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INSTRUCTIONAL SPACE AND STUDENTS

ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN LAGOS STATE


EDUCATION DISTRICT II

BY

AKINYEMI ISIAKA ADENIRAN


050131006

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT


OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF M. ED HONS
IN EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT, IN THE DEPARTMENT
OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT, FACULTY OF
EDUCATION, LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY, OJO

MARCH, 2013.

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CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this research work Instructional space planning and students
academic performance in Lagos State Education District II was carried out by
AKINYEMI IsiakaAdeniranwith matriculation number 050131006 under my
supervision in partial fulfillment of the condition for the award of M.Ed Educational
Management, Faculty of Education, Lagos State University.

.............................................. .....................
PROF. S. O. A OLANIYONU DATE
SUPERVISOR

... ...
PROF.TUNDE SAMUEL DATE
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

.. .
PROF. R. O OKUNEYE DATE
DEAN, FACULTY OF EDUCATION

..
PROF. O. O MATANMI DATE
DEAN, POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL

...

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EXTERNAL SUPERVISOR DATE

DEDICATION

This research work is dedicated to Almighty Allah, the everlasting creator of mankind
whom in his infinite mercy and grace that made this possible for me throughout the
course and project work. To him alone is glory, honour and majesty, my lord and my
God to you be praise forever and I will forever be grateful.

The dedication also goes to my beloved Uncle for his unrelenting and extraordinary
effort and support most of all excellent upbringing and the required encouragement,
morally, spiritually, financially and for being so loving and caring throughout my
course of study to be great in like. Mr. OlalekanSaka JINADU, thank you for your
endurance.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The successful completion of this project gives me the opportunity and profound
pleasure to express my gratitude to numerous personalities who in one way or the other
contributed to the programme.

Firstly, to Almighty Allah (SWT) I express my profound gratitude for making it


possible for me to complete this project, from the beginning of the course of this
present moment, he has been merciful unto me and nothing was accomplished without
him. To Allah be all the glory for the great things he has done. To Him, I say
AliamdulilahiRabilAlamin.

My appreciation goes to my supervisor Prof. S. O. A. Olaniyonu who despite his busy


and tight schedule made out time of no time in order to correct and adjust the project
work for me until it came to a finish. May Almighty Allah (SWT) continue to sustain
you and your family.Ameen

My special thanks and appreciation to my mother for her parental, financial, and moral
cover throughout my schooling and how she supported in taken-care of me, I want to
say thank you and pray that God will grant you long life and prosperity to reap the fruit
of your labour.

My unreserved special and deserve appreciation goes to the only important soul in my
life Mr. Olalekan S. Jinadu for the immense contribution, support and encouragement
throughout the programme and the course of writing the project. And also to Prof. K. O.
Akinyemi, I want to say I appreciate your tolerance, endurance and support throughout
my course of pragramme. I want to say a big thank you both for your support, guidance,

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suggestion, tolerance, endurance and contribution morally and financially, may God
bless you and enlarge your coast.

I must also express my appreciation to my lecturers in the Department of Educational


Management who served as my mentor towards my years in Lagos State University,
Prof. Tunde Samuel, Dr. A. O. Abari, Dr. Sola Aina, Dr. A. O Olorunfemi, Dr J. P
Gbenu (my Mentor), Dr. (Mrs.) Mrs L. O Yahya, Mr M. D Rufai, MrsOgundipe
(IyaIbeji), Mr. AkoduMuritala (a.k.aAlapoplenty), Mrs. Adeboye, Mr Mohammed,
MrsGeoge. I also say a big thanks to you all.

My universal appreciation and immense gratitude goes to my lovely Mother Mrs. B.


Akinyemi, my siblings, my big brother MrMuniruAdewaleAkinyemi, my late brother
AkinyemiNurudeenAdetola (Success) for their moral, physical and financial support
towards the completion of my programme.

Also, I am deeply grateful and sincerely appreciate the effort of my lovely wife Mrs.
SaidatIdowuAkinyemi (Nee Omolayo) and my son AbdulbaqyAdetolaAkinyemi for
their love, support and encouragement, may Almighty Allah be with you all.
Lastly, I say a very big thank you to my wonderful friends
AlhajiAderibigbeTaoheedAdekunle, OsundijiHafeezAbiodun, Gbesoevi Emmanuel
Semako, Kareem KabirAdewale (k.k) and his family, Oyerinde Ismail Ajibola to much
a few, thank you to everyone that have contributed in one way or the other to stay in
LASU, may God bless you greatly and reward you bountifully.

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ABSTRACT

The study examined the relationship between instructional space planning and
students academic performance in Lagos State Education District II. The study made
use of 12 senior secondary schools selected from Education District II of Lagos State,
but the sampling subject were 1 principal, 4 teachers and 20 students from each
selected schools. Four hypotheses were formulated and tested. Analysis of data
revealed that a significant relationship exists between instructional space planning,
classroom planning, laboratory planning, library planning and students academic
performance in senior secondary schools in Education District II of Lagos State. These
findings provide evidence for recommendations towards ensuring good instructional
space planning, for proper supply of electricity to secondary schools in order to make
use of educative gadgets that could enhance teaching and learning, for proper
maintenance of instructional facilities and judicious utilization of instructional spaces
i.e classroom, laboratory, library among others.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Content Page
Title page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION


1.1Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.2 Purpose of the of Study 6
1.3 Research Questions 6
1.4 Research Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 8
1.8 Limitations on the Study 9
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms 9

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1 School Plant Planning 12
2.2 Designing School Plant as a Learning Environment 15
2.3 Characteristics of a Good Physical School Plant Planning 16
2.4 School Plants Planning and Academic performance 18
2.5 Importance of Effective School Plant Planning 20

2.6 Nature of Secondary School Plant Planning 22

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2.7 Rationale for School Plant Planning 23
2.8 Concept, Nature, and Types of School Facilities 24
2.9 Need for facilities in Schools and Facilities Maintenance 28
2.10 Facilities Management Relations and Methodologies for Facilities Management
2.11 Appraisal of Literature

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


3.1 Research Design 38
3.2 Population of the Study 38
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 39
3.4 Research Instrument and Instrumentation 40
3.5 Validity of the Instrument 40
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument 41
3.7 Administration of the Instrument 41
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 41

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS


4.1 Introduction 42
4.2 Demographic data 43
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses 45
4.4 Discussion of Findings 50

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


5.1 Summary 52
5.2 Conclusion 53
5.3Recommendations 53
References
Appendix

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The school could be viewed as an organized environment where educational curricular

are interpreted. It is a formal organization which serves as a transitional stage in life

between family and the society (Olabode, 2002; Musa, 2004; Tabir, 2004). Meanwhile,

the school plant is the totality of all things that make up a school system, as reported by

Ijaduola, Oni, and Muraina(2011). However,Adeyemi (2006) also referred to school

plant planning as the process of management, construction, utilization and maintenance

of school facilities to ensure goal achievement.They include the sitting, the building and

physical equipment,recreationplaces for the achievement of educational objectives,as

reported by Adesina (2011).

School plant planning which include instructional spaces planning, administrative

places planning, circulation spacesplanning, spaces for conveniences planning and

accessories planning are essential in the school system.

Instructional spaces such as classrooms, libraries, laboratories and technical workshops

are essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which these spaces could

enhanceeffective teaching and learning depends on their location within the school

premises, theirstructure and physical facilities. It is not unlikely that wellplanned

instructional spaces in terms of location,structure and physical facilities will facilitate

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effectiveteaching and learning process and as wellenhance good academic performance

of thestudents.

While emphasizing the importance ofinstructional spaces to students

academicperformance, Mark (2002) maintained that onecannot expect high level of

students academicperformance where school buildings such asclassrooms, libraries,

technical workshops andlaboratories are substandard. He emphasized thatclean, quiet,

safe, comfortable and healthyenvironment are important components ofsuccessful

teaching and learning. Similarly, Ajayi(2007) maintained that high level of students

academic performance may not be guaranteedwhere instructional space such as

classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective,

not properly ventilated and not spacious enough for use. He furtheremphasized that

structural effectiveness, proper ventilation and well located instructional space may lead

to successful teaching and learning process.

Academic performance according to Adu, Ojelabi and Adeyanju (2009) can simply be

viewed as an outcome of all academic tasks or rigours of a person which could be

poorly or successfully stated. As noted by Ijaduola (2008), academic performance

cannot be gingered in students if they are discouraged. Teachers are expected to

meaningfully contribute to student's academic performance. A weighty academic

performance of a student is sometimes attributed to higher teachers' efficiency.

Meanwhile, the extent to which instructional space planning as an integral part of

school plant planning could enhance teaching and learning depends on their location

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within the school compound, their structure and accessories. It is believed that a well

planned instructional space will gear up expected outcomes of education such

asfacilitates good social, political, and economic emancipation, effective teaching and

learning process and academic performance of the students.

It appears the secondary school studentsacademic performance in Nigeria is poor.

Dada (1987), Enaesator (1995), Ajayi (1999) and Akubuiro and Joshua (2004) reported

that there was persistent mass failure of students in the Senior School Certificate

Examination (SSCE) conducted by the West African Examination Council (WAEC).

The observed poor academic performance of the secondary school studentsin Nigeria

may not be unconnected with seemingly poor instructional space planning in the

schools.

In the context of this study, instructional space planning refers to the location, structural

design and physical facilities of places such as classrooms, libraries, technical

workshops and laboratories where students receive academic instruction. In some of the

secondary schools, classrooms are not spacious enough, there are no adequate lighting

and ventilation in the classrooms, and thereare instances where classrooms are located

veryclose to the technical workshops and the mainroads, while adequate furniture and

fittings are not provided in some of the classrooms(Adesina, 2011).

All these may not make such classrooms conducive for teaching and learning process

and hence good academic performance of the students may not be guaranteed. Stressing

the importance of classroom planning, Philip (1997) maintained that classrooms with

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adequate lighting and ventilation and properly located within the school, play vital role

in students academic performance.Meanwhile, studies in the Capistrano Unified

School District (CUSD) in Orange County,California found that the students in

classrooms with natural lighting,large windows or well-designed skylights performed

19 to 26 percent better than theirpeers in classrooms without these features (Hale,

2002). Recent concerns with mold relatedhealth issues are driving schools to focus on

the impact that poor indoor airquality has on the attendance and achievement rate of

students (DePatta, 2002). Eventhe impact of furnishings in educational settings has

been addressed. The importance of school library in teaching and learning cannot be

over-emphasized. Fuller (1986) and Popoola (1989) as reported by Ayeni (2008) found

that school library significantly influence students academic performance. It appears

some of the secondary schools lack adequate library facilities. In some cases school

library are not spacious enough and well located within the school premises. In some

cases, the libraries do not have adequate lighting and ventilation that could make them

comfortable for the students and teachers to use (Adesina, 2011). In such cases,

effective teaching and learning may not be enhanced while students academic

performance may be affected.

According to Bajah (1979) as reported by Ayeni (2008), laboratories areessential in the

teaching and learning of sciencesubjects. It has been observed that laboratoriesare not

well planned in some of the secondaryschools. Apart from the fact that the

requiredfacilities are not in the laboratories, some of thelaboratories are not spacious,

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not properlylocated while some do not have cross ventilationand adequate lighting.

Such laboratories may notenhance effective teaching and learning therebyimpeding the

students academic performance.

The planning of technical workshops in someof the secondary schools seems to be

defective.Apart from the fact that some schools useclassrooms as ad hoc technical

workshops, in some cases, technical workshops are located very close to the

classrooms. Moreover some technical workshops are not spacious and they lack

adequate facilities, cross ventilation and adequate lighting (Adesina, 2011). In such

cases, the technical workshops may not be conducive for teaching and learning and

consequently, students academic performance may be jeopardized.

1.2Statement of the Problem

There have been series of reports about state of facilities in Nigeria secondary schools

and more worrisome is their planning. Specifically, instructional space such as

classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective,

that is, classrooms are not spacious enough. There are inadequate ventilation and

lighting,classrooms located very close to technical workshops and main road. There are

inadequacies in laboratory equipmentand workshops while furniture, fittings and tools

are not provided. These inadequacies may make teaching and workshops to be

jeopardized while furniture, fittings and tools are not provided. These inadequacies may

not make teaching andlearning conducive, hence good academic performance of the

students may not be guaranteed.

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These are issues of major concern to the study.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the possible impact of instructional space

planning on students academic performance cannot be over emphasized.

To this end, the purposes of this study were as follows.

To find out the relationship between instructional space planning such as

classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories and students academic

performance in LagosState senior secondary schoolsin Education District II.

To find out the extent to which the availability of instructional space affectacademic

studentsperformance in senior school certificate Examinations (SSCE) in Lagos

State senior secondary schools in Education District II.

It willalso find out whether students academicperformance is significantly related

to eachof planning of classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories.

1.4 Research Questions

The research questions generated for this study were:

1. Does instructional space planning have anyrelationship with students

academic performance?

2. Can effectiveclassroom planning enhance students academicperformance?

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3. What is the relationship betweenlaboratory planning and students

academicperformance?

4. Is there is any significant relationship betweenlibrary planning and students

academicperformance?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses guided this study:

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between instructional space planning and

students academic performance

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between classroom planning and students

academic performance.

Ho3: There is no significant relationship between laboratory planning and students

academic performance.

Ho4: There is no significant relationship between library planning and students

academic performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of this study will help government, school plant planners, educational

planners, teachers, and the society in general to improve quality of education and

provide conducive learning environment for better academic performance of students in

secondary school system.

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It will help school plant planners to see to the well being of the school because the

school plants will determine the out of the school and the realization of educational-

goal.

It will also help the teachers to satisfy the future educational needs of a child and

society. It is expected that the teachers as well as the educational planners would be

guided against any factors that are inimical to good standard of education. It is also

expected that the policy makers would be provided with relevant information needed in

providing the lacked instructional space. Beside, the entire public would be guided on

the area where complementary effort is actually required.

It will also help the government to set up inspectorate team to inspect secondary

schools and provide reports on how to improve instructional space planning in order to

avoid waste, duplication, and misuses of scarce resource. Lastly,to avoid under and

over-estimation of school project.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study covered senior secondary schools, Principals, Teachers and Students in

public senior secondary school in LagosState Education District II.

Itwas also limited to instructional space planning such as classrooms, libraries,

technical workshops and laboratories and students performance in Senior School

Certificate Examination (SSCE) results in Lagos State Education District II.

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1.8 Limitation on the Study

A number of factors may serve as limitations on the study. This may have to do with

the un-cooperative attitude of the school principals in releasing the students WAEC

results, and teachers in responding to the instrument due to their busy activities and

non-returning of instrument.

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

For charity purpose, the following operational terms in this study are hereby defined.

They are:

Instructional spacerefers to classroom, library, laboratory, workshop and any other

space where students receive instruction.

Instructional Space Planning this refers to well planned space where students receive

learning which include classroom, library, laboratory, workshop etc that areessential in

teaching-learning process.

LibraryPlanningrefers to a well planned building equipped with textbook in the

shelvesin a school that facilitate learning.

Laboratory Planningrefers to well equipped structure with modern equipment,

apparatus, test-tube, baker etc which aid students in performing experiment in a

practical subjects.

Classroom Planning this refers to planned space for teaching and learning.

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StudentsAcademic Performancerefers to West Africa Examination Council (WAEC)

results of May/June from 2009-2011 will be used to represent students academic

performance.

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CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The need for instructional space cannot be over emphasized with the implementation of

9-3-4 systems of education which emphasize technological and scientific development.

The uses of classroom, laboratories, libraries, technical workshop and instructional

materials which are required to meet the demands of school curriculum have become

necessities.

According to Ayeni (2008) a thoughtful designed facility can complement a well

plannedprogramme. On the other hand, a poorly designed facility can hamper the best

programme.

This chapter therefore examines the works of authors and scholars that are related to the

study. A review of such work is therefore presented under appropriate subheading.

School plant planning

Designing school plants as a learning environment

Characteristics of a good physical school plant planning

Importance of effective school plant planning

Rationale for school plant planning

School plants planning and academic performance

Concept, nature and types of school facilities

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Need for facilities in schools and facilities maintenance

Facilities management relations and methodologies for facilities management

Schools site and its relationship with school programme

Appraisal of literature review.

2.1 School Plant Planning

2.1.1 Concept of School Plant

School plant according toOlutola (1980) as reported by Olaniyonu (1997) says that the

school plant includes the site, the building and equipment. These include the

permanent structures like workshops, libraries, classrooms, laboratories, classrooms,

laboratories, and semi-permanent structures like machines, equipment, furniture,

chalkboard, etc. The siting or location of the school determines the learning

environment. A school near a motor-park may not be an ideal place for learning as there

will be distractions caused by the noise of vehicles and market people as well as

breakdown of law and order due to the unruly behavior of the motor garage boys.

Castaldi (1977) as cited by Olaniyonu and Gbenu (2010) refer educational facilities to

those things of education which enable a skillful teacher to achieve a level of

instructional effectiveness that far exceeds what is possible when they are not provided.

Olaniyonu (2007) divided School plants into seven categories with their component

elements as follows:

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i. Buildings: Instructional, administrative, circulation, convenience and

accessories

ii. Machinery: workshop, machines and duplicating machines

iii. Transport: vehicles i.e. school bus, staff bus, tractors etc

iv. Equipment: Laboratories and workshop equipment, sporting equipment,

teaching aids and computer.

v. Furniture: tables, desks, bookshelves

vi. Books: library books

vii. Utilities: Electricity, water supply, communication system

He further stressed that school plant includes everything within the school with the

exception of the personnel.

2.1.2 Scope of School Plant Planning

School administrators attach great importance to school plants planning because of its

impact on teaching learning process. The aesthetics of the school layout where formal

learning takes place should elicit from learners, not only a sense of orderliness but a

constant reminder that the school should be the prototype and simulation of the larger

society to which learners will return.

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Hence, the selection of the school site should be made to portray natural beauty. All

available physical features such as rivers, streams, mountains should be taken into

consideration during planning.

Succintly, physical plant planning and management deal with constructions and

maintenance of school building, workshop, laboratories and totality of the school

physical facilities.

However, school plant planning requires maximum cooperation and hardwork from a

combined team of the school principal, teachers, students and other school personnel

and the community. The common goal of operation and maintenance as remarked

byOjedele (2008) is to keep physical plants in the best possible condition at all time.

In the words of Olutola(1998) in Ayeni (2008) school plant planning usually implies the

siting, building and provision of physical equipment in the school. He believes that the

process should tap the creative potentials of teachers, school administrators,

professional and non professional groups of people. It is suffice to say, therefore, that it

is only when the cooperation and collective efforts of these people had been sought and

won that wastes from lopsided planning can be avoided.

Planning the school plant entails that it provides a favourable environment for learning

and adequate ease of the school facilities such as building, instructional materials and

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equipment and also that the responsibilities of the various personnel to take care of the

school plant maintenance be clearly defined.

However, in order to plan the school plants facilities, the needs of the school should be

considered as follows:

a. The age and number of students using the facility

b. The regularity of use of facility

c. The maintenance of the present plant facilities

d. The siting or locating of every plant facilities in relation to the master plan.

Evidently, a well built and equipped school will be functional educationally.

Therefore, there should be proper planning and management in order to prevent the loss

of lives and properties. Hence, the school facility planning has consequences on the

future education of the children.

2.2 Designing School Plants as a Learning Environment

School plant is the entire scope of physical infrastructural facilitiesprovided in the

school. The school plant may be used directly or indirectly for educational purpose.

Physical plant planning can also be described as the process of acquiring and designing

a building which would satisfy the educational needs of the students. School plants

consist of anything that directly or indirectly contributes to learning in the school

environment.

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It is not only instructional space that is related to teaching that can be referred to as

school plant. A well furnished classroom will facilitate perfect attention required by the

teacher to have full control of the classroom and the feedback will show high

achievement (Ayeni, 2008). It includes furniture, laboratory, equipment, and building

like classrooms workshops, laboratory, libraries, and space for agriculture, sports,

recreational, facilities and variety of activities to ensure a conducive atmosphere of

learning to the students.

It also includes open (underdeveloped) spaces which should be made available for

woodland, forest or game reserves for educational purpose, all of which enhances better

atmosphere for learning.

2.3 Characteristics of Good Physical School Plant Planning

Banuso (2003) highlighted educational parts as perishable or non-perishable

consumable or non-consumable, movable or unmovable, tangible for teaching and

learning to take place in an atmosphere conducive for the realization of the lofty

objectives of the national policy on education. In nutshell, Ayeni (2008) opines that for

a school plant to be meaningful and contribute to effectiveness of education, it has to

meet the following standards:

a. The building should be designed to satisfy thepupilsphysical and emotional

needs.

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b. It should meet the objective of education in the area where the school is to be

located.

c. Theschool building should be planned to make maximum contribution to the

educational programme both at present and in future.

d. The plan should not be too rigid but should accommodate new development in

the educational system either of local, state or national level.

e. There must be strict compliance with the outline of council of educational

facilities planners

f. The growth of the community where the school is located should be considered.

g. There must be spaces for health centres, parks recreational facilities, street and

highways public utilities.

h. The school has to be nearer and accessible to the students i.e. it must not be too

far for students to trek to avoid fatigue by the students.

i. The school plant has to be planned in such a way that it should be a functional

one i.e. it has to meet the performance needs of the pupils, in that the school

should be comprehensive where students could learn various courses like

sciences, technical, commercial and so on.

j. It also has to meet the students social needs in form of opportunity to interact

with one another

k. It must also meet the psychological needs of the students in terms of self

awareness creation and performance within potentials.

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l. The designing of the school plant must also make it mandatory the integration of

any policy, procedure, directive or rules on educational at National level.

m. The school plant must be free from danger and health hazard and its social

condition must be suitable i.e. it must be too muddy, rocky or hilly. The choose

site must have a natural beauty and there must be space for expansion which

later be necessary.

2.4 School Plants Planning and Academic Performance

Academic performance according to Adu, Ojelabi and Adeyanju (2009) can simply be

viewed as an outcome of all academics tasks of a performance which could be poorly or

successfully stated.

Kolawole (2000), Adepoju and Akinwunmi (2001) and Fehintola (2009) studied school

plant planning in relation to academic performance of secondary school students in

different areas. They used the factor of location of school, utilization and maintenance

as measures of school plant planning and used the results in NECO and WAEC as the

measures of academic performance. They found that schools that are well planned and

maintained had higher students academic performance than others.

This is clear evidence that the achievement of the overall goals and objectives of

educational system revolves around the ability of learners to tap the various

opportunities offered by the school and its environment. One of the opportunities

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offered by the school is the school plant. Thisperhaps is why Ijaduola and Agbajeola

(2009) argued that the quality and quantity of the educational facilities available within

an educational system have positive relationship with the standard and quality of the

educational system.

Olakoya (2004), Uya (2004) and Ijaduola (2007) contended that in an educational

environment like secondary school, it is indisputable that facilities such as furniture,

laboratory equipment and material have great influence in the teaching and learning

process because without them the empty buildings and structures no matter how

attractive they are cannot be used for educational purpose. Hence, school plant planning

is no doubt an essential part of educational planning without which students academic

performance cannot be enhanced.

Emphasizing theimportance of school plant planning to students academic performance

(Oluchukwu, 2000) asserted school plant planning as an essential aspect of educational

planning. He went further to explain that unless schools are well suited, buildings

adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and maintained, much

teaching and learning may not take place.

Corroborating these, Mark (2002) and Ajayi (2007), maintained that high levels of

students academic performance may not be guaranteed where instructional space such

as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective.

27
2.5 The Importance of Effective School Plant Planning

The importance of school plant planning is very important because any error at this

stage will have adverse effect on the implementation of the plant planning and

consequently on the students general rate of learning. Realizing the relationship

between school plant planning and the students rate of learning, the factors affectingthe

students rate of learning, the factors affecting, the designing of the school plant have to

be thoroughly taken care of. Students should be the focus of school plant planning and

their educational and physical well-being should be the major determinant of what the

school should be the comfort of the pupils in the classroom goes a long way to

determine their rate of learning. Hence, their comfort should be the pivot consideration

in mind, if it is set to achieve the goal of school plant planning which isthe promotion

of effective learning. To be able to achieve this goal, the school plant has to be planned

with suitable environment that will enhance maximum rate of learning (Emiola, 2001).

Many studies have been carried out on the influence of infrastructural facilities and

environment on students achievement. Below are some of the observations of the

studies.

Walberg and Thomas (1987) assert Children learn best when they can actively explore

an environment rich in materials, when they are given the responsibility to make

meaningful choice about what is to be learned, when they are able to interact

informally with one another.

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Also, Adesina (1984) stressesthat the quality of education that children receive is

directly related to the availability or the lack of physical facilities and overall

atmosphere in which this learning takes place. In addition, Ogunsaju (1984) noted that

school facilities and educational goals should be viewed as being closely interwoven

and interdependent. He also stated that apart from protecting students from sun, the

rain, heat and cold, the school building represents a learning environment which has a

tremendous impact on the comfort, safety and performance of the child.

According to Adigun (1997), College facilities management therefore entails planning,

coordinating and controlling of all physical elements and components of the college

operation which includes equipment, site operation, construction, renovation,

modernization and maintenance.

The influence of school plant/environment on school achievement is very important as

discovered by some researchers. According to Stuart and Curtus (1993) two classrooms

were constructed equally but one was climate controlled and the other was not. His

research confirmed that pupils in climate controlled schools were more comfortable

and superior in standardized achievement test than pupils in non climate controlled

schools. Ayeni (2008) reported that in a research conducted by Jayeola (1984) it was

discovered that one of the factors responsible for falling standard of education in some

selected schools in Lagos State was shortage of physical facilities.

29
In a study conducted by Ayeni (2008) into relationship between school plants planning

and academic achievement of students in three military secondary schools in Lagos

State, she discovered asignificant relationship between classroom facilities and

studentsacademic performance in the school. Physical facilities were expanded and the

existing ones were not maintained due to economic depression. All the above stated

research reports confirm the importance of effective physical plant planning of schools.

In addition, the relationship between school plant and academic performance cannot be

over emphasized. Omisade (1985) conducted a research and discovered that there was a

significant positive relationship between school plant (location, size, staff quality) and

performance in examination. Also Olutola (1981) conducted a research and discovered

that over population in enrolment usually results into outstretched educational facilities,

he discovered that it usually result into poor performance of teachers and students

alike.

2.6 Nature of Secondary School Plant Planning

According to Olaniyonu (2007) The poor state of schools has resulted to a high rate of

dropouts at all levels of the education. In the words of Ajayi (1998), it has been

observed that dilapidated buildings, broken desks and chairs, lack of good

ventilationandsanitation facilities are common sights in most Nigerian public schools

especially in the rural areas.

30
In orders to achieve the intended objectives of the 9-3-4 system, the school plant

planning in secondary school systems must be sufficiently upgraded. One of the

component of UBE as stipulated in the National Policy on Education (2004) is the nine

(9) years of basic education and 3 years of secondary education.

However, Oyetakin (2007) explains that UBE call for huge investment in terms of

putting up additional classrooms and teachersrequirement and the provision of

necessary instructional materials.

2.7 Rationale for School Plant Planning

a. It ensures that quality education is received in a conducive environment.

b. Itensures thatschool plants are made relevant to the academic needs of public

secondary school.

c. It guarantees avoidance of under or over estimation of school project.

d. To save cost while achieving the educational objectives.

Finally, the need to plan school plant stems from the high rate at which knowledge is

being produced in the world today as reflected in various inventions (Olaniyonu and

Gbenu, 2007).

2.8 Concept, Nature and Types of School Facilities

31
Schools exist for the purpose of teaching and learning. Human and material resources

are deployed for this purpose. School facilities are the material resources provided for

staff and students to optimize their productivity in the teaching and learning process.

The realization that the transfer of knowledge does not only take place in the four walls

of the classroom from the teacher to the students but rather that learning takes place

through discovery, exploration, interaction with the internal and external environment

has necessitated the creative and innovative development of teaching and learning

facilities that reflect these changes. Schools exist to serve socio-economic and political

needs of the ever-changing society, consequently, they are in constant interaction with

their external environment. They receive inputs from the external environment in the

form of human and material resources, process them and empty same into the society as

finished products and services. The quality of the products bears a direct relationship

with the quality of the facilities deployed in the process of the production. This

demands that state of the art facilities are provided in schools to prepare school leavers

for life in the global village. According to Propst (2002) useful types of resources to be

contacted by the planners and the management team are acoustical design engineering,

audiovisual design engineering, behavioural sciences, building systems design,

community and press relations, ecological studies, electronic data processing of

hardware specifications, electronic data processing for programme development, use of

facilities training and financial planning. Others include food service planning, graphic

design, health care planning, information management, installation supervision, interior

32
design, laboratory planning and engineering, lighting design, management consulting,

project planning, safety engineering, site planning, technical equipment specialization,

and urban planning.

This implies that facilities management is a collective responsibility of the federal,

state, local government authorities, staff and students of the individual schools and the

community where the school is located. The Federal Government through the Federal

Ministry of Education provides the policies that guide the educational system and also

oversees the implementation of these policies at the State level. On the other hand the

State Government ensures the actual implementation of the National Policy on

Education by providing the enabling environment for effective teaching and learning.

The school plant is a major component of the school facility. Knezevich (1975)

described it as the space interpretation of the school curriculum. He emphasized that

the curriculum finds its physical expression in construction and arrangement of the

school plant, which is a controlled environment that facilitates the teaching and learning

process and also protects the physical well being of the occupants. He further stated that

since teaching and learning does not take place in a vacuum, school facilities give

meaning to the planned curricula and extra-curricula activities. A discussion of the

school plant starts with the conceptualization of the educational programmes to be

offered in the school. The nature and types of the educational programmes will

determine the nature and types of the school plant to be provided. Unruh (1974)

emphasized that both teachers and students need places to search, read, write, confer,

33
interact, view, listen, think, experiment, and record. Students need places to transact

student affairs or to gather for social purposes. Teachers need office space, conference

rooms for team planning, facilities for diagnosis of pupils needs, and facilities for

preparing instructional presentation. New views of the teaching-learning process that

move beyond memorizing of knowledge toward involvement of students in applying,

analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating knowledge stress the need for flexibility of

space in the schools. The complexity of the learning environment requires flexibility in

the design of the school plant. Modern facilities are designed for diverse academic and

social activities.

Multipurpose facilities used for academic activities during school hours, may be

available for community use during or after school hours. Such facilities may be used

for continuing education programmes, social activities and recreation. Through

appropriate scheduling multipurpose facilities may be accessible to the community

during school hours. This will eliminate the burden of duplication of such facilities as

conference halls, gymnasium, library, theatre and sporting facilities. Such integrated

effort is cost effective and brings the community closer to the school. Some buildings

are over fifty years and therefore require modern facilities for teaching and learning.

Renovation and modernization of old and dilapidated buildings should be carried out to

ensure that facilities for team planning areas, office space, clerical space, workrooms,

professional development libraries, faculty dinning area, storage space, students

conference areas, guidance services area for large group instruction, spaces for

34
instructional media, library resource centers, science facilities, arts and music studios,

individual study area and physical education facilities. Equipment and supplies are

essential for the attainment of educational goals and objectives. Simpson and Anderson

(1981) defined equipment as items that last a minimum number of years or cost more

than a certain amount and supplies as items such as microscope slides, glass tubing,

and cotton swabs, that are quickly consumed and that are usually less expensive than

equipment items. Some equipment perform specific functions while others such as

computers perform multiplicity of functions.

School equipments are available in various forms. The equipment may be fixed or

movable and they serve various purposes in the educational system. They are used in

the classrooms, laboratories, offices, workshops, cafeteria, toilets, laundry, librariesand

for sports etc. Furniture are also available in the classrooms, offices, cafeteria,

laboratories and workshops, outdoor, residential halls, common rooms, and those

designed for the physically challenged. Information and Communication Technology

(ICT) facilities also include among others software on classroom management, facility

management, inventory control, maintenance management, online procurement, food

services and general management. The application of the software requires that the

school managers should be exposed to necessary in-service training to enable them

make maximum use of the software.

2.9 Need for Facilities in Schools and Facilities Maintenance.

35
Facilities are materials designed to serve specific purposes. In the school system, there

are multiplicity of facilities, which facilitate teaching and learning. They are used;

(1) To illustrate concepts

(2) Provide opportunity for firsthand experience

(3) For experimentation and demonstration

(4) For scientific investigation and discovery

(5) To provide diversity of thoughts

(6) For observation and inquiry

(7) For development of scientific attitudes and skills

(8) To protect the individual and also provide comfort

The indirect or teaching support facilities such as offices, cafeteria, acoustics, toilets,

laundry, mowers, residential halls, common rooms, cleaning materials ground and

similar items satisfy the individuals physical and emotional needs. They are used to:

(1) Increase instructional effectiveness

(2) Improve the cleanness, orderliness and safety of facilities

(3) Reduce the operational cost and life cycle cost of a building

(4) Extend the useful life of a building

(5) Increase efficiency and effectiveness of the staff and students

(6) Improve building appearance

(7) Use data collection and analyses for decision making

36
2.9.1 Facilities Maintenance.

An aspect of school management that is generally overlooked is facilities maintenance.

When new buildings are constructed and taken over by the appropriate authorities,

practically no attention is paid to the maintenance of such buildings. Several school

buildings that are over fifty years old have never undergo renovation or any form of

modernization in spite of the changes in the educational system. Facility maintenance is

an issue that concerns all levels of the educational system ranging from the pre-

kindergarten to the tertiary levels. Some of these facilities are architecturally obsolete

and therefore cannot contribute to functional education. Maintaining the new buildings,

renovating and modernizing the old ones require considerable expertise and

commitment of human and material resources. Changes in weather conditions and lack

of maintenance culture are responsible for the aging and deterioration of school

buildings, grounds and equipment. School managers and teachers who constantly use

school facilities lack knowledge of facilities maintenance planning. Consequently, they

fail to integrate facility maintenance into the management of the school. The issue of

facility maintenance is haphazardly addressed at all levels of the educational system.

Repairs take place only when problems arise due to break down of the existing facility.

Facility maintenance entails providing clean and safe environment for teaching and

learning. It also involves provision of adequate facilities for teaching and learning. This

37
type of maintenance should be adopted in the facility maintenance plan. These are

preventive, routine, emergency repairs, and predictive maintenance.

Preventive maintenance - This is a type of maintenance carried out on school facilities

to avoid breakdown and ensure optimal performance of the facility. Up to date

information about the facility is required to serve as a guide for the maintenance team.

Preventive maintenance saves cost and time. It is usually an integral part of the

management practice in societies where maintenance culture is well established.

Decisions on preventive maintenance are collectively made and implemented.

Routine maintenance- This is carried out periodically as scheduled by the school

managers. Facilities may be serviced monthly, quarterly or even annually depending on

the agreed schedule. Manufacturers guide provide information on the nature and

maintenance intervals. School managers comply with these guides to avoid breakdown

of the equipment.

Emergency Repairs- This is very common in the management of school facilities in

societies where maintenance culture is not well established. It takes place when a

facility breaks down and urgent measures or steps had to be taken to remedy the

situation. In this regard, collective decision-making may not be possible because there

may be limited time to bring together all the necessary individuals to make decisions. It

is also expensive because due to lack of maintenance, the extent of damage may

demand total replacement of the facility or high cost of repair. In some cases, the

breakdown may cause injury or even death to staff and or students of the school. The

38
resultant effect may be high insurance premium or prevent the use of the facility for

teaching and learning until repair had been effected. School managers should

proactively develop and implement facilities management plan for addressing facility

needs.

Predictive Maintenance-This involves the use of computer software to predict

equipment failure based on age, user demand and performance measures.

2.9.2 Problems and Issues in Facilities Management

The most fundamental problem in facilities management is lack of policy guidelines for

infrastructural development in schools. In some schools, there are inadequate

classrooms, staff offices, laboratories and workshops, libraries, study areas while in

some, these facilities are adequately provided. This situation arises because the Federal,

State and Local Governments have failed to establish policy directives on minimum

standards in relation to school facilities. While some classes hold under trees and

students are exposed to harsh weather conditions, others hold in air conditioned

classrooms. While some others have well equipped laboratories, workshops, libraries

and other facilities for effective teaching and learning, others have none, and where

they exist, such facilities are poorly equipped. It therefore becomes imperative that the

different levels of government should address the issue of development and

implementation of minimum standards for facilities development and management.

39
Sergiovanni, Burlingame, Coombs and Thurston (1980) defined policy as authoritative

communication of expected behaviour for individuals in certain positions under specific

conditions. According to the 21st Century School Fund (2005) policy agenda should

entail increase in public participation in facilities planning, create and support schools

as centers of community that offer school-based support to children to eliminate barrier

to success and serve the broader community, improve facilities management including

maintenance and improvement programme and secure adequate and equitable facilities

funding. Policies should direct the actions of the school managers. In the absence of

policy, facility management is left to the whims and caprices of the managers. Schools

are formal organizations, and all activities including facilities management should be in

line with laid down rules and regulations derived from overall policy guidelines.

2.10 Facilities Management Relations and Methodologies for Facilities

Management

The responsibility of management of facilities requires collective efforts. Management

processes, which involve planning, organizing, decision making, leading, coordinating

and controlling are applied in facilities management. Broadened educational goals and

objectives as a result of changes in socio-economic development have necessitated the

involvement of several minds in the facilities management process. It requires expert

input from a wide range of stakeholders. Collaborative efforts bring into facilities

management new ideas and perspectives. Over the years, school managers have

40
emphasized that physical facilities available for academic and non-academic activities

are grossly inadequate. This issue is very sensitive and demanding because it bears

direct relevance to the funding of education and most importantly to the quality of

outputs of the educational system. Available facilities in most schools may well be

regarded as obsolete in terms of quality and quantity. These facilities were provided

when the student population in the school was reasonably low when compared to the

population of the same school presently using the same facilities. According to the

report of the educational facilities laboratories (1968) adjectives used to qualify such

facilities are rigidity, inaccessible, sterility, formality, isolation, starkness, immobility

and permanence. These facilities no longer satisfy present day needs.

With quantum leap in school enrolment, increasing number of academic programmes

and limited resources, flexibility must be an integral part of the planning process.

Facilities should be established such that they will serve new functions in future.

According to the Planning Guide for Maintaining School Facilities effective school

facility maintenance plan can:

1. Contribute to an organizations instructional effectiveness and financial well-

being.

2. Improve the cleanliness, orderliness, and safety of an educational organizations

facilities.

3. Reduce the operational costs and life cycle cost of a building.

41
4. Help staff deal with limited resources by identifying facilities priorities proactively

rather than reactively.

5. Extend the useful life of buildings.

6. Increase energy efficiency and help the environment.

2.10.1 Methodologies for Facilities Management

Planning, as in all management processes is the first logical step in facilities

management. According to Dror (1967) planning is the process of preparing a set of

decisions for action in the future directed at achieving goals by optimal means. A plan

for facilities management must be an integral part of the overall Federal, State and

Local Government educational master plan. It is a well articulated conceptualization of

the educational philosophy, goals, objectives and specification for short and long term

objectives including implementation of the planned curricula and extra-curricula

activities. It also includes budget priorities for facilities management. A facilities

management plan starts with the educational philosophy that serves the needs of the

individual in a dynamic and knowledge based economy. The educational system should

prepare individuals for life in a constantly changing world. Facility management plan

should therefore give meaning to the educational philosophy.

A second step is the development of broad educational goals and specific objectives.

These goals and objectives should be comprehensive enough to cover all aspects of the

educational programme and also make adequate room for flexibility to allow for

42
specific individual and group needs. Planning cannot meaningfully be carried out

without accurate information, which should be collected through facility audit.

According to the Planning Guide for Maintaining School Facilities (2003) facility audit

is a comprehensive inventory of a schools facilities that provides a standard method for

establishing baseline information about the components, policies and procedures of a

new or existing facility. It provides information on the status of school facilities. It is

carried out by assessing buildings, grounds and equipment, documenting the findings

and recommending service options to increase efficiency, reduce waste and save

money. According to the guide, facility audits are important because they: help

planners, managers, and staff know what is available, its condition, service history,

maintenance needs and location provide facts not guess work, to inform plans for

maintaining and improving school facilities establish a baseline for measuring facilities

maintenance progress allow in dept analysis of product life cycles to occur on a routine

basis (i.e. measuring actual life versus expected life)

The following information should be collected when a facility audit is being carried out:

(1) Brand name, model number, serial number

(2) Quality and product size

(3) Location

(4) Age

(5) Condition

(6) Working as purchased/designed

43
(7) Working as it should

(8) Working as it needs to be to meet the needs of the users

(9) Repair history

(10) Specialized upkeep equipment (e.g. oil and filter types)

(12) Recommended services

(13) Estimated remaining useful life

Brooks and Atkin (2003) outlined the stages in facilities management as follows:

Analysis stage:- assemblies all relevant facts about the

organizations objectives, needs, and policies, a review of resources

processes, systems and the physical assets themselves, together

with their attributes in terms of space, functions and utilization

Solution stage:-assemblies criteria for judging options, evaluating

these against the objectives of the organization and develops the

facility management strategy

Implementation stage:- completes the strategy development process through

the establishment of an implementable plan that incorporates the key elements of

procurement, training and importantly communication.

2.11Appraisal of Literature Review

From the above review of related literature by various scholars and researchers, it is

evident that well- planned instructional space plays important roles towards enhancing

44
effective teaching and learning. Thus, in order to improve the output of the school

system, teachers need to be trained in the art of effective in classrooms, laboratories,

library and technical workshops management through seminars and conferences for

greater productivity and quality. This no doubt will help them to be able to cope with

the changes and innovations takings place in the global academic world.

45
CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

An attempt was made in this chapterto describe the procedure and the methods which

the researcher adopts in the research study. This chapterpresents careful description of

the research design, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, research

instrument and instrumentation, validity of the instrument, reliability of the instrument,

data collection and method of data analysis.

3.1 Research Design

In this study,two designs were found suitable:Correlational and descriptive.

This is because on the one part, the study examines the nature of relationship among

instructional space planning, library planning, laboratory planning, classroom planning,

and students academic performance in senior secondary schools Lagos State Education

District II. On the other hand, the study attempts a description of the existing situation

regarding the state of instructional space planning to improve the students academic

performance in senior secondary schools certificate examination in Lagos State

Education District II.

3.2 Population of the Study

The population of the studycomprises allthe students, teachers and principals in all the

38 senior secondary school inLagos State Education District II.

46
TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF SCHOOLS IN EDUCATION DISTRICT II

DISTRIC II NO OF SCHOOL

Ikorodu 21

Kosofe 11

Somolu 6

TOTAL 38

Source: Lagos State Ministry of Education (2010)

3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique

The sample of thestudy consists of 30%of all the 38 senior secondary schoolsin Lagos

State Education District II. This means, twelve senior secondary schools were randomly

selected from the thirty-eight senior secondary schools in Lagos State Education

District II.

In each school, purposive technique was adopted in the selection of the respondents.

From each sampled school, twenty (20) students, one principal and four teachers

formed sample size. The students were selected from senior secondary three (SS3) due

to level of their exposure to the instructional space available in their respective schools.

Thus, a total number of three hundred (300) respondents were involved in the study.

47
3.4 Research Instruments and Instrumentation

Self designed instrumentstagged Instructional Space PlanningQuestionnaire (ISPQ)was

constructedto collect information from the principal, teachers andstudents on

instructional space planning in senior secondary schools in LagosState Education

District II.

However, West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) results of May/June from 2009-

2011were used to represent students academic performance.

Four pointLikert Scale type will be used.The questionnaire comprises two sections.

Section A wasdesigned to collect information on the personal data of the respondents;

Section B contains twenty items on instructional space planning and students

academicperformance in senior secondary schools inLagos State Education District

II.The following corresponding scores were used as rating scale for the students

responses: Strongly Agree (SA) 4 points; Agree (A) 3 points, Disagree (D) 2 points,

Strongly Disagree (SD) 1 point.

3.5 validity of the instrument

The questionnaire was constructed by the researcher with the assistance of experts in

the field of Measurement and Evaluation, researchers supervisor and Lecturers in the

department of Educational Management. Items of the instruments will be made to cover

the research questions and hypotheses set in chapter 1.

48
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument

The research instrument was subjected to reliability test using test-retest reliability

method. The same set of questionnaire was administered and re-administered after two

weeks on twenty students who are part of the population of the study but not part of the

sample, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient was used to determine the

reliability of this instrument.

3.7Method of the Data Collection

The researcher visited each sampled school to collect WAEC results and administer the

questionnaire personally onprincipal, teachersand students of the schools under study.

3.8 Method of Data Analysis

Datacollected wereanalyzed using Pearson ProductMoment CorrelationCoefficient with

the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The hypotheses

formulatedwere tested at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance.

r= NXY - XY

[NX2 (X)2] [NY2 (Y)2]

Where r represents Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient

X represents Students Academic Performance

Y represents Instructional Space Planning

N represents Number of School

49
CHAPTER FOUR

ANALYSIS OF DATA AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

4.1 Introduction

This chapter covers the presentation of all the data collected on the instructional space

planning and students academic performance in Lagos State Senior Secondary schools.

It also includes the analysis, discuss of the hypotheses formulated for the study and

interpretation of results.

In total, three hundred questionnaires were distributed to the Principal, Teachers and

Students in twelve Senior Secondary Schools selected for the study and Statistical

Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data collected.

50
4.2 Demographic Data

Table 1: Distribution of Respondents by Status

Status Frequency Percentage (%)

Principal 12 4.0

Teacher 48 16.0

Student 240 80.0

Total 300 100

Source: Field Survey, 2013.

Table 4.1 above shows the group of respondents by their respective status. Principals

were 12 (4.0%), Teachers 48 (16.0%) while Students were 240(80.0%) of the total

respondents.

51
Table 2: Distribution of Respondents by Level of Academic Performance.

Academic Performance Frequency Percentage (%)

Low (F9) 36 12.0

Moderate (D7 - E8) 118 39.3

High (A1 C6) 146 48.7

Total 300 100

Source: Field Survey, 2013.

Table 4.2 shows the distribution of respondents by level of academic performance of

students indicating a proportion of 12.0% of low level students academic performance,

39.3% moderate level of students academic performance, 48.7% high level of students

academic performance of the total respondents.

52
Table 3: Distribution of Respondents by Sex

Faculty Frequency Percentage (%)

Male 179 59.7

Female 121 40.3

Total 300 1000

Source: Field Survey, 2013.

Table 4.3 above shows the distribution of respondents by sex indicating a proportion of

59.7% male and 40.3% female; representing 179 and 121 respondents respectively.

4.3 Testing of Hypotheses

Hypothesis One

There is no significant relationship between instructional space planning and students

academic performance in Senior Secondary Schools.

53
Table 4: A table showing result of relationship between instructional space
planning and students academic performance

Correlation Instructional Space Students Academic


Planning Performance
InstructionalSpace Planning
Pearson Correlation 1 .463**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 300 300
SAP
Pearson Correlation .463** 1
Sig (2-tailed) .000
N 300 300

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

From table 4 above, the data analyzed shows a positive relationship existed between

instructional space planning and academic performance of students in senior secondary

schools in Lagos State. This is because the result r = 0.463; p < 0.01 indicates a

significant relationship between the two variables. Hence, the hypothesis which states

that there is no significant relationship between instructional space planning and

academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Lagos State is

rejected.This implies that instructional space planning directly linked with teaching and

learning process in the school system and that better instructional space planning would

enhance better students academic performance while poor instructional space planning

could affect the academic performance of students negatively. The finding also

corroborates Marsden, (2005), Williams, Persuad and Turner (2008), found school

54
facilities such as classroom, library, technical workshop e.t.c were significantly related

to students academic performance in secondary schools.It is apparent that where

instructional spaces are properly planned in terms of location, structure and facilities,

enhanced teaching and learning will take place, thereby leading to better students

academic performance. The finding corroborates that of Agada (1994), Olusola (1989)

and Umar (1976) that there is positive correlation between school plants and students

academic performance.

Hypothesis Two

There is no significant relationship between classroom planning and students academic

performance in senior secondary schools.

Table 5: A table showing the result of the relationship between classroom


planningand students academic performance

Correlation Classroom Planning Students Academic


Performance
Classroom Planning
Pearson Correlation 1 .221**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 300 300
SAP
Pearson Correlation .221** 1
Sig (2-tailed) .000
N 300 300
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

55
The table 5 above shows that there is a significant relationship between classroom

planning and students academic performance in senior secondary schools in Lagos

State. This because the result, r = .221; p< 0.01 shows a positive relationship between

the two variables.

Thus, the hypothesis which states that there is no significant relationship between

classroom planning and students academic performance in Lagos State senior

secondary schools is rejected.It is expected that where classrooms are properly planned

in terms of location, structure and facilities, effective teaching and learning process will

be enhanced thereby leading to good academic performance of the students. The finding

corroborates that of Adesina (2011) that classroom design influences students

academic performance. Hence he advocates that planners should look at students

developmental needs and curriculum in order to make proper planning, re-designing

and expanding classroom to those needs and requirements. This finding aligns with the

studies of Adepoju and Akinwunmi(2001), Amosun(2002), Ojerinde(2004),

Massachusetts (2005) and Fehintola(2009) which heralded the significance of school

plant planning (classroom planning) in the development of an effective educational

programme at all level of the educational system with particular reference to the

secondary school level. Stressing the importance of classroom planning, Philip (1997)

maintained that classrooms with adequate lighting and ventilation and properly located

within the school, play vital role in students academic performance.

56
Hypothesis Three

There is no significant relationship between laboratory planning and students academic

performance in senior secondary schools.

Table 6: A table showing the result of the relationship between laboratory


planning and students academic performance
,

Correlation Laboratory Planning Students Academic


Performance
Laboratory Planning Pearson
Correlation 1 .127*
Sig. (2-tailed) .027
N 300 300
SAP
Pearson Correlation .127* 1
Sig (2-tailed) .027
N 300 300

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)

It reveals from table 6 that a significant relationship exists between laboratory planning

and students academic performance in Lagos State Senior Secondary Schools. This is

so because the result, r = .127, p<0.05 show a positive relationship between the two

variable.

The hypothesis which states that there is no significant relationship between laboratory

planning and students academic performance in Lagos State Senior Secondary Schools

is rejected. One would expect that if laboratories are properly planned in terms of

57
location, structure and facilities, this will translate to good academic performance of the

students. Olaniyonu and Gbenu (2010) see educational facilities like laboratories to

those things of education which enable a skillful teacher to achieve a level of

instructional effectiveness that far exceeds what is possible when they are not provided.

It must be emphasized that proper planning of the laboratories may not enhance

students academic performance if the teachers are not doing their job well. The finding

contradicts that of Ajayi and Yusuf (2009) who found no significant relationship

between laboratories and students academic performance.This finding also aligns with

the studies of Ayeni(2008), that laboratories are essential in the teaching and learning of

science subjects in secondary secondary schools. Olakoya (2004), Uya (2004) and

Ijaduola (2007) contended that in an educational environment like secondary school, it

is indisputable that facilities such as laboratory equipment and material have great

influence in the teaching and learning process because without them the empty

buildings and structures no matter how attractive they are cannot be used for

educational purpose. Hence, laboratory planning is no doubt an essential part of

educational planning without which students academic performance cannot be

enhanced.

Hypothesis Four

There is no significant relationship between library planning and students academic

performance in Senior Secondary Schools.

58
Table 7: A table showing the result of the relationship between library planning
and students academic performance

Correlation Library Planning Students Academic


Performance
Library Planning
Pearson Correlation 1 .171**
Sig. (2-tailed) .003
N 300 300
SAP
Pearson Correlation .171** 1
Sig (2-tailed) .003
N 300 300
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

From table 7 above, there is a positive relationship between library planning and

students academic performance in Lagos State Senior Secondary Schools. This is

because the r = .171; p<0.01 is an indication that there is significant correlation between

the two variables. Hence, the hypothesis which states that there is no significant

relationship between library planning and students academic performance in Lagos

State Senior Secondary Schools is rejected.This further confirms the important role of

library in facilitating effective teaching and learning process. A well planned library

could enhance the reading habit of both teachers and students and this could translate

into good academic performance of the students. The finding corroborates that of Fuller

(1986) and Oluchukwu (1998) that school library had significant influence on students

academic performance. Corroborating this finding, Ayeni (2008) found that school

59
library significantly influence students academic performance. It appears some of the

secondary schools lack adequate library facilities. In some cases school library are not

spacious enough and well located within the school premises. In some cases, the

libraries do not have adequate lighting and ventilation that could make them

comfortable for the students and teachers to use (Adesina, 2011). In such cases,

effective teaching and learning may not be enhanced while students academic

performance may be affected.

60
CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary

The study was conducted to examine the relationship between instructional space

planning and students academic performance in Senior Secondary Schools of Lagos

State Education District II.

From the computation and analysis of the data derived for the study, it was discovered

that a significant relationship exists between instructional space planning and students

academic performance in Lagos State Senior secondary Schools. It is not unlikely that

well planned instructional spaces in terms of location, structure and physical facilities

will facilitate effective teaching and learning process and as well enhance good

academic performance of the students. While emphasizing the importance of

instructional spaces to students academic performance, Mark (2002) maintained that

one cannot expect high level of students academic performance where school buildings

such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are substandard. He

emphasized that clean, quiet, safe, comfortable and healthy environment are important

components of successful teaching and learning. Similarly, Ajayi (2007) maintained

that high level of students academic performance may not be guaranteed where

instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories

are structurally defective, not properly ventilated and not spacious enough for use. He

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further emphasized that structural effectiveness, proper ventilation and well located

instructional space may lead to successful teaching and learning process.

On that of classroom planning and students academic performance, a positive

relationship was discovered to exist. There was also a significant relationship between

laboratory planning and students academic performance in Lagos State Senior

Secondary Schools.It was also discovered that a significant relationship existed between

library planning and students academic performance.

5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, it is pertinent to note that students academic

performance in Lagos State Senior Secondary Schools cannot be separated from proper

instructional space planning by the educational planner, school plant planner as well as

classroom teachers.

When instructional space is well planned and managed by the teachers, the end result is

good academic performance but if poor manage the end result is otherwise.

Recommendations were provided based on the result of the findings and it was

established that if instructional space is well planned and managed, it will have a

positive impact on students academic performance in Lagos State Senior Secondary

Schools

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5.3.1 Recommendations

Having established that there is significant relationship between instructional space

planning and students academic performance and that the development of any nation

depends on the quality of its students, the following recommendations are made based

on the findings of this study.

1. The government and all stakeholders must give necessary financial and

professional support to the secondary schools toward ensuring good instructional

space planning. This will facilitate good academic performance of the students.

2. The relatively high level of instructional space planning and students academic

performance in senior secondary schools should be improved upon by the school

administrators and other stakeholders.

3. Educational planners, managers and administrators should intensify efforts at

ensuring that adequate provision is made in the budget for more provision of

instructional space specifically classrooms.

4. Secondary schools should be supplied with electricity. This is essential because

there are so many educative electronic gadgets that could enhance teaching and

learning.

5. The need for instructional space maintenance should be part of the orientation

programme given to students, teachers and administrators in the educational

system.

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6. Educational planners, parents, government and philanthropists must see to the

well being of the school because the output of the school system determines the

future of the societies.

7. On final note, government should see education as the key to human capital

development and the quickest and probably the best avenue to a comfortable and

rewarding life. Consequently, huge part of governments budget should be

allocated for providing school plant and facilities.

5.3.2 Suggestions for further Research

Basically, from the analysis, the research work is on instructional space planning

and students academic performance in senior secondary schools in Education

District II of Lagos State. The study of this kind cannot cover every area. Hence,

there is need for more research work to be carried out on some areas overlooked or

not adequately discussed in this study.

These other areas include:

1. Impact of spatial distribution of instructional space on academic achievement of

students in secondary schools.

2. The effect of class-size on students academic performance in senior secondary

schools in Lagos State Education District II.

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3. Correlate study among instructional space, administrative space and students

academic performance in Lagos State Tertiary Institutions.

In closing, the world is considered to be dynamic; the dynamism makes it not to be

static. However, the researcher suggests the continuity of this research work or

findings as a result of the changes in academic, technology, political, socio-

economic and the society at large.

65
REFERENCES

Adeyemi, T. O. (2006). Managing students' crisis in secondary schools in Ekiti


State, Nigeria: A critical analysis. Sokoto Educational Review, 8 (2) 43-60.

Adesina, O.B (2011). School Plaint Planning as A Correlate of Students Academic


Performance in South West Nigeria Secondary Schools. International
Journal of Business Administration, 2(2):41-43

Adu, E. O., Ojelabi, S. A. and Adeyanju, H. I. (2009). Organizational Climate as


Correlates of Students' Academic Achievement in Secondary School
Economics in Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Education and
Vocational Research, 7(1), 65-71.

Ajayi I.A (1999). Unit Cost of Secondary Education and Students Academic
Achievement in Ondo State (1991-1995). PhD Thesis, Ibadan: University of
Ibadan.

Ayeni D. O. (2008) School Plant and Students Academic Performance in Junior


Secondary School in Lagos State. Med, Thesis, Unpublished, Lagos State
University, Ojo, Nigeria.

Akubuiro I. M and Joshua M. T (2004). Self-Concept, Attitude and Achievement of


Secondary School Students in Science in Southern Cross River State,
Nigeria. TheAfrican Symposium, 7(2): 6.

Bajah S.T (1979). Correlates of Students Extrinsic School Environment Factors with
Level of Attainment in Chemistry. Journal of STAN, 18(1):10-11.

Dada A. (1987). Man Failure in Public Examinations: Causes and Problems.


Ibadan: Heinemann EducationalBooks (Nigeria) Ltd.

Enaesator O. (1995) Productivity Trends in Secondary Education in Anambra State


of Nigeria 1980-1990. In: FVM Onitsha Arinze (Ed.): Readings in Nigerian
Secondary Education. Nigeria:Hornbill PublishersLtd.

66
Gbenu J. P (2012) Teacher Quality, Teacher Quality Planning Structures and
Senior Secondary School Students Academic Performance in Lagos State
Education District. PhD Thesis, Lagos State University

Hale, O. (2002) Improving performance. American School and University, 75(2), 32-
35. 108

Ijaduola, K. O. (2008) Effective Classroom Management as a Predictor of Students'


Achievement. Nigerian Journal of Citizenship Education, 7 (1) 24-34.

Ijaduola, K. O, Oni J and Muraina K. O. (2011) Empirical Analysis of School Plant


Planning as a Determinant of Secondary School Students' Academic
Performance. Journal of Academic Leadership.9 (2) 1

Mark, S. (2002) School Building and Students Academic Learning Outcomes.


Unpublished Manuscript. StateUniversity, New York: Stony Brook.

Musa, H. B. (2004) Minister Pledges to Support Upgrading to Teachers' Skills.


Vanguard Newspaper 19 (5601), Thursday, September 16, pg. 23.

Olabode, J. F. (2002) Human Resources Management in Secondary Schools in Ekiti


Central Senatorial District of Ekiti State. Unpublished M.Ed Dissertation,
University of Ado-Ekiti.

Philip R. (1997) Educational Facility Age and the Academic Achievement of


Upper Elementary School Students. D.Ed. Thesis, University of Georgia

Tabir, A. (2004) UBE Chief Charges School Inspectors, Supervisors to Update


Their Skills. Comet 6 (1938), Thursday, December 2, pg. 30.

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APPENDIX I

LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY, OJO


POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondent,

This questionnaire is designed to elicit information on Instructional Space Planning

and Students Academic Performance in Senior Secondary School in Lagos State

Education District II. Your assistance is kindly needed by proving answers to the

questions contained this questionnaire. All responses will be treated with absolute

confidentiality. Therefore you are required to tick () against your choice of answers

and fill your answers where applicable.

Thanks for your cooperation,

Akinyemi, I. A.

Section A

(Personal Data)

1. Name of School .
2. Sex: Male ( ) Female ( )
3. Status: Principal ( ) Teacher ( ) Student ( )

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Section B

S/N Item SA A D SD

1 My school has more than enough classrooms.

2 Many classrooms in my school do not have cross


ventilation and adequate lighting.
3 There are enough modern desks and benches in its
classrooms.
4 My school lacks classrooms facilities such as table,
chair and computer set being the major determinant
of academic performance of student in the school
SSCE
5 Classrooms are not located close to commercial
centre of the town.
6 My school has science laboratories for different
subjects.
7 There are well equipped and functional laboratories
which allow students to participate in laboratory
work in my school.
8 There is availability of science equipment-apparatus,
separating funnels, micro scope, hand lens, soldering
iron, beakers, test tubes, cylinder, litmus paper, etc
in my schools laboratories.
9 My school laboratories have enough science
specimen/charts, bones models etc.
10 There is provision of adequate sitting facilities and
teachers preparatory room in my school laboratories.
11 There is a well equipped and functioning library in
my school.
12 There is availability of shelves and adequate modern
textbooks in my school library.
13 There are fans and air conditioners in the library.

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14 My school has librarian, clerk and attendant who
guide the students in the library.
15 The library is well planned with standard structure to
enhance students academic performance.
16 Availability of instructional facilities such as
classrooms, laboratories, libraries, technical
workshop aid students academic performance.
17 Functional school classrooms, laboratories, libraries,
technical workshop are the major determinant of
students academic performance.
18 Well located classrooms, laboratories, libraries,
technical workshops that are free from
environmental hazard, enhance students academic
performance.
19 Provision of instructional facilities such classrooms,
laboratories, libraries, technical workshop do not
have impact on students academic performance.
20 Use of laboratory, library and attending classes is a
must in my school.

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