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pH Scale

Created in 1909 by Danish scientist to simplify


the expression of hydrogen ion concentration.

Acidic Basic
Solutions Solutions

pH = 0 pH = 7 pH = 14

Strongly Neutral Strongly


Acidic Solution Basic
pH scale of common items
pH
The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the
hydrogen-ion concentration [H+].

The following formula is used to calculate pH:

pH= -log [H+]

If pH = -log (1.0 x 10-7 mol/L)


= 7.0
Calculating pH given [H+]
Find the pH of a solution that has a [H+] of 1.0 x 10-3
moles per litre.

pH= -log [H+]


pH= -log [1.0 x 10-3]
pH= - [-3]
pH= 3

*Note how the pH is related to the [H+].

Remember: pH= 0 strong acid


pH = 14 strong base
Calculating [H+] given pH
What is the [H+] of a solution if the pH= 3.7?

pH = -log [H+]
3.7 = -log [H+]
-3.7 = log [H+]
[H+]= 2.0 x 10-4 mol/L

Is the solution acidic, basic or neutral?


acidic
Acids & Bases & pH scale

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zTLiJE-j1-
I&feature=related
pOH
The pOH of a solution is the negative
logarithm of the hydroxide-ion concentration.

The following formula is used to calculate


pOH:
pOH= -log [OH-]

Relationship between pH and pOH:


pH + pOH = 14
Calculating pOH given [H+]
Find the pOH of a solution that has a [H+] of
1.0 x 10-3 moles per litre.

pH= -log [H+]


pH= -log [1.0 x 10-3]
pH= - [-3] pOH < 7 basic
pH= 3 pOH > 7 acidic

pOH= 14 pH
pOH = 14- 3
pOH= 11
Create a Summary Chart
pH
pH [H++]]
[H [OH-]
[OH-]
Neutral
Neutral 7 1.0 x 10-7 1.0 x 10-7
Acidic
Acidic <7 > 1.0 x 10-7 < 1.0 x 10-7
Basic
Basic >7 < 1.0 x 10-7 > 1.0 x 10-7

Use the pH values and molarity information given in


your notes to create a summary chart with the
above headings.
[H+] [OH-] pH
x 100
1.01.0 1.0 x 10-14 0.00
1.0 x 10-1 1.0 x 10-13 1.00
1.0 x 10-2 1.0 x 10-12 2.00
1.0 x 10-3 1.0 x 10-11 3.00
1.0 x 10-4 1.0 x 10-10 4.00
1.0 x 10-5 1.0 x 10-9 5.00
1.0 x 10-6 1.0 x 10-8 6.00
1.0 x 10-7 1.0 x 10-7 7.00
1.0 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-6 8.00
1.0 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-5 9.00
1.0 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-4 10.00
1.0 x 10-11 1.0 x 10-3 11.00
1.0 x 10-12 1.0 x 10-2 12.00
1.0 x 10-13 1.0 x 10-1 13.00
1.0 x 10-14 1.01.0
x 100 14.00
Measuring pH
pH can be measured in several ways
Usually it is measured with a coloured acid-base
indicator or a pH meter.
Coloured indicators are a crude measure of pH, but
are useful in certain applications.
pH meters are more accurate, but they must be
calibrated prior to use.
Calibration means setting to a standard.
A pH meter is calibrated with a solution of known pH
often called a buffer.
Buffer indicates that the pH is stable.
pH of strong acids/bases
We know that strong acids & bases completely ionize
when they are dissolved in water. For example, HCl
separates into H+ and Cl- when dissolved in water.

We can use this fact to aid us in determining


unknown concentrations of solutions.

Remember that when comparing concentrations, our


molarities are relative to the amount of moles
present, not the number of reactants or products.
Remember:
Strong Acids
HCl HBr HI HClO4 H2SO4 HNO3

Strong Bases
NaOH KOH CsOH *Ca(OH)2

All group 1 and group 2 hydroxides (except


Mg(OH)2 ) are strong bases. Even though group 2
hydroxides do not dissolve completely in H2O, the
portion that does dissolve is 100% ionized.
pH
Another
NaOH + + OH-
Naquestion
A recipe for lye soap calls for 3.40g of NaOH to
be dissolved in 150ml of water. Find [OH-],
[H3O+], pH and pOH.
Amount of NaOH

3.40 g Molar mass of NaOH


Molarity:
40 g / mol
5.67 101 M [NaOH] = [OH-]
0.150 L
solution
pOH = -log [OH-] = 0.25

pH = 14 0.25 = 13.75 pH = -log [H3O+].[H3O+] = 1.78 x 10-14


HNO 3
Another pH
H + question
+ NO 3
-

Find the pH of an aqueous solution in which


5g of HNO3 is dissolved in 2L of water.
Amount of HNO3
5g 1mol
0.07935mol Molar mass of HNO3
Molarity: 63.01g
0.07935mol [HNO3] = [H+]
0.039676mol / L
2L
solution

pH = -log [H+] = 1.40


Ca(OH)2
Another pH
Ca 2+ + 2 OH-
question
What is the pH of a saturated aqueous
solution of Ca(OH)2 in which 0.165g of
Ca(OH)2 is dissolved in 100mL at 25C?
Amount of HNO3
0.165 g 1mol
2.2267 103 mol
Molar mass of HNO3
Molarity: 74.1g
2.2267 x103 mol [Ca(OH2)]
0.022267mol / L
0.100 L
solution

[OH-] = 2[Ca(OH)2] = 0.04453 M pOH = -log [OH-] = 1.35


pH = 14 1.35 = 12.65
One more example:
The pH of an HCl solution is found to be 3.00. To
what final volume must a 100mL sample of this acid
be diluted so that the pH of the solution becomes
3.50?
HCl H+ + Cl-
pH = 3.5 MAVA = MBVB pH = 3
[H+]= 3.16 x 10-4 M [H+]= 1.0 x 10-3 M
100mL

(3.16 x 10-4 M) VA = (1.0 x 10-3 M)(100mL)


VA = 316mL