of Zahids (ascetics) who are pious in appearance but
mala fide deep within or simply hypocrites. Saadi says:


in Sufi terminology stands for:


Stanza 8, means They become unaware about themselves and about
others. Saadi says:


Last Stanza, see words and which are contents of paradise . Houri is a
woman whose whiteness of eyes and skin is at its extreme and whose eyes and tresses
are extremely dark in colour.

70. Contest of Eloquence



As you saw, friend had only cruelty and oppression
Broke promise and of our grief, he had no concern (1)


God! grip him not though he shot my hearts pigeon
Notwithstanding the sanctity of the Harems environ (2)
(In Makkah, Kabas precincts are sacred; hunting is not allowed)


My friend isnt cruel; my bad luck being the reason
God forbid that friend lacked courtesy, compassion (3)

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Anyone who suffered not at his hands humiliation
Wherever he went, no one paid him least attention (4)


O Saki! bring us wine and also tell the Ombudsman
Deny us not, Jamshid did not have such a cup even (5)
(like our heart)


A wayfarer who traveld not to His houses direction
He endured valley yet reachd not Harems mansion (6)


Happy is a drunk Rind who both worlds did shun
Carefree of grief, worried never about loss or gain (7)


Hafiz! win the eloquence-contest, rival is greenhorn
Is sans skill, has no inkling about such composition (8)

70. Sharah Jalalian: An ode of youth days, lamenting beloveds indifferent and cruel
attitude. Stanza 2, is the prohibition of hunting or preying animals in the holy
precincts of Makkah. If someone does it, he is required to offer Damm or sacrifice
animal in compensation. Stanzas 5 & 8 indicate that the poet had two categories of
adversaries; those who condemned him for drinking and those contemporary poets who
were jealous of him and caused him anguish and heart-burn.

70. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2, sanctity or immunity in Harems environment refers to the
ban on any kind of hunting within the precincts of Makkah sanctuary. Hafiz deems his
heart hunted as a prey within the forbidden territory. Pigeon is used because most of the
saintly places of Islam are surrounded by pigeons and thus skip being hunted. Quran says
about the Harem of Makkah:


Translation: In it are Signs Manifest; (for example), the Station of Abraham; whoever
enters it attains security (Surah Aal Imran-3, Verse 97).

Saadi says:

Khuwaju Kirmani says:

Stanza 3, Hafiz wants not the blame to be put on the beloved although he knows well
who his killer is.

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Stanza 6, those who are hypocrites or worship as ritual worshippers sans sincerity, they
traverse the valleys and suffer hardships but attain not the destination of seeing the
Kaaba.

Stanza 7, those who care not about gain or loss, or about this world and the hereafter are
happy Qalandars. Khayyam says:

Heart! Worry not about this weary world


Take not in futile, world pains so absurd
What was, passed, non-existing invisible
Be happy! Existing, non-existing, get rid

Last Stanza, means to win the contest (literal meaning: to snatch the ball).
is when your verse, prose or speech is free of heavy words and it is
understood by common man in an appealing and absorbing manner. The language should
be free of unfamiliar, unpopular words and difficult words. For example, the words
and . In the letter is common with and immediately joined by
another of word ;making the compound word so heavy. Like wise; in
compound word , the letter is common in and thus the compound
word becomes unnecessarily heavy. This is avoided in . Hafiz indeed
excelled all others in Ode- composition and is globally acknowledged as the unparalleled
one in Ghazal genre of poetry.

71. No Feast for Grief-afflicted



Sans the sun of yr cheek my day's light is none
In my life except a dark night, no any provision (1)


Ye left, cure is in being patient on yr separation
How I be patient, my strength is deplete-n-down (2)


Yr depart hour, tears galore I couldnt restrain
Far from yr face, in eyes left no sight or vision (3)


From my eyes dimmed your thought; I bemoan
Alas! this corner is now empty, sans habitation (4)

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Death distant from me on account of yr union
Now it seems nearby, thanks to your separation (5)


Near is now moment, from rival you will listen
Far from yr door; expired that fatigued, forlorn (6)


What is the use if friend pays me visit later on
A trace of life in this ailing bodyll be left none (7)


In yr separation if eye-tears are in diminution
Let liver-blood flow, excuse in this regard none (8)


Separations pain, circling heavens machination
I burn so deep, anguish remains no more hidden (9)


For laughter, hurt Hafiz has no pretext, reason
A grief-afflicted one has no feast for celebration (10)

71. Sharah Jalalian: An ode from Hafizs youth days in times of Sheikh Abu Ishaq. It
carries pain, separation, union, death; themes which in later odes seemed ripe with
spiritual connotations and depth.

71. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, since beloveds face is like sun so when there is no sun,
rest of the life turns into dark one. Stanza 2, In Baghdad there was a youth who was on
death bed, crying for the beloved and saying verses. Some sage passed by and asked the
youth if he desired anything. The lover told him to go to the Zujaj Street near stream and
read following verse at the door of Ahmad Dahqan.


The sage did accordingly. An old woman came out, heard the man and went inside. Then
a voice of a girl rose from inside the home saying:


The sage went to hospital and conveyed the girls response. The boy raised a loud cry
and passed away. Later, the sage came to that street again and was informed that the girl
in that house had too expired (From Tazkirah Hussaini Wa Kharistan).

163
Stanza 3, weeping reached the stage of heavy downpour. Poet then advises the beloved
not to travel in the rain:

Stanza 4, like the second line of Stanza 3.This theme also matches with one contained in
Stanza 2. Last Stanza, i) be engaged, to play, be relieved ii) red colour, iii) in
retreat; is wedding ceremony, feast (in Arabic: wall of the fort). In short, Hafiz has
nothing to do with laughter; he is in constant crying and wail. Ghalib said:

72. If My Star Be Auspicious



Tears led my eye-pupil to blood in it accumulate
See in your longing what is peoples' overall state (1)


Whenever yr ruby lip-n-inebriate eye I recollect
Red wine that I take is blood from griefs goblet (2)


Yr face is sun, east-end of yr alley its risin seat
When it will rise then my star will turn fortunate (3)


Of Shirin's sweet lip, Farhad does ever narrate
Majnoons dwelling is in the Laila's tress twist (4)


Ease my heart! heart-easing is yr cypress height
Say a word! yr talks all tender, giver of comfort (5)


Saki! circulate the cup, bring to our soul comfort!
My heart-ache from tyranny of circling firmament (6)


Moment when from eye went far, ye sweetheart
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Like Oxus soaked are sides of my hem-garment (7)


How could turn happy my grief-stricken heart
At my choice? Such a choice is beyond my limit (8)


Hafiz covets for friend, hes in a desperate state
Like a penniless person craves for Karuns asset (9)

72. Sharah Jalalian: Saadi says:



Salman Sauji:

Kamal Khojand:

This ode is supposedly said in separation of a son of the poet who embarked on a far-off
sojourn. Reportedly Hafiz had 2 sons; one died at age 7, the other one named Nauman
who travelled to India for mercantile purpose and later died there, buried in Burhanpur
town. Hafiz excels above referred poets in such expressions. See how he joins two love
couples Laila-Majnoon and Shirin-Farhad (Stanza 4). Shirin is so befittingly mentioned
that not only her name but her skills in eloquence also cover the meaning here. Nizami
had also said about her such eloquence:

Certainly, the son was away not dead; else Hafiz would have said it the way he had said
on such an occasion:

Stanza 7 also lends that the son is far away but there is hope and expectation of his
return. Similar appears the context in Stanza 3 too. Please note the pun on the word rud
which means river as well as boy.

72. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, ( line one) is pupil of the eye; could be
used for plural of pupils of eye as well as for the men (lovers) in general; poetic pun
in the use of the same word. Stanza 2, Ameer says beautifully on this pattern:

Stanza 3, , how beautifully the context has been befitted. Stanza 4,
Laila is from Arabic Lail means dark; she was the beloved of Qais (Majnoon). Since she
was dark-skinned they called her Laila. Stanza 5, see Jao is to search or seek out.
Also befits with which is found on the bank of a stream. See the pun in words
seek out/soothe and stream bank. Stanza 6, comes from used for both
wine as well as for joy. Sky is also called or inverted cup. Stanza 7,
Oxus is a river near Balkh between Khurasan and Tranoxana. About this galore weeping
Ameer Meenai says:

Sheikh Saadi says:

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Stanza 8, my heart is not in my control and in whose control it is, that person is also
beyond my control.

Last Stanza, Hafiz is now penniless but inebriate too. He owns nothing yet desires the
biggest treasure.

73. Seeking Your Access



My eye-pupil looks at none other than yr face
To ye my heedless heart remembers; none else (1)


My tears don the Ihram of yr sanctuarys space
Soaked in heart-blood; thus not pure or stainless (2)


May you, like a wild bird in cage remain, unless
Sidra bird (Gabriel) in yr search become restless (3)


Accept it if poor lover offers his heart worthless
Find no fault, current currency he hasnt access (4)


At last, their hands will sure reach high-cypress
Who in yr desire, enough courage do possess (5)


Christ has life-giving breath yet I must confess
In soul-revival, none has your lips competence (6)


Burning in your craze, yet no sigh I did express
Who says at heart's branding I have no patience (7)

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I had said on the very first day on seeing yr tress
Trouble, problem from this chain sure! are endless (8)


Hafiz's heart is not the only one seeking yr access
Miss yr thought? you in everyones remembrance (9)

73. Sharah Jalalian: Saadi says:



Amad Faqih:

Khuwaju Kirmani:

Hafiz has excelled others in using similar rhyme with different contents. For example, if
Saadi said following verse using ;

See how Hafiz has ended with same rhyme but in a more refined manner (Stanza 2):

Hafiz goes deeper. Stanza 1, he says that pupil of my eye is your seat hence it is
esteemed like the Haram sanctuary. My glance cannot be pure (as Saadi has desired
pure glance in line 2) because my tears are mixed with hearts blood rendering them
impure and yet they are in circumambulation of the Haram (my eye-pupil where you stay
seated). Shabistari in Gulshan e Raz comments that man is the eye of the world
(Mardum) whereby God sees His own works. My servant draws near to me by good
deeds till I love him so that his eye, ear, tongue, foot, hand I become and by me he sees,
hears, talks, walks and tastes.

Saadi has used things used by other poets but Hafiz always uses something new,
versatile. See how he surpasses in the following couplet. Saadi says:

See how Hafiz responds:

Stanza 2, Ihram and Tawwaf are referred in the last Stanza of ode 45 as well. Stanza 8,
see the last stanza of ode 84 with similar mention about beloveds tress.

73. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza1, our eyes only look at you, our heart only keeps mentioning
you.

Stanza 2, my eyes are shedding tears but my heart also bleeds. Since in Ihram dress, the
code requires no bleeding or hunting hence my bleeding heart has stained the Ihram and
Damm (animal sacrifice) is obligatory for me. Pun in blood and Damm (Arabic: blood,
also the compensation for violating Ihram dress code by a sacrificial animal). Stanza 3,
angel Gabriel was limited in his flight at the point of Lotus Tree (Sidra). Hafiz mentions
caging of the wild bird/wild lover in this way. Stanza 4, is interesting because
Qalb means heart and Dil means heart. But Qalb also means counterfeit (currency) or
worthless coin as befits in the present context. Stanza 5, at last cypress height, the firm-
( Translation: And your Lord
resolvers will attain. Quran says:
hath said: Pray unto Me and I will hear your prayer)Surah Ghafir-40, Verse 60.

167
Rumi says:





Last Stanza, see similar theme in ode 103/13 and ode 137/6.

74. Stone-Hard Heart



Love's road; something which has no any end
Theres no other option save surrenderin head )(1


Every moment you in love spend, it is so good
In good deeds, drawing omens there's no need )(2


Bring wine! give me no fear, reason does forbid
Logics (preventive) polices no place in our land )(3


Ask from yr own eye who is killing us indeed
You know dear; not my bad luck or fate's deed )(4


To see crescent (love), a chaste look you need
Not every eye can that moon-piece within hold )5


Deem it a big opportunity this profligate-road
Its a treasure-track, not unto everyone exposed )(6


Hafiz's wail has no impact, it remains unheard
Amazed I'm at your heart, which is stone hard )(7

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74. Sharah Jalalian: Obaid Zakani says:

Shah Namatullah Wali:

The end point of lover is to be annihilated in the way of God . Jalalian met one
Aarif named Abbas Ardkanizadeh Yazdi who told him: mouse is unhappy being eaten by
the cat so it wishes to turn into cat. And the best course to attain it is to quickly place
oneself in cats mouth, get digested and be part of its body so as to get the desired result.
There is no other way. Hafiz is a lover who flies on the wings of love, needing no
reasons support. He is an Aarif who decries reason and logic. Reason is like the
policeman as suggests Khaqani:

74. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Sub-continent versions start this ode as:

There is no hope of coming out safely from this vast ocean.

Another poet said:

Stanza 2, Istakhara is a prayer said before going to bed to ascertain what would be the
result of a certain action one plans to take. Second line of this verse is used proverbially.

Stanza 3, reason cant hinder or put us in fear about drinking. See ode 5/1, ode 35/3,
ode 54/9 and ode 67/9.

Saadi treats reason/logic as the ball of loves polo game:

Stanza 4, ask stars who killed us; everyone will take your name.

On this theme said someone:

See ode 47/6.

Stanza 5, to see beloveds face one requires a clean, pure heart.


Stanza 6, divine secrets are not exposed to everyone. Even the Prophets who know many
subtleties do not share them with public and follow the Canon in the interest of the
society. see ode 4/2 & 3.

75. Ride of Noahs Ark



Saki! felicitation to you upon the advent of Eid
May your memory forget not promises you did (1)

169


These times of separation, one feels astounded
You ignored rivals who for you hearts did cede (2)


Say salute to vine-daughter, tell her come outside
Our determination-n-will freed you from the bond (3)


If you proceed-n-arrive, party-mates will feel glad
Any heart not wanting yr happiness be sad abode (4)


This autumn wind didnt do damage, thank God
Yr jasmine, cypress, rose and box-trees orchard (5)


Far be the evil eye! Out of that confusion, discard
Yr luck lifted, ye got maternal property and pride (6)


Hafiz! never leave the Noahs Ark- a solid ride
Lest the storm of accidents uproot yr foothold (7)

75. Sharah Jalalian: Said in the year 768 A.H. at the time of entry of Shah Shuja into
Shiraz after the defeating his brother Shah Mahmood. Stanza 1 line 2 indicates that the
poet was in constant contact with the exiled Shah. Many people think that Hafiz was
only romantic poet. May be initial stanzas here also indicate so. However, if contents of
Stanzas 5 & 6 are looked into, other contexts are revealed. Thus, his odes bear double
entendre or two meanings. This is miraculous and innovative and Jalalian believes this
was a God-gifted capacity in Hafiz by virtue of being Hafiz e Quran- the knower of
Quran by heart. The other thing is Hafiz never collected his verses to bring out a
Collection or Diwan or attempt rhyming of all sorts or play with 29 alphabets. He was
brought into poetic play due to rivals conspiracies. In fact, poetry is just a small
indicator of his Aarif caliber, he was much more gifted in knowledge, wisdom and
excellence. He was not hungry of name or repute to get himself entered into Listing
poets. Poets like him, Maulavi Rumi, Khayyam are beyond such craving.

Stanza 6 refers to maternal fortune- a reference to Shah Shujas distinguished ancestry


stemming from Qara Khatayan dynasty (1222-1303) of the Qutlugh Shahs of Kirman.
Noahs Ark could also be taken as wine bowl.

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75. Lisanul Ghaib: Last stanza, Noahs tempest is well-known. Hafiz compares worldly
tumult and cup of wine with the Noahs ark. Thus, safety from worldly troubles lies in
wine. See odes 1/1, ode 5/1, ode 35/3, ode 54/9, ode 67/ 9 & 11.

76. Your Thought, Cannot Quit



I have heard a good anecdote told by Kin'an's Pir
Friend's separation is such a killer, one cant utter (1)


The town preacher talked about doomsday horror
Its a parable; he talked of (loves) separation hour (2)


Trace of friend who traveled, from whom I enquire?
Its troubling all that I learnt from breeze messenger (3)


Alas! Moon-like love unmerciful, enemies lover
Quitting company of friends, he deemed so easier (4)


Thanks to my rival, here I am now content forever
Heart has got addicted to your pain, it did quit cure (5)


Tie no knot to the wind even if it blows at yr gesture
This piece of advice, wind to Soloman oneday did utter (6)


Firmament plays tricks, never from your path waver
Who says this old Zaal (world) has quit its manoeuvre (7)

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Treat your deep-rooted sorrows with the old liquor
Its a seed for hearts happiness, so said an old squire (8)


A devout slave wont say about how or wherefore
Gladly obeys and accepts whatever love does utter (9)


Get wine and drink it, last night tavern's caretaker
Told tales of the Beneficent, Merciful and Forgiver (10)


Who said that Hafiz, your thoughts did surrender
I never said, whoever said this, it's rubbish smear (11)

76. Sharah Jalalian: Again another ode when Shah Shuja was in exile and his brother
Shah Mahmood occupied Shiraz. Hafiz surrenders before the Fate (Stanza 5). Last
stanza he clarifies that he will not give up support for Shuja. Stanza 7 covers a whole
chapter of Shahnama- In the battle between Isfandyar and Rostam, Isfandyar temporarily
gained upper hand. However, Rostam sought Zaals help who, with the help of
Seemurgh, developed an arrow from wood. Rostam was taught by Zaal how to hit this at
Isfandyars eye which resulted in latters defeat. So is warned Shah Mahmood here.

Stanza 1s Pir Kinan could also be referred to Prophet Yakub A.S. (Jacob) who
mourned his son Yousuf (Joseph)s separation and is a symbol of bereavement. As
regards Pir Dahqan (Stanza 8), again like Rustam and Zaal, this is a pun from Firdawsis
Shahnama where a landed farmer is called Dahqan. Old Dahqans were story tellers in
Iran well-versed in folk lore and wisdom.

76. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2, someone rightly said:



Stanza 5, I am used to loves pain and take no antidote. Ghalib said:

Stanza 6, wind which was under the control of Suleman AS advised that even if it be
under your control, it can deviate or run in reverse direction and cause difficulties;
something even aeroplanes would encounter. It takes lesser time for aeroplanes when
wind is one way favourable but on the return flight it often takes longer and vice versa.

Stanza 7, Hafiz treats sky as an old Zaal (father of Rustam who was a treacherous man)
who was an experienced man.

Stanza 9, always obey what the beloved says. Ghani says:



Stanza 10, drink wine! God is Compassionate and Great Forgiver.

172
Someone said:

Also someone said:

77. Wakeful Fortune Slept



At morn hour, a new flower by nightingale was told
Be not coquettish, many like ye blossomd, then died (1)


Rose smiled; said: yes, facts must always be admitted
But no lover ever uttered harsh words to his beloved (2)


If ye aspire for the ruby wine in a goblet gem-studded
You will have to pierce many a pearl with eyelash end (3)


Unto eternity, never can enter love-fragrance in a head
Whoever, tavern-door's dust by his cheeks not rubbed (4)


Last night, a merciful breeze did blow in Irams sward
Hyacinth flowers tress by the morn breeze got ruffled (5)


I asked: wheres globe-viewer cup, O throne of Jamshid
Sighed: alas! that vigilant fortune slept in the land of nod (6)


Mention of love is something tongue cant say bold
Saki! give us wine, bring this conversation to an end (7)

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Hafiz's tears cast into ocean his patience and fortitude
What else to do, grief from love-pain, he couldnt hide (8)

77. Sharah Jalalian: Ohadi Maraghae says:



This ode is said when Shah Ishaq had been defeated and these were early days of the
strict orthodox rule of Amir Mubarizuddin in Shiraz. Stanzas 5 & 6 he recalls the
previous night when at the Iram palace auditorium he laments how that complete
sovereignty of Ishaq is gone forever. In Stanza 7, he fears from the new ruler hence
intends no more comment. He misses good olden days under Shah Abu Ishaq. Shah
Ishaq had his seat of government in Iram garden which is still found in Shiraz as a
beautiful botanical garden under the same name.

77. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, do not take pride on your beauty or fragrance
blossomimn bud; many a ones like you blossomed and then withered.

Stanza 3, if you want success in love, for long you will have to thread pearls and gems
by eyelashes i.e. constant flow of tears.

Stanza 4, exertion and hard work is needed for union with beloved. Khayyam says:


Stanza 5, Gulistan e Iram: Iram is a town of Aad nation; Shaddads earthly paradise
also bore this name. Iram is not to be deemed as eighth heaven. Tarikh Bahjatul Aalam
says Shaddads paradise was located between Sana and Hadarmaut and was of 12
Farsang square. Each Farsang is approx. 5.5 kms. Shaddad was the son of Aad who in
turn was the grandson of Iram whose father was Shem son of Noah. Morale is that what
is the use of those beautiful things that you cannot enjoy. Stanzas 5 & 6, both these
stanzas indicate the transient nature of the world. Yesterday when morning breeze was
disturbing hyacinths tress in Iram garden, I asked from the vacant throne where is your
Jamshid and his famous world-showing cup? It replied: its been ages both went to deep
sleep.

If we treat Jam e Jam as eye then the meaning of sleep and wakefulness
becomes clearer.


Last Stanza, Hafiz says that although my weeping cost me loss of patience and fortitude
but I couldnt help hide my love so I had to weep.

78. Raging Fire




My heart torn half, faith did falter, amour in anger
He said; sit not with us, by ye our safety in danger (1)

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Did one hear, in this party after having had cheer
At the end one had to leave in a state of despair (2)


About its smiling cheek if candle acted a bragger
For nights it had to pay by standing before lover (3)


In garden, by the roses-n-cypress, the spring air
Blew in support of that countenance and stature (4)


Ye passd by with panache, angels up in the sphere
To see yr specter, tumult of doomsday did appear (5)


At yr speed, see how to cypress shame took over
Stiff-neck, tall stature, couldnt move inch further (6)


Hafiz! throw this robe, may your life thus spare
From this robe of hypocrisy has risen raging fire (7)

78. Sharah Jalalian: Saadi says:



Amad Faqih:

This ode from Shah Shujas times when Sheikh Zainuddin Ali Kilah was at his peak in
machinations. Contents are lament on disappointments from the beloveds side; also
contains praise of the beloved. Stanza 4 probably comes from Nizamis Haft e Pekar:

Last stanza also refers to the treacherous Sheikh Kilah who was a hypocrite but enjoyed
great influence among masses.

Yet another explanation about this ode comes from Mirsad ul Ibad (page 81) where a
verse occurs:
Love is happier that is accompanied by blame
He who is accompanied by safety is the false ascetic

The final stanza of this ode also bears resemblance:


Rather, may my woolen cloak be completely torn to tatters
For your sake, O nimble free-booting friend
Be alone in love; why bother with men
You have the beloved: dust be on the head of the world

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Here Adam with the tongue of the spirit is addressing the Majestic Presence and saying:
Upon the shoulder have we lifted the burden of the Trust by the rope of blame and sold
safety to buy reproach.

78. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, we lost for him everything and asset and he cant let us
have his company, what a pity!

See who turned unfaithful- the one who died. Good one.

Stanza 2, whoever sat in your session had to bear insult and had to lament.


Stanza 3, means be remorseful. If candle prided on its lips and bright cheek, it
had to bear the punishment of to burn in the coterie of lovers.

Stanza 4, spring current also blew for my beloveds stature and quit the cypress or rose
side.. For comparison between the cypress height and beloveds tall stature. See ode 3
stanza 4. Look at the use of ( wind) and ( partisanship, support)

Stanza 5, some refer this stanza to Prophet SAWs journey on the Night of Ascension


( )
Stanza 6, cypress was proud of its height but after seeing your luscious gait, it felt
ashamed to lift the foot.

79. Wonderful Tale



Your face seen by none, yet a thousand rivals there
Still in bud, yet many nightingales for ye did appear (1)


Though far from you Im, from you none be farther
But a hope of union with you, it seems is very near (2)


If I have entered in your street, there is no wonder
In this area, like me, do wander many a foreigner (3)
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Sweetheart attended to everyone who is his lover
Khawaja! Ye have no pain, doctor is always there (4)


In love, no matter whether Sufi hospice or cloister
Present is ray of the beloveds face in every specter (5)


A place where they promote the business of cloister
Be it the monk's chantry or Cross its nomenclature (6)


This warbling of Hafiz is not just nonsense chatter
It is a strange tale and is a narration full of wonder (7)

79. Sharah Jalalian: Kamal Khojand says:



After Shah Shujas death, his son Zainul Aabideen got the seat of Shiraz. He faced
internecine rivalries and advent of Tamerlane. Later he fled to Baghdad but on his way,
he was blinded and imprisoned by Shah Mansoor. Hafiz said this ode in his old age to
clarify some allegations of being drunkard and sinner before the new Shah. Stanza 2
derives from Quran (Surah Ankaboot- 29, Verse 69):
And those who strive for Us - We will surely guide them to

Our ways.
Stanza 4 was said by Kamal Khojand somewhat like this:

Hafiz also attempted it again at another place like this:

Stanza 5 derives from Quran (Surah Al-Baqarah-2, Verse 115):
And to Allah belongs the east and the west. So

wherever you [might] turn, there is the Face of Allah.
He tries to show his direction to God without the issue of place of worship. Last stanza is
implicitly saying that he is not giving explanations about the mosque or winehouse
without reason. He has been thrown allegations at, developments he has seen that he can
not forget those things. Hence strange tells and wonderful things
that he is giving clarifications.

Stanza 6, line 2 some say the word is namus translated as chantry above which can also
mean law, principle but also means fraud, deceit as well.

79. Lisanul Ghaib: Beloved is in veil. are rivals who love the common beloved but
guard the beloved from one another. Sheikh Fakhruddin Iraqi says in Lamaat that
beloved dons 70, 000 veils so that lover stays stunned and observes only through veils.
As it gets used to the Vision, love increases, curtains gradually fade away and the

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distance reduces. This curtain is must otherwise lovers cant bear with the Vision of that
Being easily. Amir Meenai says:


Even archangel Gabriel could not bear this Vision

Stanza 2, word takes the meaning of strange in line one but means foreigner. See
ode 137/5 for similar theme. Stanza 5, worship can be done for the Lord any place.


See ode 59/3. Quran says:
To Allah belong the

east and the West: Whithersoever ye turn, there is the presence of Allah (Al-Baqarah-2,
Verse 115).

Stanza 4, you need sincerity and longing desire to attain the desired pearl .
See Rumis verses under notes in ode 73. Rumi also says:




See ode 234/4 carrying similar theme of Stanza 4. Stanza 5, Allah is Omni-present. As
Maulana Jami say:

Translation: Wherever I build a house I find You there inside; I do not go anywhere but
find You present there.
Stanza 6, place of worship for Christians (also referred to Muslim prayer place at
times). Its a bell that Hindus or Christians ring at their temples/Churches, often
hanged from the roof in Churches. is a wooden piece of cross shape worn in their
girdle by Christians. In Persian called Chileepa). According to Islamic belief, Jesus was
not crucified but lifted by Gods command to the heavens (for a comeback before the end
of the times). Instead a person named Turtus was crucified. Christians use this shape of
cross for hanging in their necks. Hafiz finds no difference between these places of
worship. Mazhar says:

Last Stanza, Hafizs lament or warbling is not useless warbling it contains subtleties and
meaningful indications. Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit- the Greatest poet of the East,
according to German orientalist Dr. Anne Marie Schimmel, also said about his verses
( contained in Shah jo Risalo):

What you deem as poetic rhymes of a bard
is in fact Scripture that connects you to God

80. Committed to Covenant



In the trap of your forelock, my heart is intertwined
Kill it by your coy, that's the punishment well served (1)

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If I can get my heart's desire at your (helping) hand
Hasten your largesse by this befitting charitys deed (2)


Puckered rose, musk of China, Chigal doesnt need
From the cords of its own coat stems the musk-pod (3)
(Chigal: a Turkmen city southwest of lake issykkul;
famous for its handsome people and musk deers).


I swear by yr soul! Like candle, O my sweet friend!
In dark night, to efface myself is my aim in the end (4)


O nightingale when for love ye did intend, Id said
Fall not in love; that self-willd flower is self-centred (5)


Frequent not at the discourteous doors of the world
Corner of comfort lies very much in yr own abode (6)


Burnt Hafiz in the bet of love, let go his life indeed
Committed to word, for fidelity he will always stand (7)

80. Sharah Jalalian: It seems Hafiz said this ode after return from exile, desiring
restoration of Shahs favours and attention. Yet he shows his ego in Stanza 6 advising
himself not to extend his hand before the discourteous lot. Last Stanza, he again desires
restoration of earlier contacts and covenants with the Shah.

80. Lisanul Ghaib: My heart deserves killing by your gesture and ogling glance.
is itself entangled with your tress, now deserves for this act of
commission. Saadi says



Stanza 2, this verse has both aspects, advisory as well as amorous one:

Quran says (Surah Fussilat-41, Verse 46)
Whoever works
righteousness benefits his own soul

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Stanza 3, flower has no need of musk pod as its folds carry layers of fragrance. Hafiz
says:

Stanza 4, Ghalib says:

Stanza 5, are the flowers or plants that grow at self-will such as Laleh Kuhee
(mountain tulip). Gul e Khudro (self-grow flower) is also called Gul e Beganah
(irrelevant flower). Sabzah Beganah is another term for such weeds. Such flowers grow
in isolation, in wilderness and stay indifferent to sounds of nightingales or their absence.
Even beloveds sprouting youth hair is called Sabzah Beganah or unfamiliar or
discourteous..

Stanza 6, one should not visit ungenerous masters of the age and should always rely on
ones own hands and arms. One must maintain ones dignity and pride. Saadi says:




Bahauddin Aamli said something similar:

81. Rhymes of Profligacy



I have a longing to open before you my heart
To bring you the news of my heart, I do covet (1)


See my crude desire, a secret that is manifest
I desire that from rivals, it must remain secret (2)


I wish for attaining a blissful and sweet night
When until dawn I sleep with ye as my mate (3)


Vow! those pearls so graceful, tender and soft
I may pierce in the dark night, so my penchant (4)

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O breeze! help me you must just for tonight
So that I may blossom out at the dawn sight (5)


To earn honour, to my eyelashes I will instruct
They sweep your path's dust, that is my intent (6)


Like Hafiz, despite dislike of rival-n-claimant
Profligatic poems I utter, that is what I covet (7)

81. Sharah Jalalian: Amad Faqih Kirmani says:




This is a youth days ode on union-night, piercing of pearls, attaining of desire.
Obviously, it is in response to Amad Faqihs above verses to who Hafiz also refers as his
rival or competitor in his ode 32, last stanza as follows:

Thus, these two odes clearly indicate the jealousy and pen-contest between these two
poets.

Additional notes: in Stanza 3, see ode 26 Stanza 1 notes. As regards stanza 4,


see ode 8 last stanza

81, Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 2, my secret has been exposed, now it would be a futile
hope to prevent this exposure from my rivals. Stanza 4, I
want to see your Vision in dark night, how nave I am. As long as bodily, space and
time-related elements soul is trapped in, attaining Vision is impossible.




Stanza5, Hafiz requests breeze to bring beloveds fragrance and make my hearts bud
refreshed. Last Stanza, contrary to rivals style, Hafiz has actually said this ode in true
profligate style. A look at stanzas 3 & 4 would reveal how deep he goes in choosing the
words against the accepted norms of poetry in his times.

82. Your Song We Utter, My Heart Dweller!



O hoopoe of eastern breez! to Saba, ye I transfer
Watch out! where I am sending you from where (1)

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Sad! this dustbin of sorrow, bird like ye a dweller
From here to abode of fidelity, Im sendin ye over (2)


In the loves path, there is no stage of far or near
Im seeing you clear, I send ye salutes, my prayer (3)


Each morn-n-evening, caravan of wishes sincere
Thru north-n-east winds, send I as a well-wisher (4)


So as griefs army storm not, ruin hearts empire
For a geld my precious soul, to ye I will transfer (5)


Come Saki! hidden herald good news did utter
Bear with patience, I am sending medical care (6)


O absent from sight! In my heart you live ever
For ye I send salute, blessings (of God) I offer (7)


Look at the God's handiwork in yr own figure
For this Im sending ye a God-showing mirror (8)


So that of my passion, may inform you the singer
Lyrics-n-odes with melody-n-note, to ye I deliver (9)


Send me sorrow every minute and happily utter!
In Gods name, now this gift upon you I confer (10)


Hafiz! Our assembly mentions of yr praise ever
Hasten now! I send you horse-n-robe of honour (11)

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82. Sharah Jalalian: Khaqani says:

Like ode 76 which bears references from Surah Yousuf (Quran), this ode is also about
Quranic narration from Suleman A.S. who sends hoopoe to Yemen- Queen Sabas
kingdom. Go with this my letter and
throw it down unto them; then turn away and see what (answer) they return (Al Naml 27,
Verse 28). Verses 20-28 refer to this episode.

Stanza 3, about far and near; see Quran.


Translation: But be patient (O

Muhammad) with a patience fair to see. Lo! they behold it afar off- While we behold it
nigh (Al- Maarij 70, Verses 5-7)

In Stanza 4:
translation: And unto Solomon (We
gave) the wind, whereof the morning course was a month's journey and the evening
course a month's journey. (Al-Saba 34, Verse 12)

Baad were Sulemans couriers, under his orders. These could cover one month
distance in the morn and one month distance in the evening.

Stanza 6, Queen Saba decides not go into war with Suleman.




Translation: She said: Lo! kings, when they enter a township, ruin it and make the
honour of its people shame. Thus will they do (Al- Naml 27, Verse 34).

Stanza 7, Suleman asked about Hoopoes absence, so Hafiz laments Shah Abu Ishaqs
absence due to travel. Hafiz said odes that could be sung with lyrics to appeal the
absentee kings (Shahs) so that they could still remember him. Stanza 8, God-
showing/revealing mirror is his heart which is clean, pure so that it can reflect the
Divine.

Stanza 9 & 10, Hafiz has sent his lyrics through the minstrel. Shah is not forgetful of
Hafiz, he sends the robe of honour and a horse for the poet too as reflected in last
stanza. This also bears a reference to Queen Saba who sent to Suleman horses and
jewels.

Translation: But lo! I am going to send a
present unto them, and to see with what (answer) the messengers return (Al-Naml 34,
Verse 35).

82. Lisanul Ghaib: was the town of Queen Balqees in Yemen. Quranic story in this
ode. Oneday Suleman AS who ruled over the birds as well found Hoopoe absent. Soon
the bird presented itself and said: and I have come to thee from
Saba with tidings true (Al-Naml 27, Verse 22). The bird added that in Saba he went and
found that a Queen named Balqees ruled and instead of God they worshipped the sun.
Suleman said:
Go thou, with this letter of mine, and deliver it to them (Verse 28).

Queen sent a reply through Manzar. Suleman said she should have come personally.
Thus Queen sealed her throne and alongwith her army appeared before Suleman.
Meanwhile Sulemans Vizir Asef Barkhia arranged to have the throne reach in the court

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of Suleman well before her arrival. Said one who had
knowledge of the Book: "I will bring it to thee within the twinkling of an eye (Verse 40)!
Thus, she realized the Suleman and his faith and said:




She said: "O my Lord! I have indeed
wronged my soul: I do (now) submit (in Islam), with Solomon, to the Lord of the
Worlds."(Verse 44).

In this ode, poet takes breeze as Hoopoe. There is pun in the words and Stanza
3, there is no distance between the beloved and the lover. Quran says:
for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein. (Surah Qaf-
50, Verse 16).

Stanza 7, you are far from my sight, yet I pray for you and send you salutations.
Beloveds thought is something one finds in his heart every minute. Quran says:
and know that Allah cometh in between a man and his
heart, (Anfaal-8, Verse 24). See stanza 3 of this ode.

Stanza 8, look at your face and you will truly appreciate Gods creation.

Rightly said that
Last Stanza, in our assembly came your mention. So for your participation,
paraphernalia is being sent. Hurry up and join! It is possible that Hafiz wrote this ode
in someones praise and desired in a lighter vein for a horse and robe. He is seen to be
desiring such things in an implicit way in some of his odes.

83. Sowing Love-seed



O absent from sight! I entrust you with the Lord
You sizzld my soul yet heart seeks ye to befriend (1)


Until the day I leave this world wearing shroud
Believe not that yr skirt, I'll give up from hand (2)


Let me the prayer-niche of your eyebrows behold
At dawn I pray and around yr neck be my hand (3)


To see Harut (angel) at Babylon, if be the need
To bring ye back, I'll do sorceries even hundred (4)

184


I want to die before ye, O physician fidelity-devoid!
Ask after the sick, in yr expectation I look forward (5)


A hundred streams of tears around eyes I shed
With a hope to plant in your heart, a love seed (6)


Give me relief from separation pain; spill my blood
To your dagger-like glance, I'll ever remain obliged (7)


I cry, by this torrent of tears actually I intend
Is to sow in your stone-hard heart loves seed (8)


Allow me yr audience, with a heart consumed
On yr feet, I pour my eye-gems uninterrupted (9)


If my eye-n-heart go for someone else, indeed
Ill burn that heart and get that eye extracted (10)


Hafiz by nature isnt for wine, woman, wayward
Yet when ye indulge, at my end alls overlooked (11)

83. Sharah Jalalian: Like previous ode, this one too for the absentee Shah Abu Ishaq.
Stanza 9 is pleading to be brought back near to Shah so as to present tears on his feet. In
ode 2 Hafiz had during his exile in Yazd tried to get attention of Shah Yahya.

However, given lukewarm treatment from Yahya, Hafiz said in another ode 290:

Hafiz said Stanza 6 of this ode 290:

Yr attributes poet is propagating to entire world
His ration, provisions curtail not, his times hard

In this ode Stanza 3, Hafiz wants eyebrows of the beloved so as to pray for him by
holding his neck (a way to seek recompense by a profligate poet like Hafiz). In the last

185
stanza, the poet refers to bad ways of Abu Ishaq which caused his downfall and adds that
for a King, this conduct is not befitting. Stanza 4, Harut alongwith Marut is mentioned
in Quran.







Translation: Solomon disbelieved not; but the devils disbelieved, teaching mankind
magic and that which was revealed to the two angels in Babel, Harut and Marut. Nor
did they (the two angels) teach it to anyone till they had said: We are only a temptation,
therefore disbelieve not (in the guidance of Allah). And from these two (angles) people
learn that by which they cause division between man and wife;
It is believed the two angels Harut and Marut are tied heads downward in a well near
Babylon. They were sent on the earth to be tried and tested to see whether they could
resist human temptations. They were unable to do so and indulged in sins. They also
acted as sorcerers to cause separation among lovers or husband and wife etc.

83. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, Amir Khusro Dehlavi says:



Stanza 2, same theme as in ode 42/6. Stanza8, Lisanul Asrs Syed Akbar Hussain too
has flowed tears and created conduits of water but he fears water-rate to be applied on
these.

Stanza 9, means greatness, pile or permission. Here it means permission. Last
Stanza here Hafiz means that I know these acts are not good yet I do indulge in these
delinquencies but I am hopeful that Lord- the Greatest Forgiver will forgive me.

84. Sword of Friends



O Lord! make some pretext, so friend in safety
Returns back and Im released from melancholy (1)


Friend traveled, will his paths dust one carry
I make colony, put it in my world-watch eye (2)


Wail! On six sides barricades put on my way
His mole, cut, tress, face, cheek, a figure lofty (3)


Today Im at your disposal, have some mercy

186
Tomorrow buried I in dust, no use of apology (4)


O you who brag and boast of love, so lengthy
Ive nothing to say, seek I your peace-n-safety (5)


Darvish! Darlings kill by sword, so dont cry!
They even charge from victims blood-money (6)


Burn the gown! See eyebrow-curve of the Saki
How prayer-niche of prayer leader did destroy (7)


God forbid! I will never bewail of yr tyranny
Torment of darlings is also kindness-n-mercy (8)


Hafiz cant curtail discourse on yr hair curly
This chain, non-stop, stretches till doomsday (9)

84. Sharah Jalalian: Shah Wali says:



Kamal Khojandi:

Poet wants the Shah to be back to office as he feels depressed and pensive. The contents
also indicate to bear with patience the torment of the beloved. Stanza 5,
means goodbye to you. Last stanza (first line) is a reaffirmation to stay loyal to Shah
Shuja till the end. In spiritual sense it can be interpreted differently. Prophet SAW was
reputed to have two locks which fell from the crown of his head down to his shoulder.
Hafiz must have known this (Ode 26 Stanza 2). Second line of last Stanza, see ode 73
stanza 8.

84. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 3, six directions are North, East, West, South and Upper
plus Lower one. Ameer Minaee has added one more direction.
___ __ _
Stanza 4, Ghalib says:

Stanza 7, is arch-shaped protrusion to let the prayer leadaer stand ahead of others
in a Muslim congregational prayer. Hafiz says, give up dry asceticism, and adopt love for
the divine. It is the best worship.

187
Jalaluddin says:

Last Stanza, Hafiz will continue praise of your face and tress until the Last Day. He will
never give up love of yours. And your tresses are so long that their mention will continue
till the day of Doom.

85. Grievance, too Gratitude




My grievance-cum-gratitude for heart-caring friend
If loves subtlety ye know, keenly listen this legend (1)


All I did in his service was thankless, sans reward
O Lord! no servant's Master may ever be unkind (2)


Thirsty-lip profligates, none them water to provide
As if holy men of God, of them this land is devoid (3)


You snatch my honour yet yr door I wont avoid
Offence of friend better than an enemys regard (4)


Heart! tangle not in his tress noose, many head
You see here severed, sans any crime or misdeed (5)


Ye like it, yr eye with one look sucked our blood
Dear! support for a blood-shedder is never good (6)


Its dark night, Ive lost path to my ultimate abode
Come out from a corner, O the star! Be my guide (7)


Wherever I went, increased my fear-n-solitude
Watch out! this desert and this road has no end (8)

188

How would appear of this path, any ultimate end
When at the start are stages thousand-n-hundred (9)


O sun of sweet ones! I am burning deep inside
Hold me awhile in yr embrace, protective shade (10)


Lovell respond to yr request if like Hafiz ye read
Quran in fourteen notes, from your memory vivid (11)

85. Sharah Jalalian: Shaikh Attar says:



Ohadi Maraghai:

Kamal Khojandi:

Amad Faqih:

Mostly Ohadi followed in this ode- a time when Shah Shuja was a bit indifferent and
occupied with his own affairs. First two stanzas, that heart-caring beloved is Shuja who
is being blamed here. Stanza 3, Vali and Vilayat is saintly man and realm respectively.
Not necessarily saint, but Vali can mean in this context as t5hose who are prominent or
noble ones in this Vilayat- a play on words. In Stanza 4, he however intends to continue
with Shah Shuja. Stanza 7, refers to guiding star. Quran says:

Translation: And landmarks (too), and by the star they find a way (Al-Nahl
16, Verse 16).

Last stanza, he tells Shah that even if you can recite Quran with 14 intonations, love
will take you to victory. As regards , Jalalian explains that Quran was
rearranged with vowels during the reign of the four Rightly-Guided Caliphs of early
Islam. Zaid bin Thabit- one of Kaatib Wahee (who noted down in writing the scripture)
arranged a team of 12 experts who compiled the authentic text after 6 years and 7
months hard work. This version was sent alongwith a Reciter (Qaari) to seven Muslim
outposts in different regions. Each Reciter (Qaari) had two Ravis. Thus, Quran
propagated up until now based on those 14 Reciters. A couplet has shown names of
seven Qaaris as follows:

85. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, while people must obey Shareeah and Canon, the
subtleties and intimate talk between lover and beloved is something which is beyond
these formal protocols and requirements.
Well, at times one even laments before the Lord as did Yaqoob AS in separation of his
son Yousuf:

189
I expose my distress and anguish only unto Allah, (Yousuf-12,

Verse 86). When people complained how dare you lament before the Lord like this,
Yaqoob AS replied:
and I know from Allah that which ye know not.
Thus, he tells that how come you teach me what is thanks and what is complaint. It is my
way of submission and I know it. Someone had even raised objection on Allama Iqbals
Shikvah. But knowers of subtleties of love know well that:



Stanza 2, what I paid in service is thankless. Such talk suits in love matters only;
otherwise

Stanza 4, although I earned bad name in your love yet whatever friend gives treat, it is
better for me. There is no other recourse:

Stanza 7, there are many traps in the world which can lead one astray. Thus, the need for
a guide is always imperative. Jami says:


Stanza 8, from whichever path I crossed, wilderness added into it. Desolation increased.
This path is endless as shown in next stanza. Maulana Ghaneemat says that the path will
prolong further as you keep proceeding on this path.

Last Stanza, there are seven ways of recital of Quran. After the period of four Rightly-
Guided Caliphs, people at many places made errors in recital. So jurists and scholars
decided that wherever the version of Hazrat Usman R.A. is available, it should be used
for correct imparting of Qurans recital. Thus, following were the Qaaris:
i) Imam Nafiu (Madinah Munawwarah), ii) Imam Katheer (Makkah Muazzamah), iii)
Imam Abu Umar (Basrah), iv) Imam Ibne Aamir (Syria), v) Imam Aasim, vi) Imam
Hamzah, vii) Imam Kasaee in Kufah. A quatrain mentions these Qaaris as follows:


Each Qaari had two Raavis. Thus, a total of 14 Rivayah (notes) are found. In the sub-
continent, the familiar Qiraat (recital) is from Imam Aasim. His two Ravis are named
Abu Bakr and Hafs (From Risalah Al Bayaanul Jazeel and from Risalah Maqsoodul
Qaari). Hafiz believes that if one holds Quran in due esteem and follows its recital, he
will attain the stage of love as Hafiz attained it. This is Hafizs ultimate prescription, also
confirmed at many other places in in his odes (See last stanza of ode 281).



Anecdote from Mahdi Akhwan III. There was a poetry session wherein were present,
among others, Maulana Jami and Amir Alisher Nawaee. Many poets of repute had
gathered and every one was showing his poetic skills. There was Sheikh Kamal Turbati
who had expanded Hafizs verses by adding three lines to each of his two-liner stanzas
(making it five-liner stanza or Takhmees). While others applauded him, Alisher and Jami
kept silent. When a second round came, Kamal stood depressed and sought excuse. Amir
said: we have heard you have done Takhmees of Hafizs odes, please tell us something.
He said: you did not appreciate my previous one, how I utter again. Amir said: we are
190
sorry we will compensate this time, please start singing. Kamal became happy and
started another ode with Takhmees.

As is the custom, in Takhmees, one reads three lines of his own poetic addition first,
followed by the original poets two liner stanza (Hafiz in this case). Amir behaved as if
he knew not much about Hafizs odes. So he kept silent whenever initial three lines were
sung by Kamal. But he applauded vehemently whenever the two lines of Hafiz were said
(as fourth and fifth line in Takhmees). The whole party realized the trick of Amir and
started laughing and joking at Kamal. Kamal himself felt belittled and rightly so because
justice demanded that he should not have expanded the poetry of such a poet like Hafiz
with his sub-standard verse (Quoted from Rash-haat uz Zauq).

86. Your Alleys Dust



Constant I'm drunk, by waft of yr curly tress
In hangover by your sorcerer eye's fraudulence (1)


God! A night will I see after this much patience
Eyes candle, I may lit in yr eyebrow's pray-space (2)


My eye's dark disc (pupil), I hold in reverence
For soul it serves a model of yr dark mole trace (3)


If ye want to lend worlds decor permanence
Tell breeze! Raise awhile the veil from your face (4)


If ye wish to uproot annihilation from the universe
Jerk hair! lives galorell pour from each hair of tress (5)


Im poor, so is morn breeze; perplexed, hopeless
Me by yr drunk eye; breeze by yr tress fragrance (6)

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Thanks that breeze brought beloveds fragrance
At morn hour this alley beloved wont ever cross (7)


My eye pupil in heart-blood oft I did witness
I hold it dear in yr dark mole's remembrance (8)


Hafiz carefree of this world-n-hereafter; his grace
Nothing but dust from yr alley his eyes do caress (9)

86. Sharah Jalalian: Another lovers ode from Hafiz bearing double entendre. Hafiz
said this ode for Shah Mansur who was Shah Shujas nephew and brother of Shah Yahya.
In late age Hafiz said this one around 790 A. H. when Mansur occupied Shiraz after
Yahyas defeat. He ruled until 795 A.H. when he was killed by Tamerlane. Hafiz had
meanwhile died in 792 A.H.

Stanza 6, Hafiz is hopeless, wandering like the breeze, unrewarded. Last Stanzas
contents are reflected in another ode in the following way:

86. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, hair on the head which are tortuous and curly. These
are, according to some, different from Thus, are those hair which are on the two
sides of head and fall quiet long. Qaim Mashhadi says:

Stanza 4, in Tasawwuf, face means divine reflection. And its infinite beauty. It accords entire
universe comfort.

Stanza 5, just jerk your long tresses o beloved!

Stanza 6, breeze has become bewildered because it is drunk by the fragrance of the
beloveds tress. Last Stanza, Hafiz now cares naught about this world or the hereafter.
Except the beloveds street dust, he has no concern with anything else.

Mirza Ghalib, not only the world or hereafter, but took himself off as well:

87. Kaaba is in your eyebrow direction



God's favour, the door of the tavern house is open

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My face directed towards that door, in supplication (1)


All flagons are in hype; hue-n-cry with intoxication
The wine therein is pure essence, not just an illusion (2)


From Sakis end haughtiness, arrogance, inebriation
From my end helplessness, humility and supplication (3)


A secret I told not to public, never did I mention
Ill tell the friend, for he is a confident companion (4)


Beloved's intertwined curls, theres no explanation
One cannot shorten; theirs is very long narration (5)


Twist of Leilas tress gave Majnoons heart burden
For Mahmud so precious is Ayaz's feet impression (6)


Ive sewed my eyes from two worlds like a falcon
But my eyes, for yr pretty face remain ever open (7)


In your streets Ka'aba corner if drops by anyone
Stands in pray by virtue of yr eyebrows direction (8)


Fellows! How far Hafiz's heart is in deep burn
Ask from candle- itself melting, in consumption (9)

87. Explanatory Notes: In Stanza 2, majaz or illusionary is a pun here. If majaz is read
as mujaz, then the meaning would be lawful, permissible. Stanza 6, Majnoon lived in the
times of Umayyad Caliph Hisham (721 AD). Actual name Kais- literal meaning of
Majnoon is mad, distraught. Prevented by Lailas father, he died, followed by Lailas
death. Mahmud of Ghazna (born 967 AD; ruled 998-1030 AD) is famous for his intense
liking for Turkish slave Ayaz something referred by Sufis as majazi love. Stanza 7, they

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sometimes put a hood over the eyes of a trained hawk. Stanza 8, Qibla means direction
of Makkah sanctuary to which Muslims orient for prayer five times a day. Quran says:




Translation: And now verily We shall make thee turn (in prayer) toward a qiblah which
is dear to thee. So turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship, and ye (O
Muslims), wheresoever ye may be, turn your faces (when ye pray) toward it. (Surah 2,
Verse 144)

87. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 5, since beloveds tress is too long, its twist or curve is
considerable too. Saadi says:

88. Loss or Gain- Nothing



The end-result of this factory of the world, nothing (creation and habitat)
Bring us wine, for all this worldly freehold, nothing (1)


Heart-n-soul's purpose is to get union with friend
That is all, otherwise heart or soul's need, nothing (2)

Favour of Sidra, Tuba trees, seek not for a shade


See O cypress on the move! on the road, nothing (3)


Wealths what comes as windfall, not by work hard
Earning paradise gardens by toil and deed, nothing (4)


Five days that you got as grace period in this world
Spend happy! this isnt entire, lasting period, nothing (5)


On the brink of annihilation sea, O Saki! We stand
Avail chance! distance of bank to ocean bed, nothing (6)

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Im consumed, badly burnt, pains within abound
Need to elaborately explain it or expound, nothing (7)


Beware Zahid! Its a challenge of honour and pride
Distance from monastery to Magian abode, nothing (8)


Worry not about insults, keep happy like rose-bud
Because the honours of this passing world, nothing (9)


Hafiz's name now well recognized; repute so good
For freebooters, loss or gain does not hold, nothing (10)

88. Sharah Jalalian: Hafizs viewpoint on life is as follows:


Stanza 1, No worth of this mundane world; Stanza 2, a wayfarer or Aarif (Knower)
must give his life to get beloveds union; Stanza 3, criticizes Qashri followers who do
worship to get reward of paradise; For Sidrah tree see ode 32 stanza four-related note.
For Tuba tree, see notes in ode 22 stanza 3. Sidrah tree lies in the 7 th heaven and Tuba in
the 4th one, with branches going to all skies. Some say it is the same tree. Sidra is the tree
of life and Tuba on earth is known as jujube Zizyphus Lotus). Stanza 4, belief of
Ishraqis who thought God could be reconciled without any kind of patience, exertion or
hard worship; Stanza 5, this five-day life be lived in peace and tranquility without
worrying for its comfort here; Stanza 6, value of time, contentment, carefree approach to
life; Stanza 7 seems to depict poets poor state of affairs and Shahs indifference to him;
Stanza 8, shun arrogance, rely on destiny and shun worship for the sake of
compensation.

88. Lisanul Ghaib: Zaheer Faryabi says:


Stanza1, means factory, means to be; to exist i.e. this world this universe. The
world of existing things as it came into existence from nothing. is something
which was not there at first but was created later. place to stay or live. Thus,
means this world. This stanza carries the same theme as in ode 66/4. Staza2, heart
and soul is needed for union with the beloved only and in order to sacrifice these two on
the beloved. These things belong to him. Hali says:


Quran says: And I did not create the jinn and mankind
except to worship Me (Al Zariyaat-51, Verse 56)

Stanza 3, Tuba is a tree in paradise whose branch will hang over every paradise-dweller.
Sidrah is a tree at the height of seventh heaven beyond which no one has ever travelled

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except Prophet SAW. Poet says why you take favours of these trees, seek the Vision of
the Lord; shun the thought of trees or paradise. See ode 19/3.

Stanza 4, wealth is one earned without much toil or sweating of blood. Otherwise it is
wage. Even paradise earned after toiled labour is not much worth.

Hafiz said at another place:

Getting paradise after toil and labour is like barter trade or a deal.

True treasure requires longing and craving; a fire within to achieve something; do it
sincerely and you will attain it.

Stanza 5, life is for few days, enjoy and avail its pleasure.


Stanza 6, we are standing at the brink of the ocean and the oceans womb is like the
mouth to engulf us; there is not much distance between the lip and the brim or between
the life and death.

Stanza 8, O Ascetic! Take not pride in your manner. Before God, there is not much
distance between Mosque and Deer e Mughan. FDakhruddin Iraqi writes:

His reflection is in everything so a lover wherever he looks will find his light and beauty
therein. Same Lord is in the Mosque and same One is in the Cloister.

God who placed you in the Mosque could have sent you to the cloister too.

Quran (Surah Al-Aaraaf- 7, Verse-175) says:

Recite unto them the tale
of him to whom We gave Our revelations, but he sloughed them off, so Satan overtook
him and he became of those who lead astray.

This verse refers to Balam Baaur Kinaani who had read some chapters from Ibrahims
Scripture and he knew Lords Great Name () . He cursed Musa AS and his nation
after instigated to do so by his wife. God snatched from his the Great Names blessing.
Kh. Abdullah Ansari says one must keep fearing which way the divine wind blows. It can
turn Bahram Gabbar into a firm believer or bring Balam like believer to a faithless dog.


Stanza 9, worldly honour or insult is not of significance. All worldly things are
transient. True esteem is something different.
when might
belongeth to Allah and to His messenger and to the believers (Al Munafiqqon-63, Verse
8).

Last Stanza, although Hafiz has earned a virtuous fame and earned good name, he cares
not about it. For profligates, loss or gain counts not at all in worldly matters.
whoso believeth in his Lord, he feareth neither loss nor oppression.


(Surah Jinn-72, Verse 13).
These people are those as described in Quran (Surah Al-Hadeed- 57, Verse 23)

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That ye grieve not for the sake of that which hath escaped you, nor yet exult because of
that which hath been given. Allah loveth not all prideful boasters,

Such persons care nor for reputation or notoriety, honour or dishonour.


89. Jesus-like Breath



What a courtesy it was that suddenly your pen-ink
Rights of our long service, before yr honor put up (1)


You have written me salutation with the pens beak
May worlds workshop not be devoid of yr write up (2)


I dont say ye remember me, heart-bereft, by mistake
For in wise accounts of your pen, theres never a slip (3)


Treat me not with contempt, in thanks for this luck
That you hold lasting wealth, earn a respect so deep (4)


Come! Tied to the tip of yr tress decision I take
Even if my head severed, your feet Ill never skip (5)


Yes, of my slain condition yr heartll take a stock
Only when from the dust of yr victims grow tulip (6)


Just a sip for our thirsty soul, if ye kindly make
If ye dole out sweet water from yr Jamshid cup (7)

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Mention of yr tress, breeze to each flower did make
How eavesdrop permitted by rival to enter yr set-up (8)


My heart is dweller at yr door, cognizance ye take
In thanks for the fact; to ye carefree God does keep (9)


Keep watch! worlds ambush-spot, do no brisk walk
From the highway of non-existence yr dustll creep (10)


O Jesus-like breeze! may all the times be to yr like
Sunk soul of Hafiz gets revived by yr breath pump (11)

89. Sharah Jalalian: Now here is the indication, Shah Shuja has closed Hafizs dossier
of punishment, he sends a letter through Turan Shah- his Vizir that Hafiz can come back
from exile after two years. Some say Hafiz has used double entendre in the first stanza
and is actually saying about indifference and shameful conduct of Shuja. Well, Stanza 3,
he exempts Shah from miscalculations. However, Stanza 6, he has some grievance about
indifference of Shah again. Stanza 7, wine of Khizr to which Khizr has access (see ode
35, stanza 9 for). Khizr is a difficult character to understand. Some say he was Balya bin
Maikan in the time of Firidun 800 BC. He preceded Zul Qarnain and lived in the times of
Musa A.S. Some say he was Ibrahim A.S.s nephew and a guide to Musa and Irail A.S. in
their passage of the Red Sea and desert. He was also the guide of Alexander the great to
the water of life situated in Zulmat (darkness). Some even confuse him with Phineas,
Elias and St. George saying that his soul passed by metempchychoses through all three.
Having drunk lifes water he will not die until the day of judgment. Wherever he plants
his foot it becomes green hence his name Khizr.

89. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, drop of water which falls from one place to another.
Possibly this ode or these lines could be in response to some friends letter. Stanza 6,
some poets even go far to the extent that the green shrubs growing on someones grave
also reflect the condition of the buried one, although this is too much exaggeration.

Someone said:

Stanza 7, is a worm under the ice. It is finger-shaped. Its life is little and movements
sparse. Since in Arabian Peninsula, water is scarce so these worms were squeezed to
bring out cold water. This water is cold and sweet. Metaphorically, every sweet water is
called

Stanza 10, dont go too fast on the lifes highway; there are many snares and ambush
spread all around that will decimate and eliminate you. Ameer Khusro says:

In the path of Urfi says:

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Mirza Abdul Qadir Bedil seems in haste.

Last Stanza, Prophets connect people (lovers) to God. Just as breeze brings message of
beloved to lover and serves as a messenger. Quran says:


O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and the messenger when He calleth you to that which
quickeneth you, (Al-Anfaal- 8, Verse 24).

90. Ignore not Dervish




O beloved so chaste! Who can untie your veils band
O paradise bird! Food-n-water who to ye can provide (1)


At heart-killing thought, of sleep I became deprived
Whose embrace you chose as a rest-house, as abode (2)


You ask not welfare of Dervish, ye ignore, Im afraid
You ignore his forgiveness, care not about his reward (3)

Lovers hearts ye plundered by an eye wine-languid


Your glance indicates that your wine is really hard (4)


Arrow of glance ye cast at my heart, target it missed
Lets see this time as ye re-cast, how does it proceed (5)


Every lament that I made, at your end went unheard
It is obvious darling! Too lofty stands your threshold (6)


Water-holes quite far in this desert, keep it in mind
Lest by the ghost of desert- mirage, you get deceived (7)


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On the road to aging, heart! what course ye intend
Sure! Yr days of youth, doing errors you did spend (8)


O heart-cheering palace! ye are loves lighting abode
God! let it be ruined not by the calamities of period (9)


You left from our side suddenly, our heart got sad
Whose place became yr new haven or comfort bed (10)


Hafiz is not the slave who his Master would avoid
Patch up! be back! at yr punishment I am peeved (11)

90. Sharah Jalalian: Initial four Stanzas speak lovers language. Later verses indicate
some rift between the poet and his well-wishing Turan Shah- the Vizir of Shah Shuja.
Stanza 6 is a lament against Turan Shah. However, Hafiz does mild his tone in stanzas
9 and 11 and pleads for return of intimacy/favours of Turan Shah.

90. Lisanul Ghaib: Some consider Hafiz said this ode when his wife had left home after
being angry on some issue. LG rejects this contention. Stanza 5, see the words and
( to miss, and to be on target). Stanza 7, are the demons and ghosts of the
desert who can take any shape to frighten the travelers. In hot season, thirsty
travelers in the desert see under the scorching sun the sand and deem it as water.
Sometimes in moonlit night too this phenomenon occurs. In the path of love, your
destination is quiet distant, beware! Rumi says:

Thus, Satan also attempts to lead people astray and shows bad deeds as good things to
deceive people. Quran says:



As for those who disbelieve, their deeds are as a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one
supposeth it to be water till he cometh unto it and findeth it naught,(Al-Noor 24, Verse
39).

but the devil made their deeds fairseeming unto them (Al-Nahl-16,

Verse 63)

He promiseth them and stirreth up desires in them,
and Satan promiseth them only to beguile (Al-Nisa-4, Verse 120)

See ode 48/7.



Stanza 8, stanza is advisory.

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91. No Remedy; Beyond Recovery



That fairy-face Turk who passed by us yesterday
What wrong he saw, to China side he went away (1)


Ever since that world-seeing eye bade good bye
None knows, how much tears my eye did spray (2)


Even candle didnt experience heart burn or fry
Smoke that rose from my liver, head turned dry (3)


Away from your face, every minute in my eye
Flood of tears came, rose the deluge of calamity (4)


Tumbled my feet as separation-pain came nigh
Pain worsened as remedy from my hand did fly (5)


Heart said: prayers can, departed friend re-unify
Look! My entire life in constant prayers I did try (6)


Why don Ihram? no more that Kaba the holy
Why do Saee? from Marwa, Safa moved away (7)


In pity said as my healer saw me yesterday
Yr ailment is beyond the canon of recovery (8)


Friend, step up! of Hafizs health make query
Before they say; he quit the house of mortality (9)

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91. Sharah Jalalian: Internecine wars and feuds were common among Mubarizuddins
sons. At one point, Shah Mahmood with the help of Sultan Ovais attacked Shiraz. Shuja
was ditched by some army chieftains including his brother Sultan Ahmad. Thus, in 765
A.H. he left Shiraz for Abraqu. This ode is sung in Shah Shujas praise and Turk Pari
Chehrah refers to Shuja who from maternal side was a Qarakhatayee Turkan.

Additional Notes: Stanza 1, Persian word Khata is translated here as wrong. Hafiz has
used pun here. A city named Khata is found in Turkestan where the angry beloved seems
to have headed, taking the wrong road or taking a wrong course of action in quitting
Hafiz. Stanza 8, reference to Qanoon and Shifa is about the two famous treatises of
Avicenna (980-1037 AD) by this very name on medicine and other sciences. The use of
words is excellent in the meaning of Canon of Healing in this stanza.

91. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza1, is the name of a town between China and Turkestan.
Hafiz referred to or darlings of Khata in one of his odes (last stanza) which is
not found either in Persian editions of Dr. Xanlari or Qasem Ghani or even in Sudi
version but only found in the Sub-continent editions. This ode is as follows:







This ode bears 8 stanzas. Initial Stanza says that even sun need shade, it cannot face the
light of my beloveds face. Shade always feels ashamed before the sun. Last stanza as
shown above says that O Hafiz! Tell the preacher to stop giving sermons. And also stop
us not from indulging (in love) of . For quitting them is not a good thing. Pun in
the use of word Khata as the name of a city (as well as meaning by mistake) is obvious.

Stanza 5, as the medicine went beyond our reach, our pain persisted. Medicine here
refers to the union with beloved:

See in this stanza the use of words such as ( hands and
feet, came and went; fell down and stayed). Stanza 6, see the use of words ( )in
and ;one used for long epoch or ages, the other used as his ongoing life days. In
Stanza, Hafiz has given a subtlety of Tasawwuf namely; we face to Kaaba in prayer,
Hajj or pilgrimage to the House of God is also obligatory yet our ultimate end goal is not
the Kaaba. For Kaaba is not necessary.

Sufis deem the heart as the actual Kaaba.

Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi says about this as follows:






202


Last Stanza, come soon dear to enquire about my health before they tell you that I am
gone from this world.

An Urdu poet says:

A Sindhi poet also said something proverbial in the same vein:

What you will do after the death (weeping, regret or wish that I could have been with the
dead one when he was alive and paid my courtesies), why not take a little time and be by
the side of dear ones and serve them while they are alive.

92. Many a Snare




Save your pavilion on earth, I have no other shelter
I have no other resort or reference except this door (1)


If enemy draws the sword, my shield I will surrender
My sword is none other than the lament-n-clamour (2)


Save for tavern-alley, why I orient myself anywhere
To me in this world, no any path or manner is better (3)


If the world attempts to set harvest of my life on fire
Say; burn! not worth a blade of grass, doesnt matter (4)


Im a servant of the audacious eye of that tall figure
Who, drunk by arrogance, casts a look at nowhere (5)
by

You do whatever you like but annoy not anyone ever
In our faith save this, theres no any other sin or error (6)


Draw the reins as ye ride, the King of beauty sphere!

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Theres no street corner which is sans a justice-seeker (7)


I find everywhere around on my path many a snare
Save support from his tress no other refuge is better (8)


Eagle of tyranny spread wings in town everywhere
Bow of seclusion, arrow of sigh cant help one spare (9)


Trade not for mole or tress Hafizs hearts treasure
It is not worth those who are just dark-items bearer (10)

92. Sharah Jalalian: This ode said during the early days of Shah Shujas rule in Shiraz.
Hafiz was maltreated by earlier rulers police and officials. Here, in Stanza 6, he is
asking Shah to be just and not tyrant ruler. Rule of law is urged in Stanza 7. Stanza 8 is
in praise of tress of Shuja and last stanza speaks about his mole. Stanza 2 contents are
found in Francis Thompson (The Hound of Heaven):
Naked I wait Thy loves uplifted stroke!
My harness piece by piece Thou hast hewn from me

92. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, means shelter or resort. Nizami says:



It is reported that Anwari had presented an elegy in Sultan Sanjars court. Sultan was so
pleased he asked the poet if he wanted a job or just the reward. Anwari humbly submitted
the following:

One really cannot decide who said these lines first. One thing is clear; Anwari was born
in 6th A.H. while Hafiz was born in 8th A.H. Stanza 2, our sword is lament and wail, no
other shield or protection we keep. Saadi says:

Saadi also says:

Stanza 3, means for me better. Stanza 4, harvest of life (Kharman e Umr) is in my
eyes equal to a blade of grass. Let the world burn it if it so desires. See the contrast of
and Hafiz is indifferent to incidents of life and the episode of mortality.

Stanza 5, audacious, daring, appealing, deceiving. Stanza 6, teasing at someones


heart a big sin. Avoid this act.

Similar theme is contained in Ode 58/last stanza and Ode 106/6.

Stanza 9, entire town is tyrannized. Isnt in town a secluded-sitter who can kill these
tyrant eagle by his sigh?

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Last Stanza, Hafiz says that do not entrust my heart to tress and dark mole as it is a
precious thing. These dark-tanned are not worthy enough to preserve such a treasure. In
short, Hafiz is not the one to lose heart over mole or features, he needs some other
appealing attributes to be captivated by a sweetheart. See ode 58/stanzas 5 & 6.

93. Fasting Is Over, Bring Cup and Pitcher




Saki! bring wine, the month of fasting is over
Give cup, gone is the time of piety-n-honour (1)


Big time lost, lets make up for the lost prayer
For a life span spent sans the cup and decanter (2)


How long I repent or like aloe wood I smoulder
Give wine! life gone futile in false fancys fervour (3)


Drug me to the extent, in trance I be unaware
In my hallucination who came, who went where (4)


Hoping that a sip may reach us from yr liquor
In tavern raise for ye morn-n-eve many a prayer (5)


Heart had been dead but a new life it did savour
From his wines whiff entered its nose the odour (6)


Zahid by arrogance couldnt path safely steer
Profligate by humility reached Edens quarter (7)


My only cash- my heart that I spent on liquor
Counterfeit it was, illicit turned the expenditure (8)

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Zahid! suits ye the solitude, humility, prayer
Permanent ease is but destined to every lover (9)


Advise Hafiz no further; path he wont discover
Any lost one who ever tasted (loves) wine pure (10)

93. Sharah Jalalian: Kamal Khojandi says:



Hafiz took his lead from Khojandis above verse but instead of Shud, his rhyme ends in
Raft; both bear the same meaning (i.e. its gone or its over) yet Hafizs style is more
appealing. This is a taunting ode. In Stanza 1, the poet thinks the fasting (in the month of
Ramadhan) not as a time of prevention from food or drink during the day time but a
period of earning through hypocritical worship, excessive rewards; something of greedy
nature. In Stanza 2, he wants to drink so as to compensate (Qadha) for the time he
couldnt drink during the fasting month (Just as missing fasting is later observed as
Qadha).In Stanza 3, he talks of burning in repentance fire. What he means is that I
wasted time in false repentance so called piety, now give wine. Stanza 4 bears Nizamis
impression from Laila Majnoon:

In Stanza 7, he compares Zahid (pious ones) who rely on their worship with demon
(Shaitan) who was expelled from the paradise. Hafiz thinks a Rind (profligate) with his
humility and reliance on Gods infinite mercy will attain paradise. Saadi too in his book
Bostan speaks of an arrogant Zahid and a repenting sinner as follows:

93. Lisanul Ghaib: Fasting month , in Stanza 1, has been termed as


as it is the time everyone tries to attain maximum piety and earn rewards from the
Lord. See ode 106/1. Stanza 2, we make up for the loss of time we spent in Ramadhan
by drinking more wine (in Islamic terms, prayers missed in their due hour are performed
later and are called ). Stanza 7, Rind was able to attain paradise as, unlike arrogant
Zahid, he adopted humility and supplication.

Someone also said:


According to Saadi, a sinner came to Isa (Jesus) AS and said that he had done all kinds
of sins; now he regretted at his entire lifes immoral conduct. He wished it would have
been better if he had died in early age and then prayed:

At the same time, some pious person who was all-time worshipper also appeared before
Isa (Jesus) AS. Seeing the sinner, he became angry as to how dare a criminal fellow had
come to the company of Isa AS while he was scheduled to meet the Prophet of God. He
also prayed:

By then, Prophet Isa AS also came down. He told that God had sent him the angel
informing that the prayers of both persons had been accepted. Sinner will enter paradise

206
and the pious man will not be given such a company, he will have to stay the other side
(hell).






Saadi adds into this anecdote:


For similar theme, see ode 42/2 and ode 54/last stanza. Quran says:


He knoweth that which goeth into the earth and that which cometh forth from it, and that
descendeth from the heaven and that which ascendeth into it. He is the Merciful, the
Forgiving ) Al-saba-34, Verse 2).
Syed Hussain al-Waiz Kashfi says that of the things that ascend the heavens is the cry
of repenters and the lament of penniless which rises from the breasts to the merciful
court of the Lord at the morning hour. Ameer Meenai says:


On similar theme is:

Khuwajah Moeenuddin Ajmeri R.A. says:


Stanza 8, has two meanings; heart as well counterfeit coin. It has been used here as
double entendre. Last Stanza, nor more admonishing or advice for Hafiz will work.
Those lost on the path of love rarely return back.

A lover has been termed as or the lost one as deemed by ascetics and ritual clergy.
In fact, he is the one who is on i.e. on the right path.

94. Lovers Business in Expansion



His pain got a foothold in my hearts haven
My head in the craze of his tress since then (1)


His lip, hot like fire is nectar, lifes provision
But by that water we have got inflammation (2)


Its been a lifetime, with courage of a falcon
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Desire for that tall-statured beauty I carry on (3)


For his tall stature eversince lover I did turn
Lovers business now goes up, in expansion (4)


Since under his mercy shade, our habitation
Why he lifted that shade, us he did abandon (5)


Today smells of ambergris the breeze of morn
Perchance, path of desert my friend has taken (6)


From my eye-streams, jewel like tears run
Entire world glows by my pearls reflection (7)


Theres no remedy for lovers grief save wine
Lover has got hold of the cup for this reason (8)


O cypress-tall! In yr praise Hafizs oration
Like yr height it achieved a worlds renown (9)

Stanza 6, because of the beloved (Murshid), the breeze of morn is ambergris-scented.

95. Your Union Chamber


!
My leader! What a gait youve, I die on yr figure
My beauty! Ye move sweetly, I die on yr stature (1)
:

When Ill die before you? from me ye enquire
208
Befitting is your order, I die on your such desire (2)


Where is sweet Saki, I am a forlorn, drunk lover
I die on his lovely stature, tell him! happily loiter (3)


Lifetime gone in yr separation, pale is my color
Give me a look, before yr dark grey eye I expire (4)
:

My ruby-lip is pain-n-panacea both, ye did utter
I die, at times by pain, at times by (your lips) cure (5)


Evil eye be off yr face, ye walk in graceful manner
Deep down in my head, dying at yr feet I venture (6)

!
Though Hafiz has no place in yr union chamber
Any place that seems ye good, I can die anywhere (7)

96. Beloved is Close and Cordial



Its been a longtime, fire of his craze in our soul
See my longing ever Ive in my heart ramshackle (1)


My eye pupils are dipped in pure liver-blood; full
His face glows in my breast; it is in constant wail (2)


Life-water- a drop from his ruby-lip does dribble
Suns disc, to his moon-like face it does resemble (3)
" "

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I heard; breathed in him My soul verse infallible
It shoes; we are from Him, from us He does hail (4)


Not all hearts know loves mysteries confidential
The knower of this secret is our soul so spiritual (5)


Preacher! how long ye to tell of religion in detail
Our zeal in both worlds, with friend must assemble (6)
!

Hafiz! Give thanks till the last day; favour eternal
From day one, that idols our guest close-n-cordial (7)

96. Explanatory Notes: Stanza 4, The Lord God made man from the dust and breathed
into his nostrils the breath of life (Genesis ii, 7). Quran says:
" When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed


into him of My spirit, (Al-Hijr-15, Verse 29)

Last Stanza, is time when having entered the crowd of lovers of God, he took
upon the burden (amanat) of love. From non-existence or loosening world, he came to
existence or the binding world. He came for the acquisition of the object (God) and for
desire of knowledge of the Adored Lord. He took it as easy house of aunt and not as a
difficult prison-house. Happy that time (before birth) when we were happy of state in
non-existence. Neither the talk of separation (from God) nor the search of union (with
God).


O you Saki! Bring the bowl and serve the liquor
Seen easy earlier, love developd difficulties later

97. Many a Joseph of Egypt



Image of your face our co-traveler on everyway
Yr hair fragrance with our sober soul does stay (1)

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Those who forbid from love their thoughts astray
Your face-beauty is our best proof, none can deny (2)


See the apple-dimple of yr chin what does say
Thousands of Egyptian Josephs fell in our bay (3)


If our hand cant reach yr long tress in anyway
A fault of our bad luck; our hands access lowly (4)


Apparently though he is veiled from our eye
In the tranquil eye of ours he does ever stay (5)


Please tell the gate-keeper of yr private gallery
Mr. X is one who our abodes dust does carry (6)


To beg if Hafiz knocks the door, give entry
It is years, our moon-like face he does fancy (7)

97. Sharah Jalalian: This ode possibly sung during Shujas times of struggle with
religious Muftis as Hafiz was not close by. Stanza 2, he says that despite being
prevented by these religious watchers, I am for you and looking forward to resumption of
our company and sessions. Stanza 3 is a reference to Prophet Yousuf. Like him, Shujas
brother too will be arrested by the Shah someday.

97. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, from our soul the perfume of your love is never
separated. Stanza 2, has been used in ode 81/last stanza in a slightly different
context. Poet has many reasonable and logical arguments to become a lover of that
beauty.

Stanza 3, for dimple-chin or see ode 12/6. Stanza 4, one Urdu poet said:

See how Hafiz use and Something on these
lines said in ode 28/8. Stanza 5, means comfortable, in ease ad luxury. This word is
used for the eye because the beloved is present in it

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According to Wilberforce Clark, Stanza 6, Iblis (Shaitan) is the guardian of the door of
unity (Hajib) and a prohibitor of the holy traveller of unity. Quran says:


And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so
Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith. (Al-Baqarah-2,
Verse 34).
He is accursed and respited till the Judgment Day:

He said: Then go thou forth from hence, for lo! thou art outcast. And lo! the curse shall
be upon thee till the Day of Judgment. (Al-Hijr-15, Verses 34-35)
He has no power to injure Gods men:

Lo! as for My slaves, thou hast no power
over any of them save such of the froward as follow thee,(Al-Hijr-15, Verse 42).

Last Stanza is addressed to the watcher (Iblis) and uttered by the true beloved (God).

98. If It Happened, So It Is



If by yr musky tress trick, a sin occurred, its over
If by your mole, any injustice we suffered, its over (1)


If loves lightning, harvest of wool-clad smouldered
If a triumphant king, on a beggar rigoured, its over (2)


In the path of Tarikat, bring wine, be not worried
Every impurity by cleanliness gets cleared, its over (3)


Love game seeks forbearance, unease be endured
If anguish was any, if torment plundered, its over (4)


If beloveds eye burdened lover-heart, so gestured
An event that between friends transpired, its over (5)


By carpers, gossip-mongers, always rumours stirred

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Among co-sitters, if an argument occurred, its over (6)


O Zahid! Hafiz left monastery, why he be censured
Bind not free foot, to other place he retired, its over (7)

98. Sharah Jalalian: Said at the time of exile from Shiraz to Yazd. A goodbye to Shuja
and expression of carefree attitude on the part of the poet. In literary sessions before the
Shah, some jealous souls conspired against Hafiz and he planned to leave away from the
court for a while. Stanza 2, Pashmina Poshi is being clad in wool as Sufis often wear;
Sufi in Arabic means wool. Rigours of Shah or his tyranny could be metaphorical or
physical as shows Stanza 4. In Stanza 3, Tariqat is the path of love- the Way of the
Mystic. Last stanza, he tells Turan Shah- the Vizir of Shuja not blame Hafiz, he is
afterall gone.

98. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, friends can do harm or torment the lover, there is nothing
strange in it:

Stanza 4, if one has indulged into the trouble of love, one must conduct with
forbearance. Hafiz says at another place:

Stanza 6, keep doing their dirty tricks. Saadi says:

99. Holy Spirit transmits Secret




Any chaste-eyed one who on bless-earning intent
Sought a tavern-corner, therein meekly supplicate (1)


Paths traveler attained by dregs-drinkers goblet
Of this exposed world, many a good secret fact (2)


Come! Get from me intellect, see! in my statement
Are subtleties gained thru favour of the Holy Spirit (3)


Probe not my zodiac, my star turned me inebriate
This habit linked with my birth star from the outset (4)

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Look! from the horizon, you did rise a bit different
Wine-drinking duty, perhaps, last night you forgot (5)


Only if a doctor, Jesus-breath do a miracle manifest
For my bad condition is well beyond a routine visit (6)


A million thanks, Hafiz- thru tavern end last night
Came to the cloister, very obedient, to supplicate (7)

99. Sharah Jalalian: Last Stanza, with sincerity, to offer devotion only two times is
higher in attaining divine reward than forty years of devotional worship wherein is the
trace of hypocrisy.

99. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, means to become disciple.



Stanza 2, cups blessing opened many a high-level subtleties on the lover. See ode
64/stanzas 2 & 5. Stanza 3, Hafiz himself claims to be Lisanul Ghaib or the Tongue of
the Hidden.


Stanza 4, See similar fatalism in ode 61/4. Stanza 5, perhaps a reference to the Alast
Covenant of Day One. Remember it and deprive not lover from your vision. Last
Stanza, if in line one the word is changed with the word and in the second line
the word is changed to , then the meaning would come out as Thanks God!
Last night Hafiz quit the corner of supplication and obedience and adopted the tavern i.e.
he quit asceticism and became a wayfarer on the loves path.

100. And He Left



We tasted not even a sip of his ruby lip, he left
We satiated not, a face of moon-shape, he left (1)


It seems as if in our company he had got fed up
Packd goods, his dust I couldnt catch up, he left (2)


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Fatiha verse, Yemen amulet I never gave up
After him, breathed Ikhlas verse thru lip, he left (3)


Kindly gestured that us hell never quit or drop
We took his word, later to us he did dupe, he left (4)


With panache came to the garden; so his step
His company we savoured never his lap, he left (5)
:

Said; whoever seeks my union, his Self give up
I ditched myself from me, in this hope, he left (6)


Grace in his face, Gods creation, what a shape
Such a face, I couldnt dare at him peep, he left (7)


Said; obey my order and I wont ye ever dump
From his order, not an inch I ever did slip, he left (8)


Like Hafiz, we spent all night in cries, wept deep
Pity! even to see him off we didnt catch up, he left (9)

100. Sharah Jalalian: Jalalian thinks Hafiz said this ode upon long distance travels of
Shah Shuja to Isfahan and Tabriz. Hafiz was not in favour of these travels and possibly
sent this ode to Shah during his stay abroad. Stanza 3 has three Arabic terms. Fatiha is
the opening chapter of Quran- the essence of Quran; a verse uttered in every prayer, at
the time of sending blessings to departed soul, in the hour of distress, in short a
Paternoster on many occasions. It contains seven verses. The cheek of the beloved is also
a manifestation of the seven names of God. Hirz e Yemani is an amulet or even a prayer
that Prophet SAW taught to Sayadna Ali A.S. when sending him as envoy to Yemen.
Ikhlas is one of the last chapters of Quran that mentions about Tawheed or Oneness of
God, His Exclusivity and undivided Eternity.

100. Lisanul Ghaib: Stanza 1, we hadnt even seen him to our satiation and he quit. See
ode 69/1&2.

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Stanza 2, although it usually means good, pious; here it means too much, enough.
Stanza 3, Surah Ikhlas is recited for sincerity and affection and Surah Fatiha to ward off
or resolve hardships and troubles. Our prayers didnt work and he left.


Stanza 5, means to walk with stylish gait, to swagger in pride; is a particular
area in a garden which abounds in flowers. Some others say is derived from the word
which means the place to walk or loiter hence the word should mean the path for
walking in a garden, like modern days jogging track. Stanza 6, there is no other way but
to sell oneself before becoming a buyer of that beloved.

Stanza 7, he is a model of Gods human creations.

Last Stanza carries the same theme as shown in line two stanza 2. Even using the word
can be befitting instead of

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