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TRUCK & OFF - HIGHW AY ENGINEERING TM Designing better engines Analytical techniques and advanced testing

TRUCK & OFF

-HIGHWAY

ENGINEERING

TM

Designing better engines

Analytical techniques and advanced testing help drive out cost and improve efficiency

Lightweighting

heavy

trucks

Battle for autonomy at lower cost

October 2017 offhighway.sae.org
October 2017
offhighway.sae.org

Alternative propulsion ramps up

Cummins New Holland Nikola Volvo CE

MORE

WITH

LESS.

MORE PERFORMANCE. MORE MACHINE CAPABILITY. MORE PRODUCTIVITY. MORE RELIABILITY. MORE UPTIME. ALL IN A SIMPLER, SMALLER, LIGHTER, EASIER TO INSTALL DESIGN. THESE GLOBAL EGR-FREE PRODUCTS ENABLE A COMMON INSTALLATION FOR DOMESTIC AND EXPORT EQUIPMENT. LEARN MORE

ABOUT CUMMINS F3.8, B4.5, B6.7 AND L9 ENGINES AT CUMMINSENGINES.COM/MORE.

MORE WITH LESS. MORE PERFORMANCE. MORE MACHINE CAPABILITY. MORE PRODUCTIVITY. MORE RELIABILITY. MORE UPTIME. ALL INCUMMINSENGINES.COM/MORE. ©2017 Cummins Inc. Box 3005, Columbus, IN 47202-3005 U.S.A. Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-601 " id="pdf-obj-2-21" src="pdf-obj-2-21.jpg">
MORE WITH LESS. MORE PERFORMANCE. MORE MACHINE CAPABILITY. MORE PRODUCTIVITY. MORE RELIABILITY. MORE UPTIME. ALL INCUMMINSENGINES.COM/MORE. ©2017 Cummins Inc. Box 3005, Columbus, IN 47202-3005 U.S.A. Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-601 " id="pdf-obj-2-23" src="pdf-obj-2-23.jpg">
MORE WITH LESS. MORE PERFORMANCE. MORE MACHINE CAPABILITY. MORE PRODUCTIVITY. MORE RELIABILITY. MORE UPTIME. ALL INCUMMINSENGINES.COM/MORE. ©2017 Cummins Inc. Box 3005, Columbus, IN 47202-3005 U.S.A. Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-601 " id="pdf-obj-2-25" src="pdf-obj-2-25.jpg">

CONTENTS

FEATURES

  • 16 Advances for off-highway

engine design POWERTRAIN | TESTING & SIMULATION

As manufacturers continue to drive out cost and meet a worldwide patchwork of regulatory frameworks, the tools for developing those engines are advancing. From showcase prototypes to advanced analytical techniques, suppliers are helping the cause.

  • 22 Military vehicles battle for autonomy

at lower cost ELECTRONICS

Engineers are adding sensors, more powerful micros and faster networks as they automate tasks and pave the way to autonomy.

  • 26 Heavy duty lightweighting LIGHTWEIGHTING

Optimization of tractor-trailer systems and component design helps to reduce overall vehicle mass, a key strategy in improving fuel economy and meeting upcoming Phase 2 GHG regulations.

29 Navistar’s SuperTruck II explores composites, WiFi to cut weight

  • 30 Methane state of mind ALTERNATIVE FUELS

New Holland ramps up its focus on alternative fuels, showcasing a methane-powered concept tractor that trims emissions, operating costs.

ON THE COVER

FEV’s proprietary ITES system, in combination with engine downsizing, improves fuel efficiency for on-highway applications by greater than 15%. Investigations to determine the potential for off-road applications are ongoing, according to the company. (See page 16)

REGULARS

  • 2 Editorial

Deep learning how to drive

  • 4 Technical Innovations

    • 4 Zircotec manages heat transfer in hotter exhaust systems | THERMAL MANAGEMENT

    • 6 Nikola CEO: Fuel-cell Class 8 truck on track for 2021 | ALTERNATIVE PROPULSION

      • 10 Paccar launches lightest HD automated transmission for on-highway CVs | POWERTRAIN

      • 12 Eaton solves nuisance problems with electrohydraulic solutions | HYDRAULICS

      • 14 Cummins reveals all-electric truck ahead of Tesla | ALTERNATIVE PROPULSION

  • 32 Original Equipment

    • 32 Volvo CE sees major efficiency gain from hybrid-electric wheel loader

  • 34 Product Briefs

Spotlight: Test Equipment

  • 38 What’s Online

  • 39 Companies Mentioned, Upcoming Ad Index

  • 40 Q&A

Level 3 automation may not be attractive for heavy trucks, says Bosch’s Dr. Johannes-Joerg Rueger, President, Commercial Vehicle and Off-Road

6
6
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Truck & Off-Highway Engineering™, October 2017, Volume 25, Number 5. Truck & Off-Highway Engineering (ISSN 2475-6148) is published in February, April, June, August, October, December by Tech Briefs Media Group, An SAE International Company®, 261 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1901, New York, NY 10016 and printed in Mechanicsburg, PA. Copyright© 2017 SAE International. Annual print subscription for SAE International members: first subscription, $20 included in dues; additional single copies, $30 each North America, $35 each overseas. Prices for nonmember subscriptions are $100 North America, $150 overseas. Periodicals postage paid at New York, NY and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Please send address changes Truck & Off-Highway Engineering, P. O. Box 47857, Plymouth, MN 55447. SAE International is not responsible for the accuracy of information in the editorial, articles, and advertising sections of this publication. Readers should independently evaluate the accuracy of any statement in the editorial, articles, and advertising sections of this publication that are important to him/her and rely on his/her independent evaluation. For permission to reproduce or use content in other media, contact copyright@sae.org. To purchase reprints, contact advertising@sae.org. Claims for missing issues of the magazine must be submitted within a six-month time frame of the claimed issue’s publication date. The Truck & Off-Highway Engineering title is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and feature articles are indexed and included in the SAE Dig- ital Library. For additional information, free demos are available at www.saedigitallibrary.org. ISSN 2475-6148 (print)

CONTENTS FEATURES 16 Advances for off-highway engine design POWERTRAIN | TESTING & SIMULATION As manufacturers continuecopyright@sae.org. T o purchase reprints, contact advertising@sae.org. Claims for missing issues o f th e magaz i ne must be submitted within a six-mon th ti me f rame of the claimed issue’s publication date. The Truck & Off-Highway Engineering title is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and feature articles are indexed and included in the SAE Di g - ital Library. For additional information, free demos are available at www.saedigitallibrary.org. ISSN 2475-6148 (print) Audited by TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING October 2017 1 " id="pdf-obj-3-128" src="pdf-obj-3-128.jpg">
CONTENTS FEATURES 16 Advances for off-highway engine design POWERTRAIN | TESTING & SIMULATION As manufacturers continuecopyright@sae.org. T o purchase reprints, contact advertising@sae.org. Claims for missing issues o f th e magaz i ne must be submitted within a six-mon th ti me f rame of the claimed issue’s publication date. The Truck & Off-Highway Engineering title is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and feature articles are indexed and included in the SAE Di g - ital Library. For additional information, free demos are available at www.saedigitallibrary.org. ISSN 2475-6148 (print) Audited by TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING October 2017 1 " id="pdf-obj-3-130" src="pdf-obj-3-130.jpg">

NVIDIA

EDITORIAL

Deep learning how to drive

Learning to drive as a teen is a rite of pas- sage, my own experiences indelibly marked in my brain. But the “brain” learn- ing to drive in the future won’t be blow- ing out sixteen candles, if Nvidia has its way. Deep learning—a programming model that builds a “neural net,” basically a self-adaptive algorithm that acts like a human brain after being trained by data— is the perfect solution for self-driving ve- hicles, according to Tri Huynh, Nvidia’s Senior Manager of Business Development – Autonomous Vehicles.

Xavier AI supercomputer for self-driving vehicles.

“One of the hardest computer sci- ence problems is self-driving,” he said during a Sept. 18 session at SAE COMVEC 17 on Vehicle Architectures for Connectivity and Processing. “The things you have to detect on the road, and make the right decision, is a nearly impossible software problem; you can never write enough software to detect everything you see out there.” Rather, Nvidia is building a supercom- puter inside the vehicle. This processor, called Xavier, was developed at a cost of $1 billion, according to Huynh, and its strict purpose is to drive a vehicle. “We’ve taken all we’ve learned for the past four years on AI [artificial intelligence] and self-driving and put it into one chip,” he said. “To give you some idea of its perfor- mance, this processor can do 30 trillion operations per second at 30 watts—that’s about the same performance of 180 MacBook Pros. This is what we think it’s going to take, probably multiples of these

type of processors, to get to [SAE] Level 4 or Level 5 [automation].” The tech company has its own test car called BB8—yes, in honor of the Star Wars droid—that’s been trained to drive by “watching” a human driver. Huynh showed a video clip of BB8 descending a steep, winding street. “With tradi- tional software, you would basically write algorithms: detect the sign, detect the lanes, don’t hit this, don’t hit that. What we’ve done is mounted a camera inside looking at the person, some sen- sors looking at the steering angle, and a camera outside looking at the environ- ment. It’s learning just like how you’d teach your kids how to drive; there’s no additional software detecting the curb, the bush, etc.” Deep learning and AI are being used for non-self-driving situations, too—for example, employing AI as essentially an active safety element in vehicles. In a scenario shown on screen at COMVEC 17, the driver doesn’t see a truck about to run a red light. As she begins to ac- celerate through the intersection, her car sees what’s about to occur and pre- vents the accident. “This is a great ap- plication for deep learning and AI, for safety in the vehicle,” he said. The other use case involves California- based Blue River Technology, a preci- sion-agriculture tech company that uses Nvidia technology for its advanced spraying equipment. “They put cameras and our computers on the tractor and they’re using deep learning algorithms to detect what are weeds and [deter- mine] how and when to use pesticide,” Huynh said. The result is a reduction of chemical usage by 90%. Blue River was just acquired in early September by Deere & Company for $305 million. For self-driving vehicles, AI will pro- vide a base level of performance out of the box, according to Huynh, “but it may need more time to learn your behavior.” Only our good driving behaviors, I hope.

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ZIRCOTEC

TECHNICAL

INNOVATIONS

THERMAL MANAGEMENT

Zircotec manages heat transfer in hotter exhaust systems Zircotec plasma coating of exhaust component.
Zircotec manages heat transfer in hotter exhaust systems
Zircotec
plasma
coating of
exhaust
component.

Automotive engineers may have thought that after a century or more, the problems of han- dling heat in all parts of the powertrain had been solved. But another is emerging that par- ticularly affects commercial vehicles (CVs) and off-highway equipment: keeping exhaust heat only where it is wanted. The new challenge affects exhaust systems and involves a combination of the auto indus- try’s decades-old conflicting demands: effi- ciency, legislation, packaging and cost. Terry Graham, managing director of thermal management specialist Zircotec Group, warns that expected upcoming global emissions standards will require improvements to the engine, catalyst and DPF (diesel particulate filter), each of which is likely to increase ex- haust gas temperature. But there is an added challenge, said Graham:

“It’s a desire to keep heat in the exhaust to main- tain turbocharger efficiency and response. Zircotec believes that internal temperatures in some cases will rise from 500°C to levels in ex- cess of 700°C. In some instances, obtaining high- er performance from catalysts and filters may require an increase in size, putting pressure on overall packaging as hot exhaust system compo- nents encroach on other systems that could po- tentially be vulnerable to heat damage.”

Reducing heat transmission

So Zircotec is now looking at ways of reducing heat transmission throughout the entire structure

of the exhaust, including the exhaust manifold, thus reducing heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the outer containment to help maintain exhaust gas temperatures. This would also poten- tially have a significant impact on cold-start and the time taken for systems to warm up. It should also cut the operating temperature of the con- tainment structure, reducing the thermal de- mands on the material and allowing more eco- nomic choices. “Even the metal clamps holding the exhaust system can be a major source of heat loss. To overcome this, Zircotec is working with a sup- plier on ceramic coatings options to reduce this effect,” revealed Graham. Safety legislation already limits external tem- peratures. Apart from flammability, the exhaust on a CV is more exposed to pedestrians. The maximum external temperature, currently as high as 480°C (896°F) on some components, could be mandated down to just 70°C (158°F), believes Graham. “The traditional solution would be to add insulation around the affected areas, but con- ventional materials would typically need to be up to 70 mm thick to achieve the thermal bar- rier performance required,” he said. “There just isn’t the room for such a thickness in many ap- plications without re-routing the exhaust line and introducing knock-on effects that would compromise other systems and overall packag- ing, to say nothing of the cost involved.” On modern vehicles, heat management is

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A Spark of Inspiration. A Better World.

A Spark of Inspiration. A Better World. Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-603
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-603
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-603

BOTH IMAGES: ZIRCOTEC

TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS

BOTH IMAGES: ZIRCOTEC TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS Quality control of Zircotec-coated component. often carefully controlled to reduce warm-up

Quality control of Zircotec-coated component.

often carefully controlled to reduce warm-up times and ensure sufficient heat is delivered to key systems. But Graham estimates that the point is approaching where there is only just enough high-grade heat in the exhaust gas to drive these systems, so a different approach is required: “For reasons of efficiency, one of our clients is aiming to maintain the exit gas temperature at the tailpipe to no less than 87% of the tem- perature at which it leaves the engine. To achieve this we have to analyze the heat transmission through each individual component of the exhaust system.”

Aftertreatment considerations

A further key focus for Zircotec is on thermal management of the aftertreat- ment systems to significantly improve clean-up efficiency. Graham said Zircotec’s technology can be used inside

BOTH IMAGES: ZIRCOTEC TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS Quality control of Zircotec-coated component. often carefully controlled to reduce warm-up

Terry Graham, managing director of Zircotec, says aspects of upcoming emissions standards are likely to result in an increase in exhaust gas temperature.

and around the DPF and catalyst to in- crease the internal gas temperature and ensure heat is delivered and focused where it is needed, yet simultaneously reduce external heat transmission through improved thermal barrier per- formance. Together with one of its Tier 1 customers, the company is working on the insulation of a modular catalyst unit that would meet future requirements. To reduce the packaging space re- quired, Zircotec is investigating the use of its ceramic ThermoHold-based heat shield material, both with and without an integral conventional metal heat shield. By incorporating small integral air gaps, solutions have been devised that can operate in different environ- ments and orientations to improve ther- mal barrier performance. “The heat shields can deliver signifi- cant heat protection within a confined space, providing a highly cost-effective way to meet packaging requirements,” stated Graham. He added that one of Zircotec’s sig- nificant long-term projects is to improve the thermal management of the exhaust manifold. To achieve this, the company has a collaborative program in place with a major vehicle manufacturer, and with exhaust component suppliers, via two “very different” approaches to ex- amine the incorporation of ThermoHold ceramic coating within the manifold. Prototypes have been produced, with the Zircotec ceramic-based material used and applied by a manifold supplier. Graham says early trials, and associated test results, are “very promising.”

Stuart Birch

ALTERNATIVE PROPULSION

Nikola CEO: Fuel-cell Class 8 truck on track for 2021

Stressing that Nikola Motor’s primary intent is to eliminate emissions related to Class 8 over-the-road trucking, com- pany president and CEO Trevor Milton confirmed at a technology conference in Detroit that Nikola remains on track to deliver its first fuel cell-powered electric trucks beginning in 2021. Milton reinforced that the Nikola One truck—intended to be fueled by hydro- gen generated from a network of nearly 350 company-built, solar-powered elec- trolysis stations across the nation—will have a driving range of 800-1200 mi (1287-1931 km), 1000 hp and 2000 lb·ft (2712 N·m) delivered to four rear wheels and dramatically lower operating costs. At September’s Technology in Motion conference in Detroit, Milton said that concepts for battery-electric heavy- duty from Toyota and Tesla, as well as a recently-introduced concept from Cummins, prove Nikola’s business mod- el that indicates electric drive makes sense for over-the-road trucking. Those prospective competitors “vali- date our business plan,” Milton asserted.

Cheaper by the ton-mile

Milton showed data to indicate the Nikola One fuel-cell truck can achieve an equivalent of close to 450 ton-miles of hauling capacity per gallon of fuel. A conventional diesel-engine Class 8 haul- er, he said, delivers only about 300 ton- miles per gallon. He added that the Nikola One is the only known production-intent Class 8 truck that can achieve the 100% in- crease in overall freight efficiency tar- geted by the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s am- bitious Supertruck II program. Salt Lake City-based Nikola said a con- ventional diesel-fueled Class 8 truck cur- rently achieves up to about 7.5 mpg, while the electric Nikola One truck has an equivalent fuel economy of 13-15 mpg. Most long-haul trucks end up using more than three times more fuel than the truck’s initial cost, with some operators

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Maximum flexibility and turn-key solutions – from dSPACE.

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ALL IMAGES: NIKOLA

TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS

ALL IMAGES: NIKOLA TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS Callout 1: front radiator assembly; 2: electric steering/gearbox; 3: power electronics;

Callout 1: front radiator assembly; 2: electric steering/gearbox; 3: power electronics; 4: 320-kWh lithium-ion battery pack; 5: battery chiller and air-brake tanks; 6: 300-kW fuel-cell stack; 7: hydrogen fueling system; 8: rear gearbox housing/independent suspension; 9: lightweight standard-duty fifth wheel.

Nikola One is a fully electric Class 8 truck fueled by hydrogen that vastly exceeds just
Nikola One is a fully electric
Class 8 truck fueled by
hydrogen that vastly
exceeds just about
every performance
and cost metric of
conventional
diesel-powered
haulers.
Eliminating diesel engine and traditional driveline makes Nikola One up to 2000 lb lighter than a
Eliminating diesel engine
and traditional driveline
makes Nikola One up to
2000 lb lighter than a
conventional Class 8.

spending more than a half-million dollars on fuel over the lifetime of the truck. The Nikola One’s dramatically better efficien- cy—combined with Nikola’s Complete Lease Program model that includes free hydrogen fuel—means operators will see an operating cost that’s half that of a conventional Class 8. Also helping to reduce total operating

cost: the Nikola One is some 2000 lb (907 kg) lighter than a typical diesel- engine Class 8 hauler. Every pound saved in a heavy-duty truck is worth 50 cents in daily value per load, Milton said. The weight reduction is attributed to elimination of the engine, transmission and other heavy driveline components, although the Nikola One also uses

carbon-fiber bodywork pieces and other weight-optimized components.

Technical particulars remain

Earlier this year, Nikola indicated Tennessee’s Fitzgerald Glider has been contracted to build the first 5000 Nikola One trucks while the company prepares its own assembly plant. The company reportedly said earlier this year the plant’s location would be named by the end of the year, but Milton did not provide further details. He also asserted the truck’s 320-kWh lithium-ion battery pack uses technol- ogy that is roughly 50% more energy- dense than Tesla’s batteries and is “built for a million miles,” but he did not offer specifics, other than to refer to the truck’s sophisticated thermal-manage- ment system. The batteries are the Nikola One’s storage and ‘buffer’ for the 300-kW fuel-cell’s electric output; Milton said the combination avoids deep discharge of the batteries, which prolongs their service life. Meanwhile, Nikola’s plan for nearly 350 self-sustaining hydrogen-fueling sta- tions would appear ambitious by nearly any analysis. Although the company in- tends to begin building the stations next year, Milton indicated it will take a de- cade to complete the entire network that is crucial to the company’s goal of com- pletely emissions-free operation as well as ensuring convenient access to fuel that means, Milton asserted, “the (elec- tric vehicle) range anxiety that used to be a huge issue is no longer there.”

Bill Visnic

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BOTH IMAGES: PACCAR

TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS

POWERTRAIN

Paccar launches lightest HD automated transmission for on-highway CVs

Paccar has announced a new 12-speed automated transmission (AT) and col- umn-mounted shifter to improve fuel economy and driver ergonomics in Peterbilt and Kenworth models in North America beginning in October. The transmission and shifter were jointly developed to provide a superior shifting experience while reducing weight. “The Paccar Transmission offers best- in-class performance, reliability and low cost of operation,” said Kyle Quinn, Peterbilt general manager and Paccar senior vice president. “With the availabil- ity of this innovative transmission, the proven MX-13 engine and the efficient

Paccar Axle, the Peterbilt Models 579 and

  • 567 can now be spec’d with the industry’s

most advanced proprietary drivetrain.” Paccar and Eaton teams co-devel- oped the transmission over a three-year span. Eaton will manufacture the propri- etary Paccar AT at its Mexico facility.

All-new platform

The transmission was developed for line- haul applications up to 110,000 lb

(50,000 kg) Gross Vehicle Weight. It is designed to handle engine ratings up to

Mechanically, the transmission contains the widest overall gear ratio in its class and the weight was
Mechanically, the transmission contains
the widest overall gear ratio in its class
and the weight was reduced
199 lb (90 kg) compared to
the previous option.
dual-plate ceramic clutch on the

UltraShift, and an internally routed elec- trical system to maximize durability. These driver-focused decisions lead to class-leading low speed maneuverability and smoother, more intuitive shifting, the company claims. Peterbilt is so confident in its propri- etary drivetrain the company backs it with a comprehensive five-year or 750,000-mi (1.2 million-km) warranty. “Since the transmission is an all-new platform, it provided us the opportunity

Relocating the shifter to the column should make it easier to select the transmission gear and operate the engine brake whiling keeping the driver’s eyes on the road.

  • 510 hp (380 kW) and 1850 lb·ft (2500

N·m) and features integrated electronic communications with the Paccar MX en- gine. An industry-exclusive fluid pressure sensor provides advanced warning of low oil situations while an oil-coalescing air filter protects the transmission from contamination. It also has advanced pre- dictive features that are able to select the starting gear and make shift deci- sions based on grade, vehicle weight, engine torque and throttle position. Mechanically, the transmission contains the widest overall gear ratio in its class and the weight was reduced by 199 lb (90 kg) compared to the previous Eaton UltraShift option. It also boasts a cooler- less design that only requires 16 pints (7.5 L) of oil—“nearly half of what similar transmissions specify,” a spokesperson said—while providing extended mainte- nance intervals. Other features include a maintenance-free organic clutch, which reportedly has better control than the

to take weight out of the transmission,” the spokesperson said. “It is the lightest 1850-lb·ft capable heavy-duty auto- mated transmission on the market. The team spent a lot of time optimizing the engine-transmission package.”

New shifter improves ergonomics

To accompany the drivetrain, a new col- umn-mounted shifter will be standard on trucks equipped with the Paccar transmission as well as those equipped with Eaton Advantage and UltraShift options. Relocating the shifter to the column was another driver-focused de- cision to improve ergonomics. It should make it easier to select the transmission gear and operate the engine brake whil- ing keeping the driver’s eyes on the road. This location also should provide easier movement back and forth from the seat to the sleeper area. “The column-mounted shifter takes the ergonomics of the Models 579 and

567 to a new level,” said Scott Newhouse, Peterbilt chief engineer. “The column-mounted shifter was de- signed based on in-depth studies of driver behavior and ergonomics. This new design also allowed us to improve on the usability of our dash by eliminat- ing engine brake control switches.” Both the Paccar AT and column- mounted shifter are now available to order on trucks when paired with the MX-13 12.6-L inline 6-cylinder engine. Availability with the smaller 10.9-L MX-11 engine is expected for early 2018. According to a Peterbilt spokesperson, these features are being released at a time when they see growth in the adop- tion of automated transmissions on the domestic line-haul market. The company now boasts a completely integrated pro- prietary powertrain with improved fuel economy and driver ergonomics.

Matthew Borst

HELPING YOU MOVE YOUR BUSINESS FORWARD.
HELPING YOU MOVE
YOUR BUSINESS
FORWARD.

CAT ® INDUSTRIAL ENGINES

Great performance starts with great components. With our experience and industry know-how, we help customers to be more efficient, productive and successful.

EATON

TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS

HYDRAULICS

Eaton solves nuisance problems with electrohydraulic solutions

Hysteresis is a common shortcoming in applying fluid power products to indus- trial and mobile equipment. It is fre- quently unreported due to a lack of a cost-effective option to address this issue. As the hydraulics industry works to enhance precision and repeatability in machines, a better understanding of hysteresis—or the variance of output flow from the input command—and how it affects fluid power may help.

What causes hysteresis?

Hysteresis is an error based on past in- put, a variation caused by friction and drag of various interfaces in the control loop. For hydraulic products, these in- terfaces are found in the servo valve, control piston, swash plate and rotating group, mechanical feedback link and the swash feedback valve. All hydraulic piston pumps have these key features, and Eaton engineers have confirmed through testing of several similar dis- placement closed circuit pumps with electro-proportional controls that hys- teresis is common and changes with varying operating conditions. Hysteresis is measured as a percent- age of error against the pump’s peak flow, and ranges from 4 to 11% for most hydraulic pump controls on the market today. A typical hysteresis level in pumps today is 5%, which means that a 100cc pump commanded to half dis- placement could produce either 50cc or 55cc, depending on the previous commanded position. This variance alters the output flow unless the input command is changed to compensate to achieve the desired flow. Hysteresis is perceived as a relative nuisance to many operators, but the im- pact can be quite costly in terms of time and production efficiency. With constant variance, operators must repeatedly ad- just the input control position to achieve consistent machine behavior. The opera- tor is part of the feedback loop and must slow down to understand how fast the machine is moving because hysteresis will cause the machine speed to vary in a propel circuit.

EATON TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS HYDRAULICS Eaton solves nuisance problems with electrohydraulic solutions Hysteresis is a common shortcoming

Hysteresis, which is measured as a percentage of error against the pump’s peak flow, can range from 4 to 11%.

Applying software and control solutions

Though hysteresis is a commonly ac- cepted annoyance, there are control solutions that can help to address this issue. Eaton’s solenoid control offers a predictable output flow that adjusts pump displacement independent of hysteresis. Part of Eaton’s Dynamic Machine Control solution offering, this control utilizes an algorithm in an HFX controller that takes the input com- mand and compares it against the cur- rent displacement of the pump pro- vided by the swash feedback sensor. The HFX controller provides current to the solenoid valves to minimize the difference between the input com- mand (desired position) and the exist- ing position provided by the swash feedback sensor. The feedback sensor reads the swashplate position directly—bypassing the sources of mechanical friction and backlash—allowing the controller to dynamically adjust the current to the solenoid valves as operating conditions change. This means that the overall control system provides an accurate and repeatable output flow from the

pump. Any remaining error is primarily due to the small amount of error in the swash sensor, typically less than 1%. At this level of error, the predictable flow offered by the solenoid control makes it one of the most repeatable controls on the market today. As more and more applications com- bine electrical and hydraulic power to meet the performance requirements stipulated by machine builders and end users, it’s easy to lose sight of solving these everyday nuisance problems. Why focus on something like hysteresis when new electrohydraulic capabilities can monitor systems, send alerts in the event of error, and even shut down equipment in the event of failure? Hysteresis corrections may not be as exciting, but improving predictability and repeatability can have big returns for productivity, operational efficiency and operator comfort. Sometimes even the smallest changes can make a big difference—and those changes are made possible by the latest in electro- hydraulic technology.

Vincent Duray, closed circuit piston product manager, Eaton, wrote this article for Truck & Off-Highway Engineering.

CUMMINS

TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS

ALTERNATIVE PROPULSION

Cummins reveals all-electric truck ahead of Tesla

Two months after chairman and CEO Tom Linebarger detailed Cummins’ plans to transition from a diesel engine maker to a “power technology” provider (read:

articles.sae.org/15489/), the company is backing up his talk with tangible technol- ogy in the form of a fully electric Class 7 demonstration truck. Cummins unveiled

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the fully operational AEOS on August 29 at its Columbus, IN, technical center, tak- ing the trucking industry by surprise. The reveal came just weeks before the wraps were expected to come off Tesla’s highly anticipated all-electric tractor-trailer. Elon Musk tweeted this past spring that the Tesla Semi truck unveil would take place this September, but in a Sept. 13 tweet he revised the

date to the end of October.

The Urban Hauler EV daycab tractor

is designed for local deliveries in cities,

port or terminal hauling and other short-haul applications, where many

experts agree electrification makes

more sense for heavy trucks, rather than for long-haul trucking. The con- cept truck reportedly can travel up to 100 miles (160 km) on a charge, from its 140-kWh battery pack. Current charge time for the battery is one hour, but

Cummins expects to cut that to a more-

palatable 20 minutes by 2020. For comparison, Tesla’s yet-to-come electric semi-truck will have a single- charge range of 200-300 miles (320- 480 km), according to multiple reports. To extend the range of its EV truck prototype to about 300 miles, Cummins will offer an engine-genera- tor option, employing its B4.5 or B6.7 engines. The company claims these engine options offer 50% fuel savings compared to today’s diesel hybrids with zero emissions. Cummins tapped Roush Industries to help design and build the 18,000-lb truck, which has a maximum payload of 44,000 lb (20,000 kg). The aerodynamically shaped AEOS also features low-rolling

CUMMINS TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS ALTERNATIVE PROPULSION Cummins reveals all-electric truck ahead of Tesla Two months after chairmanarticles.sae.org/15489/), the company is backing up his talk with tangible technol- ogy in the form of a fully electric Class 7 demonstration truck. Cummins unveiled STAINLESS IS STANDARD Our rings provide the same fi t and function as stamped rings, but are easier to assemble and remove with no special tools. Standard parts available in stainless (302 & 316) and carbon steel. Electrical Coupler Gear Assembly Standard or custom, we’ll provide you with the right ring, in the right material, for your application. FREE SAMPLES: Call (866) 483-9410, or visit expert.smalley.com/OE/rings the fully operational AEOS on August 29 at its Columbus, IN, technical center, tak- ing the trucking industry by surprise. The reveal came just weeks before the wraps were expected to come off Tesla ’s highly anticipated all-electric tractor-trailer. Elon Musk tweeted this past spring that the Tesla Semi truck unveil would take place this September, but in a Sept. 13 tweet he revised the date to the end of October. The Urban Hauler EV daycab tractor is designed for local deliveries in cities, port or terminal hauling and other short-haul applications, where many experts agree electrification makes more sense for heavy trucks, rather than for long-haul trucking. The con- cept truck reportedly can travel up to 100 miles (160 km) on a charge, from its 140-kWh battery pack. Current charge time for the battery is one hour, but Cummins expects to cut that to a more- palatable 20 minutes by 2020. For comparison, Tesla’s yet-to-come electric semi-truck will have a single- charge range of 200-300 miles (320- 480 km), according to multiple reports. To extend the range of its EV truck prototype to about 300 miles, Cummins will offer an engine-genera- tor option, employing its B4.5 or B6.7 engines. The company claims these engine options offer 50% fuel savings compared to today’s diesel hybrids with zero emissions. Cummins tapped Roush Industries to help design and build the 18,000-lb truck, which has a maximum payload of 44,000 lb (20,000 kg). The aerodynamically shaped AEOS also features low-rolling Cummins unveiled a fully operational, all-electric Class 7 daycab tractor dubbed AEOS on August 29 at its Columbus, IN, technical center. 14 October 2017 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-608 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-16-42" src="pdf-obj-16-42.jpg">

Cummins unveiled a fully operational, all-electric Class 7 daycab tractor dubbed AEOS on August 29 at its Columbus, IN, technical center.

TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

CUMMINS

resistance tires, regenerative braking and potential roof-mounted solar panels to help improve range and cut fuel con- sumption. Drag is reduced by eliminating the grille and completely sealing the un- derbody. Opting for an in-cab camera system instead of side mirrors gives the concept a sleeker look, too. “Cummins will be the leading provider of electrified powertrain in the commercial and industrial markets,” Julie Furber, Cummins Electrification Business Development Executive, said during a previous teleconference. “We will provide the entire electrified powertrain solution as well as some of the most critical com- ponents that have the largest impact on performance, quality and power system to deliver the most value to our customers.” Delivery of its electrified powertrain will begin in 2019, including battery- electric and plug-in hybrids. Cummins is exploring potential partnerships to de- velop “leading technology” in energy

TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS

Current charge time for the 140-kWh battery pack is one hour, but Cummins expects to cut
Current charge time for
the 140-kWh battery
pack is one hour, but
Cummins expects to
cut that to a more-
palatable 20 min by
2020.

storage, power electronics, traction mo- tor systems and component control for commercial applications. At the event, Cummins also displayed its latest “near-zero” natural gas engine

technology, the X12 and X15 diesel en- gines, and announced its intentions to introduce a “revolutionary” new heavy- duty diesel engine in 2022.

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ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY

Advances for off-highway

ENGINE

DESIGN

As manufacturers continue to drive out cost and meet a worldwide patchwork of regulatory frameworks, the tools for developing those engines are advancing. From showcase prototypes to advanced analytical techniques, suppliers are helping the cause.

by Bruce Morey

Details of a spray flame in a compression ignition engine with intricate structures and regions of low and high temperatures, simulated using high-performance computing and Tabulated Flamelet Model, or TFM.

“I t is an exciting time for commercial engine designers,” said

Michael Franke, director, light-duty diesel and commercial

engines for FEV. The U.S. Tier 4 Final emissions regulation

forced developers to deliver compliance in a shorter-than-

normal design cycle. Now that the industry has had an opportunity to optimize Tier 4 Final products, the focus has shifted to longer-term objectives in meeting end-user expectations and responding to com- petition, according to Franke. With the excitement are some cautions, especially in the small- engine segment. “While this engine segment was always very cost sensitive, we now see foreign manufacturers [trying] to enter the U.S. with low-cost products,” explained Franke. “China and India are pro- gressing quickly with implementing China VI and Bharat-VI for on- highway applications.” These new OEMs can adapt those technolo- gies to meet off-highway Tier 4 emissions, allowing them to offer off-highway solutions in the U.S. and Europe. The newer Stage V regulations in Europe will also offer challenges, especially for engines greater than 37 kW. Stage V specifies particu- late number limits not present in U.S. regulations, and Franke pre- dicts engine makers will need to use particulate filters to meet it. Integrating filters in the limited space of off-highway machinery is challenging, perhaps requiring SCR (selective catalytic reduction) coated filters. He also notes the challenge in Stage V for engines be- low 37 kW meeting new HC+NOx limits, perhaps requiring EGR (ex- haust gas recirculation) and DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst). One of the more interesting opportunities for meeting the chal- lenges is hybridization of various sorts, “though any benefits are de- pendent on the application,” said Franke. “The future requires modu- lar engine architectures that allow the installation of electrified

components flexibly to take advantage of hybrid tech- nologies for some applications, while using the same core engine for many other applications.” To help the industry understand the possibilities, FEV offers its proprietary ITES system, a solution to integrate turbo-compounding, electrification and su- percharging. “FEV has developed modular engine and powertrain architectures to meet customized applica- tion requirements, while enabling cost-optimized so- lutions through a high degree of component sharing and component similarity across a wide range of ap- plications,” he said.

Modularity from systems engineering

“A modular approach to engine design is required,” agrees Thaddaeus Delebinski, business unit director for diesel systems at IAV. In addition to the diversity of applications and regulations in off-highway, there is also the growing diversity of fuels, with natural gas, for example, becoming more important than ever. “But only a limited number of units are sold,” he explained. Cost can easily get out of hand without maximum commonality between engines in low-volume produc- tion. An engine maker needs a modular approach for different applications and markets. Delebinski believes the key is an overall systems en- gineering approach to achieve that commonality. “IAV

FROM LEFT: FEV; IAV

POWERTRAIN | TESTING & SIMULATION FEATURE

FROM LEFT: FEV; IAV POWERTRAIN | TESTING & SIMULATION FEATURE FEV’s proprietary ITES system, in combination

FEV’s proprietary ITES system, in combination with engine downsizing, improves fuel efficiency for on-highway applications by greater than 15%. Investigations to determine the potential for off-road applications are ongoing, according to the company.

IAV’s global testing capabilities include a variety of specialized test rigs, from components test rigs to test benches for heavy-duty engines up to 1.5 MW and portable measurements system for use on vehicles and machines.

has a model-based development approach to reduce testing and validation effort and limit the use of ex- pensive resources, for example from high altitude cali- bration, engine protection functions or virtual emis- sions cycles,” he said. Like others in the industry, IAV offers simulation tools, such as its in-house Velodyn for Com Apps, derived from a vehicle dynamics tool. This is used in co-simula- tion with commercial tools like Gamma Technologies’ GT Power for engines and Amesim for hydraulics from Siemens, combined with dynamometer testing facilities, up to 1.5 MW in capacity, for correlation. He stresses that IAV is especially competent in con- trols development and calibration for emissions, OBD (on-board diagnostics) and predictive advanced diag- nostics. “We work with a number of off-highway cus- tomers, for example, on understanding aftertreatment characteristics and diagnostics over the lifetime of an application,” he explained. The company also helps customers with electrification, not only to help fuel efficiency, but to gain access to additional functional- ity like functional safety and diagnostics. Data is important, according to Delebinski, and it’s getting easier to access and more plentiful. “It allows us to deliver robust datasets and reduce the time for test- ing and validation,” he said. This could potentially be even more important if real-world testing migrates from its imminent introduction on-highway to off-highway, providing an opportunity for even more data collection.

Tools and cost of ownership

There is a wider net to cast when thinking of systems engineering, especially when considering total-cost-of-ownership. “We spend a lot of time helping our customers with multidisciplinary engineering,” explained Jonathan Dutton, transportation & mobility industry direc- tor for Dassault Systemes. Initially famous for its CATIA CAD soft- ware, the company now offers a variety of software tools to help with product lifecycle management, simulation, data and data integration, as well as supply chain management. “Frankly, the tools that we provide are just as applicable to trucks and passenger cars as off-highway engine development—only the re- quirements are different,” he said. The differences can be as simple as the load case for an engine—on-highway engines typically transition loads smoothly while excavators suddenly have huge load changes when they fill buckets and begin lifting. “But, there is tremendous commonality in the tools each need for development,” he said. He puts this wider net of tools that Dassault Systemes offers into four domains: multidisciplinary physics simulations; optimization and analysis using mathematical solution search tools like Design of Experiments; new technology simulations aimed at hybridization; and Systems Engineering that encompasses the whole product, in- cluding manufacturing and maintaining the link on engine require- ments and design through product lifecycle management. Dassault stresses in its pitch the need to emulate and understand the user experience, in fact terming its platform of applications as the 3DExperience. To understand the requirements of the engine means starting with the user experience while sitting in the cab and simulat- ing the whole machine. This total view of cost and ownership includes

FROM LEFT: IAV; AVL

Advances for off-highway

ENGINE

DESIGN

Oil consumption measurements in real time

Excessive oil consumption in today’s off-highway equipment is more than an annoyance. Oil consumption can cause issues with EGR cooler fouling and valve sticking, diesel oxidation catalyst poisoning and particulate filter ash loading. “Ash loading is really problematic with aftertreatment equipment,” explained Robert Dolan, business unit director for design and integration at IAV. Pinpointing with precision the exact cause of excessive oil consumption has been a problem, until now, according to Dolan. His answer is what IAV calls FOCAS. It is a system that measures oil in any gas using a mass spec- trometry technique.

FROM LEFT: IAV; AVL Advances for off-highway ENGINE DESIGN Oil consumption measurements in real time Excessive

Transient cycles require dynamic oil consumption measurement equipment. The new FOCAS system from IAV both lowers the limit of detection and improves response time compared to other methodologies, according to the company.

“We can measure any gas- eous flow—from exhaust, from blow-by, cylinder to cylinder, and pre- or post-turbo so you can measure the turbo’s contribu- tion,” explained Dolan. It replaces the tried-and-true method of characterizing oil consumption with what he terms “drain and weigh.” This involves carefully measuring the mass of the oil before and after a test to deter- mine consumption. It provides only a gross accounting of con- sumption, and is highly depen- dent on the test cycle. It is a test that can take weeks, even months, according to Dolan. “Now, with a few days in a

test cell or on chassis rolls, we can measure a more complete characterization of oil consumption,” he said, when it is happening in the test cycle and where in the engine. “We give our customers greater insight in far less time.” “It is especially useful when real-world operating conditions lead to dif- ferent results in aftertreatment durability than the validation phase pre- dicted,” he said. Using a real-time system like FOCAS means the customer’s unique transients and load conditions can be recreated. This leads to in- sights—for example, calibrations that unintentionally cause piston ring flut- ter during a transient event, resulting in oil consumption. The fidelity of the FOCAS system far exceeds that of traditional drain-and-weigh methods. While today it is a device used in a test bench or dyno, taking it into the field to measure oil consumption in the real world is the next step. IAV is currently working with a customer to prove out the concept. Stay tuned.

Bruce Morey

FROM LEFT: IAV; AVL Advances for off-highway ENGINE DESIGN Oil consumption measurements in real time Excessive

AVL has correlated the results of its simulation with actual test results, showing a crack in the bridge between an exhaust and intake valve.

common access to CAD designs, mechanical simulations, controls and systems simulations, as well as manufacturing disciplines such as cast- ing and assembly. The goal is to both reduce engineering cost while producing higher quality designs that meet performance, operating cost, and manufac- turing cost objectives. “Our customers are telling us we need to reduce the number of prototypes—that is where simulation comes in,” he said.

Devil in the details

With the focus on new emissions requirements and their effect on engine architectures, other engineering problems that bedevil

engines have not disappeared or even become worse. A good example is provided by Michael DeJack, senior technical specialist for AVL—resolving low-cycle fa- tigue. Like others, AVL employs a blend of commercial tools and its own know-how to solve many a devilish problem like this. Durability is challenged as never before. “Newer emissions requirements mean advances in combustion, with increases in cylinder gas pressure [and tempera- tures],” he explained. Those increases mean increased demands in thermal-mechanical fatigue especially in cylinder heads. Thermal-mechanical fatigue comes

DASSAULT SYSTEMES

POWERTRAIN | TESTING & SIMULATION FEATURE

DASSAULT SYSTEMES POWERTRAIN | TESTING & SIMULATION FEATURE Dassault Systemes’ V6 solutions use requirements, functional, logical

Dassault Systemes’ V6 solutions use requirements, functional, logical and physical (RFLP) models to capture an integrated systems engineering view of any product. Interacting in real time, it provides traceability backwards in any simulation. The top left screen shows whole system; requirements are displayed in the bottom left; top right is the logical architecture; and bottom right is the functional architecture.

from low-cycle heating and cooling of engines from start-up to shut-down, in contrast to high-cycle fa- tigue from operating the engine. Like all of engineering, the solution involves trade- offs. “You could use different materials to gain strength, but with a trade-off in thermal conductivity. That may require moving the coolant jacket closer to the flame face and designing thinner walls,” he said. Material options include cast iron, compacted graphite iron (CGI), and ductile iron. However, their evaluations are not easy, since this involves complicated finite ele- ment models with complex material behavior. If the devil is in the details, the solution might be in the data. They use the popular non-linear finite ele- ment simulation program, Abaqus from Dassault Systemes. “Thermal-mechanical fatigue drives high visco-plasticity in the material which we simulate with more advanced material models using Z-Mat by Northwest Numerics. We have developed and cali- brated a library of advanced material models using this Z-Mat capability.” After modeling the plasticity, AVL developed damage models to simulate time to failure due to thermal-mechanical fatigue. Low-cycle fatigue analysis is only one part of their extensive iCAE tool box that AVL built around Abaqus and other commercial tools. “It is actually a knowledge database where we have detailed work- flows for hundreds of analysis tasks, with access to AVL’s material database, scripts, analysis results, and other codes like AVL Fire for CFD and AVL Excite for dynamics,” he said.

Breakthrough in direct simulation of combustion

One of the more difficult things to simulate are the fine details of injections and in-cylinder combustion, though engineering them well has an enormous impact on emissions and fuel economy. These de- tails are computationally intensive, according to Dr. Sibendu Som, group leader and principal computational scientist for Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). That is why the high-performance super- computing center at ANL remains an important resource for engine developers, including heavy duty and off-highway. ANL partners include on- and off-highway clients that build truck and locomotive engines. ANL helped develop optimal thermal barrier coatings using advanced heat transfer models and injector designs with precision spray models, for example. One of the more challenging phenomenon to simulate is the chemi- cal kinetics of in-cylinder combustion. Fuels like gasoline or diesel are typically composed of 3000 to 5000 individual chemical species, which go through hundreds of reactions while burning. Too compli- cated to simulate to date, engineers typically create a model fuel of 70 or 80 species to replace the complex real fuel. While good enough to model heat release rates and pressure rise, these are not good enough to model particulate formation, or soot—an especially important topic today as the health hazards of soot are better understood. That limitation has been eliminated with the development of a new model that ANL calls Tabulated Flamelet Model, or TFM. This is useful in both modeling soot better and in capturing low-temperature com- bustion characteristics, which remains important to OEMs. “Our new technique requires only 20% more computational time to model the full chemical mechanism of a real fuel, composed of up to 5000 species,” said Som. It could prove an important breakthrough in advancing the fidelity of combustion simulations.

DASSAULT SYSTEMES POWERTRAIN | TESTING & SIMULATION FEATURE Dassault Systemes’ V6 solutions use requirements, functional, logical

Reliability

from the inside out

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TARDEC

Military vehicles battle for autonomy at lower cost

Engineers are adding sensors, more powerful micros and faster networks as they automate tasks and pave the way to autonomy.

by Terry Costlow

TARDEC is using COTS components to simplify integration of sensors that pave the way to autonomous military mobility systems.

T he race to add digital capabilities to military vehicles is chal- lenging engineers as they strive to create sophisticated sys- tems that can be altered and upgraded without issues. Networking and architectural strategies rely on standards

that help keep costs under control while giving warfighters more au- tomated features and functions. Many mainstream ground vehicles haven’t seen the focus given drones and aircraft, but terrestrial vehicles are catching up. More sen- sors, networks and advanced microcontrollers are being deployed to help warfighters better understand situations and respond quickly. Automated systems handle some tasks so humans can focus on their roles, paving the way to autonomous mobility. The need to configure ground vehicles for specialized tasks is driv- ing a shift to standards and commercial off the shelf (COTS) tech- nologies that pave the way to plug-and-play modules. COTS has been discussed for years, but its impact is still just beginning to transform many higher volume vehicles. “We are encouraging use of open standard interfaces for a new system development. This will allow ground vehicle system to use latest sensor technology assuming it complies with the open inter- face standard,” said Alex Kade, Chief Architect, Ground Vehicle Robotics, at the U.S. Army TARDEC. “In addition, pre-processing much of the sensor information within the sensing system signifi- cantly reduces the burden that the central-autonomy and vehicle- management ECUs have to deal with.”

Standards make it easier to put a sensor array on a vehicle. But when several cameras, radar and other systems are all streaming in high volumes of data, it can be challenging for controllers to process data in real time. These controllers must also deal with data that comes in different formats and various data rates. “Different sensor phenomenologies have their own failure modes, and it helps to fuse the sensors for more robust understanding of the environment,” said David Simon, Lead Systems Architect, Autonomy, at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control. “Higher performing sensors require additional computing. The computing architectures utilizing massively parallel CPUs are a very good fit for processing large amounts of sensor data.” Several developers use smart sensors that do some processing before data is sent to the controller, the experts say. That reduces the amount of processing power needed in controllers. This is important be- cause powerful multicore processors and the software that drives them are often far more expensive than the simple processors commonly used in sensors. In high volume vehicles, cost can often be a critical fac- tor. That means many designs for these vehicles use networked modules instead of rack mounted boards. “Trucks are very cost-sensitive, so they’re not likely

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: CURTISS-WRIGHT; TARDEC; LOCKHEED MARTIN

ELECTRONICS FEATURE

Mainstream vehicles like trucks may often employ black boxes to trim costs, according to Curtiss-Wright’s Jedynak.

to use boards and backplanes,” said David Jedynak, CTO at Curtiss-Wright Defense Solutions. “If a single- board computer is $8, you still need $2-$10 for a back- plane. It’s more cost effective to buy a black box; we make standalone computers with I/O that cost $8. On larger vehicles, boards and backplanes give you a lot of opportunities to repair and replace boards.” For trucks, which usually have only one computer, users will want a box approach, Jedynak said. These cost concerns ripple down to the smallest components. Military requirements have long been more stringent than automotive requisites, but that may change as safety and reliability demands push automotive requirements toward military levels. “Standardized connectors are always desirable, but we also need to consider the lifecycle requirements of military trucks vs. commercial,” Kade said. “In the past, this has driven military systems to very expensive con- nection systems. But as we go forward, I believe there may be an opportunity to communize requirements to a high enough degree, that we would consider letting the auto industry drive this market, perhaps through such entities as USCAR or SAE.”

Sensing intelligence

Military developers are also leveraging the advances in automotive sensors, which are following the trend to more functionality for lower prices. Most of the sens- ing technologies used in safety systems and autono- mous cars provide data that’s useful for military users. “We see that commercial automotive is driving the development of smarter sensors. Lockheed Martin tracks and takes advantage of this if possible,” Simon

Constant development and testing are under way at TARDEC’s Ground Systems Research Center in Warren, MI.

Design must be flexible so equipment like a mine-clearing rake can be added to vehicle systems.
Design must be
flexible so equipment
like a mine-clearing
rake can be added
to vehicle systems.

said. “However, there are some interesting start-up companies that are looking at improving radar and providing raw data. We are eager to see those developments as they mature.” This choice between distributed intelligence in sensors and power- ful centralized modules that process raw data presents an ongoing challenge for development teams. Many design engineers say far more computing power will be needed in the future as the level of automation grows. Many developers predict that artificial intelligence will be needed to analyze all the data coming from sensors. “I believe architecture will evolve into having powerful centralized com- puting platforms that will perform as the AI for automated systems, with a precise view of the surrounding environment, vehicles, people, things, etc.,” Kade said. “There will also be a lot of distributed intelligence for sensor pre-processing and reactive ‘safing’ of the autonomous system,

TARDEC

Military vehicles battle for autonomy at lower cost

providing the appropriate action/reaction with built-in safety protocol and limits.” Though there’s been a trend to em- bed processors in sensors, the dramatic increase in computing power is prompt- ing more users to rely on powerful mul-

ticore CPUs that process unaltered data from sensors. That can make it easier to synch inputs from multiple sensors while also reducing the possibility that something gets lost when sensors per- form processing and send edited files.

TARDEC Military vehicles battle for autonomy at lower cost providing the appropriate action/reaction with built-in safety Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-611 " id="pdf-obj-26-10" src="pdf-obj-26-10.jpg">

Autonomous and remote-control technologies developed for trucks can often be adapted to smaller vehicles.

Multi-role cores

Advances in microcontrollers impact several facets of military development programs. The rapid increase in comput- ing cores lets engineers dedicate cores to specific tasks. That makes it easier to run virtual machines, so different operat- ing systems can be used. Multicore chips also keep power consumption to man- ageable levels. “Processors like Intel’s Xeon have 12 processor cores and power consump- tion similar to something that’s put in a laptop,” said Mike Southworth, Product Manager at Curtiss-Wright Defense Solutions. “That number of cores opens the possibility of using virtual machines that run on separate cores.” Power budgets grow in importance as vehicles add more electronic func- tions. Power budgets can be critical when vehicles are being upgraded with advanced systems. Conventional batter- ies and wiring systems may have to give way to higher voltages to meet growing demands. “We have been able to integrate re- quired sensors, by-wire kit, and com- puter into existing Army trucks without impacting its baseline power demands, but this will be a constant balance be- tween upgrading sensing, actuation, computing power vs. component effi- ciency improvements,” Kade said. “Eventually, we may need to beef up the electrical system, but as our ve- hicles become more and more electri- fied, this may occur anyway as a matter of course.”

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  • 24 October 2017

TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

LOCKHEED MARTIN

Networks tie systems together

As the number of sensors grows along with the need for more computing power, the networks that let systems share data become more important. Speed is always a primary concern, but military needs include fault tol- erance and timing information. These needs grow when vehicles rely totally on digital controls, with no human driver. “Currently, we are focused on developing a fault tolerant by-wire control system so it can withstand multiple system level faults and continue to operate or, if unable to per- form nominally, to be able to safely come to a controlled stop,” said Alex Kade, Chief Architect, Ground Vehicle Robotics, at TARDEC. “This ‘safe harbor’ behavior and others like it are crucial for unmanned sys- tems to be acceptable.” Redundant elements are important as- pects of these fail-safe systems. But networks must also keep input from multiple sensors synchronized so data is processed in the proper order. More networks will use some form of time triggering. “Modules with processors and networking

connections now include components that provide more timing information,” said Mike Southworth, Product Manager at Curtiss- Wright Defense Solutions. “For fire control, everything relies on timing and GPS data. GPS is vulnerable to jamming or spoofing, so users want redundancy if the GPS is denied. Inertial timing units and timing with chip scale atomic clocks provide redundancy.” Sharing data that’s on the vehicle is only one part of the communications challenge. “It’s much easier to get information from the sensors and from lower-level vehicle sys- tems like engines and transmissions,” said David Jedynak, CTO at Curtiss-Wright Defense Solutions. “Often, it’s important to send this information to mission control.” Advanced communications technologies make it simpler to let all systems, whether on the vehicle or off, use the same data and see what’s going on. That makes it simpler to respond quickly to attacks. When systems share data, all entities on the network get a more holistic view of what’s happening. “Instead of having 10 discrete systems, you

ELECTRONICS FEATURE

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Military ground vehicle OEMs such as Lockheed Martin are beefing up sensor counts and processing power.

have one system that shares information,” Jedynak said. “For something like acoustic shot detection, you can publish information on the shot on the network, mission command can get the information and a turret on the vehicle can automatically focus in on the loca- tion. Now, the shot detection is a siloed sys- tem, battle command is on another system and the turret is often controlled by a human.”

Terry Costlow

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BOTH IMAGES: MACK TRUCKS

Heavy

duty

LIGHTWEIGHTING

Optimization of tractor-trailer systems and component design helps to reduce overall vehicle mass, a key strategy in improving fuel economy and meeting upcoming Phase 2 GHG regulations.

by Ryan Gehm

Mack vocational vehicles such as the Granite (above) feature a new optimized torque rod bracket for the rear axle, representing a 42% weight savings compared to the previous part.

P assenger cars and light-duty trucks are not

alone in the quest to shed pounds in an all-

out effort to meet stricter fuel efficiency re-

quirements. Lightweighting is cited by the

U.S. EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) as a key strategy to help me- dium and heavy trucks and trailers meet the first phase and Phase 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel efficiency standards. Cutting weight from trucks offers the bonus of potentially increasing payload capacity. Altair and the Center for Automotive Research (CAR) recently recognized vehicle mass-reduction in- novations for the fifth consecutive year, bestowing Enlighten Awards on four winners (read: articles.sae. org/15545/). Though the top honors went to automo- tive companies, the awards are open to the commer- cial vehicle segment—and this year saw three finalists sharing their lightweighting work related to medium and heavy truck applications. While none of these technologies is particularly earth-shattering, they do illustrate the industry’s ef- forts—as with their automotive brethren—to continually evaluate every system and component of the vehicle to

optimize their designs for comparable (or better) performance at a reduced weight. Details of the three finalists are highlighted here.

Lost foam enables optimized ‘goalpost’ bracket

Mack Trucks recently introduced a new torque rod bracket for the rear axle—i.e., a “goalpost” bracket—on its vocational vehicles such as the Granite, representing a 42% weight savings compared to the pre- vious part. The new bracket, made of cast ductile iron like its prede- cessor, enables easier installation, contributes to increased payload capability, and “greatly reduces” cost by creating an as-cast part that is optimized. The company explains how its design solution achieved these marks:

“To achieve this goal, we used software to create a structure that maintained load on the bolt at or below the current loading while at- tempting to equalize the loading as much as possible. That is the rea- son for the [unique] shape around the bolt face. By directing the load where we wanted, we were able to achieve a better overall distribution than the part it replaces. As a result, the stress concentrations are actu- ally lower than the original part in most places and under most load- ings, but always less than peak stress of the original part. By putting material only where it is needed, we have actually improved the life of the part as well.”

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: MACK TRUCKS; MACK TRUCKS; BORGWARNER

LIGHTWEIGHTING FEATURE

Mack engineers used the bolt loading as the main constraint in Altair OptiStruct rather than the
Mack engineers used the bolt loading as the
main constraint in Altair OptiStruct rather than the
stiffness, resulting in some “unconventional shapes.” The
original part is shown above; optimized at right.

Greater movement capability due to better part clearance is yet another benefit of the new design. Mack engineers used Altair’s OptiStruct in this project “to not only show us the most weight-reduced result, but also to use the bolt loading as the main constraint rather than the stiffness. This caused some unconventional shapes to emerge,” the company noted. The result is a very open mesh with many through holes. “As a green sand casting, this would be nearly impossible to produce cost effec- tively, but by using the lost foam method, with no machining, we were able to produce very clean consistent parts that have no sharp edges from the tooling. This allowed for maximum weight reduction.” This type of solution could easily be employed in any load-bear- ing structure, according to Mack, but is “excellent” in this type of application, as the loading is purely axial with a slight rotational input from the bushing.

BorgWarner fan drive cuts weight, cost

An optimized on/off fan drive supplied by BorgWarner Thermal Systems on the 2017 Freightliner M2 with Cummins ISL platform saves 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) compared to the baseline system. Weight reduc- tion stems from optimizing the engine base casting and pulley cast- ings, which also minimized the amount of post-process manufactur- ing operations that are required on these components. BorgWarner’s Cadillac, MI, plant is producing the system for the Daimler ISL platform, at an annual volume of approximately 10,000 units per year. A significant cost savings per drive was realized, ac- cording to BorgWarner. The fan hub is customized by engine application for the OEM, so the optimizations specific to this program were made in the fan hub assembly’s base and pulley castings, the company noted. A universal fan clutch assembly mounts to all customized hub applications. The reduced-weight components were developed from previous best practices and “innovative design” in reducing the engine base casting’s overall footprint, according to BorgWarner. The smaller

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: MACK TRUCKS; MACK TRUCKS; BORGWARNER LIGHTWEIGHTING FEATURE Mack engineers used the bolt

An optimized on/off fan drive from BorgWarner Thermal Systems saves 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) compared to the baseline system on the 2017 Freightliner M2 with Cummins ISL platform.

footprint accounts for the lighter weight. “Simulation technologies are playing a leading role in this [lightweighting] effort, with almost all of the full-vehi- cle and module entries [in this year’s Enlighten Awards] citing the use of design optimization technologies for innovative, material efficient products,” said Richard Yen, Senior VP, Automotive and Global Markets Team at Altair. “I believe this momentum will continue apace.” No vehicle assembly changes were required to ac- commodate the solution; the optimized fan drive is a drop-in replacement for the baseline product. Utilization of an Auto-deposition coating (A-Coat) versus the previ- ous blue paint finish results in better corrosion resis- tance, according to salt spray testing conducted at an external laboratory.

Run reliably. Run with Oetiker.
Run reliably.
Run with Oetiker.
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Run reliably. Run with Oetiker. <a href=ToothLock Heavy Duty Heavy Duty Ear Clamps Straps Now Oetiker clamping and connecting solutions will help keep your customers running reliably – city to city, dock to dock. Oetiker’s commitment to the North American heavy-duty market means our high-performance connecting technologies, custom-engineered solutions and local support teams are here to keep you on the road. powertrain, drivetrain and tank fastening applications, 25 percent increased sealing force. View all our reliable solutions at Oetiker.com. Visit our technical experts at SAE COMVEC Booth 10 and NACV Booth 314. Contact us at: Oetiker Inc., Michigan 989.635.3621 I info.us.marlette@oetiker.com © 2017 Oetiker Inc. All Rights Reserved. Oetiker is a registered trademark of Oetiker Inc. 28 October 2017 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-613 Heavy duty LIGHTWEIGHTING Finite element analysis (FEA) and modal analysis were completed on the weight-reduced designs to ensure that the safety factor was still within the pro- duction release criteria. The weight-reduction practices and addition of A-Coat are applicable to all BorgWarner fan drives, the company claims. VECV optimizes 8x2 suspension, shedding 16 kg A bell crank assembled with suspension mounting bracket from VE Commercial Vehicles , a Volvo Group and Eicher Motors joint venture, was applied to a MY2016 8x2 vehicle, resulting in a total mass savings of 16 kg (35 lb). The as- sembly translates the vertical motion of the wheel into horizontal motion, allow- ing the suspension to be mounted transversely or longitudinally. Optimization of four bell cranks—cut- ting out material from the center of the design—and two rear suspension mounting brackets accounted for the weight reduction. The cross section of the components was identified as de- sign variable for the optimization run, the result being optimized parts with the same mounting positions as before. A fully manufacturable design solution was obtained directly from the results, VECV claims. Design optimization was performed at the CAD stage using SolidThinking Inspire software from Altair. “Deciding the lower and upper limits for the design variables was a very chal- lenging task. They were chosen keeping in mind the limits of our manufacturing capabilities,” according to VECV. No vehicle assembly changes were required with the redesign; VECV engi- neers kept the component mounting locations out of the scope of optimiza- tion. Parameters were chosen in such a way that VECV could achieve maximum output with minimum changes in the manufacturing and tooling compared to the baseline axle. The company plans to use this opti- mized bell crank and suspension mount- ing in its other vehicles including 10x2 and other heavy-duty vehicles. TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-30-72" src="pdf-obj-30-72.jpg">
Run reliably. Run with Oetiker. <a href=ToothLock Heavy Duty Heavy Duty Ear Clamps Straps Now Oetiker clamping and connecting solutions will help keep your customers running reliably – city to city, dock to dock. Oetiker’s commitment to the North American heavy-duty market means our high-performance connecting technologies, custom-engineered solutions and local support teams are here to keep you on the road. powertrain, drivetrain and tank fastening applications, 25 percent increased sealing force. View all our reliable solutions at Oetiker.com. Visit our technical experts at SAE COMVEC Booth 10 and NACV Booth 314. Contact us at: Oetiker Inc., Michigan 989.635.3621 I info.us.marlette@oetiker.com © 2017 Oetiker Inc. All Rights Reserved. Oetiker is a registered trademark of Oetiker Inc. 28 October 2017 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-613 Heavy duty LIGHTWEIGHTING Finite element analysis (FEA) and modal analysis were completed on the weight-reduced designs to ensure that the safety factor was still within the pro- duction release criteria. The weight-reduction practices and addition of A-Coat are applicable to all BorgWarner fan drives, the company claims. VECV optimizes 8x2 suspension, shedding 16 kg A bell crank assembled with suspension mounting bracket from VE Commercial Vehicles , a Volvo Group and Eicher Motors joint venture, was applied to a MY2016 8x2 vehicle, resulting in a total mass savings of 16 kg (35 lb). The as- sembly translates the vertical motion of the wheel into horizontal motion, allow- ing the suspension to be mounted transversely or longitudinally. Optimization of four bell cranks—cut- ting out material from the center of the design—and two rear suspension mounting brackets accounted for the weight reduction. The cross section of the components was identified as de- sign variable for the optimization run, the result being optimized parts with the same mounting positions as before. A fully manufacturable design solution was obtained directly from the results, VECV claims. Design optimization was performed at the CAD stage using SolidThinking Inspire software from Altair. “Deciding the lower and upper limits for the design variables was a very chal- lenging task. They were chosen keeping in mind the limits of our manufacturing capabilities,” according to VECV. No vehicle assembly changes were required with the redesign; VECV engi- neers kept the component mounting locations out of the scope of optimiza- tion. Parameters were chosen in such a way that VECV could achieve maximum output with minimum changes in the manufacturing and tooling compared to the baseline axle. The company plans to use this opti- mized bell crank and suspension mount- ing in its other vehicles including 10x2 and other heavy-duty vehicles. TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-30-74" src="pdf-obj-30-74.jpg">
Run reliably. Run with Oetiker. <a href=ToothLock Heavy Duty Heavy Duty Ear Clamps Straps Now Oetiker clamping and connecting solutions will help keep your customers running reliably – city to city, dock to dock. Oetiker’s commitment to the North American heavy-duty market means our high-performance connecting technologies, custom-engineered solutions and local support teams are here to keep you on the road. powertrain, drivetrain and tank fastening applications, 25 percent increased sealing force. View all our reliable solutions at Oetiker.com. Visit our technical experts at SAE COMVEC Booth 10 and NACV Booth 314. Contact us at: Oetiker Inc., Michigan 989.635.3621 I info.us.marlette@oetiker.com © 2017 Oetiker Inc. All Rights Reserved. Oetiker is a registered trademark of Oetiker Inc. 28 October 2017 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-613 Heavy duty LIGHTWEIGHTING Finite element analysis (FEA) and modal analysis were completed on the weight-reduced designs to ensure that the safety factor was still within the pro- duction release criteria. The weight-reduction practices and addition of A-Coat are applicable to all BorgWarner fan drives, the company claims. VECV optimizes 8x2 suspension, shedding 16 kg A bell crank assembled with suspension mounting bracket from VE Commercial Vehicles , a Volvo Group and Eicher Motors joint venture, was applied to a MY2016 8x2 vehicle, resulting in a total mass savings of 16 kg (35 lb). The as- sembly translates the vertical motion of the wheel into horizontal motion, allow- ing the suspension to be mounted transversely or longitudinally. Optimization of four bell cranks—cut- ting out material from the center of the design—and two rear suspension mounting brackets accounted for the weight reduction. The cross section of the components was identified as de- sign variable for the optimization run, the result being optimized parts with the same mounting positions as before. A fully manufacturable design solution was obtained directly from the results, VECV claims. Design optimization was performed at the CAD stage using SolidThinking Inspire software from Altair. “Deciding the lower and upper limits for the design variables was a very chal- lenging task. They were chosen keeping in mind the limits of our manufacturing capabilities,” according to VECV. No vehicle assembly changes were required with the redesign; VECV engi- neers kept the component mounting locations out of the scope of optimiza- tion. Parameters were chosen in such a way that VECV could achieve maximum output with minimum changes in the manufacturing and tooling compared to the baseline axle. The company plans to use this opti- mized bell crank and suspension mount- ing in its other vehicles including 10x2 and other heavy-duty vehicles. TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-30-76" src="pdf-obj-30-76.jpg">

I

Heavy duty
Heavy
duty

LIGHTWEIGHTING

Finite element analysis (FEA) and modal analysis were completed on the weight-reduced designs to ensure that the safety factor was still within the pro- duction release criteria. The weight-reduction practices and addition of A-Coat are applicable to all BorgWarner fan drives, the company claims.

VECV optimizes 8x2 suspension, shedding 16 kg

A bell crank assembled with suspension mounting bracket from VE Commercial Vehicles, a Volvo Group and Eicher Motors joint venture, was applied to a MY2016 8x2 vehicle, resulting in a total mass savings of 16 kg (35 lb). The as- sembly translates the vertical motion of the wheel into horizontal motion, allow- ing the suspension to be mounted transversely or longitudinally. Optimization of four bell cranks—cut- ting out material from the center of the design—and two rear suspension mounting brackets accounted for the weight reduction. The cross section of the components was identified as de- sign variable for the optimization run, the result being optimized parts with the same mounting positions as before. A fully manufacturable design solution was obtained directly from the results, VECV claims. Design optimization was performed at the CAD stage using SolidThinking Inspire software from Altair. “Deciding the lower and upper limits for the design variables was a very chal- lenging task. They were chosen keeping in mind the limits of our manufacturing capabilities,” according to VECV. No vehicle assembly changes were required with the redesign; VECV engi-

neers kept the component mounting locations out of the scope of optimiza- tion. Parameters were chosen in such a

way that VECV could achieve maximum

output with minimum changes in the manufacturing and tooling compared to the baseline axle. The company plans to use this opti- mized bell crank and suspension mount- ing in its other vehicles including 10x2 and other heavy-duty vehicles.

Run reliably. Run with Oetiker. <a href=ToothLock Heavy Duty Heavy Duty Ear Clamps Straps Now Oetiker clamping and connecting solutions will help keep your customers running reliably – city to city, dock to dock. Oetiker’s commitment to the North American heavy-duty market means our high-performance connecting technologies, custom-engineered solutions and local support teams are here to keep you on the road. powertrain, drivetrain and tank fastening applications, 25 percent increased sealing force. View all our reliable solutions at Oetiker.com. Visit our technical experts at SAE COMVEC Booth 10 and NACV Booth 314. Contact us at: Oetiker Inc., Michigan 989.635.3621 I info.us.marlette@oetiker.com © 2017 Oetiker Inc. All Rights Reserved. Oetiker is a registered trademark of Oetiker Inc. 28 October 2017 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-613 Heavy duty LIGHTWEIGHTING Finite element analysis (FEA) and modal analysis were completed on the weight-reduced designs to ensure that the safety factor was still within the pro- duction release criteria. The weight-reduction practices and addition of A-Coat are applicable to all BorgWarner fan drives, the company claims. VECV optimizes 8x2 suspension, shedding 16 kg A bell crank assembled with suspension mounting bracket from VE Commercial Vehicles , a Volvo Group and Eicher Motors joint venture, was applied to a MY2016 8x2 vehicle, resulting in a total mass savings of 16 kg (35 lb). The as- sembly translates the vertical motion of the wheel into horizontal motion, allow- ing the suspension to be mounted transversely or longitudinally. Optimization of four bell cranks—cut- ting out material from the center of the design—and two rear suspension mounting brackets accounted for the weight reduction. The cross section of the components was identified as de- sign variable for the optimization run, the result being optimized parts with the same mounting positions as before. A fully manufacturable design solution was obtained directly from the results, VECV claims. Design optimization was performed at the CAD stage using SolidThinking Inspire software from Altair. “Deciding the lower and upper limits for the design variables was a very chal- lenging task. They were chosen keeping in mind the limits of our manufacturing capabilities,” according to VECV. No vehicle assembly changes were required with the redesign; VECV engi- neers kept the component mounting locations out of the scope of optimiza- tion. Parameters were chosen in such a way that VECV could achieve maximum output with minimum changes in the manufacturing and tooling compared to the baseline axle. The company plans to use this opti- mized bell crank and suspension mount- ing in its other vehicles including 10x2 and other heavy-duty vehicles. TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-30-115" src="pdf-obj-30-115.jpg">

TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

BOTH IMAGES: NAVISTAR

LIGHTWEIGHTING FEATURE

Navistar’s SuperTruck II explores composites, WiFi to cut weight

Lightweighting was one strategy pursued by SuperTruck teams during the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored initia- tive to improve heavy-truck freight efficiency by 50%. For example, the International Catalist features a “hybrid” front suspension that leverages lightweight alloys with compos- ite materials, reducing weight and enabling an electronic ride height management system that provides dynamic ride height and pitch control for improved aerodynamics. “Typically, air-ride front suspensions are very heavy, they’re very soft to drive—but we’ve integrated a composite leaf spring and an air spring into one suspension,” explained Dean Oppermann, chief engineer for ad- vanced vehicles and the SuperTruck program at Navistar. “We’ve been able to do it in a way that reduces weight of the system, maintains our ride height control, but also offers more stability with the leaf spring-type suspension.”

The Catalist makes extensive use of carbon- fiber panels, in the upper body, roof headers, back panel and dash panel.

Designed and developed by Hendrickson, the Catalist hybrid front sus- pension is approximately 40 lb (18 kg) light- er than a conventional steel leaf suspen-

A “hybrid” front suspension on the International Catalist SuperTruck leverages lightweight alloys and composite materials.

composite surfaces were manufactured by a third-party low-volume composite compo- nent manufacturer. “The continued reduction of raw material costs and manufacturing costs of complex composite components, coupled with the requirement for complex aerodynamic ge- ometries to support GHG regulations, could make composites a viable alternative to conventional materials for low-volume ap- plications,” he said. Navistar’s emphasis on lightweighting continues unabated with its SuperTruck II program, which got under way late last year. Engineers are investigating WiFi technology for activating/deactivating features in the vehicle, according to Oppermann. “One of the wasted weight attributes of a truck is we carry harnesses that we call ‘150% content.’ These harnesses support every fea- ture that we sell for our products even though the feature may not be requested by our cus- tomers,” he explained. “Wireless and intel- ligent power distribution modules allow sup-

sion with same load rating, he said. The hy- brid suspension using a steel

port of all content with a small common har- ness. This technology can re-

leaf, called AIRTEK, is ready for production now. “This produc- tion suspension is currently being updated with an elec- tronic ride height control valve to productionize the pitch con- trol that has been demonstrated on the Catalist property,” Oppermann shared. The Catalist also makes ex- tensive use of lighter-weight carbon-fiber panels, in the up- per body, roof headers, back panel and dash panel. The Navistar-designed cab/sleeper

“Wireless

technology

presents a

lightweighting

opportunity

through

economically

reducing wire

harness size.”

– Dean Oppermann, Navistar

sult in a 25- to 50-lb reduction in wire length/complexity as well as simplified routing and clipping strategies.” Other areas for light- weighting under investigation in Navistar’s SuperTruck II proj- ect include interior trim through design and material selection, as well as further use of composites in frame rails, cross members, cab/sleeper structure, driveshaft and trailer components, Oppermann said.

Ryan Gehm

TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

NEW HOLLAND

New Holland’s prototype presages a methane-powered tractor set for introduction in the 2020 time frame.
New Holland’s prototype
presages a methane-powered
tractor set for introduction in
the 2020 time frame.

“Our engine can manage major differences in methane’s properties.”

- Bret Lieberman, New Holland North America

“An advanced engine control unit man- ages the stoichiometric lambda ratio and knock detection, and our proprietary soft- ware manages the stoichiometric com- bustion,” said Oscar Baroncelli, product manager at FPT Industrial, which designs and produces engines for Case IH and New Holland machines. “An advanced aftertreatment system complies with Stage V particulate number requirements.

METHANE

state of mind

New Holland ramps up its focus on alternative fuels, showcasing a methane-powered concept tractor that trims emissions, operating costs.

by Terry Costlow

N ew Holland Agriculture is ramping up its fo-

cus on vehicles that burn alternative fuels,

unveiling the prototype for a methane-pow-

ered tractor set for introduction in the 2020

time frame. The engine slashes operating costs, re- duces emissions and cuts noise. A concept vehicle powered by methane or com- pressed natural gas (CNG) was the highlight of New Holland’s major presence at the recent Farm Progress Show in Decatur, IL. The six-cylinder, 180-hp (134-kW)

methane-powered tractor should provide up to 30% running cost savings while maintaining the perfor- mance and durability of its diesel equivalent. It uses a gas multi- point system with stoichiometric combustion. Burning methane could mark a significant increase in sustainability for farmers who can use biodigesters to convert animal waste, food waste or crop residues into fuel. The concept is being employed in Europe to create fuel used in electric generators to power equipment by processing waste materials. This sustainable model also reduces operating emissions. “Methane engines emit 10% less CO 2 and reduce overall emissions by

80% over diesel,” said Sean Lennon, tractor line director at New Holland. “The total benefits are very sustainable if bio-methane is used.”

FPT prototype engine

The prototype engine is significantly different than its diesel predeces- sors. A new cylinder head and manifolds were designed for spark igni- tion, while high temperature resistant materials are deployed to provide greater reliability. A turbocharger and water-cooling system were added, along with an electrical waste gate valve to further improve reliability and performance. Electronic controls are also being redesigned.

Multiple point injectors, lambda and knock detection sensors were also developed.” Using methane also simplifies the aftertreatment solution compared to diesel. It does not require any selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, eliminating components such as the diesel exhaust fluid tank, pipes and dosing module. “Minimizing the overall packaging results in about 90% less volume compared to Tier 4B,” Baroncelli said. “It also requires one fluid only, natural gas, versus die- sel systems that require fuel plus AdBlue/diesel ex- haust fluid.” The six-cylinder engine architecture was designed to minimize engine vibrations. Coupled with stoichiomet- ric combustion’s inherently low noise generation, it provides noticeable improvements for users concerned with sound levels. “Noise levels are 3 dBa lower than with diesel,” Lennon said. “That doesn’t sound like much, but it re- duces drive-by noise by 50%. That’s important on roadways that are near houses, or when it’s used around farm animals.”

ALTERNATIVE FUELS FEATURE

Fuel quality an issue

Fuel quality is an issue that’s getting considerable attention during the development process. When farmers create their own methane using biodigesters that process plant waste and other materials, fuel quality can vary widely. That’s also true of commer- cially-produced gas. Electronic controls on the engine analyze fuel quality and adjust engine operations to optimize performance. “Methane can be very dirty, with a lot of variations. The variety of crops being used changes methane’s properties,” said Bret Lieberman, vice president of New Holland North America. “Our engine can manage major differences in methane’s properties.” New Holland spokesmen noted that much of the methane work has been done in Europe, where meth- ane digesters are more widely used to power farms. Lieberman noted that there is a growing number of digesters in the U.S., particularly in Vermont. Lennon noted that vehicle pricing may be different in North America, where CNG may be the primary fuel, than in Europe. Europeans may be more inclined to burn self-generated methane than Americans, so Europeans may be willing to pay a bit more for the vehicles since the payback time will be short. He said no pricing plans have been set for either geographic region.

Propane’s part of the plan

The development of a methane vehicle continues New Holland’s lengthy focus on alternative fuels. Working with its sister company, FPT, the firm has been produc- ing natural gas engines for years.

The FPT engine is significantly different from diesels, with specialized heads and proprietary electronic controls. FROM
The FPT engine is significantly different from diesels, with
specialized heads and proprietary electronic controls.
FROM TOP: NEW HOLLAND; NEW HOLLAND; FPT INDUSTRIAL
The concept tractor has 20% more glass than other vehicles, giving operators a better field of
The concept tractor has 20% more
glass than other vehicles, giving
operators a better field of view.
ALTERNATIVE FUELS FEATURE Fuel quality an issue Fuel quality is an issue that’s getting considerable attention

Fueling the tractor’s wrap-around tanks won’t be any more difficult than filling a diesel tank.

“There are 30,000 FPT natural gas engines out there, 22,000 trucks and buses are powered by natural gas,” said Carlo Lambro, brand president at New Holland. “We’re also looking at propane, a fossil fuel that has up to 80% less pollution than diesel. Our methane prototypes are in the final stages of development. They’ve been test- ed in all environments and the results are very encouraging.” Baroncelli noted that the engine and its concepts can easily be transferred to other vehicles once the design is finished. While the prototype vehicle’s ability to run on methane is being touted, it will also run on natural gas. New Holland is also incorporating propane into its strategies. That fuel is more popular in the U.S. than methane. “Propane is part of our plan,” Lambro said. “One-third of the farms in North America already have propane on the farm.” It’s not just the engine that’s been redesigned on the concept trac- tor. Fuel tanks made with composite materials were altered to fit smoothly into a design with wrap-around bodywork. “We designed the tank using composite layers, creating a tubular structure that’s easier to fit on the vehicle than a cylindrical tank,” Lennon said. “It’s just as easy to refuel as with diesel and it takes about the same amount of time.” Windows were designed to provide 360-degree visibility, with a 20% increase in the glazed area compared to a standard tractor. The pan- oramic design offers an unobstructed view of the loader at all times. Connectivity is supported by an integrated Precision Land Management receiver that’s mounted on a floating glass domed roof.

ALTERNATIVE FUELS FEATURE Fuel quality an issue Fuel quality is an issue that’s getting considerable attention

FROM TOP: VOLVO CE; JENNIFER SHUTTLEWORTH

ORIGINAL

EQUIPMENT

Volvo CE sees major efficiency gain from hybrid-electric wheel loader

The LX1 prototype (right) features a 3.6-L diesel engine compared to the 13-L on the L150
The LX1 prototype (right) features a 3.6-L diesel
engine compared to the 13-L on the L150 wheel
loader baseline machine.

Volvo Construction Equipment part- nered with Waste Management (WM), the California Energy Commission and CALSTART to put its LX1 prototype elec- tric hybrid wheel loader to the test: field test, that is. The company showcased the LX1 at a media event in July at WM’s Redwood Landfill in Novato, CA. Made up of 98% new parts, the LX1 prototype series hybrid has a funda- mentally new machine design. It incor- porates a driveline that consists of elec- tric-drive motors mounted at the wheels, electric-driven hydraulics, a battery energy storage system, a sig- nificantly smaller diesel engine and new

FROM TOP: VOLVO CE; JENNIFER SHUTTLEWORTH ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT Volvo CE sees major efficiency gain from hybrid-electric

Electric drive motors are mounted at each of the wheels and help the four wheels drive independently, allowing Volvo CE to change the frame of the machine.

machine architecture including a new design of the lifting unit. Decoupling all of its systems allowed for the physical architecture of the ma- chine to change. “And that’s one of the big points that’s different about this wheel loader vs. the conventional and even some of the hybrid wheel loaders that are on the market today,” Scott Young, Volvo CE’s Director of Electromobility, told media at the event. The electric motors drive each of the wheels and by having each of those four wheels drive independently, Volvo CE was able to change the frame of the machine. With its electrically driven hydraulic system, Young explained “we were able to get more efficiency out of each of the subsystems.” The LX1 prototype features a 3.6-L diesel engine compared to the 13-L on the baseline machine, the Volvo L150 wheel loader. “A machine that would do the work of this machine,” Young said, “it would generally have an 11 or 13 [liter engine].” The LX1’s wheel hub motors allow the loading unit to be brought back farther into the machine, so that a smaller machine can do the work of a larger machine (one size larger, accord- ing to Volvo CE). Decoupling offers flexibility in terms of where things can be placed. “They’re not mechanically coupled together [so] we get modular- ity,” he explained. “And that modularity we see as something to really scale well not only for the wheel loader, but for other products.” That higher efficiency offers ease to tune the machine to the operator

needs. During field testing, if the opera- tor needed something changed on the machine, Volvo CE engineers could ac- cess the software and adjust the ma- chine to operator needs. “So we see a great opportunity in terms of tuning to the customer’s application,” Young said.

Collaborating on sustainability

Field testing of the LX1 prototype begin in late 2016. Volvo CE partnered with its customer Waste Management, which car- ried out the field tests, along with CALSTART, which conducted emission tests on the machine, and the California Energy Commission, which helped fund the LX1 project. Since the end of 2016, the LX1 has performed hundreds of hours of real work in two applications at Waste Management facilities in California. The target set for this project was a 35% fuel efficiency improvement. Testing began at the Redwood Landfill and Recycling Center, a green waste composting site in the northern part of California. Both fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions tests were conducted at the facility, and the results so far show an average im- provement of 50% in fuel efficiency, which is equal to a reduction of 35% in fuel consumption and GHG emissions. The second test site was the Moreno Valley Transfer Station, which is a waste transfer site in southern California. The LX1 achieved an average fuel efficiency improvement of around 45%. Official results were to be provided to the California Energy Commission and CALSTART in September 2017. In addition, there was a huge reduc- tion in noise pollution compared to its conventional counterparts, according to Volvo CE. The LX1 was also tested in Sweden and achieved similar results to those at the WM field test sites. In addition to checking the LX1’s efficiency in a real- life application, Volvo CE also sought operator feedback. “It’s fantastic to get this operator feedback to feed our fu- ture development projects [to] our en- gineers in Sweden,” Young said.

BOTH IMAGES: JENNIFER SHUTTLEWORTH

ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT

BOTH IMAGES: JENNIFER SHUTTLEWORTH ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT “The target of this project was 35% improvement in energy Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-615 " id="pdf-obj-35-7" src="pdf-obj-35-7.jpg">

“The target of this project was 35% improvement in energy efficiency and to quantify the greenhouse gas emissions effects of this reduction,” said Volvo CE’s Scott Young, pictured with the LX1 at partner Waste Management’s Redwood Landfill in Novato, CA. The results showed the prototype delivers around 50% improvement in fuel efficiency during customer field testing.

According to John Meese, WM’s Senior Director Heavy Equipment, being able to use available new technologies as a company “can improve our services to our end user—our cus- tomers—through our operations being enhanced. This was a project we thought would work for us.” Each of the WM facilities had different needs from the wheel loader. At the Redwood Landfill, “we wanted that machine to be as nimble as possible,” Meese said. “The electric drive that this gives us…we go from standing still to max operating, say speed, very, very quickly.” He explained that Volvo CE was able to tweak the opera- tion of the hydraulics to suit what the operator needed. In Redwood, there is a need for the bucket to fill or go up or dump faster, but that’s not necessary in Moreno; things might need to be slowed down there. “The design capabilities of this

BOTH IMAGES: JENNIFER SHUTTLEWORTH ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT “The target of this project was 35% improvement in energy Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-615 " id="pdf-obj-35-13" src="pdf-obj-35-13.jpg">

The LX1 hybrid loader includes a new design of the lifting unit. It can both lift and tilt at the same time, unlike in the conventional machine, Volvo CE test engineer Mikael Skantz told TOHE during a test ride in the LX1.

loader fit both operations very well with just a few tweakings of the software,” Meese said.

The future for hybrid technology at Volvo CE

As far as exploring hybrid technology beyond wheel loaders, Young told Truck & Off-Highway Engineering that Volvo CE sees “an opportunity across all product lines we have today, but we are exploring things specifically in the haulers, excava- tors and wheel loaders at this time.” To make hybrids more attractive compared to conventional technology, Volvo CE’s Kent Meyers, Director, Advanced Engineering Project Management, said, “probably one of the biggest things is making it cost effective. Take this machine, it’s got a lot of new technology—98% of it is new. But I think get- ting something like this to a price point that the general popula- tion can afford, and is willing to pay for, is going to be one of the key hurdles.” While it remains to be seen whether the LX1 will make it from a research project to production, the enthusiasm about the machine and its future potential was apparent in Novato.

Jennifer Shuttleworth

Gyro-compensated Inclination Sensor new POSITILT ® PTK29
Gyro-compensated Inclination Sensor
new
POSITILT ® PTK29

PRODUCT

BRIEFS

SPOTLIGHT: TEST EQUIPMENT

Portable combination measuring instrument

The Yokogawa (Amersfoort, the Netherlands) DL350 ScopeCorder is a compact, fully portable measuring in- strument available for captur- ing, displaying, recording and analyzing a wide variety of electrical and physical param- eters in industry sectors in- cluding automotive, electronics, energy, transport and mecha- tronics. The DL350 combines features of a general-purpose oscilloscope and those of a high-performance data acquisition recorder in a single, portable instrument. Unlike alternative por- table measuring solutions such as oscilloscopes and combined oscilloscope/multimeters, the company claims the DL350 adds exceptionally high levels of precision and accuracy to field mea- surements, isolated inputs for measurements at high voltage levels and long-memory capabilities that allow long-term re- cording for many hours or even days. The DL350 also offers plug-in modularity, which allows it to be configured to suit a variety of user applications. In addition, its flexible input capa- bility is achieved by incorporating two slots that are populated with any of 18 different types of user-swappable input modules.

Portable combination measuring instrument The Yokogawa (Amersfoort, the Netherlands) DL350 ScopeCorder is a compact, fully portableFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-450 Legacy semiconductor test systems The MTEK Subsystem (Marvin Test Expansion Kit) from Marvin Test Solutions (MTS), Inc. (Irvine, CA) adds test capabili- ties to legacy semiconductor test systems that lack the ability to meet the test requirements of current devices. Based on MTS’ portfo- lio of PXI/PXIe chassis and instrumentation as well as selec- tions from other industry suppliers, the company says MTEK allows customers to configure a subsystem with ex- actly the resources needed to deliver the capabilities lack- ing in their current legacy ATE. The compact MTEK is an easy-to-integrate, open architecture plug-and-play solution that cost-effectively adds RF, high-performance digital, and/or high-performance analog capabilities. MTEK is com- patible with multiple legacy semiconductor test platforms, including Teradyne, LTX/Credence, Eagle, ASL100, Sentry and Verigy. According to MTS, MTEK is easily expandable in the field and is designed to support both engineering and production environments. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-451 " id="pdf-obj-36-15" src="pdf-obj-36-15.jpg">

Legacy semiconductor test systems

Portable combination measuring instrument The Yokogawa (Amersfoort, the Netherlands) DL350 ScopeCorder is a compact, fully portableFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-450 Legacy semiconductor test systems The MTEK Subsystem (Marvin Test Expansion Kit) from Marvin Test Solutions (MTS), Inc. (Irvine, CA) adds test capabili- ties to legacy semiconductor test systems that lack the ability to meet the test requirements of current devices. Based on MTS’ portfo- lio of PXI/PXIe chassis and instrumentation as well as selec- tions from other industry suppliers, the company says MTEK allows customers to configure a subsystem with ex- actly the resources needed to deliver the capabilities lack- ing in their current legacy ATE. The compact MTEK is an easy-to-integrate, open architecture plug-and-play solution that cost-effectively adds RF, high-performance digital, and/or high-performance analog capabilities. MTEK is com- patible with multiple legacy semiconductor test platforms, including Teradyne, LTX/Credence, Eagle, ASL100, Sentry and Verigy. According to MTS, MTEK is easily expandable in the field and is designed to support both engineering and production environments. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-451 " id="pdf-obj-36-21" src="pdf-obj-36-21.jpg">

The MTEK Subsystem (Marvin Test Expansion Kit) from Marvin Test Solutions (MTS), Inc. (Irvine, CA) adds test capabili- ties to legacy semiconductor test systems that lack the ability to meet the test requirements of current devices. Based on MTS’ portfo- lio of PXI/PXIe chassis and instrumentation as well as selec- tions from other industry suppliers, the company says MTEK allows customers to configure a subsystem with ex- actly the resources needed to deliver the capabilities lack- ing in their current legacy ATE. The compact MTEK is an easy-to-integrate, open architecture plug-and-play solution that cost-effectively adds RF, high-performance digital, and/or high-performance analog capabilities. MTEK is com- patible with multiple legacy semiconductor test platforms, including Teradyne, LTX/Credence, Eagle, ASL100, Sentry and Verigy. According to MTS, MTEK is easily expandable in the field and is designed to support both engineering and production environments.

Nickel-PTFE-nanodiamond coatings

Nanodiamond material specialist Carbodeon (Helsinki, Finland) has worked with metal finishing spe- cialist CCT Plating (Stuttgart, Germany) to develop a new elec- troless nickel polytetrafluoroeth- ylene (PTFE) and nanodiamond composite coating. Electroless nickel-PTFE (EN-PTFE) coatings offer anti-adhesive and low-friction properties, but are traditionally soft and wear quickly in abrasive conditions. By adding NanoDiamond particles to the EN-PTFE coating, Carbodeon claims to have improved the abrasive wear resistance of these coatings without compromising the sliding or release properties. Target applications include: automotive components, includ- ing engine parts, chassis parts and body mechanisms; plas- tics forming molds, including complex structures, moving cores and slides; military applications requiring hard wear- ing and lubricant-free operations; and printing and textile production equipment and machinery.

PRODUCT BRIEFS SPOTLIGHT: TEST EQUIPMENT Portable combination measuring instrument The Yokogawa (Amersfoort, the Netherlands) DL350 ScopeCorderFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-450 Legacy semiconductor test systems The MTEK Subsystem (Marvin Test Expansion Kit) from Marvin Test Solutions (MTS), Inc. (Irvine, CA) adds test capabili- ties to legacy semiconductor test systems that lack the ability to meet the test requirements of current devices. Based on MTS’ portfo- lio of PXI/PXIe chassis and instrumentation as well as selec- tions from other industry suppliers, the company says MTEK allows customers to configure a subsystem with ex- actly the resources needed to deliver the capabilities lack- ing in their current legacy ATE. The compact MTEK is an easy-to-integrate, open architecture plug-and-play solution that cost-effectively adds RF, high-performance digital, and/or high-performance analog capabilities. MTEK is com- patible with multiple legacy semiconductor test platforms, including Teradyne, LTX/Credence, Eagle, ASL100, Sentry and Verigy. According to MTS, MTEK is easily expandable in the field and is designed to support both engineering and production environments. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-451 Nickel-PTFE-nanodiamond coatings Nanodiamond material specialist Carbodeon (Helsinki, Finland) has worked with metal finishing spe- cialist CCT Plating (Stuttgart, Germany) to develop a new elec- troless nickel polytetrafluoroeth- ylene (PTFE) and nanodiamond composite coating. Electroless nickel-PTFE (EN-PTFE) coatings offer anti-adhesive and low-friction properties, but are traditionally soft and wear quickly in abrasive conditions. By adding NanoDiamond particles to the EN-PTFE coating, Carbodeon claims to have improved the abrasive wear resistance of these coatings without compromising the sliding or release properties. Target applications include: automotive components, includ- ing engine parts, chassis parts and body mechanisms; plas- tics forming molds, including complex structures, moving cores and slides; military applications requiring hard wear- ing and lubricant-free operations; and printing and textile production equipment and machinery. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-452 Pin Fin heat sinks Advanced Thermal Solutions , Inc.’s (ATS) (Norwood, MA) family of Pin Fin heat sinks is designed as cost-effective solutions for systems with adequate air- flow. The high aspect ratio design enables ATS Pin Fin heat sinks to provide low thermal resistance from base to fins in systems where the air- flow measures 200-plus linear feet per minute. The cross-cut design also allows the Pin Fin heat sinks to be effective in sys- tems where the airflow is ambiguous. Made from extruded aluminum, these high-efficiency platform products are avail- able in component sizes from 10 mm x 10 mm (0.39 in x 0.39 in) to 60 mm x 60 mm (2.3 in x 2.3 in). Custom and standard solutions are available and they all are suitable for spatially constrained designs. According to the company, the heat sinks are effective for cooling truck and automotive dash- board electronics. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-453 34 October 2017 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-36-37" src="pdf-obj-36-37.jpg">

Pin Fin heat sinks

Advanced Thermal

PRODUCT BRIEFS SPOTLIGHT: TEST EQUIPMENT Portable combination measuring instrument The Yokogawa (Amersfoort, the Netherlands) DL350 ScopeCorderFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-450 Legacy semiconductor test systems The MTEK Subsystem (Marvin Test Expansion Kit) from Marvin Test Solutions (MTS), Inc. (Irvine, CA) adds test capabili- ties to legacy semiconductor test systems that lack the ability to meet the test requirements of current devices. Based on MTS’ portfo- lio of PXI/PXIe chassis and instrumentation as well as selec- tions from other industry suppliers, the company says MTEK allows customers to configure a subsystem with ex- actly the resources needed to deliver the capabilities lack- ing in their current legacy ATE. The compact MTEK is an easy-to-integrate, open architecture plug-and-play solution that cost-effectively adds RF, high-performance digital, and/or high-performance analog capabilities. MTEK is com- patible with multiple legacy semiconductor test platforms, including Teradyne, LTX/Credence, Eagle, ASL100, Sentry and Verigy. According to MTS, MTEK is easily expandable in the field and is designed to support both engineering and production environments. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-451 Nickel-PTFE-nanodiamond coatings Nanodiamond material specialist Carbodeon (Helsinki, Finland) has worked with metal finishing spe- cialist CCT Plating (Stuttgart, Germany) to develop a new elec- troless nickel polytetrafluoroeth- ylene (PTFE) and nanodiamond composite coating. Electroless nickel-PTFE (EN-PTFE) coatings offer anti-adhesive and low-friction properties, but are traditionally soft and wear quickly in abrasive conditions. By adding NanoDiamond particles to the EN-PTFE coating, Carbodeon claims to have improved the abrasive wear resistance of these coatings without compromising the sliding or release properties. Target applications include: automotive components, includ- ing engine parts, chassis parts and body mechanisms; plas- tics forming molds, including complex structures, moving cores and slides; military applications requiring hard wear- ing and lubricant-free operations; and printing and textile production equipment and machinery. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-452 Pin Fin heat sinks Advanced Thermal Solutions , Inc.’s (ATS) (Norwood, MA) family of Pin Fin heat sinks is designed as cost-effective solutions for systems with adequate air- flow. The high aspect ratio design enables ATS Pin Fin heat sinks to provide low thermal resistance from base to fins in systems where the air- flow measures 200-plus linear feet per minute. The cross-cut design also allows the Pin Fin heat sinks to be effective in sys- tems where the airflow is ambiguous. Made from extruded aluminum, these high-efficiency platform products are avail- able in component sizes from 10 mm x 10 mm (0.39 in x 0.39 in) to 60 mm x 60 mm (2.3 in x 2.3 in). Custom and standard solutions are available and they all are suitable for spatially constrained designs. According to the company, the heat sinks are effective for cooling truck and automotive dash- board electronics. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-453 34 October 2017 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-36-45" src="pdf-obj-36-45.jpg">

Solutions, Inc.’s (ATS) (Norwood, MA) family of Pin Fin heat sinks is designed as cost-effective solutions for systems with adequate air- flow. The high aspect ratio design enables ATS Pin Fin heat sinks to provide low thermal resistance from base to fins in systems where the air- flow measures 200-plus linear feet per minute. The cross-cut design also allows the Pin Fin heat sinks to be effective in sys- tems where the airflow is ambiguous. Made from extruded aluminum, these high-efficiency platform products are avail- able in component sizes from 10 mm x 10 mm (0.39 in x 0.39 in) to 60 mm x 60 mm (2.3 in x 2.3 in). Custom and standard solutions are available and they all are suitable for spatially constrained designs. According to the company, the heat sinks are effective for cooling truck and automotive dash- board electronics.

PRODUCT BRIEFS

14-mm mount panel LED

The 14-mm mount CL series panel LED from Wilbrecht LEDCO, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) incorporates a 10- mm LED available in red, green, yellow, blue and bicolor options. Pre-wired with internal resistors, the indicators can be configured for voltages up to 60-V DC or 120/240-V AC. The robust M14 size metal housing is designed for panel thicknesses up to .394 in (10 mm) and is resistant to shock and vibration. Fully filled with epoxy and equipped with a front sealing gasket, the indicator offers IP67 front and back sealing for outdoor use. Applications include agricultural and construction equip- ment, forklifts, cranes and transport equipment, remote con- trol systems for forestry or freight handling equipment, indus- trial machinery, military and aircraft equipment.

PRODUCT BRIEFS 14-mm mount panel LED The 14-mm mount CL series panel LED from Wilbrecht LEDCOFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-454 Aluminum electrolytic capacitors The new line of axial-lead alumi- num electrolytic capacitors from Cornell Dubilier Electronics , Inc. (Liberty, SC) are suited for appli- cations demanding very high-performance under all operating conditions. According to the company, the ruggedized HHT is the only axial-lead electrolytic featuring a glass-to-metal seal to prevent dry-out of the capacitor electrolyte. Shelf life is 10 years and operational rated life is 2000 hours at rated voltage and +175°C (347°F). At 150°C (302°F) and full-rated voltage, the company claims HHT capacitors outperform competitive technologies in a 5000-hour test with ripple currents of up to 10 Arms. This level of performance makes the HHT suitable for high-stress applications in military, aerospace, down-hole and off-road transportation applications. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-455 Heavy-duty v-profile clamps Heavy-duty v-profile clamps from Oetiker (Marlette, MI) operate reliably and safely under extreme conditions of stress, vibration, corrosion and temperature variation. According to the company, the v-profile clamps feature up to 25% increased sealing capability compared to conventional v-profile clamp designs. The clamps are engineered to suit specific profile geometry for optimum axial load distribution. Benefits include high clamping force, high residual torque, even force distribution and what the company claims to be superior assembly ergonomics. The de- vices are recommended for turbo connections, diesel particu- late filters, charged air systems and exhaust systems. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-456 RIKO's SENSORS for DETECTING the LEVELS of WATER/OIL Exclusively Assembled Sensors by RIKO's Float Technology for Automotives, Ships, Construction, Agriculture, Trucks and Generators. WATER DETECTION SENSOR Engines Water detection sensors for Fuel Filters Water level sensors for Radiators Home Appliances Water level sensors Over flow detection sensors Automatic Bending Machines Water level sensors Air Conditioning Machines Water level sensors for draining OIL DETECTION SENSOR For Engines Detection of Oil Level Detection of Break Oil Level Detection of Transmission Oil Level For Construction and Agriculture Machines Detection of various oil levels Alarm for over flow For Home Appliances Sensor for Kerosene Level Detection of different Kinds of liquids No.2-52,Higashi.2-chome,Nakanocho,Tondabayashi;Osaka 584-0022,Japan. International: Tel:+81 721 26 0511 Fax:+81 721 25 8210 http://float-sensor.net/ E-mail : riko@riko.co.jp Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-616 WWW.RFAMEC.COM (952) 843-2700 Product Development & Engineering Services Testing & Development Validation Product Launch GATE 4 GATE 3 Program Scoping Business Build Case GATE 2 GATE 1 Helping OEMs to grow profitably through the development of innovative products since 1967! TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-617 35 " id="pdf-obj-37-11" src="pdf-obj-37-11.jpg">

Aluminum electrolytic capacitors

PRODUCT BRIEFS 14-mm mount panel LED The 14-mm mount CL series panel LED from Wilbrecht LEDCOFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-454 Aluminum electrolytic capacitors The new line of axial-lead alumi- num electrolytic capacitors from Cornell Dubilier Electronics , Inc. (Liberty, SC) are suited for appli- cations demanding very high-performance under all operating conditions. According to the company, the ruggedized HHT is the only axial-lead electrolytic featuring a glass-to-metal seal to prevent dry-out of the capacitor electrolyte. Shelf life is 10 years and operational rated life is 2000 hours at rated voltage and +175°C (347°F). At 150°C (302°F) and full-rated voltage, the company claims HHT capacitors outperform competitive technologies in a 5000-hour test with ripple currents of up to 10 Arms. This level of performance makes the HHT suitable for high-stress applications in military, aerospace, down-hole and off-road transportation applications. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-455 Heavy-duty v-profile clamps Heavy-duty v-profile clamps from Oetiker (Marlette, MI) operate reliably and safely under extreme conditions of stress, vibration, corrosion and temperature variation. According to the company, the v-profile clamps feature up to 25% increased sealing capability compared to conventional v-profile clamp designs. The clamps are engineered to suit specific profile geometry for optimum axial load distribution. Benefits include high clamping force, high residual torque, even force distribution and what the company claims to be superior assembly ergonomics. The de- vices are recommended for turbo connections, diesel particu- late filters, charged air systems and exhaust systems. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-456 RIKO's SENSORS for DETECTING the LEVELS of WATER/OIL Exclusively Assembled Sensors by RIKO's Float Technology for Automotives, Ships, Construction, Agriculture, Trucks and Generators. WATER DETECTION SENSOR Engines Water detection sensors for Fuel Filters Water level sensors for Radiators Home Appliances Water level sensors Over flow detection sensors Automatic Bending Machines Water level sensors Air Conditioning Machines Water level sensors for draining OIL DETECTION SENSOR For Engines Detection of Oil Level Detection of Break Oil Level Detection of Transmission Oil Level For Construction and Agriculture Machines Detection of various oil levels Alarm for over flow For Home Appliances Sensor for Kerosene Level Detection of different Kinds of liquids No.2-52,Higashi.2-chome,Nakanocho,Tondabayashi;Osaka 584-0022,Japan. International: Tel:+81 721 26 0511 Fax:+81 721 25 8210 http://float-sensor.net/ E-mail : riko@riko.co.jp Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-616 WWW.RFAMEC.COM (952) 843-2700 Product Development & Engineering Services Testing & Development Validation Product Launch GATE 4 GATE 3 Program Scoping Business Build Case GATE 2 GATE 1 Helping OEMs to grow profitably through the development of innovative products since 1967! TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-617 35 " id="pdf-obj-37-17" src="pdf-obj-37-17.jpg">

The new line of axial-lead alumi- num electrolytic capacitors from Cornell Dubilier Electronics, Inc. (Liberty, SC) are suited for appli- cations demanding very high-performance under all operating conditions. According to the company, the ruggedized HHT is the only axial-lead electrolytic featuring a glass-to-metal seal to prevent dry-out of the capacitor electrolyte. Shelf life is 10 years and operational rated life is 2000 hours at rated voltage and +175°C (347°F). At 150°C (302°F) and full-rated voltage, the company claims HHT capacitors outperform competitive technologies in a 5000-hour test with ripple currents of up to 10 Arms. This level of performance makes the HHT suitable for high-stress applications in military, aerospace, down-hole and off-road transportation applications.

Heavy-duty v-profile clamps

PRODUCT BRIEFS 14-mm mount panel LED The 14-mm mount CL series panel LED from Wilbrecht LEDCOFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-454 Aluminum electrolytic capacitors The new line of axial-lead alumi- num electrolytic capacitors from Cornell Dubilier Electronics , Inc. (Liberty, SC) are suited for appli- cations demanding very high-performance under all operating conditions. According to the company, the ruggedized HHT is the only axial-lead electrolytic featuring a glass-to-metal seal to prevent dry-out of the capacitor electrolyte. Shelf life is 10 years and operational rated life is 2000 hours at rated voltage and +175°C (347°F). At 150°C (302°F) and full-rated voltage, the company claims HHT capacitors outperform competitive technologies in a 5000-hour test with ripple currents of up to 10 Arms. This level of performance makes the HHT suitable for high-stress applications in military, aerospace, down-hole and off-road transportation applications. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-455 Heavy-duty v-profile clamps Heavy-duty v-profile clamps from Oetiker (Marlette, MI) operate reliably and safely under extreme conditions of stress, vibration, corrosion and temperature variation. According to the company, the v-profile clamps feature up to 25% increased sealing capability compared to conventional v-profile clamp designs. The clamps are engineered to suit specific profile geometry for optimum axial load distribution. Benefits include high clamping force, high residual torque, even force distribution and what the company claims to be superior assembly ergonomics. The de- vices are recommended for turbo connections, diesel particu- late filters, charged air systems and exhaust systems. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-456 RIKO's SENSORS for DETECTING the LEVELS of WATER/OIL Exclusively Assembled Sensors by RIKO's Float Technology for Automotives, Ships, Construction, Agriculture, Trucks and Generators. WATER DETECTION SENSOR Engines Water detection sensors for Fuel Filters Water level sensors for Radiators Home Appliances Water level sensors Over flow detection sensors Automatic Bending Machines Water level sensors Air Conditioning Machines Water level sensors for draining OIL DETECTION SENSOR For Engines Detection of Oil Level Detection of Break Oil Level Detection of Transmission Oil Level For Construction and Agriculture Machines Detection of various oil levels Alarm for over flow For Home Appliances Sensor for Kerosene Level Detection of different Kinds of liquids No.2-52,Higashi.2-chome,Nakanocho,Tondabayashi;Osaka 584-0022,Japan. International: Tel:+81 721 26 0511 Fax:+81 721 25 8210 http://float-sensor.net/ E-mail : riko@riko.co.jp Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-616 WWW.RFAMEC.COM (952) 843-2700 Product Development & Engineering Services Testing & Development Validation Product Launch GATE 4 GATE 3 Program Scoping Business Build Case GATE 2 GATE 1 Helping OEMs to grow profitably through the development of innovative products since 1967! TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-617 35 " id="pdf-obj-37-27" src="pdf-obj-37-27.jpg">

Heavy-duty v-profile clamps from Oetiker (Marlette, MI) operate reliably and safely under extreme conditions of stress, vibration, corrosion and temperature variation. According to the company, the v-profile clamps feature up to 25% increased sealing capability compared to conventional v-profile clamp designs. The clamps are engineered to suit specific profile geometry for optimum axial load distribution. Benefits include high clamping force, high residual torque, even force distribution and what the company claims to be superior assembly ergonomics. The de- vices are recommended for turbo connections, diesel particu- late filters, charged air systems and exhaust systems.

<a href=WWW.RFAMEC.COM (952) 843-2700 Product Development & Engineering Services Testing & Development Validation Product Launch GATE 4 GATE 3 Program Scoping Business Build Case GATE 2 GATE 1 Helping OEMs to grow profitably through the development of innovative products since 1967! " id="pdf-obj-37-108" src="pdf-obj-37-108.jpg">
<a href=WWW.RFAMEC.COM (952) 843-2700 Product Development & Engineering Services Testing & Development Validation Product Launch GATE 4 GATE 3 Program Scoping Business Build Case GATE 2 GATE 1 Helping OEMs to grow profitably through the development of innovative products since 1967! " id="pdf-obj-37-110" src="pdf-obj-37-110.jpg">
<a href=WWW.RFAMEC.COM (952) 843-2700 Product Development & Engineering Services Testing & Development Validation Product Launch GATE 4 GATE 3 Program Scoping Business Build Case GATE 2 GATE 1 Helping OEMs to grow profitably through the development of innovative products since 1967! " id="pdf-obj-37-118" src="pdf-obj-37-118.jpg">
Testing & Development Validation Product Launch GATE 4 GATE 3 Program Scoping Business Build Case GATE
Testing &
Development
Validation
Product
Launch
GATE 4
GATE 3
Program
Scoping
Business
Build
Case
GATE 2
GATE 1
<a href=WWW.RFAMEC.COM (952) 843-2700 Product Development & Engineering Services Testing & Development Validation Product Launch GATE 4 GATE 3 Program Scoping Business Build Case GATE 2 GATE 1 Helping OEMs to grow profitably through the development of innovative products since 1967! " id="pdf-obj-37-126" src="pdf-obj-37-126.jpg">
<a href=WWW.RFAMEC.COM (952) 843-2700 Product Development & Engineering Services Testing & Development Validation Product Launch GATE 4 GATE 3 Program Scoping Business Build Case GATE 2 GATE 1 Helping OEMs to grow profitably through the development of innovative products since 1967! " id="pdf-obj-37-128" src="pdf-obj-37-128.jpg">
Rod Ends and Spherical Bearings designed and manufactured to Aurora’s exacting standards for quality and durability.
Rod Ends and
Spherical
Bearings designed
and manufactured to
Aurora’s exacting
standards for quality
and durability.
Registered and Certified
to ISO_9001 and AS9100.
From economy commercial
to aerospace approved,
we’ve got it all!
Aurora Bearing Company
901 Aucutt Road
Montgomery IL. 60538
complete library of CAD drawings and 3D models available at:
www.aurorabear ing .com
WEBINAR
WEBINAR

Sponsored by:

Hosted by:

36 October 2017

PRODUCT BRIEFS

Distribution block

Designed with ports for Deutsch con- nectors, Murrelektronik’s (Suwanee, GA) new xtreme DB distribution block

Rod Ends and Spherical Bearings designed and manufactured to Aurora’s exacting standards for quality and durability.Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-618 WEBINAR A MODERN ELECTRIC BUS FLEET: IMPROVING PUBLIC TRANSIT WITH SYSTEM-LEVEL MODELING Thursday, October 12, 2017 at 2:00 pm U.S. EDT As cities continue to increase in both population and density, public transportation plays a critical role in creating liveable cities, with electrified transportation, presenting a wide array of new challenges. In this Webinar, learn how the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) worked with Maplesoft to develop system-level models of bus dynamics to ensure an optimized implementation of electrified bus fleets. Speakers: Dr. Orang Vahid-Araghi David Holt Director, Lead Simulation Technician, Application Engineering, National Research Council Maplesoft of Canada For additional details and to register visit: www.sae.org/webcasts Sponsored by: 36 October 2017 PRODUCT BRIEFS Distribution block Designed with ports for Deutsch con- nectors, Murrelektronik ’s (Suwanee, GA) new xtreme DB distribution block provides up to three times the current- carrying capacity compared to blocks of similar size, along with design effi- ciencies that will help to transform the way control systems are developed by heavy-duty vehicle builders. xtreme DB blocks with Deutsch connectors have eight I/O ports, 16 configurable outputs and can do the work of multiple ordinary blocks using standard M12 connectors. According to Murrelektronik, the xtreme DB is specifically designed to meet the power-distribu- tion needs of heavy-duty vehicle manufacturers who build agri- cultural machines, railway and construction equipment, trucks for fire and rescue, road and utility maintenance, garbage col- lection and other mission-specific vehicles. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-457 Production-grade 3D printing Proto Labs (Maple Plain, MN) features Multi Jet Fusion as part of its suite of 3D printing technologies. The production- grade 3D printing technology, developed by HP , builds fully functional plastic pro- totypes and production parts with accel- erated speed, detailed precision and consistent mechanical properties. HP’s Multi Jet Fusion technology uses an inkjet array to apply fusing and detailing agents across a bed of nylon pow- der, which are then fused by heating elements into a solid layer. According to Proto Labs, the technology’s unique approach to binding powder results in more isotropic material properties, faster build speeds, and, ultimately, lower costs compared to other powder-based 3D printing processes. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-458 High-current controller A new addition to its PLUS+1 microcon- trollers family, Danfoss Power Solutions ’ (Ames, IA) MC018 high-current controller is designed to solve many challenges custom- ers face with controlling high-current de- vices. According to Danfoss, the MC018 offers more power and intelligent features at a competitive price. Its features enable cus- tomers to lower overall system and maintenance costs while boosting the efficiency of their machines. The MC018 has a maxi- mum total current of 160A and a maximum steady-state current of 120A, an increase over the maximum current presently avail- able on the market of 75 to 80A. It provides power and control to several machine applications, including the linear actuators, wind- shield wipers, fan drive, lamps and lights, engine starter, levelling control, sprinkler system and active suspension. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-459 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-38-67" src="pdf-obj-38-67.jpg">

provides up to three times the current- carrying capacity compared to blocks of similar size, along with design effi- ciencies that will help to transform the way control systems are developed by heavy-duty vehicle builders. xtreme DB blocks with Deutsch connectors have eight I/O ports, 16 configurable outputs and can do the work of multiple ordinary blocks using standard M12 connectors. According to Murrelektronik, the xtreme DB is specifically designed to meet the power-distribu- tion needs of heavy-duty vehicle manufacturers who build agri- cultural machines, railway and construction equipment, trucks for fire and rescue, road and utility maintenance, garbage col- lection and other mission-specific vehicles.

Production-grade 3D printing

Proto Labs (Maple Plain, MN) features Multi Jet Fusion as part of its suite of 3D printing technologies. The production- grade 3D printing technology, developed by HP, builds fully functional plastic pro- totypes and production parts with accel- erated speed, detailed precision and consistent mechanical properties. HP’s Multi Jet Fusion technology uses an inkjet array to apply fusing and detailing agents across a bed of nylon pow- der, which are then fused by heating elements into a solid layer. According to Proto Labs, the technology’s unique approach to binding powder results in more isotropic material properties, faster build speeds, and, ultimately, lower costs compared to other powder-based 3D printing processes.

Rod Ends and Spherical Bearings designed and manufactured to Aurora’s exacting standards for quality and durability.Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-618 WEBINAR A MODERN ELECTRIC BUS FLEET: IMPROVING PUBLIC TRANSIT WITH SYSTEM-LEVEL MODELING Thursday, October 12, 2017 at 2:00 pm U.S. EDT As cities continue to increase in both population and density, public transportation plays a critical role in creating liveable cities, with electrified transportation, presenting a wide array of new challenges. In this Webinar, learn how the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) worked with Maplesoft to develop system-level models of bus dynamics to ensure an optimized implementation of electrified bus fleets. Speakers: Dr. Orang Vahid-Araghi David Holt Director, Lead Simulation Technician, Application Engineering, National Research Council Maplesoft of Canada For additional details and to register visit: www.sae.org/webcasts Sponsored by: 36 October 2017 PRODUCT BRIEFS Distribution block Designed with ports for Deutsch con- nectors, Murrelektronik ’s (Suwanee, GA) new xtreme DB distribution block provides up to three times the current- carrying capacity compared to blocks of similar size, along with design effi- ciencies that will help to transform the way control systems are developed by heavy-duty vehicle builders. xtreme DB blocks with Deutsch connectors have eight I/O ports, 16 configurable outputs and can do the work of multiple ordinary blocks using standard M12 connectors. According to Murrelektronik, the xtreme DB is specifically designed to meet the power-distribu- tion needs of heavy-duty vehicle manufacturers who build agri- cultural machines, railway and construction equipment, trucks for fire and rescue, road and utility maintenance, garbage col- lection and other mission-specific vehicles. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-457 Production-grade 3D printing Proto Labs (Maple Plain, MN) features Multi Jet Fusion as part of its suite of 3D printing technologies. The production- grade 3D printing technology, developed by HP , builds fully functional plastic pro- totypes and production parts with accel- erated speed, detailed precision and consistent mechanical properties. HP’s Multi Jet Fusion technology uses an inkjet array to apply fusing and detailing agents across a bed of nylon pow- der, which are then fused by heating elements into a solid layer. According to Proto Labs, the technology’s unique approach to binding powder results in more isotropic material properties, faster build speeds, and, ultimately, lower costs compared to other powder-based 3D printing processes. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-458 High-current controller A new addition to its PLUS+1 microcon- trollers family, Danfoss Power Solutions ’ (Ames, IA) MC018 high-current controller is designed to solve many challenges custom- ers face with controlling high-current de- vices. According to Danfoss, the MC018 offers more power and intelligent features at a competitive price. Its features enable cus- tomers to lower overall system and maintenance costs while boosting the efficiency of their machines. The MC018 has a maxi- mum total current of 160A and a maximum steady-state current of 120A, an increase over the maximum current presently avail- able on the market of 75 to 80A. It provides power and control to several machine applications, including the linear actuators, wind- shield wipers, fan drive, lamps and lights, engine starter, levelling control, sprinkler system and active suspension. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-459 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-38-80" src="pdf-obj-38-80.jpg">

High-current controller

Rod Ends and Spherical Bearings designed and manufactured to Aurora’s exacting standards for quality and durability.Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-618 WEBINAR A MODERN ELECTRIC BUS FLEET: IMPROVING PUBLIC TRANSIT WITH SYSTEM-LEVEL MODELING Thursday, October 12, 2017 at 2:00 pm U.S. EDT As cities continue to increase in both population and density, public transportation plays a critical role in creating liveable cities, with electrified transportation, presenting a wide array of new challenges. In this Webinar, learn how the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) worked with Maplesoft to develop system-level models of bus dynamics to ensure an optimized implementation of electrified bus fleets. Speakers: Dr. Orang Vahid-Araghi David Holt Director, Lead Simulation Technician, Application Engineering, National Research Council Maplesoft of Canada For additional details and to register visit: www.sae.org/webcasts Sponsored by: 36 October 2017 PRODUCT BRIEFS Distribution block Designed with ports for Deutsch con- nectors, Murrelektronik ’s (Suwanee, GA) new xtreme DB distribution block provides up to three times the current- carrying capacity compared to blocks of similar size, along with design effi- ciencies that will help to transform the way control systems are developed by heavy-duty vehicle builders. xtreme DB blocks with Deutsch connectors have eight I/O ports, 16 configurable outputs and can do the work of multiple ordinary blocks using standard M12 connectors. According to Murrelektronik, the xtreme DB is specifically designed to meet the power-distribu- tion needs of heavy-duty vehicle manufacturers who build agri- cultural machines, railway and construction equipment, trucks for fire and rescue, road and utility maintenance, garbage col- lection and other mission-specific vehicles. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-457 Production-grade 3D printing Proto Labs (Maple Plain, MN) features Multi Jet Fusion as part of its suite of 3D printing technologies. The production- grade 3D printing technology, developed by HP , builds fully functional plastic pro- totypes and production parts with accel- erated speed, detailed precision and consistent mechanical properties. HP’s Multi Jet Fusion technology uses an inkjet array to apply fusing and detailing agents across a bed of nylon pow- der, which are then fused by heating elements into a solid layer. According to Proto Labs, the technology’s unique approach to binding powder results in more isotropic material properties, faster build speeds, and, ultimately, lower costs compared to other powder-based 3D printing processes. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-458 High-current controller A new addition to its PLUS+1 microcon- trollers family, Danfoss Power Solutions ’ (Ames, IA) MC018 high-current controller is designed to solve many challenges custom- ers face with controlling high-current de- vices. According to Danfoss, the MC018 offers more power and intelligent features at a competitive price. Its features enable cus- tomers to lower overall system and maintenance costs while boosting the efficiency of their machines. The MC018 has a maxi- mum total current of 160A and a maximum steady-state current of 120A, an increase over the maximum current presently avail- able on the market of 75 to 80A. It provides power and control to several machine applications, including the linear actuators, wind- shield wipers, fan drive, lamps and lights, engine starter, levelling control, sprinkler system and active suspension. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-459 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-38-86" src="pdf-obj-38-86.jpg">

A new addition to its PLUS+1 microcon- trollers family, Danfoss Power Solutions’ (Ames, IA) MC018 high-current controller is designed to solve many challenges custom- ers face with controlling high-current de- vices. According to Danfoss, the MC018 offers more power and intelligent features at a competitive price. Its features enable cus- tomers to lower overall system and maintenance costs while boosting the efficiency of their machines. The MC018 has a maxi- mum total current of 160A and a maximum steady-state current of 120A, an increase over the maximum current presently avail- able on the market of 75 to 80A. It provides power and control to several machine applications, including the linear actuators, wind- shield wipers, fan drive, lamps and lights, engine starter, levelling control, sprinkler system and active suspension.

TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

PRODUCT BRIEFS

Neodymium compression bonded magnets

PRODUCT BRIEFS Neodymium compression bonded magnets All-new high energy B12 magnets from Bunting Magnetics Co.’s MagnetFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-460 Rugged box PC for transportation MEN Micro Inc.’s (Blue Bell, PA) BL51E is a fanless and mainte- nance-free embedded com- puter for Internet of Things (IoT) and memory-intensive applications in trains, buses or commercial vehicles. An assort- ment of communication interfaces makes the box PC variable. The device can be used from -40°C to +85°C (-40°F to 185°F) and complies with EN 50155 and ISO 7637-2 standards. Equipped with an Intel Atom E3950 with 1.6 GHz, the BL51E offers CPU performance scalability by a variety of other dual/quad-core pro- cessors from the Intel Atom E3900 series. With 8 GB of DDR3 SDRAM memory, a backward-accessible SD card and a SATA HDD/SSD shuttle, as well as an integrated eMMC memory, MEN Micro says the box PC has the necessary storage capacity, e.g., for entertainment servers or video surveillance systems. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-461 High temperature, flexible epoxy EpoxySet , Inc.’s (Lincoln, RI) EC- 1030FL is a flexible, two-part epoxy designed to replace silicones for potting, encapsulating and casting applications where temperatures up to 200°C (392°F) are required. This system will prevent stresses to com- ponents, while temperature cycling without degradation. The company claims EC-1030FL offers superior bond strength compared with silicones to many engineered plastics as well as metals, ceramics and glass while reducing costs. The EC- 1030FL has a 10-15 min work time, which makes it suitable for production environments. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-462 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-619 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-620 37 " id="pdf-obj-39-7" src="pdf-obj-39-7.jpg">

All-new high energy B12 magnets from Bunting Magnetics Co.’s Magnet Applications, Inc. (DuBois, PA) are a major upgrade to its neodymium compression bonded magnet product offerings, according to the company. The new B12 has a typical maximum energy product, (BH)max, of approximately 12 MGOe compared to the previous generation of 10 MGOe. The (BH)max of a bonded magnet is determined by the density and the vol- ume fraction of the magnetic material phase present in the mag- net body. By optimizing the particle size, particle distribution, chemistry, process and pressing conditions, Magnet Applications says its engineers have achieved a breakthrough in performance. The company expects to see the new magnet in motors for auto- mobiles, transportation, aerospace, defense and other high-heat environments due to its strength and operating temperature.

Rugged box PC for transportation

MEN Micro Inc.’s (Blue Bell, PA) BL51E is a fanless and mainte- nance-free embedded com- puter for Internet of Things (IoT) and memory-intensive applications in trains, buses or commercial vehicles. An assort- ment of communication interfaces makes the box PC variable. The device can be used from -40°C to +85°C (-40°F to 185°F) and complies with EN 50155 and ISO 7637-2 standards. Equipped with an Intel Atom E3950 with 1.6 GHz, the BL51E offers CPU performance scalability by a variety of other dual/quad-core pro- cessors from the Intel Atom E3900 series. With 8 GB of DDR3 SDRAM memory, a backward-accessible SD card and a SATA HDD/SSD shuttle, as well as an integrated eMMC memory, MEN Micro says the box PC has the necessary storage capacity, e.g., for entertainment servers or video surveillance systems.

PRODUCT BRIEFS Neodymium compression bonded magnets All-new high energy B12 magnets from Bunting Magnetics Co.’s MagnetFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-460 Rugged box PC for transportation MEN Micro Inc.’s (Blue Bell, PA) BL51E is a fanless and mainte- nance-free embedded com- puter for Internet of Things (IoT) and memory-intensive applications in trains, buses or commercial vehicles. An assort- ment of communication interfaces makes the box PC variable. The device can be used from -40°C to +85°C (-40°F to 185°F) and complies with EN 50155 and ISO 7637-2 standards. Equipped with an Intel Atom E3950 with 1.6 GHz, the BL51E offers CPU performance scalability by a variety of other dual/quad-core pro- cessors from the Intel Atom E3900 series. With 8 GB of DDR3 SDRAM memory, a backward-accessible SD card and a SATA HDD/SSD shuttle, as well as an integrated eMMC memory, MEN Micro says the box PC has the necessary storage capacity, e.g., for entertainment servers or video surveillance systems. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-461 High temperature, flexible epoxy EpoxySet , Inc.’s (Lincoln, RI) EC- 1030FL is a flexible, two-part epoxy designed to replace silicones for potting, encapsulating and casting applications where temperatures up to 200°C (392°F) are required. This system will prevent stresses to com- ponents, while temperature cycling without degradation. The company claims EC-1030FL offers superior bond strength compared with silicones to many engineered plastics as well as metals, ceramics and glass while reducing costs. The EC- 1030FL has a 10-15 min work time, which makes it suitable for production environments. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-462 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-619 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-620 37 " id="pdf-obj-39-24" src="pdf-obj-39-24.jpg">

High temperature, flexible epoxy

EpoxySet, Inc.’s (Lincoln, RI) EC- 1030FL is a flexible, two-part epoxy designed to replace silicones for potting, encapsulating and casting applications where temperatures up to 200°C (392°F) are required. This system will prevent stresses to com- ponents, while temperature cycling without degradation. The company claims EC-1030FL offers superior bond strength compared with silicones to many engineered plastics as well as metals, ceramics and glass while reducing costs. The EC- 1030FL has a 10-15 min work time, which makes it suitable for production environments.

PRODUCT BRIEFS Neodymium compression bonded magnets All-new high energy B12 magnets from Bunting Magnetics Co.’s MagnetFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-460 Rugged box PC for transportation MEN Micro Inc.’s (Blue Bell, PA) BL51E is a fanless and mainte- nance-free embedded com- puter for Internet of Things (IoT) and memory-intensive applications in trains, buses or commercial vehicles. An assort- ment of communication interfaces makes the box PC variable. The device can be used from -40°C to +85°C (-40°F to 185°F) and complies with EN 50155 and ISO 7637-2 standards. Equipped with an Intel Atom E3950 with 1.6 GHz, the BL51E offers CPU performance scalability by a variety of other dual/quad-core pro- cessors from the Intel Atom E3900 series. With 8 GB of DDR3 SDRAM memory, a backward-accessible SD card and a SATA HDD/SSD shuttle, as well as an integrated eMMC memory, MEN Micro says the box PC has the necessary storage capacity, e.g., for entertainment servers or video surveillance systems. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-461 High temperature, flexible epoxy EpoxySet , Inc.’s (Lincoln, RI) EC- 1030FL is a flexible, two-part epoxy designed to replace silicones for potting, encapsulating and casting applications where temperatures up to 200°C (392°F) are required. This system will prevent stresses to com- ponents, while temperature cycling without degradation. The company claims EC-1030FL offers superior bond strength compared with silicones to many engineered plastics as well as metals, ceramics and glass while reducing costs. The EC- 1030FL has a 10-15 min work time, which makes it suitable for production environments. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-462 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-619 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-620 37 " id="pdf-obj-39-33" src="pdf-obj-39-33.jpg">
PRODUCT BRIEFS Neodymium compression bonded magnets All-new high energy B12 magnets from Bunting Magnetics Co.’s MagnetFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-460 Rugged box PC for transportation MEN Micro Inc.’s (Blue Bell, PA) BL51E is a fanless and mainte- nance-free embedded com- puter for Internet of Things (IoT) and memory-intensive applications in trains, buses or commercial vehicles. An assort- ment of communication interfaces makes the box PC variable. The device can be used from -40°C to +85°C (-40°F to 185°F) and complies with EN 50155 and ISO 7637-2 standards. Equipped with an Intel Atom E3950 with 1.6 GHz, the BL51E offers CPU performance scalability by a variety of other dual/quad-core pro- cessors from the Intel Atom E3900 series. With 8 GB of DDR3 SDRAM memory, a backward-accessible SD card and a SATA HDD/SSD shuttle, as well as an integrated eMMC memory, MEN Micro says the box PC has the necessary storage capacity, e.g., for entertainment servers or video surveillance systems. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-461 High temperature, flexible epoxy EpoxySet , Inc.’s (Lincoln, RI) EC- 1030FL is a flexible, two-part epoxy designed to replace silicones for potting, encapsulating and casting applications where temperatures up to 200°C (392°F) are required. This system will prevent stresses to com- ponents, while temperature cycling without degradation. The company claims EC-1030FL offers superior bond strength compared with silicones to many engineered plastics as well as metals, ceramics and glass while reducing costs. The EC- 1030FL has a 10-15 min work time, which makes it suitable for production environments. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-462 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-619 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-620 37 " id="pdf-obj-39-37" src="pdf-obj-39-37.jpg">
PRODUCT BRIEFS Neodymium compression bonded magnets All-new high energy B12 magnets from Bunting Magnetics Co.’s MagnetFor more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-460 Rugged box PC for transportation MEN Micro Inc.’s (Blue Bell, PA) BL51E is a fanless and mainte- nance-free embedded com- puter for Internet of Things (IoT) and memory-intensive applications in trains, buses or commercial vehicles. An assort- ment of communication interfaces makes the box PC variable. The device can be used from -40°C to +85°C (-40°F to 185°F) and complies with EN 50155 and ISO 7637-2 standards. Equipped with an Intel Atom E3950 with 1.6 GHz, the BL51E offers CPU performance scalability by a variety of other dual/quad-core pro- cessors from the Intel Atom E3900 series. With 8 GB of DDR3 SDRAM memory, a backward-accessible SD card and a SATA HDD/SSD shuttle, as well as an integrated eMMC memory, MEN Micro says the box PC has the necessary storage capacity, e.g., for entertainment servers or video surveillance systems. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-461 High temperature, flexible epoxy EpoxySet , Inc.’s (Lincoln, RI) EC- 1030FL is a flexible, two-part epoxy designed to replace silicones for potting, encapsulating and casting applications where temperatures up to 200°C (392°F) are required. This system will prevent stresses to com- ponents, while temperature cycling without degradation. The company claims EC-1030FL offers superior bond strength compared with silicones to many engineered plastics as well as metals, ceramics and glass while reducing costs. The EC- 1030FL has a 10-15 min work time, which makes it suitable for production environments. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65856-462 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-619 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65856-620 37 " id="pdf-obj-39-41" src="pdf-obj-39-41.jpg">

WHAT’S

ONLINE

Daimler Trucks launches first all-electric truck in series production

Daimler TrucksMitsubishi FUSO Truck and Bus Corp. (MFTBC) launched the world’s first series-produced all-electric light-duty truck, the FUSO eCanter, in New York City on September 14 with UPS as its first U.S. commercial partner. Deliveries of the eCanter are sched- uled to begin this year in the U.S., Europe and Japan, while MFTBC plans to deliver 500 units of this generation

to customers within the next two years. Larger scale production is slated to start in 2019. The all-electric light-duty truck is MFTBC’s answer to the public’s need for a zero-emission, zero-noise truck for continuously increasing inner-city distribution. In addition to being an eco-friendly vehicle, the company says it is cost-effi- cient and economical for users, as already proved within customer tests in Europe. The FUSO eCant- er has a range of 100 km (62.13 mi) and a load ca- pacity up to three and a half tons, depending on body and usage. Read the full article at

WHAT’S ONLINE Daimler Trucks launches first all-electric truck in series production Daimler Trucks ’ Mitsubishi FUSORead the full article at articles.sae.org/15631/. WABCO, Nexteer collaborate to develop active steering systems for CVs WABCO Holdings Inc. signed a long- term cooperation agreement in late August with Nexteer Automotive to col- laborate on the development and sup- ply of active steering systems for me- dium- and heavy-duty commercial ve- hicles using Nexteer MagnaSteer Actuation Technology, its advanced steering assistance product. According to a release from the com- panies, WABCO and Nexteer will inte- grate MagnaSteer’s technology with Sheppard ’s suite of power steering gears, which has set the industry stan- dard for heavy-duty commercial and specialty vehicles. As previously an- nounced, WABCO has signed an agree- ment to acquire Sheppard, subject to customary U.S. regulatory clearance. The acquisition is expected to be completed by the end of the third quarter 2017. Through an existing exclusivity agree- ment between Nexteer and Sheppard, WABCO can offer what it calls a compact, cost-effective, “breakthrough” techno- logical solution that enables active steer- ing control for commercial vehicle manu- facturers in North America. In addition, WABCO has access to this technology for all medium- and heavy-duty commercial truck markets outside North America. Read the full article at articles.sae. org/15640/. Ford, VTTI partner to develop common visual communications interface for autonomous vehicles Looking to prepare for the eventual real- ity of an autonomous-vehicle future, Ford partnered with Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to con- duct a user-experience study to test a method for communicating a vehicle’s “intent” by soliciting real-world reactions to a self-driving car on public roads. Additionally, Ford is working with several industry organizations to push toward creation of a standard, including SAE International and the International Organization for Standardization . The hope is that a common visual-commu- nications interface most people can understand across all self-driving ve- hicles in all locations will help ensure safe integration into all global transpor- tation systems. Ford said that as part of a separate work stream, it also is work- ing on ways to communicate with those who are blind or visually impaired. No driver? Not really The study adopted a decidedly unique approach to “simulating” an autono- mous vehicle: the Virginia Tech team developed a way to conceal the driver with a “seat suit,” which creates the illusion of a fully autonomous vehicle with nobody in the driver’s seat. Read the full article at articles.sae. org/15628/. 38 October 2017 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-40-20" src="pdf-obj-40-20.jpg">

WABCO, Nexteer collaborate to develop active steering systems for CVs

WABCO Holdings Inc. signed a long- term cooperation agreement in late August with Nexteer Automotive to col- laborate on the development and sup- ply of active steering systems for me- dium- and heavy-duty commercial ve- hicles using Nexteer MagnaSteer Actuation Technology, its advanced steering assistance product. According to a release from the com- panies, WABCO and Nexteer will inte- grate MagnaSteer’s technology with Sheppard’s suite of power steering gears, which has set the industry stan- dard for heavy-duty commercial and specialty vehicles. As previously an- nounced, WABCO has signed an agree- ment to acquire Sheppard, subject to customary U.S. regulatory clearance. The acquisition is expected to be completed by the end of the third quarter 2017. Through an existing exclusivity agree- ment between Nexteer and Sheppard, WABCO can offer what it calls a compact, cost-effective, “breakthrough” techno- logical solution that enables active steer-

ing control for commercial vehicle manu- facturers in North America. In addition, WABCO has access to this technology for all medium- and heavy-duty commercial truck markets outside North America. Read the full article at articles.sae.

WHAT’S ONLINE Daimler Trucks launches first all-electric truck in series production Daimler Trucks ’ Mitsubishi FUSORead the full article at articles.sae.org/15631/. WABCO, Nexteer collaborate to develop active steering systems for CVs WABCO Holdings Inc. signed a long- term cooperation agreement in late August with Nexteer Automotive to col- laborate on the development and sup- ply of active steering systems for me- dium- and heavy-duty commercial ve- hicles using Nexteer MagnaSteer Actuation Technology, its advanced steering assistance product. According to a release from the com- panies, WABCO and Nexteer will inte- grate MagnaSteer’s technology with Sheppard ’s suite of power steering gears, which has set the industry stan- dard for heavy-duty commercial and specialty vehicles. As previously an- nounced, WABCO has signed an agree- ment to acquire Sheppard, subject to customary U.S. regulatory clearance. The acquisition is expected to be completed by the end of the third quarter 2017. Through an existing exclusivity agree- ment between Nexteer and Sheppard, WABCO can offer what it calls a compact, cost-effective, “breakthrough” techno- logical solution that enables active steer- ing control for commercial vehicle manu- facturers in North America. In addition, WABCO has access to this technology for all medium- and heavy-duty commercial truck markets outside North America. Read the full article at articles.sae. org/15640/. Ford, VTTI partner to develop common visual communications interface for autonomous vehicles Looking to prepare for the eventual real- ity of an autonomous-vehicle future, Ford partnered with Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to con- duct a user-experience study to test a method for communicating a vehicle’s “intent” by soliciting real-world reactions to a self-driving car on public roads. Additionally, Ford is working with several industry organizations to push toward creation of a standard, including SAE International and the International Organization for Standardization . The hope is that a common visual-commu- nications interface most people can understand across all self-driving ve- hicles in all locations will help ensure safe integration into all global transpor- tation systems. Ford said that as part of a separate work stream, it also is work- ing on ways to communicate with those who are blind or visually impaired. No driver? Not really The study adopted a decidedly unique approach to “simulating” an autono- mous vehicle: the Virginia Tech team developed a way to conceal the driver with a “seat suit,” which creates the illusion of a fully autonomous vehicle with nobody in the driver’s seat. Read the full article at articles.sae. org/15628/. 38 October 2017 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-40-38" src="pdf-obj-40-38.jpg">

Ford, VTTI partner to develop common visual communications interface for autonomous vehicles

Looking to prepare for the eventual real- ity of an autonomous-vehicle future, Ford partnered with Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to con- duct a user-experience study to test a method for communicating a vehicle’s “intent” by soliciting real-world reactions to a self-driving car on public roads. Additionally, Ford is working with several industry organizations to push toward creation of a standard, including SAE International and the International Organization for Standardization. The hope is that a common visual-commu- nications interface most people can

understand across all self-driving ve- hicles in all locations will help ensure safe integration into all global transpor- tation systems. Ford said that as part of a separate work stream, it also is work- ing on ways to communicate with those who are blind or visually impaired.

No driver? Not really

The study adopted a decidedly unique approach to “simulating” an autono- mous vehicle: the Virginia Tech team developed a way to conceal the driver

with a “seat suit,” which creates the illusion of a fully autonomous vehicle with nobody in the driver’s seat. Read the full article at articles.sae.

COMPANIES MENTIONED

Company

Page

Advanced Thermal Solutions

 

34

Ford

38

Paccar ......................................................................................................10

Altair

26

30

Peterbilt ..................................................................................................10

 

19

Freightliner ............................................................................................

27

Proto Labs

36

AVL

18

Gamma Technologies

17

Roush Industries ....................................................................................14

2

Hendrickson

29

SAE International

23, 38, 40

Boeing ....................................................................................................40

HP

16, 18

24,

36

Sheppard

38

BorgWarner Thermal Systems

 

27

IAV .....................................................................................................

Siemens

17

Bosch ......................................................................................................40

Intel

37

TARDEC

26

Bunting Magnetics

 

37

International

29

Tesla

6, 14

California Energy Commission

32

International Organization for Standardization

38

Toyota

6

CALSTART

32

Kenworth ................................................................................................10

UPS

38

Carbodeon

34

Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire

22

22

Case IH

30

Mack Trucks

26

USCAR ....................................................................................................

23

CCT Plating

 

34

Magnet Applications

37

U.S. Department of

29

Center for Automotive Research

26

34

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

26

Cornell Dubilier Electronics

6, 14, 27

23,

35

37

VE Commercial Vehicles

28

Cummins

38

38

Curtiss-Wright Defense Solutions

25

36

Volvo Construction Equipment

32

Daimler

Trucks

38

29

Volvo Group

28

Danfoss

Power Solutions

36

30

WABCO Holdings

38

Dassault Systemes

 

17

38

32

Deere

2

26

Wilbrecht LEDCO

35

Eaton

10, 12

6

Yokogawa ..............................................................................................

34

Eicher Motors

 

28

Northwest Numerics

19

Zircotec Group

4

EpoxySet

37

Nvidia

2

FEV

16

Oetiker

35

UPCOMING FROM THE EDITORS

October 5: Automotive Engineering (Connected Car) Technology eNewsletter

October 11: Truck & Off-Highway Engineering Technology eNewsletter

October 19: Vehicle Engineering Technology eNewsletter (all markets)

October 25: Automotive Engineering Technology eNewsletter

November: Automotive Engineering Print Magazine • 2018 New Vehicle Technologies CES ’18 Preview Sensors product spotlight

November: Autonomous Vehicle Engineering NEW Print Magazine Artificial Intelligence The Road to Level 4 Driving SAE Standards Shape the Future of Autonomy Developing the Autonomous Vehicle Testing Regime Autonomy and Commercial Vehicles

November 3: Electronics & Connectivity Technology eNewsletter

November 8: Automotive Engineering Technology eNewsletter

November 13: Truck & Off-Highway Engineering Technology eNewsletter

November 17: Vehicle Engineering Technology eNewsletter (all markets)

November 29: Automotive Engineering Technology eNewsletter

December: Truck & Off-Highway Engineering Print Magazine Thermal Management Autonomous Trucks 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Sensors & Actuators product spotlight

December 5: Automotive Engineering (Autonomous Vehicles special edition) Technology eNewsletter

December 7: Truck & Off-Highway Engineering Technology eNewsletter

AD INDEX

SAE INTERNATIONAL

Q&A

SAE INTERNATIONAL Q & A “For Level 3, a whole redundant sensor set and electronics areRead more about off-road automation at articles.sae.org/15636/. 40 October 2017 TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING " id="pdf-obj-42-8" src="pdf-obj-42-8.jpg">

“For Level 3, a whole redundant sensor set and electronics are already needed and the driver is still in the loop. From that perspective, Level 4 and 5 are more attractive,” said Bosch’s Dr. Johannes- Joerg Rueger at SAE COMVEC 17.

Level 3 automation not attractive for trucks

In his opening keynote address at SAE COMVEC 17 on Sept. 18, Dr. Johannes-Joerg Rueger, President, Commercial Vehicle and Off-Road, Robert Bosch GmbH, noted that a fully autono- mous vehicle would have approximately 100 million lines of code—about six times that for the flight software of a Boeing 787 Dreamliner. “Apparently [automation] is easier in the air than on the road,” he quipped. His point was clear—getting to fully autonomous commercial vehicles is an extremely com- plex undertaking. Rueger addressed a standing room-only crowd to kick off the event, sharing his thoughts on the trends, benefits and solutions related to advanced driver assistance (ADAS) for on-highway vehicles and automation in both on- and off-highway operations.

Is automation more important for CVs than passenger cars?

Commercial vehicles play maybe even a more important role in automation [than passenger cars]. Analyzing data from Germany, more than 50% of accidents with casualties caused by heavy-duty trucks can be avoided with technology which cur- rently is available—functionalities like emergency braking and lane departure warning—and another almost 40% with driver- assistance functions which will come to market in the next cou-

ple of years. [In addition to] addressing road safety, no acci-

dents mean uptime

...

For

passenger cars it’s a question of con-

venience; it’s nice if you don’t need to have your hands on the

steering wheel and have leeway to do something else. But the money lies in the commercial vehicle sector. If a truck could eventually go from A to B safely without any driver, it would address road safety on the one hand and the driver shortage on the other, and particularly driver costs and logistic costs in total. We are talking about [SAE] Level 4 and Level 5 automation, where you really have autonomous trucks. For Level 3 a whole redundant sensor set and electronics are already needed; if then

the driver is still in the loop, the benefit is limited and the costs are almost the same. From that perspective, Level 4 and 5 are more attractive and need to be addressed long term.

What is Bosch doing in this area?

We’re a well-known supplier of driver-assistance and automation technologies in the passenger car sector, but until about two years back we didn’t address commercial vehicle properly, I have to admit, and we changed that with a new organization that I’m heading. We are adapting the same functionalities to commercial vehicles. [With advanced systems], we need to be very careful that whatever is being introduced is properly tested and really works; the complexity of the software algorithms we’re talking about here is huge—that indicates that testing will take some time. If you really want to go autonomously, you need to have a redundant data sensor set and you need to have sensor data fusion, not just in the front but all around the vehicle. If you cal- culate the number of sensors [shown on a Bosch graphic], it’s 24 different sensors for front, rear, left and right observation of the truck’s surroundings, and that’s not considering the trailer which would need sensors as well. So that is a significant investment.

What does the future E/E architecture look like?

Electronics is the backbone for the whole functionality. Clearly, we need to think about how the structure of the elec- tronics will look, and to build the whole architecture towards what is needed in say 7 to 8 years from now. If everybody develops his own little functionality by himself, and does not think about the big picture [but only] what’s needed for the next 2 or 3 years, it probably will need to be thrown away in 3 years and redeveloped. Nobody can afford that with the vol- umes we have. Even for passenger car, that’s not really a good idea; for commercial vehicles, certainly not. It is essen- tial to think now about the E/E architecture of the future. That’s why we’ve put a lot of effort into understanding what is needed and doing studies with our customers to come to a common understanding…In general, I’m not a big fan of pro- prietary systems and a closed architecture. I’m a fan of an architecture which is open in a way that gives the possibility of different parties to develop their specific content. Given the complexity we are talking about, I believe it’s the only option.

What’s happening on the off-road side?

Not surprisingly, the same automation principles and technolo- gies apply for off-road operations as for on-road, because it’s always about visualization of the environment, classification of objects, reactions to those obstacles, and automation, which is the distinguishing factor. When we talk about off-road opera- tions, it is typically not just the driving which is automated but the operation of the machine itself, and potentially that’s even more important. The same basic sensor set, which is camera- based, radar-based, maybe ultrasonic depending on the appli- cation, can be applied to off-road operations.

Ryan Gehm

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