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24 Hour Chick Embryo Proamnion

- Region anterior to the developing avian embryo,


Whole Mount surrounding the head; contains only endoderm and
Area opaca ectoderm
- It will later become invaded with mesoderm and become
- Peripheral region of the chick blastodisc surrounding the incorporated into the amnion
area pellucida and in direct contact with the yolk
- Peripheral region of the blastoderm where the cells are Neural folds
continuous with the underlying yolk that renders the area - Margins of the neural late that are about to fuse at the
opaque mid-dorsal region of the developing embryo
In early development , it is differentiated into three zones:
1) A peripheral zone, known as the margin of growth, Neural groove
where the cells have proliferated over the yolk - A median longitudinal groove which is formed by the
without becoming adherent to it rolling up the neural plate
2) A zone junction, an intermediate region where the
cells cut free from the yolk and are added to the area Head fold
pellucida - Folded region of the blastoderm, represented by a dark
3) An inner zone, known as the germ wall, whose cells crescentic line that marks the boundary of the heads of
originated from the zone junction, thus containing the embryo
yolk granules. This region marks the transition from
the area opaca to the area pellucida. This area Notochord
develops into two regions: - Longitudinal bands of cells extending caudal from the
a) Area opaca vasculosa inner region of the area regional of the neural folds to the Hensens node
opaca where thickenings of the splanchnic
mesoderm for bloodi isalnds Foregut
b) Area opaca vitelline outer region of the area - First part of the digestive tract with a definite floor
opaca which initially lacks any blood islands or composed of the endodermal cells.
blood vessels - Appears as a dome-shaped structure

Area pellucida Anterior Intestinal portal


- Opening of the foregut in developing amniote embryos
- Central region of the blastodisc where the primitive streak - Appears like prominent arched line beneath the neural
forms folds
- Lies directly over the subgerminal cavity and under the - Actually continuous with the lateral walls of the foregut
microscope, appears translucent - As the development progresses and the gut elongates, the
- Ovwed to the thinness of the blastoderm which consist of opening moves posteriorly and ultimately becomes part of
an outer layer of epiblast, from which ectoderm and the yolk stalk
mesoderm will later differentiate, and an inner layer of
hypoblast Mesenchyme of the head
- Lose network of cells occupying the space between the
Primitive streak foregut and the ectoderm of thead

- Longtidunal cleft formed on surface of amniote blastodisc Mesoderm


by a convergence of cells o Anterior border of the mesoderm
- Gastrulation begins as epiblast cells migrate towards and Faint line extending across the area pellucida at
into the streak the level of the anterior end of the notochord
o Primitive groove o Thickened splanchnic mesoderm
Central furrow of the thickening Darker line each of the lateral border of the
o Primitive ridges anterior intestinal portal. Formed by the
Margins of the primitive streak flanking the delamination of the lateral plate mesoderm.
primitive groove on either side Later forms the heart, part of circulatory system
o Primitive pit and many other structures.
Indented region of the blastoderm at the
anterior end of the primitive streak Somite
o Hensens node - Apparent division of the dorsal mesoderm into somites
Thickened area at the anterior end of the can be observed
primitive streak through which cells invaginate - Three of four pairs of somites maybe seen lying
to form the notochord. It is homologous to the immediately lateral to the neural folds
dorsal lip of the blastopore in amphibian
embryos. Syn: primitive knot
Unsegmented mesoderm Splanchnopleure
- Undivided region of the mesoderm posterior to the - Cellular layer consisting of the splanchnic mesoderm and
somites endoderm
Form: part of the body wall in the embryo as well as the
yolk sac and allantois

Transverse Section Coelom


- The body cavity formed when the somatic mesoderm and
Section through the pharyngeal membrane the mesoderm separates from each other

Head ectoderm Subgerminal cavity


- Layer of cuboidal cells enclosing the head - The space beneath the hypoblast within the area pellucida
- Cells are cuboidal in origin Form: midgut

Neural folds
- Margins of the neural epithelium that have yet fused at Section through the anterior intestinal portal
the midline In this section, note that the neural folds have come together to form
the neural tube. This section Is also at the level of the open foregut.
Anterior neuropore
Note that the endoderm of the foregut is continuous with the rest of
- Temporary external opening of the neurocoel
the endoderm. Examine the thickened, splanchnic mesoderm on each
Neural groove side of the anterior intestinal portal. This region of thickened,
- A median longitudinal groove which splanchnic mesoderm is prospective cardiac mesoderm.
- formed by the rolling up of the neural plate
Neural tube
Prechordal plate - A tube of tissue
- a mass of chordamesodermal cells located anterior to the - Formed by a thickening and rolling up of the neural plate
notochord which will form head mesenchyme during embryonic neurulation
Form: brain and spinal cord of the animal
Notochord
- a small medial mass of cells between the foregut and the
Neural crest
neural plate
- A group of cells found at the edges of the neural plate and
Foregut lying above the neural tube after its formation
- a dorsoventral flattened tube with endodermal cells - Migrate throughout the embryo to
making up its wall Form: ganglia, pigment cells, part of gill arches, etc.
- located beneath neural plate
Head fold
Oral plate - Marked by the downward bend of the membranes around
- region where the floor of the foregut is in contact with the the head region of the developing embryo
neural ectoderm of the head
- In lateral development this structure will break open to Anterior intestinal portal
form the mouth - Opening of the foregut in developing amniote embryos
Syn: oropharyngeal membrane - As development progresses and the gut elongates, the
opening moves posteriorly and ultimately becomes part of
Mesenchyme
the yolk stalk.
- Loosely scattered cells filling up the spaces between the
foregut and the neural plate
Amnio-cardiac vesicle
Proamnion - The region of the coelom that will
- Region of the blastoderm beneath the embryos head Form: amnion and the heart
- Composed of the ectoderm and endoderm layer - Thickened splanchnic mesoderm making up the proximal
wall of the semi-cardiac vesicle is the forerunner of the
Subcephalic pocket heart
- The cavity formed beneath the embryonic head as the - On the hand, the dorsal wall of the vesicle, composed of
head fold develops the somatopleure, is involved in the formation of the
amnion.
Somatopleure
- The membrane composed of the ectoderm and somatic
mesoderm
Forms: part of body wall as well as the chorion and
amnion
Section through the midgut o Primitive pit
The middle part of the gut that has the yolk for the floor of its cavity A depression, slightly deeper than the primitive
is called the midgut. In this section, find the endoderm and the groove and situated posterior to the Hensens
midgut. Keep in mind that the embryo was removed from the yolk node, thus, section through the anterior region
for the fixation and sectioning. If the yolk was present in the section, of the primitive streak will show the Hensens
it would fill the bottom part of the picture. node, while more posteriorly the sections may
pass through the primitive pit.
Midgut o Primitive groove
- Floorless region of the gut Sections cut more posterior to the primitive pit
- Posterior to the anterior intestinal portal will reveal a central furrow, the primitive groove.
o Primitive ridges
Thickened margins on each side of the primitive
Section through the somite groove.
In this section through a pair of somites, the neural folds have not
yet closed together. The somites developed from dorsal mesoderm
(D) and are located on each side of the neural folds and notochord.
Lateral and adjacent to the somites is a small region of mesoderm
known as the intermediate mesoderm (I). The intermediate
mesoderm will develop into the kidneys. Lateral to the intermediate
mesoderm, is the lateral plate mesoderm (L), which will delaminate
to form the somatic and splanchnic mesodermal layers.

Somites
- Segmented mesodermal blocks
- Located on either side of the developing spinal cord
- Arise from the dorsal mesoderm

Nephrotome
- A stalk-like connection between somites and lateral plate
mesoderm
Form: pronephros (anteriorly), mesenchyme (posteriorly)
Mesenchyme -> mesonephros and metanephros
Syn: intermediate mesoderm, mesomere and
nephromere

Hypomere
- Region of the mesoderm distal to the nephrotome
- Subdivided into two layers:
a) Somatic mesoderm
b) Splanchnic mesoderm

Section through the primitive streak


In this centre of the picture, note the primitive streak which consists
of the primitive groove and the two primitive ridges. Note the
ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

Primitive streak
- Longitudinal cleft formed at the surface of amniote
blastodisc by a convergence of cells
Gastrulation begins as the epiblast cells migrate towards
and into the streak.
o Hensens node
Thickened area at the anterior end of the
primitive streak through which cells invaginate
to form the notochord. It is homologous to the
dorsal lip of the blastopore in amphibian
embryos. Syn: Primitive knot