Manish Parihar, M.K. Bhaskar, Deepak Bohra, Digvijay Sarvate
Abstract: P-V curve analysis is use to determine voltage stability of power system network. Newton-Raphson method is used for load flow analysis. In this paper P-V curve is drawn for different load power factor condition. Newton-Raphson method along with determinant of power flow Jacobian matrix helps in calculating loadability limit and critical voltage collapse point at selected load bus. Results were obtained using MATLAB applications software. Keywords: PV Curve, Voltage Stability, Singularity of Jacobian, Power Transfer.
Volume & Issue No. = Volume 6, Issue 5, September - October 2017
pages = 201-205 ,
url = http://www.ijettcs.org/Volume6Issue5/IJETTCS-2017-10-25-75.pdf

© All Rights Reserved

35 tayangan

Manish Parihar, M.K. Bhaskar, Deepak Bohra, Digvijay Sarvate
Abstract: P-V curve analysis is use to determine voltage stability of power system network. Newton-Raphson method is used for load flow analysis. In this paper P-V curve is drawn for different load power factor condition. Newton-Raphson method along with determinant of power flow Jacobian matrix helps in calculating loadability limit and critical voltage collapse point at selected load bus. Results were obtained using MATLAB applications software. Keywords: PV Curve, Voltage Stability, Singularity of Jacobian, Power Transfer.
Volume & Issue No. = Volume 6, Issue 5, September - October 2017
pages = 201-205 ,
url = http://www.ijettcs.org/Volume6Issue5/IJETTCS-2017-10-25-75.pdf

© All Rights Reserved

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Volume 6, Issue 5, September- October 2017 ISSN 2278-6856

WITH INTEGRATION OF DG INTO

THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Rudresha S J1 , Dr. Shekhappa G. Ankaliki2

1

Research Scholar, EEE Dept , S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad

2

Professor, EEE Dept, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad

ABSTRACT : One of the modern and important techniques have led to the definite possibility of these units being

in the electrical distribution systems is to solve the networks operated in an autonomous mode, or what is known as a

problems service availability, high loss and to improve system micro grid. Hence, distribution systems with embedded

voltage these can be resolved by accommodating small scaled DG units can operate in two modes: grid-connected and

de-centralized generating stations in networks, which is known autonomous mode.

as Distributed Generation (DG).Distributed generation (DG)

In grid-connected mode, although the voltage and

units reduce electric power losses and hence improve reliability

and voltage profile. Determination of appropriate size and frequency are typically controlled by the grid and the DG

location of DG is important to maximize overall system units are synchronized with the grid, integrating DG units

efficiency. In this paper, a method has been presented to can have an impact on the practices used in distribution

determine the appropriate size and proper location of DG in a systems, such as the voltage profile, power flow, power

distribution network in order to reduce the losses and improve quality, stability, reliability, and protection [4]. Since DG

the voltage stability in the distributed system. units have a small capacity compared to central power

The IEEE 13-Bus and 33-Bus system is simulated in Power plants, the impact is minor if the penetration level is low.

World Simulator (PWS) and the voltage magnitude and system However, if the penetration level of DG units increases the

losses are analyzed. Simulation result shows that optimal

impact of DG units will be profound. Furthermore, if the

placement and sizing of DG will reduce the system losses

and improve the voltage profile within the acceptable limits DG units operate in autonomous mode, as a micro grid, the

there by improve voltage stability. effects on power stability and quality are expected to be

more dramatic because of the absence of the grid support

[5].

I. INTRODUCTION

A traditional electrical generation system consists of large

power generation plants, such as thermal, hydro, and II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

nuclear. Because these plants are located at significant Interest in Distributed Generation (DG) in power system

distances from the load centers, the energy must be networks has been growing rapidly. This increase can be

transported from the power plants to the loads through explained by factors such as environmental concerns, the

transmission lines and distribution systems. These plants, restructuring of electricity businesses, and the development

transmission lines, and distribution systems are currently of technologies for small-scale power generation. DG units

being utilized to their maximum capacity, but the load are typically connected so as to work in parallel with the

demand is growing. This increase in load demand requires utility grid; however, with the increased penetration level

that new generation power plants be built and that the of these units and the advancements in units control

transmission and distribution systems be expanded, neither techniques, there is a great possibility for these units to be

of which is recommended from an economic or operated in an autonomous mode known as a micro grid.

environmental perspective [1]. Integrating DG units into distribution systems can have an

Therefore, interest in the integration of distributed impact on different practices such as voltage profile, power

generation (DG) into distribution systems has been rapidly flow, power quality, stability, reliability, and protection.

increasing, distributed generation is defined as small-scale The impact of the DG units on stability problem can be

electricity generation fuelled by renewable energy sources, further classified into three issues: voltage stability, angle

such as wind and solar, or by low-emission energy sources, stability, and frequency stability. As both angle and

such as fuel cells and micro-turbines[2]. frequency stability are not often seen in distribution

DG units are typically connected so that they work in systems, voltage stability is considered to be the most

parallel with the utility grid, and they are mostly connected significant in such systems [6].

in close proximity to the load [3]. DG units have not so far In fact, the distribution system in its typical design doesnt

been permitted without a utility grid. However, the suffer from any stability problems, given that all its active

economic advantages of utilizing DG units, coupled with and reactive supplies are guaranteed through the

the advancements in techniques for controlling these units,

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org

Volume 6, Issue 5, September- October 2017 ISSN 2278-6856

substation. However, the following facts alter this The following steps are carried out to model the test

situation: system in the power world simulator

With the development of economy, load demands Draw the buses and enter the data.

in distribution networks are sharply increasing. Draw the transmission lines and enter the data as

Hence, the distribution networks are operating given in the test system.

more close to the voltage instability boundaries Draw the generators and enter the data.

[7]. Draw the load and enter the data.

The integration of distributed generation in Now run the model and observe the voltage at all

distribution system introduces possibility of the buses and total losses in the system without

encountering some active/reactive power DG.

mismatches resulting in some stability concerns at Calculate sensitivity of each bus with small

the distribution level [8]. penetration of DG

The inappropriate size and allocation of DG can cause low Make list of most sensitive buses

or over voltage in the distribution system leading to Select a bus from the list and calculate power loss

voltage instability. Therefore, another goal of our analysis for large variation of DG size

is to check whether the voltage profile remains within Continue until power loss starts to increase and

permissible limit. So, voltage constraint becomes,

record each sample

Vmin V Vmax

Check whether all sensitive buses have been

During this analysis, as per the standard we considered 6%

analyzed

variable voltage as acceptable stable voltage limit i.e.

Vmin=0.94 p.u and Vmax=1.06 p.u.In the following section, Find the bus which has minimum power loss

we will show how optimum size and location of DG Find corresponding DG size

impacts on voltage level of the interconnecting buses. Find the voltages at all the buses with optimum

DG size and location

III. PROPOSED ANALYSIS METHOD Check for voltage stability of the system

In our analysis, Based on sensitivity, a new methodology If the voltage stability is not maintained at all the

has been proposed to calculate optimum size and location buses then increase the DG size at a optimum

of DG using power world simulator package and Mipower location until the voltage stability is maintained

software in order to reduce the losses and improve the

voltages at the different buses which improves the voltage VI. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

stability in the system. The results obtained from both the The proposed method has been applied to a standard 13-

software are compared for optimal location and optimal bus and 33-bus system which have been taken as the bench

size required to minimize losses and improve the voltage mark problem in many IEEE papers.

stability of the system.

IEEE 13-BUS TEST SYSTEM

IV. FORMULA TO FIND SENSITIVITY 13-bus system has 13 busses and 12 branches. The

For any distribution system, if DG size is varied from PDG1 standard 13-bus system is shown in Figure 1.

to PDG2 and their corresponding change in power loss is

respectively PL1 to PL2, then the sensitivity factor becomes,

bus using equation and the bus with maximum sensitivity

is identified. Only those buses which have sensitivity

factors close to the maximum value have been considered

in our analysis. Thus solution space is reduced to only a

few buses. After that, for each of these buses, power loss

has been determined using large step size of DG variation

and then graph is drawn using these few samples.

The minimum value of the curve that represents the Figure .1. IEEE 13 -bus system

minimum loss gives the optimum size for that bus and

corresponding generation is the optimum DG size. The bus The IEEE 13-bus Test system is modeled using power

which is responsible for minimum loss of the system is the world simulator as shown in figure.2

appropriate location for DG allocation.

USING POWER WORLD SIMULATOR

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org

Volume 6, Issue 5, September- October 2017 ISSN 2278-6856

instability. The voltage at the other buses are also moving

towards voltage instability margin as load increases and it

may lead to voltage collapse therefore it is required to

place a DG at optimum location in order to improve

voltage at the different buses so that voltage stability is

maintained.

By applying the proposed method as given in the algorithm

the minimum MW loss i,e 0.0371 is occurred when

distributed generation is incorporated at bus 12 with 60%

of generation and it is shown in figure 3.

0.07

0.06

MW Losses

0.05

0.04

Figure.2. 13-bus Test system with DG is modeled using

0.03

power world simulator

0.02

The load flow analysis is carried out using power world

0.01

simulator for the existing system without distributed

0

generation and results are tabulated in Table -1.

Table -1 0 50 100

Slack bus Slack bus Slack bus Total Total % DG at Bus 12

MW MVAR MVA MW MVA

generatio generatio Generatio loss R Figure 3: MW loss v/s % of DG at bus 12

n n n Loss Therefore the bus 12 can be chosen as optimum location

2.0655 1.1253 2.3521 0.150 0.0459 with 60% DG due to minimum losses and with 60% of

7 DG at bus 12, voltages at all the buses are within the limits

therefore 60% of DG i.e. 1.2393 MW at bus 12 is the

optimum value of distributed generation.

The voltages at the different buses without DG are given

in Table-2.

Table 2 Voltage profile

Bus number Voltage in p.u 1.05

Voltage in p.u

1

1 1.00000 0.95 Voltage

0.9 without DG

2 0.96246 0.85

Voltage with

bus1

bus3

bus5

bus7

bus9

bus11

bus13

3 0.95462

DG

4 0.95018

Bus Numbers

5 0.95981

6 0.95717 Figure 4. Voltage Profile of 13-bus system before

and after placement of DG

7 0.93545

8 0.92519 The comparison of voltages at the various buses with and

without DG is shown in figure.4.

9 0.92190 It can be seen from the diagram that the voltage profile is

10 0.92519 improved in all the buses which improves the voltage

stability in the distribution system.

11 0.93545 IEEE 33 - BUS TEST SYSTEM

12 0.92625 Proposed method is applied to 33-bus system using power

world simulator.

13 0.92070

are below V min (0.94) and therefore it reaches voltage

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org

Volume 6, Issue 5, September- October 2017 ISSN 2278-6856

Comparison of results obtained from both software is

shown in Table -3

Table-3

SL Software Used DG DG Size for

NO Locati Voltage

on Stability

improvement

Figure.5. IEEE 33- bus test system World Bus 12

Simulat

By applying the proposed method as given in the algorithm System

or

the minimum MW loss is occurred when distributed IEEE 33 - Bus 50%

generation is incorporated at bus 13 with 30 % of Bus 13

generation and it is shown in figure 7.

System

0.6 2 Mipowe IEEE 13 - Bus 60%

MW Losses

r Bus 12

0.4 Softwar

System

e

0.2

IEEE 33 - Bus 53%

Bus 13

0

0 50 100 System

% of DG at bus 13

VII- CONCLUSION

Proper Size and location of DG are important factors in the

Figure 7. MW loss v/s % of DG at bus 13 application of DG for loss minimization and voltage

stability improvement. This paper presents an algorithm to

Therefore the bus -13 can be chosen as optimum location calculate the optimum location of DG at various buses and

due to minimum losses with 30% DG at bus -13 to identify the best size corresponding to the optimum

The voltages at bus -13 with this 30% of DG are not within location for reducing total power losses and improve the

the limits therefore in order to obtain the voltage within the voltage profile in primary distribution network. In this

limits and to maintain the voltage stability in the system % paper IEEE-13 and 33 bus system is taken for analysis and

DG is increased at bus -13 till the voltages at the all the simulation is done using power world simulator software,

buses are within the limits. In this case for 50% of DG at the results shows that the location of the DG has a main

bus -13, all the bus voltages are within the limits. effect on the power losses and Voltage stability can be

The comparison of voltages at the various buses with and improved by selecting proper size of DG at a selected

without DG is shown in figure .8 optimal location in distribution system.

REFERENCES

[1].Ackermann, T.; Andersson, G.; Soder, L. (2000),

Distributed generation: a definition, Electric Power

System Research, Vol. 57, pp. 195-204.

[2]. IEEE Std. 1547-2003, "IEEE Standard for

Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric

Power Systems,2003.

[3]. P. Dondi, D. Bayoumi, C. Haederli, D. Julian, and M.

Suter, "Network integration of distributed power

Figure 8. Voltage Profile of 33- bus system before

generation," J. Power Sources,vol. 106, pp. 1-9, 2002.

and after placement of DG

[4].V.V Thong, J. Driesen and R Belmans, power quality

and voltage stability of distribution system with

This algorithm can be applied to find the optimum location

distributed energy resources. International Journal of

and size of DG in order to minimize losses and improve

Distributed energy Resource,Vol. 1, No. 3 PP.227-

the voltage stability of the distribution system using mi-

240, 2005.

power software also, the results obtained using both the

software are given in the table-3.

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org

Volume 6, Issue 5, September- October 2017 ISSN 2278-6856

[5].N. Hadjsaid, J. F. Canard, and F. Dumas, "Dispersed

generation impact on distribution networks," IEEE

Comput. Appl. Power, vol. 12, pp. 22- 28, 1999.

[6].P.Sindhu Priya and N.Chaitanya kumar reddy

Optimal placement of the DG in radial distribution

system to improve the voltage profile.

InternationalJournal of Science and Research, ISSN

:2319-7064,2015.

[7].Lopes, J.A.P (2002), Integration of dispersed

generation on distribution networks impact

studies,PES Winter Meeting, IEEE,Vol. 1, pp.323-

328.

[8] C. Borges and D. Falcao, Impact of distributed

generation allocation and sizing on reliability, losses

and voltage profile, in Power Tech Conference

Proceedings, 2003 IEEE Bologna, vol. 2, june 2003.

currently working as a Professor and PG

Coordinator Department of Electrical

Electronics Engineering in SDM college

of Engineering, Dharwad. He obtained

his B.E, M. Tech. from Mysore University and Ph. D. from

Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum, and

Karnataka. He is a life member of ISTE, ISWE and MIE.

He has published number of papers in National and

International Journals and Conferences. His research

interest includes AI application to Power Systems, Power

System Security, Energy Audit, Energy Management and

Demand Side Management.

assistant professor in the department of EEE

in PESITM Shimoga. He obtained his B.E,

M.Tech from Visvesvaraya Technological

University, Belgaum, and Karnataka.

Presently he is pursuing his ph.D in Power System. His

field of interest includes distribution system reliability

analysis, voltage stability analysis and power quality

issues.

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