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Analisis Kalimat

Mari kita analisis kalimat berikut ini:

He showed me a book describing children's literature which he had taken from the library.

Kalimat lengkapnya sebetulnya seperti ini:

He showed me a book which described children's literature which he had taken from the library.

Jenis kalimat ini adalah kalimat kompleks yang terdiri dari:

Satu klausa independen: He showed me a book.

Dua klausa dependen: which described children's literature dan

which he had taken from the library

Jika kalimat tersebut dibagi ke dalam klausa dan frasa, jadinya sebagai berikut:

He showed me a book = klausa independen

which he had taken from the library = klausa dependen

describing children's literature = frasa partisipial

Frasa ini hasil dari peringkasan klausa relatif, which described children's literature

Klausa independen, He /showed me/ a book bila dibagi ke dalam frasa, akan menjadi:

He = frasa nomina kata tunggal; kata ganti orang ketiga tunggal maskulin

showed me = frasa verba

showed = bentuk kedua (past tense), verba transitif

me = obyek tak langsung dari verba showed

a book = frasa nomina sebagai obyek langsung dari verba showed

a = artikel tak tentu (indefinite article)

book = nomina dapat dihitung

Frasa partisipial, describing children's literature dapat dijelaskan sebagai berikut:


Present participle, describing menerangkan frasa nomina a book dan a book sebagai antesedennya
describing children's literature.

children's literature sebagai obyek langsung dari present participle describing

Klausa dependen which he had taken from the library jika dibagi ke dalam frasa akan menjadi sebagai
berikut:

he = frasa nomina kata tunggal; kata ganti orang ketiga tunggal maskulin

had taken = frasa verba yang mewakili past perfect

from the library = frasa preposisi sebagai keterangan tempat

from = preposisi

the library = obyek dari preposisi from

the = artikel tentu (definite article)

library = nomina dapat dihitung

which = pronomina relatif yang berfungsi sebagai obyek dari verba taken dan menggantikan frasa
nomina a book

which = a book

Kalimat kompleks tersebut sebetulnya terdiri dari 3 kalimat (3 klausa independen):

1. He showed me a book.

2. A book described children's literature --> which described children's literature -->

describing children's literature

3. He had taken a book from the library --> which he had taken from the library

Tiga kalimat tersebut dijadikan satu kalimat kompleks:

He showed me a book which described children's literature which he had taken from the library.
[which pertama sebagai pronomina relatif pola subyek dan which yang kedua sebagai pronomina relatif
pola obyek.]

Selanjutnya klausa relatif which described children's literature mengalami peringkasan menjadi frasa
partisipial, describing children's literature dan terakhir kalimat akan menjadi:
"He showed me a book describing children's literature which he had taken from the library."

Jadi normalnya, frasa partisipial mendahului klausa relatif, sebagaimana contoh di atas.