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# pH Scale

## Created in 1909 by Danish scientist to simplify

the expression of hydrogen ion concentration.

Acidic Basic
Solutions Solutions

pH = 0 pH = 7 pH = 14

## Strongly Neutral Strongly

Acidic Solution Basic
pH scale of common items
pH
The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the
hydrogen-ion concentration [H+].

## If pH = -log (1.0 x 10-7 mol/L)

= 7.0
Calculating pH given [H+]
Find the pH of a solution that has a [H+] of 1.0 x 10-3
moles per litre.

## pH= -log [H+]

pH= -log [1.0 x 10-3]
pH= - [-3]
pH= 3

## Remember: pH= 0 strong acid

pH = 14 strong base
Calculating [H+] given pH
What is the [H+] of a solution if the pH= 3.7?

pH = -log [H+]
3.7 = -log [H+]
-3.7 = log [H+]
[H+]= 2.0 x 10-4 mol/L

## Is the solution acidic, basic or neutral?

acidic
Acids & Bases & pH scale

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pOH
The pOH of a solution is the negative
logarithm of the hydroxide-ion concentration.

pOH:
pOH= -log [OH-]

## Relationship between pH and pOH:

pH + pOH = 14
Calculating pOH given [H+]
Find the pOH of a solution that has a [H+] of
1.0 x 10-3 moles per litre.

## pH= -log [H+]

pH= -log [1.0 x 10-3]
pH= - [-3] pOH < 7 basic
pH= 3 pOH > 7 acidic

pOH= 14 pH
pOH = 14- 3
pOH= 11
Create a Summary Chart
pH
pH [H++]]
[H [OH-]
[OH-]
Neutral
Neutral 7 1.0 x 10-7 1.0 x 10-7
Acidic
Acidic <7 > 1.0 x 10-7 < 1.0 x 10-7
Basic
Basic >7 < 1.0 x 10-7 > 1.0 x 10-7

## Use the pH values and molarity information given in

your notes to create a summary chart with the
[H+] [OH-] pH
x 100
1.01.0 1.0 x 10-14 0.00
1.0 x 10-1 1.0 x 10-13 1.00
1.0 x 10-2 1.0 x 10-12 2.00
1.0 x 10-3 1.0 x 10-11 3.00
1.0 x 10-4 1.0 x 10-10 4.00
1.0 x 10-5 1.0 x 10-9 5.00
1.0 x 10-6 1.0 x 10-8 6.00
1.0 x 10-7 1.0 x 10-7 7.00
1.0 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-6 8.00
1.0 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-5 9.00
1.0 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-4 10.00
1.0 x 10-11 1.0 x 10-3 11.00
1.0 x 10-12 1.0 x 10-2 12.00
1.0 x 10-13 1.0 x 10-1 13.00
1.0 x 10-14 1.01.0
x 100 14.00
Measuring pH
pH can be measured in several ways
Usually it is measured with a coloured acid-base
indicator or a pH meter.
Coloured indicators are a crude measure of pH, but
are useful in certain applications.
pH meters are more accurate, but they must be
calibrated prior to use.
Calibration means setting to a standard.
A pH meter is calibrated with a solution of known pH
often called a buffer.
Buffer indicates that the pH is stable.
pH of strong acids/bases
We know that strong acids & bases completely ionize
when they are dissolved in water. For example, HCl
separates into H+ and Cl- when dissolved in water.

## We can use this fact to aid us in determining

unknown concentrations of solutions.

## Remember that when comparing concentrations, our

molarities are relative to the amount of moles
present, not the number of reactants or products.
Remember:
Strong Acids
HCl HBr HI HClO4 H2SO4 HNO3

Strong Bases
NaOH KOH CsOH *Ca(OH)2

## All group 1 and group 2 hydroxides (except

Mg(OH)2 ) are strong bases. Even though group 2
hydroxides do not dissolve completely in H2O, the
portion that does dissolve is 100% ionized.
pH
Another
NaOH + + OH-
Naquestion
A recipe for lye soap calls for 3.40g of NaOH to
be dissolved in 150ml of water. Find [OH-],
[H3O+], pH and pOH.
Amount of NaOH

## 3.40 g Molar mass of NaOH

Molarity:
40 g / mol
5.67 101 M [NaOH] = [OH-]
0.150 L
solution
pOH = -log [OH-] = 0.25

HNO 3
Another pH
H + question
+ NO 3
-

## Find the pH of an aqueous solution in which

5g of HNO3 is dissolved in 2L of water.
Amount of HNO3
5g 1mol
0.07935mol Molar mass of HNO3
Molarity: 63.01g
0.07935mol [HNO3] = [H+]
0.039676mol / L
2L
solution

## pH = -log [H+] = 1.40

Ca(OH)2
Another pH
Ca 2+ + 2 OH-
question
What is the pH of a saturated aqueous
solution of Ca(OH)2 in which 0.165g of
Ca(OH)2 is dissolved in 100mL at 25C?
Amount of HNO3
0.165 g 1mol
2.2267 103 mol
Molar mass of HNO3
Molarity: 74.1g
2.2267 x103 mol [Ca(OH2)]
0.022267mol / L
0.100 L
solution

## [OH-] = 2[Ca(OH)2] = 0.04453 M pOH = -log [OH-] = 1.35

pH = 14 1.35 = 12.65
One more example:
The pH of an HCl solution is found to be 3.00. To
what final volume must a 100mL sample of this acid
be diluted so that the pH of the solution becomes
3.50?
HCl H+ + Cl-
pH = 3.5 MAVA = MBVB pH = 3
[H+]= 3.16 x 10-4 M [H+]= 1.0 x 10-3 M
100mL

VA = 316mL