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Gate 2012 Solution : CH : CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Solution:
x1 2 x2 3 x3 2
x2 x3 1
2 x2 2 x3 0
1 2 3 1 2 3 2
[A] 0 1 1 [A] 0 1 1 1

0 2 2 0 2 2 0
Rank of [A]:
1 2 3 1 2 3
[A] 0 1 1
R3 2 R2
0 1 1 Rank of [A] = 2
0 2 2 0 0 0
1 2 3 2 1 2 3 2
Rank of [A] 0 1 1
1 R3 2 R2
0 11 1

0 2 2 0 0 0
0 2
1 2 3 2 1 2 3 2
[A] 0 1 1 1
R3 2 R 2
0 1 1 1
0 2 2 0 0 0 0 2

Rank of [A] 3

## Rank of [A] Rank of [A]

So no solution exists (b) is answer.

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d2y
Solution: (d ) is correct 4y 0
dx 2
Form of Auxiliary equation m 2 4 0
m=2
The roots of the auxiliary equation are equal and opposite
y = a cosh 2x + b sinh 2x

t

Solution: (b) is answer f (t ) e

x x 2 x3
ex 1 ......... (Taylor series expansion)
1! 2! 3!
t
t t2 t3
e 1 2 3 .........
2 6
for t (given in question)
t
t
e
1 (Higher term can be ignored)

## Solution: (c) is answer Total compartments available = 10

Total balls has to be placed = 8(6 red and 2 blue)
10 P8 n!
Possible arrangements = n Pr
6! 2! (n r )!
10! 10!
1260
(10 8)!6! 2! 2!6! 2!

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## Solution: (d ) is answer Eigen vector: A() () (i)

where A = Square matrix = Eigen vector = Eigen value
( must be non zero vector)
Check the options
4 0 1 4 1 0 0 4 1
(a) 4
0 4 0 0 1 4 0 0 0
Same forms as equation (i) so option (a) is eigen vector.
4 0 2 8 2
(b) 4 Option (b) is eigen vector
0 4 1 4 1
4 0 4 16 4
(c) 4 Option (c) is eigen vector
0 4 3 12 3
4 0 0 0 0
(d) 4 Eigen vector cannot be null vector
0 4 0 0 0

## Solution: (b) is answer Throttling process Adiabatic isoenthalpic process

(PV constant)
r

So P1V1r P2 V2r
r
P1 V2 P1
0.5 (given in question)
P2 V1 P2
1
V2
(2) r
V1

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TC
T
1

Solid /Liquid
Solid
2
Liquid/vapor

Triple-point line

Solution: (a ) is answer
Left solid line Saturated liquid line
From TC
Right solid line Saturated vapor line
If we go for constant entropy position (i) to position (ii) for saturated liquid line, liquid
will be compressed and state of water will be sub cooled liquid.

Solution: (a ) is answer For steady state and neglect any heat loss from the heat
exchanger to the surrounding (given in question)
Qcold stream Q hot stream
Q
S
T
Th in Tc , in (given in question)
Scold stream Shot stream

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## Solution: (d ) is answer Pressure: Equilibrium constant (K) is independent of pressure K

is only function of temperature
ln K a H (T)
Temperature : Varit Hoff equation
T P RT 2
Exothermic equation H ve
ln K a
ve
T
As we increase T ln K a will decrease.

## Solution: (b) is answer

32 K V L
P (HagenPoiseuille equation)
D2
Q4
where V
D2
128 K QL 1
P P
D4 D4
P2 D1
4
D2
2 (given in question)
P1 D 2 D1
P2 1

P1 16

Solution: (a ) is answer

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## Principle of pilot tube

Solution: (c) is answer Blasius solution for float plate for laminar boundary layer
Vs
thickness; 5
4
1
So, ( x) 2

Solution:

NP

100 1000
2
Da nP
Re =

P
NP (Power Number)
P n3 D5a
For Reynolds number > 104
P const
N P constant given
N1 N 2

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5
P2 D a2

P1 D a1
P2 P2
25 32 (d ) is answer
P1 P1

dq dT
Solution: (d ) is answer K
dA dx
Conductive resistance in solid
BIOT Number
Convective resistance in fluid
dT
dq BIOT number < 1 (given)
Resistance
d T Resistance There is two condition either upper term is less or denominator
term is high
In this condition if conductive resistance in solid is less temperature change will be less;
you can say temperature profile is uniform.
If convective resistance in fluid is high so T will also be high and temperature drop in
fluid is significant.

hA
T T t
Solution: (c) is answer e CP V
To T
Unsteady state equation for conduction
Final temperature is same
T T
constant
To T
h A1 h A2
t1 t2
CP V1 CP V2
e e
h A1 t1 h A 2 t2

C P V1 C P V2
t2 A1 V2 r12 r23 4 3
. . A = 4 r 2 ; V = r
t1 A 2 V1 r22 r13 3
t2 r2

t1 r1
t2
Radius of sphere is doubled 2
t1

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## Solution: (b) is answer Nu (Re)0.8 (given in question)

h D VD
0.8

K
h V 0.8 D 0.2 s 0.8 K
Constant average velocity
h D 0.2

b a
c
d
e
y

xP x
x

## a : liquid below bubble point

b : Saturated liquid
c : Partially vaporized
d : Saturated vapor
e : Super heated vapor
In the equation x x f so liquid below bubble point.

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1 1 m
Solution: (b) is answer a
a a
k y k y kx
1 1
When the solubility of gas is high m is small. If k xa k y a then means gas
k y k ya
phase is controlling.

## Solution: (d ) is answer For nth order reaction

d CA
k CnA
dt
CA t
d CA
0 k dt
CA
CnA
o

CA
1
1 n kt (1 n)
C A CAo
1 1
C1 n C(1 n ) kt (1 n)
no A
CA
For half life C A o and t t 1
2 2

1 1 2n 1 1 1
1 n
k t 1 (1 n) t1 n 1
C1Ao n C Po 2 2 k (n 1) C Ao

2

k1
B
k2
C
d CB
k1 CA k2 CB
dt

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80 20
d CB
A1 e RT C A (i) A 2 e RT C B (ii)
dt
To maximize concentration of B
1st term should be high and 2nd term should be low.
At higher temperature 1st term will increase much faster and In CSTR reactor the
concentration of A is always low.

Solution: (a ) is answer
Catalytic reforming is used to convert paraffins and naphthenes to aromatics which have
high octane rating.

## Solution: (b) is answer

Boiling point
Gasoline 40 200 C
Diesel 200 300 C
Lubricant oil 300 400 C
AGO 400 C

## Solution: (c) is answer

Steam reforming: CH 4 H 2 O CO 2 H 2 191.7 kJ/mol 700 1100C
Water gas shift reaction: Low temperature 130 C
CO H 2 O CO 2 H 2
High temperature 350 C
PSA is used for the removal of CO 2 as a final step in production of hydrogen.

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t

Solution: (d ) is answer y (t ) x(t ) [1 e ]
t

(130 100) (150 100) [1 e ]
t

30 50[1 e ]
at t=1
1

30 50[1 e ]
1 20
ln
50
1.091

Solution: (a ) is answer

For figure gain and phase curve decreasing continuously with frequency.

T 1 T
r q
t r r r
1 T T
r q r qt
r r r r r
T qr 2
r
r qr dr A A
2
T qr A qr 2
T A ln r B
r 2 r 4

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## Solution: (c) is answer

I a 2 x e ax dx Assume ax = t
0
a dx = dt

t t 1 1
a2
0
e dt
a a
dx dt
a

te t 0
t
dt at x=0
0
x t

dt (t ) e . dt dt
d da
t et dt ab dx a b dx dx (b dx) dx
t

0 0
t

t e (1) e dt t e et |0 = (0 0) (0 1) = 1
t t t

0 0 t0

## Solution: (d ) is answer f ( x) x cos x

Newton Rapson Method
f ( xn ) f ( xo )
xn 1 xn x1 xo
f ( xn ) f ( xo )
1
xo 0.5 f ( xo ) 0.5 cos 0.5
2

f ( x) 1 sin x f ( xo ) 1 sin 1
2
1
1 2
x1 0.38
2 1

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7z i
Solution: (b) is answer z ( z
2
1)
dz where | z | < 2

|z| = 2
i

## By Cauchys tesidue theorem

7z i
z ( z 2 1) dz 2 i[Re S( z 0) Re S( z i) Re S( z i)]
7z i 7z i 7 z i
2 i lim 2 lim lim

z 0
z 1 z i
z ( z i) z i
z ( z i)
2 i [i 4i 3i ] = 0

Solution: (a ) is answer

## PS,TS, VS Supply line

t=0 P=0
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t = tf P Ps
Mass balance N f Ni N
N f U f N i Vi ( N) H s
where, U f C V (T f TR ) R TR TR Refrigeration temperature
U i C V (Ti TR ) R TR
H s C P (T TR )
N f [CV (T f TR ) RTR ] N i [C V (Ti TR ) RTR ] (N f N i ) C P (T TR )
[N f C V T f N i C V Ti ] [N i TR (C V R) N f TR (C V R)]
(N f N i ) C P Ts (N f N i ) C P TR
[N f C V T f N i C V Ti ] [N i TR C P N f TR C P ] (N f N i ) C P Ts (N f N i ) C P TR
[N f C V T f N i C V Ti ] (N f N i ) C P TR (N f N i ) C P Ts (N f N i ) C P TR
N f C V T f N i C V Ti (N f N i ) C P Ts
PV f PVi
Nf Ni V f Vi
RT f RTi
P f Pi
P f C V Pi C V C P Ts
T f Ti
P f Pi P f Pi C V Pf Pi P f Pi C V

T f Ti Ts C P Tf Ti Ts C P
Pf
Tf
Pi P f Pi C V
T T C
i s P
for P Pi 0 Pf Ps
Ps
Tf r Ts
0 (Ps 0) 1

Ti Ts r

Solution: (a ) is answer
x1 x2
given
S R[ x1 ln x1 x2 ln x2 ]
G H T S for constant T
G
For G minimum 0
x1
G 5 x1 (1 x1 ) RT[ x1 ln x1 (1 x1 ) ln(1 x1 )]

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5 x1 5 x RT[ x1 ln x1 (1 x1 ) ln(1 x1 )]
2
1

G
5 10 x1 RT ( x1 ln x1 ) RT [(1 x1 ) ln(1 x1 )]
x1 x1 x1
5 10 x1 RT [1 ln x1 1 ln(1 x1 )]
G
For minimum 0
x1
0 5 10 x1 RT [1 ln x1 1 ln(1 x1 )]
Put x1 0.5 R.H.S. = L.H.S. = 0

P 150 U (1 ) 2
Solution: (a ) is answer
L D 2P 3

## For minimum fluidization P g L( sP s ) (1 )

g L(1 ) (s P s ) 150 (1 ) 2 U

L D 2P 3
g= 10 m/s 2 = 0.5 sP 3000 kg/m3 s 1000 kg/m3
0.1 Pa .s P 1 103 m U 3.33 104 m/s

## Solution: (d ) is answer R 2 2 R1 (given)

R1

R2
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A 2 4 R 22 4(2 R 1 ) 2 16 R 12
A1 4 R12 A1F12 A 2 F21
F11 F12 1 F21 F22 1 F11 0 F12 1
A1 4 R 2
1
F21 F12 . 1 1

A2 16 R 12 4
1 3
F22 1 F21 1
4 4

Solution: (a ) is answer

## For steady state

T Ts
h A 2 (Ts T ) k A lm 1 100 W
r2 r1
T 30 C
T1 Ts
10 0.0628 (Ts 30) K 0.1 0.0 53 K 100 W
.002 0.001
W
k 0.1
mK
W
h 10 2 Ts 30 159.16 (i)
mK
A 2 A1
A lm 0.0453 m 2 T1 Ts 22.07 (ii)
A2
ln
A1
A1 2 L r1 0.0314 m 2 A 2 2 L r2 0.0628 m 2
By solving (i) and (ii) T1 159.16 22.07 30 211.23 C

## Solution: (b) is answer

Tcin = 10C
Tnout = 40C
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CP = 4.2 KJ/kgC
m = 2 kg/s T=?
CP = 2.1 KJ/kgC
Thin = 90C
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By heat balance
(m C P T) Hot stream (m C P T)Cold stream
2 2.1 (90 40) = 1 4.2 (T 10)
T = 60 C
LMTD = 30 C
Q U in A T ( m C P T) Hot
1m
U in 6 5m 30 2 2.1 (90 40)
100cm
U in 7.427

## Solution: (b) is answer

Absorption of A
A S
A

K
A.S (i)
Absorption of B
B S
KB
B.S (ii)
Surface reaction A B C C.2S (iii) (Rate controlling)
A.S B.S
Desorption of C
C.2S
KC

C 2S (iv)
r1 k1 pA CS k1 CAS
C k1
r1 k1 pA CS AS (v) where kA
kA k1
C .S
Similarly r2 k2 pB CS B (vi)
kB
r3 k3 C AS C B.S k 3 CC.2S (vii)
k . CS2
r4 k4 CC.2S (viii)
kC
r1 r2 r4
Surface reaction is rate controlling so 0
k1 k2 k4
From (v) C A.S kA pA CS

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(vi) C B.S kB pB CS
p C
(viii) CC.S C S
kC
pC
CT C A.S C B.S CC.S CS kA pA CS kB pB CS CS CS
kC
CT
CS
pE
1 kA pA pB kB k
C

## From (vii) r3 k3 C AS C B.S k3 CC.2S

p
k3 (kA pA CS ) ( kB pB CS ) k3 C CS2
kC
k
k3 kA kB pA pB 3 CS2
kC
k3 2
k3 kA kB pA pB k CT
C
2
pC
1 k p k p
kC
A A B B

k
Assumption 3
kC
k 3 k A k B pA p B
r3
[1 kA pA kB pB k C pC ]2
pA pB
Rate
[1 kA pA kB pB k C pC ]2

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Solution: (c) is answer

25%
R

2%

xe xc= 0.1
= 0.005
Moisture

## Total time = Time required for the constant rate period

+ Time required for the falling rate period
t tc t f
Ls Ls Xc x
where tc ( x1 xc ) tf ln c
A Rc A Rc x2
Ls
50 kg dry solid/m
2

Given A
R 5 kg H O/m 2 .h
c 2

x1 0.25 0.005

xc 0.1 0.005 from graph
x2 0.02 0.005
Ls L x x
t ( x1 xc ) s c ln c
A Rc A R c x2
50 50 0.0950 0.0950
(0.2450 0.0950) ln
5 5 0.0150
= 1.5 + 1.753 = 3.253

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D
xD

F
xF

B
xB

## Given, 6.0 F = 100 k mol/h xB 0.40 xF 0.50

y (1 x) xD (1 xB )

(1 y ) x (1 xD ) xB
xB 6 0.4
xD 0.8
1 ( 1) xB 1 (6 1)0.4
Total material balance F=B+D
Component balance F x f B xB D xD
100 0.5 (F D) xB D xD
100 0.5 (100 D) 0.4 D 0.8
10
D 25 K mol/h
0.4

## Solution: (c) is answer Due to linear relationship

V T
V1 T1

V2 T2
V1 T2 30.5 0
V2 (30 0) 2.614 mV
T1 350 0

Routh Test

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Row
1 a0 a2
2 a1 a3
3 b1
For stability 1st column value must be positive

1 1 26
2 9 12(2 kc _
3 b1
a1 a2 a3 a0
b1
a1
For stability b1 0
9 26 12(2 kc )
b1 0
9
9 26
2 kc kc 17.5
12

## Solution: (c) is answer At initial stage we have higher concentration of reactance so

maximum or high temperature is used (lower conversion). Then as soon as product
concentration is increased, temperature of reactor should be decreased to target higher
equilibrium conversion.

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1
Kc
Solution: (c) is answer
C( s )
P s 1
R( s ) 1 1
1 Kc
P s 1 m s 1
Closed loop system the overall transfer function
Given P 8, m 1
K c ( s 1) K c ( s 1) K c ( s 1)

K c (8s 1) ( s 1 K c 8s 2 9 s 1 8 2 9
1 K s 1 K s 1
c c

with compensation s 2 s 1
2 2

8 9
2 2
1 Kc 1 Kc
Condition for critically damped response 1
9 8
2 2
1 Kc 1 Kc
2
9 8
2(1 K ) 1 K
c c

K c 1.531

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h
Time for one batch reactor = R PB
Batch
Production per batch = PB
Operating cost for reactor = 200 Rs. Per hour
Total annual fixed charges = 340 PB Rs.
Raw material cost = 2 106 Rs.
Basis 1 year
Total production 1 105
No. of batches =
Production per batch PB
Total time for production = No. of batches Time for one batch reactor
1 105 R 105
R PB h
PB PB
R 105
Total operating cost = Total time 200 Rs. = 200 Rs.
PB
Total cost = Operating cost + Fixed charges + Raw material charges
R 105 200
Tc 340 PB 2 106
PB
TC
For optimum size 0
PB
TC 1
3
0 340 2 107 PB 2
PB 2
TC
0 PB 952.83 kg
TB

A A i (1 i ) n
Solution: (b) is answer , i %, n
P P (1 i ) n 1
P Present worth, A Annual worth
Given: P 2 106 Rs. i = 0.15 n = 3 year
2 106 .15 (1.15)3
By formula A 875953.9 Rs.
(1.15)3 1
Net energy savings = 20 GJ/year
Assume cost of energy = x
For break even condition
20 x = A 20x = 875953.9 x = 43800

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## Solution: (b) is answer Given: Outer diameter for tubes = 25 mm

Inner diameter for tubes = 21 mm
Tube pitch = 32 mm
Thermal conductivity of shell side = 0.19 W/mK
Nusselt number = 200
Nusselt number:
hD
200 where D = hydraulic diameter
k
d 2
4 P2 o
Dh 4 d o = outer diameter for tubes
do
252
4 322
4 27.150 mm 0.02715 m
25
hP
200
k
200k
h k = Thermal conductivity of shell side
D
200 0.19 W W
1399.6 2 1400 2
.02715 m k m k

## Solution: (c) is answer

Fischer Tropsch Catalysts: Iron, cobalt, nickel and tuthenium
Formaldehyde from methanol: The most common catalysts are silver metal or a mixture
of an iron and molybdenum or vanadium oxide.
Hydrogenation of vegetable oil: Palladium or Nickel catalyst
Dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene: Ethybenzene Ethybenzene Fe 2 O3

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## Solution: (a ) is answer Thermoplastic: Polymer that becomes moldable above a specific

temperature and returns to a slid state upon cooling.
e.g., Polyethylene, PVC, PET, Nylon 6
Thermosetting: Polymer material that irreversibly cures. e.g. phenol-formaldehyde, Urea
formaldehyde polyomides
Fiber: e.g. Nylon, Polyester, Phenol formal dehyde

mass of C mass of C
Solution: (b) is answer Given: y = 2x where y x
mass of A mass of B

## As per standard Notation

mass of C mass of C
x and y x 2 y Now
mass of A mass of A

y2 y1
X2 x1

## 99% removal of C A + C = 1000 kg/h(given) 20% solute so

A = 800 kg C = 1000 .20 = 200 kg
C = 200 .1 = 2 kg A = 1000 200 = 800 kg
mass of C 200 1
x1
mass of A 800 4

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mass of C
x2 x = 2y (given)
mass of A
2 1 1 1 1 1
y2 x2
800 400 2 2 4 8
y2 0 Pure solvent is taken (given)
where, L = mass of A V = mass of B
L y2 y1
Now m(slope of equilibrium line)
V x2 x1
1 1
x2 x1 400 4
V L 800
y2 y1 0 1
8
800 2 99
1584 kg/h
100

## Solution: (b) is answer

yn 1
xo
m (1 A) A
log
yn 1
n
x
m
Kremsers equation N
1
log
A
L 800 2
where A
mV 1 2400 3
2
m = slope of equilibrium line
1 1
y x so m
2 2
L = 800 kg/h, V = 2400 kg/h} given in question

yN+1
y1

x0
xN

1 1
Previous question Data : xo xN xN 1 0
4 400
Put in Kremsers equation

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1
4 0 2 2
log 1
1 0 3 3 log 400 1 2
400 4 3 3
N
1 3
log log
2 2

3
102
log
3 8.69
3
log
2
After adjusted to the next integer N = 9

## Solution: (b) is answer

FB
Given: FFB 2 mol/sec. FA 1 mol/sec. 5 mol/sec.
FA
A is completely converted
Assumption: Separator separates all of C FC 1 mol/sec.

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## YBG, FRG FPG

FB
FFB
1 Reactor Separator FC

FA

## Overall material balance across the dotted area

FA FFB FC FPG FPG FA FFB FC 1 2 1 2 mol/s
Material balance for component B at the point (i)
1 F FFB
FB FFB FRG FRG B
RB YRB
YRB 0.3 (given)
FRG 10 mol/s
FRG 10
5
FPG 2

Solution: (a ) is answer
FRG
4 (given)
FPG
FPG 2 from question no. (50)
FRG 4 2 8 mol/sec.
Material balance at point (i)
FR FFB 5 2 3
FB FFB YRB FRG YRB
FRG 8 8
FB 5 mol/sec.
given
FFB 2 mol/ sec.

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Solution: (d ) is answer
V = 0 (stationary)
y Fluid
x b

DV
Navier stokes equations s P 2 V sg
Dt
s DV
0; for steady state
Dt
P 0; No pressure gradient in x direction
sg = 0; horizontal flow
0 0 2 V 0
d 2 Vx
2 V 0 0
dy 2
d Vx
C1 Vx C1 y C 2
dy
Boundary condition y=0 Vx V
y=b Vx 0
Vx C1 y C 2
1st B.C. V C1 (0) C 2
V C2
2nd B.C. 0 C1 b C 2

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V
C1
b
V y
Vx C1 y C 2 y V V 1
b b

Solution: (a ) is answer
y
Vx V 1
b
d Vx V

dy b
d Vx
y x (Shear stress: force per unit area in x direction)
dy
V V

b b

## Solution: (b) is answer

For 1st Order
C Ao
rA k C A and k ln (For PFR)
CA
Reactor volume V

Volumetric feed rate Vo
Given: V = 5 liter Vo 1litre/min
C Ao 2 mol/litre C A 0.5 mol/litre
V 5
5 min
Vo 1
C Ao
k ln
CA
1 C Ao 1 2 1
k ln ln 0.277 min
C A 5 0.5

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1
Solution: (c) is answer For mixed flow reactors (1 k i ) N
1 XA
Given k = 0.28 (From last question)
V 2
N=3 V = 2 liter i 2 min
Vo 1
1
(1 0.28 2) 2
1 XA
1
(1.560)3
1 XA
1 X A 2.634 X A .7366 means 73.66%

## Solution: Mitigate means reduce, detract, lower, decreases etc.

Solution: Setbacks

## Solution: cos t 5q 2 selling cost = 50 q

Profit = 50q 5q 2

dP
50 10q
dq
dP
Profit is maximized when 0
dq
0 = 50 10 q q=5
(a ) is answer
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## Solution: That (a ) is answer

Solution: In option (d) This countrys expenditure on educational reforms is very loss
can not use very with less.

## Solution: (b) is answer

Supply Reliable Overall
x .66 .96 .576
y .40 .72 .288
.288
P(x) = .334
.576 0.288

## Solution: (b) is answer y 2 x 0.1x 2

dy d2y
2 0.2 x 0
dx dx 2
dy
For maximum height 0 2 0.2x = 0
dx
x = 10
y = 20 10 = 10 m

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## Solution: (c) is answer Xenophobic means extreme dislike or fear of foreigners or

their customs. Not relevant to question. No reference to gender in the text. So eliminate
option (a).
Option (c) is correct because excessive work load and they need many requirements like
(availability, temporary, part time persons.

Solution: (a ) is answer

3 4
1 2 K,L,M,N
D,E G,H,I
B
C G F K J P O V

2 3 4 5

## Solution: (c) is answer

Assertions P: Take a example of {1, 2, 3}
1 2 3
Average =
3
1 2 3 3 7
Add 7 in each term = = mean + 7
3
True

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Assertion Q: Let assume list {1, 2, 3}
( x1 xavg ) 2 ( x2 xavg ) 2 .....
2
n
If we add 7 in each entry in a list adds 7 to the mean of the list also so in term "( x1 xavg )"
7 cancel each other and standard deviation does not change. Q is not correct.

x1 x2 x3 ....
Assertion R: Average =
n
x x2 x3 ....
Double each entry = 2 1 2 mean
n
R is correct
( x1 xavg ) 2 ( x2 xavg ) 2 ......
Assertion S: Standard deviation =
n
Doubling each other
[(2 x x1 2 x xavg ) 2 (2 x2 2 xavg ) 2 ......]

n
(2) standard deviation
2

S is correct
= 4 standard deviation

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