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Corporate governance
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Corporate governance is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and
directed.[1] Governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and responsibilities among
different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors,
regulators, and other stakeholders) and includes the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate
affairs.[2] Corporate governance includes the processes through which corporations' objectives are set and pursued
in the context of the social, regulatory and market environment. Governance mechanisms include monitoring the
actions, policies, practices, and decisions of corporations, their agents, and affected stakeholders. Corporate
governance practices are affected by attempts to align the interests of stakeholders.[3][4] Interest in the corporate
governance practices of modern corporations, particularly in relation to accountability, increased following the
high-profile collapses of a number of large corporations during 20012002, most of which involved accounting
fraud; and then again after the recent financial crisis in 2008.

Corporate scandals of various forms have maintained public and political interest in the regulation of corporate
governance. In the U.S., these include Enron and MCI Inc. (formerly WorldCom). Their demise led to the
enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, a U.S. federal law intended to restore public confidence in corporate
governance. Comparable failures in Australia (HIH, One.Tel) are associated with the eventual passage of the
CLERP 9 reforms.[5] Similar corporate failures in other countries stimulated increased regulatory interest (e.g.,
Parmalat in Italy).

Contents
1 Stakeholder interests
2 Other definitions
3 Principles
4 Models
4.1 Continental Europe (Two-tier board system)
4.2 India
4.3 United States, United Kingdom
5 Regulation
5.1 Sarbanes-Oxley Act
6 Codes and guidelines
6.1 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development principles
6.2 Stock exchange listing standards
6.3 Other guidelines
7 History
7.1 United States of America
7.2 East Asia
7.3 Iran
7.4 Saudi Arabia
8 Stakeholders
8.1 Responsibilities of the board of directors
8.2 Stakeholder interests
8.3 Absentee landlords vs. capital stewards
8.3.1 United Kingdom
8.4 Control and ownership structures
8.4.1 Family control
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8.4.2 Diffuse shareholders


9 Mechanisms and controls
9.1 Internal corporate governance controls
9.2 External corporate governance controls
9.3 Financial reporting and the independent auditor
10 Systemic problems
11 Issues
11.1 Executive pay
11.2 Separation of Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board roles
12 See also
13 References
14 Further reading
15 External links

Stakeholder interests
In contemporary business corporations, the main external stakeholder groups are shareholders, debtholders, trade
creditors and suppliers, customers, and communities affected by the corporation's activities. Internal stakeholders
are the board of directors, executives, and other employees.

Much of the contemporary interest in corporate governance is concerned with mitigation of the conflicts of
interests between stakeholders.[6] In large firms where there is a separation of ownership and management and no
controlling shareholder, the principalagent issue arises between upper-management (the "agent") which may have
very different interests, and by definition considerably more information, than shareholders (the "principals"). The
danger arises that, rather than overseeing management on behalf of shareholders, the board of directors may
become insulated from shareholders and beholden to management.[7] This aspect is particularly present in
contemporary public debates and developments in regulatory policy.[3]

Ways of mitigating or preventing these conflicts of interests include the processes, customs, policies, laws, and
institutions which affect the way a company is controlled.[8][9] An important theme of governance is the nature and
extent of corporate accountability. A related discussion at the macro level focuses on the effect of a corporate
governance system on economic efficiency, with a strong emphasis on shareholders' welfare.[10] This has resulted
in a literature focussed on economic analysis.[11][12][13]

Other definitions
Corporate governance has also been more narrowly defined as "a system of law and sound approaches by which
corporations are directed and controlled focusing on the internal and external corporate structures with the
intention of monitoring the actions of management and directors and thereby, mitigating agency risks which may
stem from the misdeeds of corporate officers."[14]

Corporate governance has also been defined as "Is the act of externally directing, controlling and evaluating a
corporation"[15] and related to the definition of Governance as "The act of externally directing, controlling and
evaluating an entity, process or resource".[16] In this sense, Governance and Corporate Governance are different
from management because governance must be EXTERNAL to the object being governed. Governing agents do
not have personal control over, and are not part of the object that they govern. For example, it is not possible for a
CIO to govern the IT function. They are personally accountable for the strategy and management of the function.
As such, they manage the IT function; they do not govern it. At the same time, there may be a number of

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policies, authorized by the board, that the CIO follows. When the CIO is following these policies, they are
performing governance activities because the primary intention of the policy is to serve a governance purpose.
The board is ultimately governing the IT function because they stand outside of the function and are only able to
externally direct, control and evaluate the IT function by virtue of established policies, procedures and indicators.
Without these policies, procedures and indicators, the board has no way of governing, let alone affecting the IT
function in any way.

One source defines corporate governance as "the set of conditions that shapes the ex post bargaining over the
quasi-rents generated by a firm."[17] The firm itself is modelled as a governance structure acting through the
mechanisms of contract.[18][10] Here corporate governance may include its relation to corporate finance.[19]

Principles
Contemporary discussions of corporate governance tend to refer to principles raised in three documents released
since 1990: The Cadbury Report (UK, 1992), the Principles of Corporate Governance (OECD, 1999, 2004 and
2015), the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (US, 2002). The Cadbury and Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD) reports present general principles around which businesses are expected to operate to
assure proper governance. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, informally referred to as Sarbox or Sox, is an attempt by the
federal government in the United States to legislate several of the principles recommended in the Cadbury and
OECD reports.

Rights and equitable treatment of shareholders:[20][21][22] Organizations should respect the rights of
shareholders and help shareholders to exercise those rights. They can help shareholders exercise their rights
by openly and effectively communicating information and by encouraging shareholders to participate in
general meetings.
Interests of other stakeholders:[23] Organizations should recognize that they have legal, contractual, social,
and market driven obligations to non-shareholder stakeholders, including employees, investors, creditors,
suppliers, local communities, customers, and policy makers.
Role and responsibilities of the board:[24][25] The board needs sufficient relevant skills and understanding
to review and challenge management performance. It also needs adequate size and appropriate levels of
independence and commitment.
Integrity and ethical behavior:[26][27] Integrity should be a fundamental requirement in choosing corporate
officers and board members. Organizations should develop a code of conduct for their directors and
executives that promotes ethical and responsible decision making.
Disclosure and transparency:[28][29] Organizations should clarify and make publicly known the roles and
responsibilities of board and management to provide stakeholders with a level of accountability. They should
also implement procedures to independently verify and safeguard the integrity of the company's financial
reporting. Disclosure of material matters concerning the organization should be timely and balanced to
ensure that all investors have access to clear, factual information.

Models
Different models of corporate governance differ according to the variety of capitalism in which they are embedded.
The Anglo-American "model" tends to emphasize the interests of shareholders. The coordinated or
[Multistakeholder Model] associated with Continental Europe and Japan also recognizes the interests of workers,
managers, suppliers, customers, and the community. A related distinction is between market-orientated and
network-orientated models of corporate governance.[30]

Continental Europe (Two-tier board system)

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Some continental European countries, including Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands, require a two-tiered Board
of Directors as a means of improving corporate governance.[31] In the two-tiered board, the Executive Board, made
up of company executives, generally runs day-to-day operations while the supervisory board, made up entirely of
non-executive directors who represent shareholders and employees, hires and fires the members of the executive
board, determines their compensation, and reviews major business decisions.[32]

India

The Securities and Exchange Board of India Committee on Corporate Governance defines corporate governance as
the "acceptance by management of the inalienable rights of shareholders as the true owners of the corporation and
of their own role as trustees on behalf of the shareholders. It is about commitment to values, about ethical business
conduct and about making a distinction between personal & corporate funds in the management of a
company."[33][34]

United States, United Kingdom

The so-called "Anglo-American model" of corporate governance emphasizes the interests of shareholders. It relies
on a single-tiered Board of Directors that is normally dominated by non-executive directors elected by
shareholders. Because of this, it is also known as "the unitary system".[35][36] Within this system, many boards
include some executives from the company (who are ex officio members of the board). Non-executive directors are
expected to outnumber executive directors and hold key posts, including audit and compensation committees. In
the United Kingdom, the CEO generally does not also serve as Chairman of the Board, whereas in the US having
the dual role has been the norm, despite major misgivings regarding the effect on corporate governance.[37] The
number of US firms combining both roles is declining, however.[38]

In the United States, corporations are directly governed by state laws, while the exchange (offering and trading) of
securities in corporations (including shares) is governed by federal legislation. Many US states have adopted the
Model Business Corporation Act, but the dominant state law for publicly traded corporations is Delaware, which
continues to be the place of incorporation for the majority of publicly traded corporations.[39] Individual rules for
corporations are based upon the corporate charter and, less authoritatively, the corporate bylaws.[39] Shareholders
cannot initiate changes in the corporate charter although they can initiate changes to the corporate bylaws.[39]

It is sometimes colloquially stated that in the USA and the UK 'the shareholders own the company'. This is,
however, a misconception as argued by Eccles & Youmans (2015) and Kay (2015).[40]

Regulation
Corporations are created as legal persons by the laws and regulations of a particular jurisdiction. These may vary in
many respects between countries, but a corporation's legal person status is fundamental to all jurisdictions and is
conferred by statute. This allows the entity to hold property in its own right without reference to any particular real
person. It also results in the perpetual existence that characterizes the modern corporation. The statutory granting
of corporate existence may arise from general purpose legislation (which is the general case) or from a statute to
create a specific corporation, which was the only method prior to the 19th century.

In addition to the statutory laws of the relevant jurisdiction, corporations are subject to common law in some
countries, and various laws and regulations affecting business practices. In most jurisdictions, corporations also
have a constitution that provides individual rules that govern the corporation and authorize or constrain its

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decision-makers. This constitution is identified by a variety of terms; in English-speaking jurisdictions, it is usually


known as the Corporate Charter or the [Memorandum] and Articles of Association. The capacity of shareholders to
modify the constitution of their corporation can vary substantially.

The U.S. passed the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) in 1977, with subsequent modifications. This law made
it illegal to bribe government officials and required corporations to maintain adequate accounting controls. It is
enforced by the U.S. Department of Justice and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Substantial civil
and criminal penalties have been levied on corporations and executives convicted of bribery.[41]

The UK passed the Bribery Act in 2010. This law made it illegal to bribe either government or private citizens or
make facilitating payments (i.e., payment to a government official to perform their routine duties more quickly). It
also required corporations to establish controls to prevent bribery.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was enacted in the wake of a series of high-profile corporate scandals. It
established a series of requirements that affect corporate governance in the U.S. and influenced similar laws in
many other countries. The law required, along with many other elements, that:

The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) be established to regulate the auditing
profession, which had been self-regulated prior to the law. Auditors are responsible for reviewing the
financial statements of corporations and issuing an opinion as to their reliability.
The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) attest to the financial statements.
Prior to the law, CEO's had claimed in court they hadn't reviewed the information as part of their defense.
Board audit committees have members that are independent and disclose whether or not at least one is a
financial expert, or reasons why no such expert is on the audit committee.
External audit firms cannot provide certain types of consulting services and must rotate their lead partner
every 5 years. Further, an audit firm cannot audit a company if those in specified senior management roles
worked for the auditor in the past year. Prior to the law, there was the real or perceived conflict of interest
between providing an independent opinion on the accuracy and reliability of financial statements when the
same firm was also providing lucrative consulting services.[42]

Codes and guidelines


Corporate governance principles and codes have been developed in different countries and issued from stock
exchanges, corporations, institutional investors, or associations (institutes) of directors and managers with the
support of governments and international organizations. As a rule, compliance with these governance
recommendations is not mandated by law, although the codes linked to stock exchange listing requirements may
have a coercive effect.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development principles

One of the most influential guidelines on corporate governance are the G20/OECD Principles of Corporate
Governance, first published as the OECD Principles in 1999, revised in 2004 and revised again and endorsed by
the G20 in 2015.[3] The Principles often referenced by countries developing local codes or guidelines. Building on
the work of the OECD, other international organizations, private sector associations and more than 20 national
corporate governance codes formed the United Nations Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on
International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) to produce their Guidance on Good Practices in
Corporate Governance Disclosure.[43] This internationally agreed[44] benchmark consists of more than fifty distinct
disclosure items across five broad categories:[45]

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Auditing
Board and management structure and process
Corporate responsibility and compliance in organization
Financial transparency and information disclosure
Ownership structure and exercise of control rights

The OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises (http://www.oecd.org/daf/ca/guidelin


es-corporate-governance-soes.htm) are complementary to the G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance (htt
p://www.oecd.org/corporate/principles-corporate-governance.htm), providing guidance tailored to the corporate
governance challenges unique to state-owned enterprises.

Stock exchange listing standards

Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and other stock exchanges are required to meet
certain governance standards. For example, the NYSE Listed Company Manual requires, among many other
elements:

Independent directors: "Listed companies must have a majority of independent directors...Effective boards of
directors exercise independent judgment in carrying out their responsibilities. Requiring a majority of
independent directors will increase the quality of board oversight and lessen the possibility of damaging
conflicts of interest." (Section 303A.01) An independent director is not part of management and has no
"material financial relationship" with the company.
Board meetings that exclude management: "To empower non-management directors to serve as a more
effective check on management, the non-management directors of each listed company must meet at
regularly scheduled executive sessions without management." (Section 303A.03)
Boards organize their members into committees with specific responsibilities per defined charters. "Listed
companies must have a nominating/corporate governance committee composed entirely of independent
directors." This committee is responsible for nominating new members for the board of directors.
Compensation and Audit Committees are also specified, with the latter subject to a variety of listing
standards as well as outside regulations.

Other guidelines

The investor-led organisation International Corporate Governance Network (ICGN) was set up by individuals
centered around the ten largest pension funds in the world 1995. The aim is to promote global corporate
governance standards. The network is led by investors that manage 18 trillion dollars and members are located in
fifty different countries. ICGN has developed a suite of global guidelines ranging from shareholder rights to
business ethics.

The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) has done work on corporate governance,
particularly on Accounting and Reporting (http://www.wbcsd.org/Pages/EDocument/EDocumentDetails.aspx?ID=
80&NoSearchContextKey=true), and in 2004 released Issue Management Tool: Strategic challenges for business
in the use of corporate responsibility codes, standards, and frameworks (http://www.wbcsd.org/Pages/EDocument/
EDocumentDetails.aspx?ID=15610&NoSearchContextKey=true). This document offers general information and a
perspective from a business association/think-tank on a few key codes, standards and frameworks relevant to the
sustainability agenda.

In 2009, the International Finance Corporation and the UN Global Compact released a report, Corporate
Governance - the Foundation for Corporate Citizenship and Sustainable Business (http://www.unglobalcompact.or
g/docs/issues_doc/Corporate_Governance/Corporate_Governance_IFC_UNGC.pdf), linking the environmental,
social and governance responsibilities of a company to its financial performance and long-term sustainability.

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Most codes are largely voluntary. An issue raised in the U.S. since the 2005 Disney decision[46] is the degree to
which companies manage their governance responsibilities; in other words, do they merely try to supersede the
legal threshold, or should they create governance guidelines that ascend to the level of best practice. For example,
the guidelines issued by associations of directors, corporate managers and individual companies tend to be wholly
voluntary but such documents may have a wider effect by prompting other companies to adopt similar practices.

History
United States of America

Robert E. Wright argues in Corporation Nation (2014) that the governance of early U.S. corporations, of which
over 20,000 existed by the Civil War of 1861-1865, was superior to that of corporations in the late 19th and early
20th centuries because early corporations governed themselves like "republics", replete with numerous "checks
and balances" against fraud and against usurpation of power by managers or by large shareholders.[47] (The term
"robber baron" became particularly associated with US corporate figures in the Gilded Age - the late 19th century.)

In the immediate aftermath of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 legal scholars such as Adolf Augustus Berle, Edwin
Dodd, and Gardiner C. Means pondered on the changing role of the modern corporation in society.[48] From the
Chicago school of economics, Ronald Coase[49] introduced the notion of transaction costs into the understanding
of why firms are founded and how they continue to behave.[50]

US economic expansion through the emergence of multinational corporations after World War II (1939-1945) saw
the establishment of the managerial class. Several Harvard Business School management professors studied and
wrote about the new class: Myles Mace (entrepreneurship), Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. (business history), Jay Lorsch
(organizational behavior) and Elizabeth MacIver (organizational behavior). According to Lorsch and MacIver
"many large corporations have dominant control over business affairs without sufficient accountability or
monitoring by their board of directors".

In the 1980s, Eugene Fama and Michael Jensen[51] established the principalagent problem as a way of
understanding corporate governance: the firm is seen as a series of contracts.[52]

In the period from 1977 to 1997, corporate directors' duties in the U.S. expanded beyond their traditional legal
responsibility of duty of loyalty to the corporation and to its shareholders.[53]

In the first half of the 1990s, the issue of corporate governance in the U.S. received considerable press attention
due to a spate of CEO dismissals (for example, at IBM, Kodak, and Honeywell) by their boards. The California
Public Employees' Retirement System (CalPERS) led a wave of institutional shareholder activism (something only
very rarely seen before), as a way of ensuring that corporate value would not be destroyed by the now traditionally
cozy relationships between the CEO and the board of directors (for example, by the unrestrained issuance of stock
options, not infrequently back-dated).

In the early 2000s, the massive bankruptcies (and criminal malfeasance) of Enron and Worldcom, as well as lesser
corporate scandals (such as those involving Adelphia Communications, AOL, Arthur Andersen, Global Crossing,
and Tyco) led to increased political interest in corporate governance. This was reflected in the passage of the
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Other triggers for continued interest in the corporate governance of organizations
included the financial crisis of 2008/9 and the level of CEO pay[54]

East Asia

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In 1997 the East Asian Financial Crisis severely affected the economies of Thailand, Indonesia, South Korea,
Malaysia, and the Philippines through the exit of foreign capital after property assets collapsed. The lack of
corporate governance mechanisms in these countries highlighted the weaknesses of the institutions in their
economies.

Iran

The Tehran Stock Exchange introduced a corporate governance code in 2007 that reformed "board compensation
polices[sic], improved internal and external audits, ownership concentration and risk management. However, the
code limits the directors' independence and provides no guidance on external control, shareholder rights protection,
and the role of stakeholder rights."[55] A 2013 study found that most Iranian companies "are not in an appropriate
situation regarding accounting standards" and that managers in most companies conceal their real performance,
implying little transparency and trustworthiness regarding operational information published by them. Examination
of 110 companies' performance found that companies with better corporate governance had better performance.[55]

Saudi Arabia

In November 2006 the Capital Market Authority (Saudi Arabia) (CMA) issued a corporate governance code in the
Arabic language.[56] The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has made considerable progress with respect to the
implementation of viable and culturally appropriate governance mechanisms (Al-Hussain & Johnson, 2009).[57]

Al-Hussain, A. and Johnson, R. (2009) found a strong relationship between the efficiency of corporate governance
structure and Saudi bank performance when using return on assets as a performance measure with one exception -
that government and local ownership groups were not significant. However, using stock return as a performance
measure revealed a weak positive relationship between the efficiency of corporate governance structure and bank
performance.[58]

Stakeholders
Key parties involved in corporate governance include stakeholders such as the board of directors, management and
shareholders. External stakeholders such as creditors, auditors, customers, suppliers, government agencies, and the
community at large also exert influence. The agency view of the corporation posits that the shareholder forgoes
decision rights (control) and entrusts the manager to act in the shareholders' best (joint) interests. Partly as a result
of this separation between the two investors and managers, corporate governance mechanisms include a system of
controls intended to help align managers' incentives with those of shareholders. Agency concerns (risk) are
necessarily lower for a controlling shareholder.

In private for-profit corporations, shareholders elect the board of directors to represent their interests. In the case of
nonprofits, stakeholders may have some role in recommending or selecting board members, but typically the board
itself decides who will serve on the board as a 'self-perpetuating' board.[59] The degree of leadership that the board
has over the organization varies; in practice at large organizations, the executive management, principally the
CEO, drives major initiatives with the oversight and approval of the board.[60]

Responsibilities of the board of directors

Former Chairman of the Board of General Motors John G. Smale wrote in 1995: "The board is responsible for the
successful perpetuation of the corporation. That responsibility cannot be relegated to management."[61] A board of
directors is expected to play a key role in corporate governance. The board has responsibility for: CEO selection
and succession; providing feedback to management on the organization's strategy; compensating senior executives;
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monitoring financial health, performance and risk; and ensuring accountability of the organization to its investors
and authorities. Boards typically have several committees (e.g., Compensation, Nominating and Audit) to perform
their work.[62]

The OECD Principles of Corporate Governance (2004) describe the responsibilities of the board; some of these are
summarized below:[3]

Board members should be informed and act ethically and in good faith, with due diligence and care, in the
best interest of the company and the shareholders.
Review and guide corporate strategy, objective setting, major plans of action, risk policy, capital plans, and
annual budgets.
Oversee major acquisitions and divestitures.
Select, compensate, monitor and replace key executives and oversee succession planning.
Align key executive and board remuneration (pay) with the longer-term interests of the company and its
shareholders.
Ensure a formal and transparent board member nomination and election process.
Ensure the integrity of the corporations accounting and financial reporting systems, including their
independent audit.
Ensure appropriate systems of internal control are established.
Oversee the process of disclosure and communications.
Where committees of the board are established, their mandate, composition and working procedures should
be well-defined and disclosed.

Stakeholder interests

All parties to corporate governance have an interest, whether direct or indirect, in the financial performance of the
corporation. Directors, workers and management receive salaries, benefits and reputation, while investors expect to
receive financial returns. For lenders, it is specified interest payments, while returns to equity investors arise from
dividend distributions or capital gains on their stock. Customers are concerned with the certainty of the provision
of goods and services of an appropriate quality; suppliers are concerned with compensation for their goods or
services, and possible continued trading relationships. These parties provide value to the corporation in the form of
financial, physical, human and other forms of capital. Many parties may also be concerned with corporate social
performance.

A key factor in a party's decision to participate in or engage with a corporation is their confidence that the
corporation will deliver the party's expected outcomes. When categories of parties (stakeholders) do not have
sufficient confidence that a corporation is being controlled and directed in a manner consistent with their desired
outcomes, they are less likely to engage with the corporation. When this becomes an endemic system feature, the
loss of confidence and participation in markets may affect many other stakeholders, and increases the likelihood of
political action. There is substantial interest in how external systems and institutions, including markets, influence
corporate governance.[34]

Absentee landlords vs. capital stewards

World Pensions Council (WPC) experts insist that institutional asset owners now seem more eager to take to task
[the] negligent CEOs of the companies whose shares they own.[63]

This development is part of a broader trend towards more fully exercised asset ownership notably from the part
of the boards of directors (trustees) of large UK, Dutch, Scandinavian and Canadian pension investors:

No longer absentee landlords, [ pension fund ] trustees have started to exercise more forcefully their
governance prerogatives across the boardrooms of Britain, Benelux and America: coming together through
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the establishment of engaged pressure groups [] to shift the [whole economic] system towards sustainable
investment.[63]

United Kingdom

In Britain, The widespread social disenchantment that followed the [2008-2012] great recession had an impact
on all stakeholders, including pension fund board members and investment managers.[64]

Many of the UKs largest pension funds are thus already active stewards of their assets, engaging with corporate
boards and speaking up when they think it is necessary.[64]

Control and ownership structures

Control and ownership structure refers to the types and composition of shareholders in a corporation. In some
countries such as most of Continental Europe, ownership is not necessarily equivalent to control due to the
existence of e.g. dual-class shares, ownership pyramids, voting coalitions, proxy votes and clauses in the
articles of association that confer additional voting rights to long-term shareholders.[65] Ownership is
typically defined as the ownership of cash flow rights whereas control refers to ownership of control or voting
rights.[65] Researchers often "measure" control and ownership structures by using some observable measures of
control and ownership concentration or the extent of inside control and ownership. Some features or types of
control and ownership structure involving corporate groups include pyramids, cross-shareholdings, rings, and
webs. German "concerns" (Konzern) are legally recognized corporate groups with complex structures. Japanese
keiretsu () and South Korean chaebol (which tend to be family-controlled) are corporate groups which consist
of complex interlocking business relationships and shareholdings. Cross-shareholding are an essential feature of
keiretsu and chaebol groups [5] (http://www.asianresearch.org/articles/1397.html). Corporate engagement with
shareholders and other stakeholders can differ substantially across different control and ownership structures.

Family control

Family interests dominate ownership and control structures of some corporations, and it has been suggested the
oversight of family controlled corporation is superior to that of corporations "controlled" by institutional investors
(or with such diverse share ownership that they are controlled by management). A recent study by Credit Suisse
found that companies in which "founding families retain a stake of more than 10% of the company's capital
enjoyed a superior performance over their respective sectorial peers." Since 1996, this superior performance
amounts to 8% per year.[66] Forget the celebrity CEO. "Look beyond Six Sigma and the latest technology fad. One
of the biggest strategic advantages a company can have is blood ties," according to a Business Week study[67][68]

Diffuse shareholders

The significance of institutional investors varies substantially across countries. In developed Anglo-American
countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, U.K., U.S.), institutional investors dominate the market for stocks in
larger corporations. While the majority of the shares in the Japanese market are held by financial companies and
industrial corporations, these are not institutional investors if their holdings are largely with-on group.

The largest pools of invested money (such as the mutual fund 'Vanguard 500', or the largest investment
management firm for corporations, State Street Corp.) are designed to maximize the benefits of diversified
investment by investing in a very large number of different corporations with sufficient liquidity. The idea is this
strategy will largely eliminate individual firm financial or other risk. A consequence of this approach is that these

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investors have relatively little interest in the governance of a particular corporation. It is often assumed that, if
institutional investors pressing for changes decide they will likely be costly because of "golden handshakes" or the
effort required, they will simply sell out their investment.

Mechanisms and controls


Corporate governance mechanisms and controls are designed to reduce the inefficiencies that arise from moral
hazard and adverse selection. There are both internal monitoring systems and external monitoring systems.[69]
Internal monitoring can be done, for example, by one (or a few) large shareholder(s) in the case of privately held
companies or a firm belonging to a business group. Furthermore, the various board mechanisms provide for
internal monitoring. External monitoring of managers' behavior, occurs when an independent third party (e.g. the
external auditor) attests the accuracy of information provided by management to investors. Stock analysts and debt
holders may also conduct such external monitoring. An ideal monitoring and control system should regulate both
motivation and ability, while providing incentive alignment toward corporate goals and objectives. Care should be
taken that incentives are not so strong that some individuals are tempted to cross lines of ethical behavior, for
example by manipulating revenue and profit figures to drive the share price of the company up.[50]

Internal corporate governance controls

Internal corporate governance controls monitor activities and then take corrective actions to accomplish
organisational goals. Examples include:

Monitoring by the board of directors: The board of directors, with its legal authority to hire, fire and
compensate top management, safeguards invested capital. Regular board meetings allow potential problems
to be identified, discussed and avoided. Whilst non-executive directors are thought to be more independent,
they may not always result in more effective corporate governance and may not increase performance.[70]
Different board structures are optimal for different firms. Moreover, the ability of the board to monitor the
firm's executives is a function of its access to information. Executive directors possess superior knowledge
of the decision-making process and therefore evaluate top management on the basis of the quality of its
decisions that lead to financial performance outcomes, ex ante. It could be argued, therefore, that executive
directors look beyond the financial criteria.
Internal control procedures and internal auditors: Internal control procedures are policies implemented
by an entity's board of directors, audit committee, management, and other personnel to provide reasonable
assurance of the entity achieving its objectives related to reliable financial reporting, operating efficiency,
and compliance with laws and regulations. Internal auditors are personnel within an organization who test
the design and implementation of the entity's internal control procedures and the reliability of its financial
reporting
Balance of power: The simplest balance of power is very common; require that the President be a different
person from the Treasurer. This application of separation of power is further developed in companies where
separate divisions check and balance each other's actions. One group may propose company-wide
administrative changes, another group review and can veto the changes, and a third group check that the
interests of people (customers, shareholders, employees) outside the three groups are being met.
Remuneration: Performance-based remuneration is designed to relate some proportion of salary to
individual performance. It may be in the form of cash or non-cash payments such as shares and share
options, superannuation or other benefits. Such incentive schemes, however, are reactive in the sense that
they provide no mechanism for preventing mistakes or opportunistic behavior, and can elicit myopic
behavior.
Monitoring by large shareholders and/or monitoring by banks and other large creditors: Given their
large investment in the firm, these stakeholders have the incentives, combined with the right degree of
control and power, to monitor the management.[71]

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In publicly traded U.S. corporations, boards of directors are largely chosen by the President/CEO and the
President/CEO often takes the Chair of the Board position for him/herself (which makes it much more difficult for
the institutional owners to "fire" him/her). The practice of the CEO also being the Chair of the Board is fairly
common in large American corporations.[72]

While this practice is common in the U.S., it is relatively rare elsewhere. In the U.K., successive codes of best
practice have recommended against duality.

External corporate governance controls

External corporate governance controls encompass the controls external stakeholders exercise over the
organization. Examples include:

competition
debt covenants
demand for and assessment of performance information (especially financial statements)
government regulations
managerial labour market
media pressure
takeovers
proxy firms

Financial reporting and the independent auditor

The board of directors has primary responsibility for the corporation's internal and external financial reporting
functions. The Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer are crucial participants and boards usually have
a high degree of reliance on them for the integrity and supply of accounting information. They oversee the internal
accounting systems, and are dependent on the corporation's accountants and internal auditors.

Current accounting rules under International Accounting Standards and U.S. GAAP allow managers some choice
in determining the methods of measurement and criteria for recognition of various financial reporting elements.
The potential exercise of this choice to improve apparent performance increases the information risk for users.
Financial reporting fraud, including non-disclosure and deliberate falsification of values also contributes to users'
information risk. To reduce this risk and to enhance the perceived integrity of financial reports, corporation
financial reports must be audited by an independent external auditor who issues a report that accompanies the
financial statements.

One area of concern is whether the auditing firm acts as both the independent auditor and management consultant
to the firm they are auditing. This may result in a conflict of interest which places the integrity of financial reports
in doubt due to client pressure to appease management. The power of the corporate client to initiate and terminate
management consulting services and, more fundamentally, to select and dismiss accounting firms contradicts the
concept of an independent auditor. Changes enacted in the United States in the form of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act
(following numerous corporate scandals, culminating with the Enron scandal) prohibit accounting firms from
providing both auditing and management consulting services. Similar provisions are in place under clause 49 of
Standard Listing Agreement in India.

Systemic problems
Demand for information: In order to influence the directors, the shareholders must combine with others to
form a voting group which can pose a real threat of carrying resolutions or appointing directors at a general
meeting.[73]
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Monitoring costs: A barrier to shareholders using good information is the cost of processing it, especially to
a small shareholder. The traditional answer to this problem is the efficient-market hypothesis (in finance, the
efficient market hypothesis (EMH) asserts that financial markets are efficient), which suggests that the small
shareholder will free ride on the judgments of larger professional investors.[73]
Supply of accounting information: Financial accounts form a crucial link in enabling providers of finance to
monitor directors. Imperfections in the financial reporting process will cause imperfections in the
effectiveness of corporate governance. This should, ideally, be corrected by the working of the external
auditing process.[73]

Issues
Executive pay

Increasing attention and regulation (as under the Swiss referendum "against corporate Rip-offs" of 2013) has been
brought to executive pay levels since the financial crisis of 20072008. Research on the relationship between firm
performance and executive compensation does not identify consistent and significant relationships between
executives' remuneration and firm performance. Not all firms experience the same levels of agency conflict, and
external and internal monitoring devices may be more effective for some than for others.[54][74] Some researchers
have found that the largest CEO performance incentives came from ownership of the firm's shares, while other
researchers found that the relationship between share ownership and firm performance was dependent on the level
of ownership. The results suggest that increases in ownership above 20% cause management to become more
entrenched, and less interested in the welfare of their shareholders.[74]

Some argue that firm performance is positively associated with share option plans and that these plans direct
managers' energies and extend their decision horizons toward the long-term, rather than the short-term,
performance of the company. However, that point of view came under substantial criticism circa in the wake of
various security scandals including mutual fund timing episodes and, in particular, the backdating of option grants
as documented by University of Iowa academic Erik Lie[75] and reported by James Blander and Charles Forelle of
the Wall Street Journal.[74][76]

Even before the negative influence on public opinion caused by the 2006 backdating scandal, use of options faced
various criticisms. A particularly forceful and long running argument concerned the interaction of executive
options with corporate stock repurchase programs. Numerous authorities (including U.S. Federal Reserve Board
economist Weisbenner) determined options may be employed in concert with stock buybacks in a manner contrary
to shareholder interests. These authors argued that, in part, corporate stock buybacks for U.S. Standard & Poors
500 companies surged to a $500 billion annual rate in late 2006 because of the effect of options. A compendium of
academic works on the option/buyback issue is included in the study Scandal (http://ssrn.com/abstract=927111) by
author M. Gumport (http://ssrn.com/author=665434) issued in 2006.

A combination of accounting changes and governance issues led options to become a less popular means of
remuneration as 2006 progressed, and various alternative implementations of buybacks surfaced to challenge the
dominance of "open market" cash buybacks as the preferred means of implementing a share repurchase plan.

Separation of Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board roles

Shareholders elect a board of directors, who in turn hire a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) to lead management. The
primary responsibility of the board relates to the selection and retention of the CEO. However, in many U.S.
corporations the CEO and Chairman of the Board roles are held by the same person. This creates an inherent
conflict of interest between management and the board.

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Critics of combined roles argue the two roles should be separated to avoid the conflict of interest and more easily
enable a poorly performing CEO to be replaced. Warren Buffett wrote in 2014: "In my service on the boards of
nineteen public companies, however, Ive seen how hard it is to replace a mediocre CEO if that person is also
Chairman. (The deed usually gets done, but almost always very late.)"[77]

Advocates argue that empirical studies do not indicate that separation of the roles improves stock market
performance and that it should be up to shareholders to determine what corporate governance model is appropriate
for the firm.[78]

In 2004, 73.4% of U.S. companies had combined roles; this fell to 57.2% by May 2012. Many U.S. companies
with combined roles have appointed a "Lead Director" to improve independence of the board from management.
German and UK companies have generally split the roles in nearly 100% of listed companies. Empirical evidence
does not indicate one model is superior to the other in terms of performance. However, one study indicated that
poorly performing firms tend to remove separate CEO's more frequently than when the CEO/Chair roles are
combined.[79]

See also
List of countries by corporate governance Governance
Agency cost Corporate Governance
Agency Theory Interest of the company
Basel II Internal Control
Business ethics International Organization of Supreme Audit
Corporate crime Institutions
Corporate Law Economic Reform Program Act King Report on Corporate Governance
2004 Legal origins theory
Corporate social entrepreneur Private benefits of control
Corporate transparency Proxy firm
Corporation Risk management
Creative accounting Say on pay
Earnings management Sociocracy
Financial audit Stakeholder theory
Fund governance
Golden parachute

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79. University of Cambridge-Magdalena Smith Should the USA follow the UK's lead and split the dual CEO/Chairperson
role? (http://www.academia.edu/3290632/SHOULD_THE_USA_FOLLOW_THE_UKS_LEAD_AND_SPLIT_THE_D
UAL_CEO_CHAIRPERSONs_ROLE)

Further reading
Arcot, Sridhar, Bruno, Valentina and Antoine Faure-Grimaud, "Corporate Governance in the U.K.: is the
comply-or-explain working?" (December 2005). FMG CG Working Paper 001. (http://fmg.lse.ac.uk/publicat
ions/searchdetail.php?pubid=1&wsid=1&wpdid=1308)
Becht, Marco, Patrick Bolton, Ailsa Rell, "Corporate Governance and Control" (October 2002; updated
August 2004). ECGI - Finance Working Paper No. 02/2002. (http://ssrn.com/abstract=343461)
Bowen, William, 1998 and 2004, The Board Book: An Insider's Guide for Directors and Trustees, New York
and London, W.W. Norton & Company, ISBN 978-0-393-06645-6
Brickley, James A., William S. Klug and Jerold L. Zimmerman, Managerial Economics & Organizational
Architecture, ISBN
Cadbury, Sir Adrian, "The Code of Best Practice", Report of the Committee on the Financial Aspects of
Corporate Governance, Gee and Co Ltd, 1992. Available online from [6] (http://www.ecgi.org/codes)
Cadbury, Sir Adrian, "Corporate Governance: Brussels", Instituut voor Bestuurders, Brussels, 1996.
Claessens, Stijn, Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H.P. (2000) The Separation of Ownership and Control in
East Asian Corporations, Journal of Financial Economics, 58: 81-112
Clarke, Thomas (ed.) (2004) "Theories of Corporate Governance: The Philosophical Foundations of
Corporate Governance," London and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-32308-8
Clarke, Thomas (ed.) (2004) Critical Perspectives on Business and Management (5 Volume Series on
Corporate Governance Genesis, Anglo-American, European, Asian and Contemporary Corporate
Governance) London and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-32910-8
Clarke, Thomas (2007) "International Corporate Governance " London and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-
415-32309-6
Clarke, Thomas & Chanlat, Jean-Francois (eds.) (2009) "European Corporate Governance " London and
New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-40533-1
Clarke, Thomas & dela Rama, Marie (eds.) (2006) Corporate Governance and Globalization (3 Volume
Series) London and Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, ISBN 978-1-4129-2899-1
Clarke, Thomas & dela Rama, Marie (eds.) (2008) Fundamentals of Corporate Governance (4 Volume
Series) London and Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, ISBN 978-1-4129-3589-0
Colley, J., Doyle, J., Logan, G., Stettinius, W., What is Corporate Governance ? (McGraw-Hill, December
2004) ISBN
Crawford, C. J. (2007). Compliance & conviction: the evolution of enlightened corporate governance. Santa
Clara, Calif: XCEO. ISBN 0-9769019-1-9 ISBN 978-0-9769019-1-4
Denis, D.K. and J.J. McConnell (2003), International Corporate Governance. Journal of Financial and
Quantitative Analysis, 38 (1): 136.
Dignam, A and Lowry, J (2006) Company Law, Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-928936-3
Douma, Sytse and Hein Schreuder (2013), Economic Approaches to Organizations, 5th edition. London:
Pearson [7] (http://catalogue.pearsoned.co.uk/educator/product/Economic-Approaches-to-Organisations/978
0273735298.page) ISBN 0273735292 ISBN 9780273735298
Easterbrook, Frank H. and Daniel R. Fischel, The Economic Structure of Corporate Law, ISBN
Easterbrook, Frank H. and Daniel R. Fischel, International Journal of Governance, ISBN
Eccles, R.G. & T. Youmans (2015), Materiality in Corporate Governance: The Statement of Significant
Audiences and Materiality, Boston: Harvard Business School, working paper 16-023,
http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/materiality-in-corporate-governance-the-statement-of-significant-audiences-and-
materiality
Erturk, Ismail, Froud, Julie, Johal, Sukhdev and Williams, Karel (2004) Corporate Governance and
Disappointment Review of International Political Economy, 11 (4): 677-713.
Garrett, Allison, "Themes and Variations: The Convergence of Corporate Governance Practices in Major
World Markets," 32 Denv. J. Intl L. & Poly.

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Goergen, Marc, International Corporate Governance, (Prentice Hall 2012) ISBN 978-0-273-75125-0
Holton, Glyn A (2006). Investor Suffrage Movement (https://web.archive.org/web/20070104223745/http://w
ww.contingencyanalysis.com/home/papers/suffrage.pdf), Financial Analysits Journal, 62 (6), 1520.
Hovey, M. and T. Naughton (2007), A Survey of Enterprise Reforms in China: The Way Forward. Economic
Systems, 31 (2): 138156.
Kay, John (2015), 'Shareholders think they own the company they are wrong', The Financial Times, 10
November 2015
Khalid Abu Masdoor (2011), Ethical Theories of Corporate Governance. International Journal of
Governance, 1 (2): 484492.
La Porta, R., F. Lopez-De-Silanes, and A. Shleifer (1999), Corporate Ownership around the World. The
Journal of Finance, 54 (2): 471517. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/0022-1082.00115/abstract
Low, Albert, 2008. "Conflict and Creativity at Work: Human Roots of Corporate Life (http://www.conflictan
dcreativityatwork.ca/), Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-272-3
Monks, Robert A.G. and Minow, Nell, Corporate Governance (Blackwell 2004) ISBN
Monks, Robert A.G. and Minow, Nell, Power and Accountability (HarperBusiness 1991), full text available
online (https://web.archive.org/web/20000817213735/http://www.thecorporatelibrary.com:80/power/content
s.html)
Moebert, Jochen and Tydecks, Patrick (2007). Power and Ownership Structures among German Companies.
A Network Analysis of Financial Linkages [8] (http://www.vwl.tu-darmstadt.de/vwl/forsch/veroeff/papers/dd
pie_179.pdf)
Murray, Alan Revolt in the Boardroom (HarperBusiness 2007) (ISBN 0-06-088247-6) Remainder (http://ww
w.amazon.com/dp/B0013L4DZI)
OECD (1999, 2004, 2015) Principles of Corporate Governance (http://www.oecd.org/corporate/principles-c
orporate-governance.htm) Paris: OECD
Sapovadia, Vrajlal K., "Critical Analysis of Accounting Standards Vis--Vis Corporate Governance Practice
in India" (January 2007). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=712461
Ulrich Seibert (1999), Control and Transparency in Business (KonTraG) Corporate Governance Reform in
Germany. European Business Law Review 70
Shleifer, A. and R.W. Vishny (1997), A Survey of Corporate Governance. Journal of Finance, 52 (2): 737
783. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-6261.1997.tb04820.x/abstract
Skau, H.O (1992), A Study in Corporate Governance: Strategic and Tactic Regulation (200 p)
Sun, William (2009), How to Govern Corporations So They Serve the Public Good: A Theory of Corporate
Governance Emergence, New York: Edwin Mellen, ISBN 978-0-7734-3863-7.
Touffut, Jean-Philippe (ed.) (2009), Does Company Ownership Matter? (https://web.archive.org/web/20120
509090524/http://www.centre-cournot.org/index.php/2009/11/16/does-company-ownership-matter/),
Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar. Contributors: Jean-Louis Beffa, Margaret
Blair, Wendy Carlin, Christophe Clerc, Simon Deakin, Jean-Paul Fitoussi, Donatella Gatti, Gregory Jackson,
Xavier Ragot, Antoine Rebrioux, Lorenzo Sacconi and Robert M. Solow.
Tricker, Bob and The Economist Newspaper Ltd (2003, 2009), Essentials for Board Directors: An AZ
Guide, Second Edition, New York, Bloomberg Press, ISBN 978-1-57660-354-3.
Zelenyuk, V. and V. Zheka, 2006. "Corporate Governance and Firms Efficiency: The Case of a Transitional
Country, Ukraine," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 143-157, 04. (https://ideas.r
epec.org/a/kap/jproda/v25y2006i1p143-157.html)
Shahwan, Y., & Mohammad, N. R. (2016). Descriptive Evidence Of Corporate Governance & Oecd
Principles For Compliance With Jordanian Companies. JOURNAL STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABES-
BOLYAI NEGOTIA.

External links
OECD Corporate Governance Portal (http://www.oecd.org/corporate/
Wikiquote has quotations
principles-corporate-governance.htm) related to: Corporate
WorldBank/IFC Corporate Governance Portal (http://www.ifc.org/cor governance
porategovernance)

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World Bank Corporate Governance Reports (http://www.worldbank.org/ifa/rosc_cg.html)

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