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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The aims of this research are to describe the types of presupposition use in
the Eleven grade Man Mojosari and to interpret the implied meaning of the
students speaking. In this chapter, the related theory uses in this research about the
object of the research are explain.
A. LITERATURE REVIEW

This point will be explain some literature related to this research. It present

theories and opinion of the element in this research.

1. Lingustics

a. Definiton of Linguistics

According to crystal (1997: 8), human language are usually referred to

the nature languages, and the science in studying human language called

linguistics . Linguistics is multidisciplinary, specialists in many disciplines

bring their own expertise to the study of language. Psychologists, for instance,

are interested in studying language as a property of the human mind; they have

contributed many insights into such topics as how people acquire language

(Charles F. Meyer, 2009: 2 ).

Language is part of human nature, it is not only describe the disparate

characteristics of human language but also seek the discover properties which

all language share. The language share by human, it will give the insight into

the structures of the human mind. Language is the manner of human

communication, either spoken or written, consisting of use the words in a

structure and conventional way. Language is an evolutionary phenomenon

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which is continually adapted to the communicative needs of its speakers

(Hickey : 4 ). The characteristic of language has a system of vocal sign with

internal structure and will be uses for the purpose of human communication.

Linguistics is study of language in all parts, the various sub branches of

linguistics are appurtenant with how language are structure.

According to Hickey (2012: 3), the goal of linguistics is to provide valid

analysis of language structure. Linguistics theory is concerned with

establishing a coherent set of independent principles to explain phenomena in

language. However, linguistics is study of language. Linguistics is concerned

with human language as a universal and recognizable part of human behavior

and human abilities (Nasr, 1984: 72). Linguistics is a science although the

evidence for assumptions about the structure of language is never direct.

Linguists is more concerned with designing valid and general models of

linguistic structure rather than searching for proof in any strictly empirical

sense.

b. The levels of Linguistics

There are some levels of linguistics according Raymond Hickey (2012: 8 )

. It can make the human know all part of study human language. This is some

part of level linguistics include : Phonetics and phonology is study of human

and phonology is the classification of the sounds within the system of

particular language or languages. Morphology is concerned with the study of

word forms. A word is best defined in term of internal stability and external

stability. Lexicology is investigates the internal structure of the lexicon.


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Lexicography concerns the compilation of dictionaries. Etymology is about

the historical development of word meanings. Syntax is concerns the

possible arrangements of words in a language. The basic unit is the sentence

which minimally consists of a main clause. Semantics is concerns with the

study of meaning and is related to both philosphy and logic. Pragmatics is the

study of language from the point of view of usage.

From description some level of linguistics, to study about meaning of the

human language usage, it will be study about pragmatics. In the pragmatics it will

explains more deeply about the meaning of human language.

2. Pragmatics

a. Definition of Pragmatics

Pragmatics is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated by

the speaker and interpreted by a listener. It has, consequently, more to do with

the analysis of what people mean by their utterances than what the words or

phrases in those utterances might mean by themselves. Pragmatics is study

about meaning (Yule, 1996: 3). Pragmatics is study about human

communication especially of the meaning what the human mean. It will assist

the human to understand what people means, to success of human

communication. The message this collection sends out that pragmatics is a well

establish subdiscipline of linguistics and at the same time a progressive branch

of philosophy of language (Kasia M. Jaszczolt and Keith Allan, 2012: 2).

Study about pragmatics is most important to get the message of


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communication, understand the message is a branch of language. Pragmatics is

another branch of linguistics that is concern with the speaker and contextual

meaning.

As yule (1996 : 3) explains that there are four areas of pragmatics. First,

pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning. In this point, it has consequently,

more to do with the analysis of what people mean by their utterances than what

the words or phrases in those utterances might mean by themselves. Second,

pragmatics is the study of contextual meaning. This type of the study

necessarily involves the interpretation of what people mean in a particular

context and how the context influences what is said. It requires a consideration

of how speakers organize what they want to say in accordance with who

theyre talking to, where, when, and under what circumstances. Third,

pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than is said. This

approach also necessarily explores how listeners can make inferences about

what is said in order to arrive at an interpretation of the speakers intended

meaning. This types of the study explores how a great deal of what is unsaid is

recognized as part of what is communicate. We might say that it is the

investigation of invisible meaning. Fourth, pragmatics is the study of the

expression of relative distance. This perspective then raises the question of

what determines the choice between the said and the unsaid. The basic answers

tied to the motion of distance. Closeness, whether it is physical, social, or

conceptual, implies shared experience. On the assumption of how close or

distant the listener is, speakers determine how much needs to be said.
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From areas of pragmatics according to Yule, it is seen there is has a

relation between the linguistics forms and human who use them. An utterances

have a different meaning when it is uttered by different people with different

status. In the same explaination, according to Trudgil (1992: 61) that

pragmatics is a branch of linguistics which deals with the meaning of

utterances as the occur in social context. Trudgill has two point of linguistics.

First, it is concern with meaning in context; second, it is about the speakers or

listeners intention. Pragmatics is not concern with syntax or literal meaning of

words, but with meaning by the speakers and interpret by the listener.

Similaely with Leech (1983: 6) explains, pragmatics as the study of

meaning in relation to speech situation. It means that by using pragmatics

people can differentiate meaning of ones utterance based on the situation of

the communication. So, it is different situation influence the meaning of

speech.

According May (1993 : 42), pragmatics is the study of the condition of

human language uses as these are determined by the society context. it is

important role in uses of human language to communication in the society.

And that is similar with Lenvinson (1983: 5) explains that pragmatics is the

study of language uses, to study of the relation between language and context

that are basic to an account of language understanding. The point from

Lenvinson, pragmatics is study of the human utterances in relation human

context which involves how the speakers produce the utterances to deliver

what the meaning of their utterances and how listeners can grab the true
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meaning of the speaking utterances. Because pragmatics is important in human

life.

As Jacob L. Mey (2001: 12) said pragmatics is needed if we want a fuller,

deeper and generally more reasonable account of human language behavior.

Pragmatics is important to study in communication, because pragmatics

studies about human language and its context. When people communicate with

each other, the human do not only consider how to uses the language, but the

human also consider the context in which the language will be uses.

So in this research, pragmatics is study about how process of producing the

language and in its producer, the language use seems to be at the center of

attention in pragmatics. As Richards (1992: 284 285) stated :

pragmatics is the study of the use of language in communication,


particularly the relationship between sentences, context and situation, in
which they are used. Pragmatics includes the study of how the
interpretation and used of utterances demands on knowledge of the real
world, how speakers use and understand speech act, and how the
structure of sentences is influenced by the relationships between the
speaker and hearer.
In other explanation, pragmatics is study of the meaning of utterances in

relation to their context which involve how the human can produce the best

utterance to deliver the meaning and the hearer can interpret the truth meaning of

speaker utterances. The advantages of pragmatics study can discuss about human

intend meaning, human assumption, human purpose or goals and the kinds of

speech act in utterances.


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b. The scope of pragmatics

a. Deixis and distances

According Yule (1996: 9), deixis is a technical term for one of the

most basic things we do with utterances. Deixis is technical term of the

one most basic things we do with utterances.

b. References and inference

According to Yule (1996: 17) reference is as an act in which a

speaker, or writer, uses linguistics forms to enable a listener, or reader, to

identify something. For successful references to occur, we must also

recognize the role of inference.

c. Pressuposition and entailment

According to Yule (1996: 25), presuppsoition is something the

speaker assumes to be the case prior to making an utterances.

Presupposition is study about the truth meaning of speakers utterances.

According to Yule (1996: 33) stated,Entailment it is not pragmatics

concept ( i.e. having to do with speaker meaning ), but instead is

considered a purely logical concept, symbolic by II. Entailment is study

about meaning but from the sentences of the speakers utterances.

d. Cooperation and implicature

According to Yule (1996: 35), cooperation is simply one in which

people having a conversation are not normally assumed to be trying

confuse, trick, or withhold relevant information from each other. In most


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circumstances, this kind of cooperation is only the starting point for

making sense of what is said.

According to Yule (1996: 35) stated, Implicature is something must be

more than just what the words mean.

e. Speech act and event

According to Yule (1996: 47), speech act is action performed via

utterances are generally. The action of human will be desire by utterances

it is called with speech act. Speech event is both speaker and hearer are

usually helped in this process by the circumstances surrounding the

utterances.

f. Politeness and interaction

According to Yule (1996: 60), politeness is also possible to specify

interaction within a particular culture. Some of these might include being

tactful, generous, modest, and sympathetic toward other. It is an

interaction speaker and hearer to showing the humans face when

interaction.

g. Conversation and preference structure

According Yule (1996: 71), conversation is like a dance, with the

conversational partner coordinating their movements smoothly. So,

conversation effective when it will be doing by two each other or more.

According to Yule ( 1996 : 79 ) preference structure is an acceptance

is structurally mile likely than a refusal. This structural like-hood is


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called preference. This is uses social actions and doesnt refer to any

individuals emotional.

h. Discourse and culture

According to Yule ( 1996 : 83 ), discourse is convers an extremely

wide range of activities, from the narrowly focused investigation. In the

pragmatics discourse, the human explore what the speaker or writer has is

mind.

There are the scope of pragmatics according George Yule. So,

pragmatics rules govern a number of conversational interaction. And will

be use in the process of learning and teaching.

c. Pragmatics awarness approach to teaching

According to Tomlinson ( 1994: 123 ), a language awarness approach to

teaching foreign language pays special attention to developing learns language

awarness of how target language is typically used in communication. The

students speaking making explicit meaning without know implicitly meaning

the system of language and principles of language is important in the education

of language teachers. To understanding how language uses, it helps teachers

realise what and how they must to teach the students for get the target of

language more effectively and successfully.

The pragmatics use in order to realize their speaking goals in daily

communication especially in the process of teaching and learning. According

to Renata Povolna (2005: 149) the pragmatics competences are connected


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above all with the speakers ability to from meaningful and coherent discourse

in different communicative situations. To study about the meaningful of

speaker utterances should learn deeply about presupposition to grab the truth

meaningful of speaker. Its happen in the teacher to grab what the student

means and for students to know what teachers means.

3. Presupposition

a. Definition of Presupposition

Pressuposition is the part of human language study, especially study

about assumption in the speaker utterances, and the hearer to be consider

appropriate in context. According to Yule (1996: 25) presupposition is

something the speaker assumes to be the case prior to making an utterances.

In many discussion of the concept, presupposition is treated as a

relationship between two propositions. If we say that the sentences in ( 3a )

contain the proposition p and the sentence (3b) contain the proposition q, then

using symbol >> to mean presupposes , we can represent the relation as in

(3c).

(3) a. Fathers car is new . ( =p )

b. Father has a car ( = q )

c. p >> q

when the human produce the opposite of the sentence in (3a). By negation

it ( = NOT p ), as in (4a), we find that the relationship of presupposition


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doesnt change. That is, the same proposition q, repeat as 4b, continues will be

presupposed by Not p, as shown in (4c).

(4) a. Fathers car isnt new ( = Not p )

b. Fathers has a car ( = q )

c. Not p >> q

This property of presupposition is generally describe as constancy under

negation. It means that the presupposition of a statement will remain constant

or still true even when that statement is negated.

According Husdon (2000: 321) stated that a presupposition is something

assumed (presupposed) to be true in a sentence which asserts other

information. The assumption it will placed in the form of an assertion, denial or

question and can be associate with a specific lexical item or grammatical in the

utterances.

Keenan (1995 :384) stated :

many sentences require that certain culturally defined


conditions or contexts be satisfied in order for an utterances of a
sentence to be understood. These condition are naturally called
presupposition of the utterances, an utterances of a sentence
pragmatically presupposes that its context is appropriate.
From keenan explaine, presupposition is study of human naturally

language on the context of human utterances. According to Caffi (1993, cited

in Mey, 1993: 203) argues that pragmatics presupposition not only concern
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knowledge, whether true or false; they concern expectations, desire, interests,

clams, attitudes towards the world, fears, etc which are supposed to be shared

between the addresser and addressee.

Thus, pragmatics as assumption that are build into an utterances, rather

than directly stated (Reah, 2002: 106). For the success of any communication

in directly, it is must be exist to share knowledge or some information and the

ability to make assumption about the context. According to Layth Muthana

Khaleel (2010: 527), therefore the success of presupposition depends on the

addressors assumptions, shared knowledge between interlocutors and their

knowledge of the world as illustrated in figure ( 1)

Shared
knowledge

Addressors
Knowledge
Pragmatics assumption of
of the world
Presupposition bieliefs

Figure 2.1 Adopted from Layth Muthana (2010: 527 ) the components of

pragmatics presupposition

From the concept of pragmatics presupposition according to Layth

Muthana, pragmatics presupposition is a knowledge of the words and will be

shared the knowledge to the addressee, the addressee will be grab the
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assumption from the addresser. Presupposition is study about assumption of

knowledge of the words.

b. Types of presupposition

According to Yule (2000: 27) said that pragmatics have been associated

with the use of a large number of words, phrases and structures. Linguistics

form are consider to be indicator of potential presupposition, which in the

context of speaker. Thus, Accodring to Yule (1996:27) stated six types of

presupposition which are :

1. The existential presupposition

The existential presupposition is assumed to be present either in

possessive construction ( such as : your car >> you have a car ), it is more

generally in any definite phrase. By using some expression as the king, the

cat, the girl next door, etc. The speaker is assume to be committed to the

existence of the entities named. This types of presupposition is its

existence really exists.

2. The factive presupposition

The factive presupposition is presuppose the information following a

verb like know, can be treat the assume as a fact. The number of other

verb such as realize, regret, as well as phrases involving be with

aware, odd, glade, and etc. It has facive presupposition.

She regret telling him ( >> we told him )


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3. The lexical presupposition

This types of presupposition use one form with asserted meaning is

conventionally interpreted with the presupposition that another ( non

asserted ) meaning is understood. In this types of pressuposition choosing

the world to the point.

he stopped eating ( >> he used to eat)

4. Structural presupposition

In this type of presupposition, certain sentence structures have been

analyzed as conventionally and regularly presupposing that part of the

structures already assume to be true. For example, the WH- question

construction in English is conventionally intrepret with the presupposition

that the information after the wh form is already know to be the case. So

the structural presupposition will be find in the wh question and already

know after wh form.

when did he leave ( >> he left )

5. Non- factive presupposition

In this types of presupposition is one of that is assumed not to be true.

Verb like dream, imagine, and pretend are used with the

presupposition that what follows is not true. The non-factive

presupposition is not true just imagine somethings to be truth in the life.

I dreamed that I was dating with Lee Min Hoo ( >> I was not

dating with Lee Min Hoo )


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6. Counterfactual presupposition

In the last type of presupposition is meaning that of what is true, or

contrary to facts. A conditional structure of the type generally called

counterfactual conditional, purposed that the information in the if-clause is

not true at the time of utterances.

if you were my friend, you would have helped me ( >> You are not

my friend ).

Table 2.1 six types of Presupposition

Types of
No. Description Example
presupposition

1. Existential The speaker said it is real Your Handphone >>


exists you have a
handphone
2. Factive The speaker said it is real Im glad that is over
happen >> its over
3. Lexical The speaker choose to the Youre late again >>
point of words you were late before
4. Structural Structural of the sentences Why do you cry ? >>
of form Wh- Question You cry
5. Non-factive The speaker said its not I Pretend to sleep >>
real I am not sleep

6. Counterfactual The speaker said is not only If you are my


true, but is the opposite girlfriend, I will buy a
what is true ring for you >> you
are not my girlfriend
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4. Communication

a. Definition and Elements of communication

Communication is a system activity which people share ideas, dealings,

thoughts, facts, opinion, values and emotions with each other. It acts as a

bridge of meaning among people. According Fiske (1990: 38) explain,

communication is one of those human activities that everyone recognizes but

few can define satisfactorily, communication as a transmission of message

from one person to the others.

According to Fred C. Lunenburg (2010: 1-2) states communication can be

dined as the process of transmitting information and common understanding

from one person to another. Below figure 2.1.4 is a reflects the definition and

identifies the important elements of the communication process.

Decode
Encode Medium
Receiver
Sender Message
Encode
Decode Noise

Figure 2.2 The Communication Process Adopted by Fed C. Lunenburg

(2010: 2)

Two common elements in every communication exchange are the sender

and the receiver. The sender commence the communication. In the classroom,

the sender is a students or a teacher who has a need or desire to convey an idea
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or concept to others. The receiver is the individual to whom the message is

sent. The sender encodes the idea by selecting words, symbols, or gesture with

which to compose a message. The message is the outcome of the encoding,

which are the form of verbal, nonverbal or written language. The message is

sent through a medium or channel, which is carrier of communicate. The

medium can be face to face conversation, telephone call, e-mail, or written

report. The receiver decode the receive message into meaningful information.

Nose is anything that distorts the message. Different perceptions of the

message, language berries, interruptions, emoticons, and attitudes are example

of noise. Finally feedback occurs when the receiver respond to the senders

message and returns the message to the senders message and returns the

message to the sender. Feedback allows the sender to determine whether the

message has been receive and understand.

The elements of the communication happen in the English Class between

students and teacher. It is the process of learning English the teacher and

students doing communication to successful of learning process. According to

Georgi Brani (2014: 118) states, the act of communication draws on several

interpersonal and intrapersonal skills. There include speaking, listening,

observing, questioning, processing, analyzing and evaluating. The act of

communication will be happen in the activity of English class. The sender and

recipient between students and teacher must also share a common language or

means of understanding each other for communication often examines the

development and structure of language, including the English languages used


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in the Classroom, especially in the English class Eleventh Grade at MAN

Mojosari.

b. Types of Communication

Communication is key to defend successful learning process. According to

Kasia Mikoluk (2013: 15) There are three basic types of communication as

follows:

1. Verbal Communication

Verbal communication uses spoken words to communicate a

message. One person sends a message to another person or group using

speaking. Communication is successful when the speaker and listener

understand each other.

2. Non-verbal Communication

Non-verbal communication includes body language, gesture, facial

expressions, and even posture. It is sets the one of a conversation, and

can seriously undermine the message contain in the words if the

speaker cannot to control it.

3. Written Communication

Written communication is essential for communicating complicate

information, as statistics or other data, that could not be easily

communicate through speech alone. Written communication must be

clear and concise in order to communicate information effectively.


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A good written repot conveys the necessary information using precise,

and grammatically correct language.

There are types of Communication, in this research focuses on the verbal

communication to analysis. The verbal communication is speaking. The

speaking communication will be takes at eleventh grade in the Man Mojosari.

c. Speaking Communication

Speaking is the part act of communication. Speaking is the effective oral

communication requires the ability to use the language appropriately in

learning process interactions. Speaking is defined as an interactive process of

constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving and processing

information. It forms and the meaning are dependent on the context in which is

occurs, the participants, and the purpose of speaking (Burns & Joyce,1997: 7).

Speaking is a productive skill, like writing. It involves using speech to

express other meaning to other people. Interactive is two way communication

that involves using language to keep our listener involve in what the speaker

saying and to check their understand about the speaker meaning. The speaker

also speak with fluency and accuracy. Fluency it means speaking at a normal

speed, without hesitation, repetition or self correction, and with smooth use of

connect speech. Accuracy in speaking is the use of correct form of grammar,

vocabulary and pronunciation.

Speaking is interpret directly in this research as secondary stage of

students ability themselves orally, fluently, coherently and appropriately in a


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given meaningful of the students speaking context to make both transactional

and interactional purpose using correct English language and adopting the

pragmatics and presupposition rule of the speak language. It will assist the

teacher and student understand each others, to avoid misunderstanding between

teachers and students. There are mastery of the following sub competencies /

skill of the students and teachers as: first, Linguistics competence, include the

following skill as the speaker using obvious pronunciation, they are using

grammatical rule accurately in their utterances, and the speaker using relevant,

qualify, and appropriate range of vocabulary. Second, Pragmatics competence,

includes the following skill as expressing the meaning a range of functions

effectively and appropriately according to the context of the speaker. Thirth,

Presupposition competence, includes the following skill as grab the message of

the speakers context, making the assumption of the speaker Utterances can be

truth, and avoid miss understanding between speaker and hearer.

Furthermore, speaking is the term that the speaker uses for verbal

communication between other people. When more than one people are engage

in talking to each other, the speaker is sure that they are doing communication.

People do communication for some reasons. According Jaremy Harmer (2002 :

46 ) states the reason as follows:

1. They want to say something. What the people uses is general way

to suggest that the speaker make define decisions to address other

people.
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2. They have some communicative purpose. Speakers say because

people want something happen to as a result of what people say. In

each of these cases they are interest in achieving this

28 is important the message the listener


communicative purpose what

grab.

3. They select from their language store. Speaker have an infinite

capacity to creat new sentences. In order to achieve this

communication purpose people will select the language is

appropriate for this purpose.

From definition above speaking is what the speaker want to convey with

listener, it is important part of English class to communicate betwen teacher

and students to explain the material of English and get the goal of process

learning in the Eleventh Grade at MAN Mojosari.

d. Aspects of speaking communication

Sometimes, aspect of speaking must students and teacher doing, this is

challenges and will be identify some guidelines for understanding of skill and

therefore design instructional activities to prepare learners to communicate

effectively in real life situations in the Eleventh grade at MAN MOJOSARI

following as;

a. Speaking is face to face

Speaking face to face which following the speakers to get

feedback from the hearer. In the communication even though

speaking has many points, such as expressions, gestures, and even


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body movements. Speaking also occurs, most of the time, in

situations where participants or interlocutors are present. Such

factors facilitate communication (El Fayoumy, 1997 : 10,

Widdwson, 1998).

It is teachers uses to explain the material of English to the

students with face to face. The teacher will be get the feedback from

the students.

b. Speaking is interactive

Whether we are speaking face to face or over the telephone, to

one person or more than one persons, the conversations turn

smoothly, with participants offering contributions at appropriate

moments, with no nude gaps or everyone talking over each other

(Bygate, 1998: 30 and Cornbleet & carter, 2001: 27)

Speaking interactive in the classroom always be happen face to

face between many student, and the teacher and students alternately

listening and speaking giving response, and then chance to ask for

clarification about the material teachers give.

c. Speaking happen in real time

During conversation, responses are unplanned and spontaneous

and the speaker think on their feet, production language which

reflects (Foster et al, 2000 : 368).

The time will be use for the speakers ability plan, to deliver

their message, and the language being used. Similarly, speaker


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occasionally forget things they intended to say, or they may forget

what they have already said, and so they repeat themselves (Miller,

2001 : 27).

The production of speech in real time, it will be need formulic

exspression. To use of formulaic expression, hesitation devices, self

correction, rephrasing and repetition can help speakers become more

fluent and cope with real time demands (Hughes, 2002 : 76).

Speaking happen in real time is the aspect of speaking class in

the Eleventh grade at MAN Mojosari, because the teacher and

students doing speaking in real time.

e. Components to analysis of speech communication process

This is the five components ae generally recognize in analysis of

speech process :

1. Pronunciation

It included the segmental features : vowels and consonants

it is any language we can identify a small number of regularly

uses sound; and the stress and intonation

2. Grammar

It is a linguistics category, which is generally defined by

the syntactic or morphological aspect, as using sentence

structure and tenses.


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3. Vocabulary

It is component of language that maintains all of

information about meaning. it is linguistics category in

pragmatics.

4. Fluency

It s leads to ease and speed of the flow of speech which is

using words with no noticeable cognitive or mental effort. It is

having master word recognition skills to the point of over

language. Fundamental skills are so automatic that they do not

require conscious attention or fluency in English is accuracy

with good pronunciation.

5. Comprehension

It refers to understanding thoroughly the whole aspect of

message convey in the conversation; in this case

comprehensibility focuses in the students understanding of

conversation.

From description above, speaking have many component to

analysis, but in this thesis the researcher focuses in vocabulary and

comprehension of speaking in the Eleventh Grade at MAN Mojosari.

B. Previous studies

This is some previous studies the researcher uses to support this thesis.

The previous studies as follows:


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1. An analysis presupposition in the Genndy Tartakovskys Hotel

Transylvania

The analysis Genndy Tartakovskys Hotel Transylvania based on

linguistic perspective focusing on the use of presupposition by Aditya

(2014) graduated from Yogyakarta State University, the researcher

using qualitative descriptive method.. In Hotel Transylvania, all Yules

six types of presupposition are found. The Counter Factual

Presupposition is the most-used types of presupposition with total 11

data out of 40 data (27.5%). The second most used types of

presupposition are the Structural Presupposition and the Lexical

Presupposition. Each of the type has 8 data out of 40 data (20%). The

third most-used type of presupposition is the Factive Presupposition.

Factive Presupposition has 6 data out of 40 data (15%). For the fourth

most-used type of presupposition, it is the Existential Presupposition

which has 5 data out of 40 data (12.5%). The least-used type of

presupposition is the Non-Factive Presupposition. It only has 2 data out

of 40 data (5%). The Counter Factual Presupposition becomes the most-

used type of presupposition in the movie because it has the relation to

the storyline in which Dracula tries to protect his daughter from human

world. Thus, he often lies to his daughter by using Counter-Factual

Presupposition in his conversation.

2. An Analysis Presupposition in the Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire

Movie
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This analysis by Asri (2010) graduated from Andalas University

Padang. The analyzed data of this research were sentences or utterances

that were from fifty shades of grey novel, in which consist of thirty one

sentences that using presuppositions which selected randomly from data

that obtained from this novel. From data collected, the researcher found

31 presuppositions and the most dominant type of presupposition that

used on fifty shades of grey is factive presupposition, it is shown from

the data that there are 13 factive presupposition and 3 presuppositions

for counter factual presupposition and there are 9 lexical

presuppositions from data and 4 data for existential presupposition.

3. Presupposition as found in The Dark Knight movie

The analyzed data of this research by Yuniardi (2015) Graduated

from Andalas University Padang, the researcher after write the analyzed

twenty conversations in the previous chapter, the researcher finds that

each conversation has significant utterances that contains of a

presupposition. There are twenty presupposition found in this thesis.

There are 5 existential presupposition or 25 %, 4 factive presupposition

or 20%, 2 non0factive presupposition or 10 %, 3 lexical presupposition

or 15%, 4 structural presupposition or 20 %, and 2 counter-actual

presupposition or 10 % .

4. International Journal Presupposition A tool for Communication

The Reasrch from Borah (2013), the researcher has conclusion

from the journal, the first is whether we can draw distinction between
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what is asserted and what is presupposition is presupposed. The second is

what phenomena should be under the heading of presupposition.

5. Pragmatics presupposition on Television Commercial Utterances (

Djarum )

This reseach by Indriani (2012) graduated from Diponegoro

University. The researcher applied Descriptive qualitative to analysis

presupposition on Television Commercial Utterances. From 14 djarums

brand television commercials, the reseacher found 66 utterances, but only

18 utterances which contain indicator of potential presupposition. The

findings of the research ae 52.2 % existential, 8,7 % factive, 13,1 %

lexical, 13.1 % non factive, 8,7 % structural, and 4,2 % counterfactual.

6. Presupposition selected sologans in outdoor advertisements

This reseach by Hidayati (2010) graduated from University of

Sumatera Utara Medan. The researcher applied descriptive qulaitative to

analysis this research. The researcher found 3 types of presupposition in

the selected slogans of outdoor advertisements. There are 11 existential

presupposition (55 %), 6 lexical presupposition (30%), 3 factive

presupposition (15 %).

From those previous studies, it can be concluded that the gaps

between the previous studies with this thesis is the subject if the research.

The previous study was using movie, advertisements, and television

commercial as the subject of the research, but in this present research, the

researcher try to grabs the field research on education. The researcher takes
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the subject of research on the students and teachers speaking class at MAN

Mojosari. In the previous studies has limited explanation in the chapter 1,

the researcher didnt explaine the limitation of the research, and definiton of

the term. In the chapter 2, the researcher didnt explaine more about the

researcher gap, and there is no conceptual framwork. In the chapter 3, the

researcher has limited to explaine the research method, in the chapter 4, the

researcher just analyzed the example of presupposition types that have been

mentioned by yule (1996:27). It showed in this research have the different

with previous studies, the researcher tries to give the different analysis with

previous studies.
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It is a conceptual framework in this research, focuses on linguistics

features: Phonetics and Phonology, Morphology, Lexicology, Pragmatics,

Semantics, and Syntax. In this research, the researcher focuses on the level of

Pragmatics. Pragmatics itself have eight namely Deixis and Distances,

References and inference, Presupposition and entailment, Cooperation and

Implicature, Speech Act and Event, Politeness and Interaction, Conversation

and Preference Structure and the last is Discourse and Culture. From the part

of pragmatics the researcher focuses in Presupposition. According to Yule

(1996: 27) presupposition itself has six types as Existential, Factive, Lexical,

Structural, Non-Factive, and Counterfactual. For the six types of

presupposition it will be analysis in the communication verbal include

speaking communication. The speaking takes at Eleventh Grade in the MAN

Mojosari to analysis of presupposition.