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Jojoba: A Potential Desert Oil

Crop
Jojoba, [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider]
is a new oil-producing industrial crop that has
attracted much attention in recent years. Jojoba oil
is unique in nature. No other plant is known to
produce oil like jojobas. It is used in the cosmetic,
medical, pharmaceutical, food products,
manufacturing, and automotive industries (as
lubricant). And it is a renewable energy resource.
It is remarkable to note that, in spite of the
variability in size or where grown, each jojoba
seed contains an average of 50% pure oil by
volume. Jojoba is native to the semiarid regions of
southern Arizona, southern California and northwestern Mexico. Now Jojoba is being cultivated in Israel
and Rajasthan, India to provide a renewable source of unique high-quality oil. Much of the interest in
jojoba worldwide is the result of the plant's ability to survive in a harsh desert environment. Jojoba can
be grown as an oil-producing cash crop. Jojoba is very drought-resistant and can be grown on marginal
lands without replacing any existing crops. Fully mature shrubs or trees can reach a height of 15 feet
with a potential natural life span of 100 to 200 years depending on environmental conditions. For
optimum production, the crop needs irrigation, care, and a good cultivar.

The arid lands of Rajasthan are all set to usher in a revolution in Indian agriculture, with planned large-
scale cultivation of the exotic jojoba plant. Rajasthan government has allotted 110 hectare of
wastelands including 70 hectare at Fatehpur in Sikar district and 40 hectare at Dhand in Jaipur district
for jojoba plantation. Jojoba plantation project was formulated in 1995 for a period of five years, with a
revised financial outlay of around 670000 US$ to be met by central assistance. Jojoba in the country is
now being grown in an estimated area of about 500 hectare and the area is increasing every year. The
production estimate for this plantation is 25 million tonne. About 90 per cent of the jojoba cultivation is
in Rajasthan.

Our technocrats believe that jojoba oil shows a lot of promise as an alternative source of fuel. It
releases a lot of energy when it burns. The driving force to find such fuel source stems from the need to
find an alternative fuel to petroleum oil. In addition to this, the jojoba renewable nature is attractive and
can produce less pollution. Jojoba oil appears to be promising, also with promising scope for cultivation
in the relatively hot weather Considering Jojobas potential as an oilseed feedstock for biodiesel, CJP
has honor to establish this untapped resource as alternative source for Bio- Diesel industry of future.
About the Plant
Jojoba is a perennial,
dioecious, evergreen
shrub or small tree that
lives under diverse
environmental
conditions. It has an
extensive and deep root
system and requires little
care if maximum seed production is not desired. Jojoba is valuable as a soil conservation and
landscape plant for highway shoulders, city parks, and other places that cannot afford much care.
Jojoba (pronounced ho-HO-ba) is being cultivated to provide a renewable source of unique high-quality
oil. Jojoba is a woody evergreen shrub that typically grows to a height of 10 to 15 ft. Leaves are
opposite, oval or lanceolate, gray green, and have a waxy cuticle that reduces moisture loss. The plant
develops one or a few long tap roots (up to 40 ft) that can supply water and minerals from far below the
soil surface. Jojoba does not shed its leaves with the change in seasons.

Common Name:
Common Name: Jojoba
Latin Name: Simmondsia chinensis
Family: Simmondsiaceae
Other Names: goat nut, deer nut, pignut, wild hazel, quinine nut, coffeeberry, and gray box bush.
BOTANIC DESCRIPTION
Simmondsia chinensis is a leafy, xerophytic, woody evergreen dioecious shrub or small multi-stemmed
tree that grows to a height of 0.51 m in the wild, occasionally to 6 m tall with taproots to 12 m long.
Leaves opposite, oval or lanceolate, grey green or bluish-green, leathery, oblong, opposite, 2.53.5 cm
long and contain special tissue with a high concentration of phenol compounds.
Flowers apetalous, dioecious; the male flowers are yellow, larger, and occur in clusters with 1012
stamens per flower; female flowers small, usually solitary in the axils or in clusters at the nodes, pale
green with 5 greenish sepals, soft and hairy.
Fruits green capsules, ovoid, usually dehiscent with 1-3 seeds. Seed peanut-sized, dark brown, the
endosperm scanty or absent
The jojoba plant is dioecious. The gender of jojoba plants can only be discerned from their flowers.
When planted from seeds, jojoba plants can take up to three years to produce flowers. The female
plants produce seed from flowers pollinated by the male plants. Seed production is generally limited
until the fourth year of growth.
DISTRIBUTION
Jojoba is a native to the Sonoran Desert. Most natural populations exist only inside a quadrangle with
Riverside (California), Globe (Arizona), Guaymas (Sonora, Mexico), and Cabo San Lucas (Baja
California, Mexico) as its four corners, and comprise about 100,000 square miles between latitudes 25
and 34 North. These disjunctive jojoba populations occur from sea level to about 1,500 m altitude on
coarse
Environment Requirements:
A. Climate:
The plant is drought resistant and to some extent also salt-resistant, ranging from warm temperate
desert (with little or no frost) to thorn through tropical desert forest life zones. It grows best where the
annual rainfall exceeds 300 mm, but does exist where less than 125 mm occur. Jojoba requires the
most water during late winter and early spring.
It tolerates full sun and temperatures ranging from 0-47C. Mature shrubs tolerate temperatures as low
as -10C, but seedlings are sensitive to light frosts just below freezing. Frost may not damage taller
plants to the same degree, but it can reduce yield. Jojoba is very tolerant of high temperatures.
B. Soil:
Soil texture is important as jojoba grows best in sandy or decomposed granite or rocky soils and
slowest in heavy clay soils such as adobe. Even if the fertility of the soil is marginal, jojoba is still able to
produce well without the use of fertilizers

BIOPHYSICAL LIMITS
Altitude: 0-1500 m
Mean annual temperature: 12-35C
Mean annual rainfall: 200-1100 mm
Soil type: Jojoba is usually restricted to well-drained, coarse, sandy or gravelly soils, well-aerated
desert soils that are neutral to alkaline, with an abundance of phosphorus and pH of 7.3 to 8.2.
Agronomy:Jojoba
Farming: CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY
Jojoba has the distinction of being the domesticated plant
successfully in desert of Rajasthan, India. The methods used by
jojoba farmers in the past have been varied, as there were no real
records of the performance of cultivated plants in existence.
Subsequent research, however, has led to a greater understanding
of the classic farming requirements for jojoba.
Jojoba has very promising scope for cultivation in the desert even in
the relatively hot weather. Its nature withstands the hot weather in
summer, warm weather in winter, low fertility of soil and low water
resources. It needs less than one quarter the amount of water
needed for olives with great ability to withstand the high salt in the
soil. The payback for planting Jojoba is encouraging. To be used as
fuel it needs to be cultivated in huge amounts which are easy in
desert land in many countries.
Soil texture is important as jojoba grows best in sandy or
decomposed granite or rocky soils and slowest in heavy clay soils
such as adobe. Even if the fertility of the soil is marginal, jojoba is still able to produce well without the
use of fertilizers. However, jojoba plants kept in containers seem to do better with some fertilization.
Irrigation systems are a must when establishing jojoba plantations whether by planting seeds or
seedlings. The plants seem to do well on their own after two years of intensive watering in early winter
and spring when the jojoba plant maximally utilizes water for growth. This watering period is a plus for
the jojoba farmer as jojoba's water requirements will not conflict with the watering requirements for
traditional crops. Under ideal conditions of soil, water and sun, the tap root will grow an inch a day;
within two years the roots should reach the level of the aquifer thus enabling sufficient growth for seed
production without supplemental watering.
In order to maximize production, it would seem advantageous to plant rooted cuttings from sexed plants
which are known high producers or known to have seeds with high oil content. Rooting the cuttings
takes a little bit of technical knowhow but it would be worthwhile to have a plantation with 90% to 95%
female plants, leaving the 5% or 10% males to produce adequate pollen for all the female flowers.
Yield Potential and Performance Results:
Jojoba generally does not produce an economically useful yield until the fourth or fifth year after
planting. Seed yields in natural stands of jojoba range from a few seeds to as much as 5 Kg of clean,
dry seed per plant. Production of seed varies greatly from plant to plant in a stand and from year to year
for a particular plant.
Currently, the average yield of commercial Plantations that were established with selected higher
yielding clones is capable of producing 1 to 11 tons from 7th to 15th year per ha .
Yield: Jojoba
PRODUCTION/ PRODUCTION 2250
serial no. TIME
PLANT PLANTS/hectare
1 1st Year Nil Nil
2 2nd Year Nil Nil
3 3rd Year 50 112.5
4 4th Year 100 225
5 5th Year 200 450
6 6th Year 350 787.5
7 7th Year 500 1125
8 8th Year 750 1687.5
9 9th Year 1000 2250
10 10th Year 1500 3375
11 11th year 2000 4500
12 12th year 2500 5625
13 13th Year 3000 6750
14 14th year 4000 9000
15 15th year 5000 11250
TOTAL 20950 47137.5
Above maintained production is expected, can vary according to climate conditions.
CULTIVATION OF JOJOBA BY SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Selection of land
Climate: -
Seedbed Preparation
Seeding Date
Method and Rate of Seeding
Variety Selection
Preparation of land
Plantation
Irrigation
Manure and fertilizer
Plantation and precaution
Male and female Ratio
Method for obtaining fruit
Inter crops
Weed Control
Diseases and Their Control
Insects and Other Predators and Their Control
Harvesting
Drying and Storage

CJP carefully manages Jojoba Plant cultivation, with advanced crop practices suitable to local soil,
weather, pest, and disease conditions to ensure the high amount of oil as we have developed
enhanced technology with regards to:-

Planting materials & other inputs


Crop Management
Irrigation Management
Fertilizer Management
Pest & Diseases management.
Harvesting Management
Post harvest management
And finally grading for further process

The key factors governing profitability of large scale production


are:
it is assumed that jojoba is grown under conditions which are conducive to commercial yields. Frost is a
limiting factor. Similarly, adverse rainfall and temperature conditions can limit the commercial
production of the crop. Therefore, while it is evident that jojoba may survive in some more marginal
areas, it is equally as evident that it is not likely to produce commercial yields.
CJPs Researchers have developed standardized techniques for growing Jojoba Plant on large
scale. CJP ensures Organic Jojoba plantation right from the land preparation, crop management to
production of end product. CJP Jojoba oil Farms are under the vigilant supervision of agronomists, who
make sure that the latest and best breed of Jojoba Plant, is being planted. However, we keep a close
watch on the research results of Jojoba Plant breeding by studying thousands of Jojoba Plant variants,
identifying and collecting the best sources of high-quality. This not only removed the uncertainty from
the yield, it also provides multiple harvests within a few months. Accordingly, the enhanced variety of
Jojoba with regards to seed yield and oil yield and the enhanced Jojoba Cultivation techniques may
ensure proper and profitable production of the OIL CROP providing early fruition and flowering
CJP is happy to announce the market release of the Oil Crop Jojoba Cultivation Technology at
an affordable Price

Jojoba Crop Information Growing & Care Instruction Manual and


Monitoring &
management system

The planting, looking after


and harvesting plants is an
important factor and it
requires a lot of knowledge,
skill and techniques viz: the
best planting season to make
the plant early matured, then
an amount of seeds to be
planted, an irrigation &
fertilization method, a control
method of weeds , investigate
quality, yield, and degree of
occurrence of several troubles
.

As all biological organisms


require care and attention, the need to draw Growing Instructions was being felt by all
concerned
Therefore keeping in view Various concerns and problems of a new Grower; CJP being The
Centre of Excellence has designed Jojoba Growing & Care Instructions
Manual with Monitoring & Management System Diary on the basis of our own tried, tested,
developed and experienced Plant Propagation and Cultivation Technologies and Practices to
help you grow a Failsafe Jojoba Farm

The Jojoba Growing & Care Instructions manual provides basic guidance for the project
developers to help ensure successful Jojoba planting projects.

Proper planning, planting and maintenance are the key for growing flourishing plants. Simply
putting a plant in the ground is not enough. Careful thought must be given to the purpose of
the planting, location of the planting and how the Jojoba will be cared for once they are in the
ground.

A properly planted and maintained plant will grow faster and live longer than one that is
incorrectly planted. This booklet is organized as a step-by-step checklist of fundamentals to
help you with your Jojoba planting project

We have sincerely tried to put all steps in nutshell and hope it will be a useful tool in growing
your Biodiesel Plantation

Both the Jojoba publications are available

Order Just Know

Agricultural Extension Kit

CJP has specifically developed and designed a unique kit for JojobaL plantation and crop
care for 1 hectare called: Agricultural Extension Kit a key to your fuel farm just enables
& encourages the farmers/ new growers to start the Biodiesel crop cultivation in a right and
prefect manner by adopting the concept of sustainable agriculture.

Jojoba Starter Kit:

Jojoba Agri- Extension Kit contains

1. SRIPHL JJ03 Elite planting stock for cultivation 0.5 acre

2. an easy- to- follow growing and crop care instructions manual

3. a very typical monitoring and management diary

Order Just Know

Jojoba: Class 1 Fresh seeds with highest oil content


JOJOBA

Type
Style Natural
Cultivation Type Organic
Purity 100%
Moisture >8%
Place of Origin Rajasthan, India
Brand Name hohoba
Model Number 2012
Hybrid No

TERMS & CONDITIONS

Packing: 2,10,20,50 KG Bags

Shipment: FOB/CIF

Minimum QUANTITY: 3.0 tons by sea, 2 kg by air

PRICE: quote?

Working time: 30 days After Payment

ALL PAYMENT TERM:100 % Advance

Phyto sanitary charge: included

Order Just Know


For Jojoba Failsafe Farm
JO03Rc Identified Elite Class 1 Jojoba Rooted Cuttings

With Scientific advancement CJP has selectively bred certain high yielding jojoba plants and
developed our identified high-yielding jojoba Rooted Cutting Plants for creating FAIL SAFE
JOJOBA FARM withStandard Package of Practices (SOP) enable JO03Rc Rooted
Cutting sapling to enhance productivity to achieve greater yields over the lifetime of the
plantation with the right crop inputs and management

Order Just Know

An Economic Evaluation of Jojoba Farming

Economics of
Production and
Markets:
Successful long-term production
of jojoba depends on improved
yield and a strong market.
Industry is typically hesitant to
invest in new technology
involving an agriculturally
produced resource until a steady
and continued supply of that
resource can be demonstrated. The value of jojoba oil as an alternative industrial oil with multiple
applications and as a replacement for non-renewable fossil petroleum has been demonstrated.

The jojoba bush has been proposed as a highly profitable new crop being grown in India, in Australia, in
Egypt and in America. It can be grown in arid areas yields and growing costs to make estimates of the
probability of jojoba growing -producing particular levels of profit needs to be examined in depth.
The cost of development of jojoba plantation including micro irrigation is Rs US$ 2000 per hectare. The
cost of production of one kg of jojoba in US is Rs 2.5$, in Israel it is Rs 1.3$ and in India it is 0.5$. This
low cost of production in the country gives it a competitive edge.
As the jojoba plant does not reach full maturity for about ten years and can survive for more than 100
years, the establishment of a jojoba plantation is a long-term investment which lends itself to cost-
benefit analysis. Jojoba generally does not produce an economically useful yield until the fourth or fifth
year after planting. Jojoba is a multiyear crop by plantation of this the farmer is saved from repeated
sowing. The crop of it does not need dugging and watch and word. According to the opinion of
agriculture specialist it can be cultivated with low water, fertilizer and pesticide. Neither stray cattle nor
pet cattle eat its plant. Its good production gives very high income to the farmers as compare to the
traditional farming

ECONOMICS: JOJOBA

Serial Time Production/ Production 2250 Cost Of Crop @ US$ Crop Cost
No. Plant Plants/Hectare 3/Kg.

1 1st Year Nil Nil Nil Nil


2 2nd Year Nil Nil Nil Nil
3 3rd Year 50 112.5 $338 $2,000
4 4th Year 100 225 $675 $140
5 5th Year 200 450 $1,350 $100
6 6th Year 350 787.5 $2,363 $100
7 7th Year 500 1125 $3,375 $200
8 8th Year 750 1687.5 $5,063 $250
9 9th Year 1000 2250 $6,750 $300
10 10th Year 1500 3375 $10,125 $350
11 11th year 2000 4500 $13,500 $400
12 12th year 2500 5625 $16,875 $450
13 13th Year 3000 6750 $20,250 $500
14 14th year 4000 9000 $27,000 $500
15 15th year 5000 11250 $33,750 $500
TOTAL 20950 47137.5 $141,413 $5,790

JOJOBA BUSINESS PLAN

Sample/ Ready Built Business Plans

Sample/ready built Biodiesel business plans are drawn in universal scenario based on optimum
conditions for growing the biodiesel crop worldwide and on crop specific science, agronomy and
economy in wider context

Sample/readymade business plan are available for 20 hectare, 100 hectare and 500 hectare as per
details on page http://www.jatrophaworld.org/biodiesel_business_plan_95.html

Feasibility Study Report

We recommend carrying out Feasibility Study Report for project size of 5000 hectares or more to
determine the land identification and suitability of growing the
Jojoba

Customized, Complete & Comprehensive Business Plan

We make the integration of our experience, expertise and


professional knowledge with your information and formulate
customized biodiesel business plan. In undertaking this Technical &
Financial Inputs assessment, we shall have relied on Primary inputs
supplied by you, our IPR knowledge & research experiences and
expertise in the field; on industry experts and secondary information
derived from recognized public sources and via CJP's database and
multi-client reports.

CJP can help clients identify the needs, opportunities and solutions
of their local, regional and national markets. By identifying these
needs and providing management direction, CJP can help in creating a perfect business plan in order
to develop and manage an effective and successful biodiesel facility. The most critical component of
any business plan is the pro forma, an educated view or projection of what the performance of a
company is capable of, given a specific set of assumptions and conditions. CJP has been involved in
identifying these needs for specific projects for a number of years and can help develop a realistic and
obtainable:

Income Statement
Balance Sheet
Capital Budget
Cash Flow
Break-even Analysis
Sensitivity Analysis
Assumptions Governing the Projections

These projections will be valuable in determining feasibility of the project, securing financing, attracting
investment and guiding management so that the company can reach its full potential.For detailed Cost-
Benefit Analysis of Jojoba Growing and For a detailed quote for a complete and comprehensive
Jojoba Farming Business Plan from Farming to fuel, kindly mail
tojojobaworld@gmail.com

Jojoba Energy Project Services (JOEP)


Based on our proprietary knowledge and extensive experience gained we have developed and
enhanced a wide range of Products just to ensure A FAILSAFE JOJOBA FARM

C J P has developed a set of JOEP services with access to our own supply chain intellectual
property rights (IPR) and exclusive expertise with technological background and experiences in
the field for creation of your ambitious Green Energy Farm.
JOEP SERVICE 1: (preliminary stage)
Land identification is a pre-requisite to development of a Project plan and to meet this
requirement Pre-feasibility Study is required to be getting carried out from the competent
experienced agency. We do carry out the Pre-feasibility study report for choosing the best
location for your green energy Project

JOEP SERVICE 2: (preparatory stage)


The formulation of business plan needs in- depth specialists from each field. CJP can offer
nonfood renewable energy projects with many plans, resources and proven profitable models.
Our specialty is business planning with the focus on high productivity and profitability. Getting
the best business plan formation mail to us

JOEP SERVICE 3: (pre-plantation stage)


Getting the best planting stock/material is the most important KEY Strategy to ensure a failsafe
farm. We have developed best variety called SRIPHL MO3 with more seeds and more oil per
ha with flowering and fruiting.

We provide identified high-yielding jojoba Rooted Cutting Plants of superior genotype

JOEP SERVICE 4: (Plantation stage)


Adopting Best Practices in Agronomy
In order to achieve commercial perfection, it is crucial to understand the crops requirements,
predict its possible interactions with the environment & develop packages of practices for
industrial cultivation
That's why CJP is providing low-cost Crop Cultivation Technology & Crop Care
Technology which includes

Improved Agricultural Practices


Varietal Improvements
Enhanced cultural practices
Pest & Disease Control
Intercropping
Going "Green" with the use of Microbial fertilizers
Fine-tuning practices to soil type, environmental conditions & labor

For further details kindly mail or contact


Assistant Director, CJP
Tele: +91-9413334600