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HTF 523

food science

CARBOHYDRATE
AT THE END OF THE LECTURE,
YOU SHOULD:

Know about the different structures of


CHO
The types of CHO
Warm Up Question
Name the elements that made up
carbohydrate.
What is the function of CHO for human?
Name a source of CHO from plant. From
animal.
CARBOHYDRATE
Importance knowledge of carbohydrate for culinary students...
Carbohydrate characteristics change during cooking,
thus important to know the changes in order to
manipulate its characteristics during cooking;
Some changes may not be desirable - knowledge of
how to prevent or options available will come in
handy.
MONOSACCHARIDES DISACCHARIDES OLIGOSACCHARIDES POLYSACCHARIDES

Increas ed in Molecular Size


Condensation reaction:
the reaction in which 2 small molecules combine
to form a larger molecule, with an elimination of
one small molecule, usually water.

Monosaccahride
+ => Disaccharide + Water
Monosaccharide
Give an example of
monosaccharide and
disaccharides.

What is oligosaccharide?
Oligosaccharide:
Combination of more than 2
monosaccharides.
Examples:
raffinose (trisaccharide: 3 mono)
stachyose (tetrasaccharide: 4 mono)
Raffinose

CARBOHYDRATE
What about
polysaccharides?
Polysaccharides are condensation
polymers of monosaccharides
and are made up of many
monosaccharide molecules joined
together, with the elimination of
water at each link.
CARBOHYDRATE
Monosaccharides
Ribose: important component of nucleosides
DNA, RNA, ATP, part of riboflavin (B2).

Arabinose: contributes to the structure of many


vegetable gums and fibres.

Monosaccharide
Monosaccharide
Glucose: most common
in food (free form in
honey, fruits, syrup;
repeating forms in starch
& glycogen); refined
glucose=dextrose used
in food processing.
Fructose : also known as
fruit sugar or levulose.
Found in fruits & honey.
Sweetest but seldom used
because excessive
stickiness in candies,
overbrowning in baked
products, lower freezing
T in ice cream. HFCS
used in beverages.

Monosaccharide
Galactose: seldom found in
free form. Derivatives=
galacturonic acid is a
component of pectin.

Monosaccharide
Disaccharides
Sucrose : made up of glucose & fructose.
Lactose =glucose + galactose.
About 5% of liquid milk is lactose (milk
sugar).
Some people are unable to digest lactose
into its monosaccharide = lactose
intolerance. Symptoms include bloating,
gas and abdominal pain.
In yogurt, cheese or other fermented
products, lactose is broken down to lactic
acid by bacteria. Thus, people with lactose
intolerance can take these products.
Maltose: made up of glucose & glucose.
Maltose or malt sugar is produced when starch
breaks down, for example during germination or
starch digestion in human.

Used in the production of beer and breakfast


cereals.
Oligosaccharides
Raffinose and Stachyose.
Found in dried beans.
Not well digested in the GI tract,
but intestinal bacteria break them
down partially resulting gas by-
product.

Oligosaccharides
Raffinose

Oligosaccharides
Stachyose

Oligosaccharides
Dextrin
Size of dextrin molecules varies, but much
smaller than starch.
Composed of glucose units linked by 1,4-
glucosidic linkages.
Formed by dry heating or acid hydrolysis
of starch.
Soluble, mild sweet taste and limited
thickening ability.
Oligosaccharides
Extracted directly Used in food industry as:
from soybeans Bulking agents in low
synthesized by calorie diet foods
build up of (confectionary,
beverages, yogurt)
monosaccharides
Fat-replacers in
breaking down
beverages.
starch.

Not a cariogenic (cavity-producing).


Polysaccharides
POLYSACCHARIDES
Polisaccharides are condensation polymers
of monosaccharide and are made up of
many monosaccharide molecules joined
together, with the elimination of one water
molecule at each link.
They have the general formula (C6H10O5)n,
where n represents a large number.
EXAMPLES OF POLYSACCHARIDES

STARCH SOURCE?

CELLULOSE SOURCE?

FOUND IN? GLYCOGEN


Carbohydrate in Foods

STARCH SUGARS
SUGARS
PROPERTIES & ROLES IN FOOD
SYSTEMS
SUGARS
Sugars are simple CHO classified
as monosaccharide and
disaccharides.
Table sugar is sucrose.
Sources of sugar: sugar cane &
sugar beet.
Sugars
The relative sweetness of various sugars
Sugar Relative Sweetness
Fructose 170
Invert sugar* 130
(A mixture of glucose
and fructose) 100
Sucrose 75
Glucose 30
Maltose 30
Galactose 15
Lactose
CHARACTERISTICS OF
SUGAR

SOLUBLE SWEET

IMPARTS BODY & ABILITY TO


MOUTHFEEL HYDROLYSE

ABILITY TO REDUCING
FERMENT PROPERTIES

EFFECT OF HEAT PRESERVATION


PROPERTIES

TEXTURE HYGROSCOPIC
Roles of Sugar in Food Systems
As separating agent to prevent lump
formation in starch-thickened sauce.
Reduces starch gelatinization
Dehydrates pectin & permits gel formation in
jelly-making.
Stabilizes egg white foams
Raises the coagulation temperature of
protein mixtures
Roles of Sugar in Food Systems-
cont.
Add bulk & body to foods such as yogurt
Helps aerate batter & dough
Acts as substrate that ferments to yield CO2
& alcohol
Adds moisture retention properties to baked
products
Slows/prevents crystallization in candies if
invert sugar is used
STARCH
PROPERTIES & ROLES IN FOOD
SYSTEMS
CARBOHYDRATE- Starch
Glucose derived from
photosynthesis are stored as starch
in plant.
Starch granules are made up of
glucose chains and insoluble in
water.
Sources of Starch
Tubers, roots Legumes
Cereals
& vegetables soybeans, sago
From wheat, Cassava & Food
corn or rice potato thickener or
Wheat Used for fabric
cloudy & gluten-free softener
thick; corn products
clearer.
Starch
Microscopic examination of starch
molecule shows small grains or granules.
The source of the starch can be determined
by the shape of the granules and
distribution of granule sizes.
Different starch source; different
granules structures

Potato Starch Corn Starch

Rice starch
Wheat starch
Starch
2 major forms of starch granules are:
amylose and amylopectin.
Amylose molecule consists of between 50
500 glucose units joined in straight
chain.
Amylopectin molecule consists of up to
100,000 glucose units joined in a
branched-chain structure.
Plant starch consists approximately 80%
amylopectin and 20% amylose.
Amylose Amylopectin

Starch
PROPERTIES OF STARCH
a. Appearance and solubility
Starch is a white, non-crystalline powder which is
insoluble in cold water.

b. Sweetness
Unlike mono- and disaccharides, starch and other
polysaccharides do not have a sweet taste.

Starch
c. Hydrolysis
Brought about by the action of acid or an enzyme.
When starch is heated in acid, it will break down into
successive smaller molecules.

Smaller Starch
Large Starch
Molecules
Molecules (Dextrin)

Maltose (2 glucose
Glucose
units)
d. Effect of heat

Water Dry heat

Gelatinization Dextrinization
Functions of Starch in
Foods
Thickeners Water or fat
Appearance binders
Stabilizers Fat substitutes
Texturizers Emulsification
aids
Edible films
Do your warm up question from i-
learn
Bring video clips showing the
various reactions in sugars and
starches.

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