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Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan Jawaharlal Nehru
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IS 12633 (1989): First filling and emptying of pressure

tunnels - Guidelines [WRD 14: Water Conductor Systems]

! $ ' +-
Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda
Invent a New India Using Knowledge

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Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen
IS 12633 I 198'
(Reaffirmed 2000)
Indian STandard
'1llmtl qTifiti
~lil' ~ii l{1.:i\ ,,-n ~"1 ~~;1 ~) - ~l'tm fQ1't'(

unc 627'842 I 62L6 057 21 /"4

@ BIS 1989
NEW DELHI 110002

Price Group :I
I Page I, clause 3.U. (I) ) -Insert tbe folloWingIllhe end:

'such IS lefl over ccncrete lumps. proJechons. protruding dowels. etc, Thesc
,bOuld be ground smooth.'
I Page1, clause 3.1.1 (b) ) -Insert the following It the end:

'prdcJ1bl)' wllh rtSJD based hanlene rs,

I Page 1. clause 3.1.1 (c) ) -Inscrt Ihe Iollowmg Illbe end:

'IDd the boles Ior groulJng be SQIed perfectly Ind Ibe surface ground smooth.'
(Page 3, clause 7.1.1 ) - Insert Ihe followmg Illhe end:

'TJus 'hall apply to penstock and draft tube gales atso,

(RVD 14)
ReP"'erapby VOl!,BIS, Now 0011.., Ind..
Water Conductor SYltelDl ~ctional Committee, BDC 58

Thil Indian Standard was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards on 24 February 1989, after
the draft finalized by the Water Conductor Sylteml Sectional Committee had been approved by the
Civil Engineering Division Council.
The pressure tunnel is a part of water conductor IYltem and hence the filling and emptying is linked
with overall planning of filling and emptying of the water conductor system.
The schedule of first filling and emptyin~ of tunnel for a project shall be prepared and discussed
among design and field engineers in detail before commencement of operation.
IS 12633 I 1989

Indian Standard

1 SCOPE removed and the tunnel cleared of all

extraneous material.
1.1 This standard covers the guidelines and
precautions to be observed for first filling and b) It shall he repaired, wherever required.
emptying of the pressure tunnels of water con- c) It shall be ensured that all cold joints are
ductor system of hydro-electric projects. properly treated.
d) It shall be ensured that contact grouting
2 GENERAL has been done in the prescribed reaches
2.1 Water conductor system of a hydro-electric and shall be in accordance with the design
project generally consists of the following com- requirements.
ponents: e) It shall be ensured that consolidation
a) Intake structure, grouting has been done in the prescribed
reaches and shall be in accordance with
b) Head race tunnels, the design requirements.
c) Surge tank, f) It shall be ensured that all the points, such
d) Valve house, as, man-hole construction adits, etc, have
e) By-pass, been properly sealed/plugged in accord-
f) Penstock,/presm re shafts, ance with design requirements,
g) It shall be ensured that all the instruments
g) Draft tube,
required for observations before filling,
h) Downstream surge tank, and during filling and after filling have been
j) Tail race. installed at required locations and are in
proper working order.
3 CHECK LIST h) Drainage holes and dewatering pipe,
3.1 Before commencement of filling operation, it wherever provided, shall be checked and
shall be ensured that all construction material, it shall be ensured that these are function-
labour and d"partmental personnel are cleared ing properly and there is no particle flow.
from the entire water system. Before actually j) It shall be ensured that proper arrange-
fiUing the system, the following checks ( 3.1.1 to ments for gradual filling and dewatering
3.1.9 ) shall be exercised. are functioning properly.
3.1.1 Intake Structure k) It shall be ensured that there is no obstruc-
tion in the air vent pipes, where provided,
a) Trash-rack and air vent shall be cleaned and around outlet and inlet pipes.
and its cleaning device shall be checked. m) It shall be ensured that the adit gates,
In projects where trash-rack cleaning where provided, are working and sealing
device is not equipped, the racks shall be have been bolted/locked properly.
inspected manually.
b) Gateslstop logs shall be checked for their 3.1.3 Surg' Tank
seals, tracks, guides and smooth operation
of gates. Filler valves shall also be check- a) Gates/stop logs, wherever provided, in the
ed, if provided. surge tank shall be checked for their seals,
c) Hoisting arrangements shall be checked tracks, guides, etc, by lowering/ rat-ing
for proper operation. in respective slots or all the slots. It is
d) Automatic system for operation and alarm! also necessary to check filler valves to
shall be checked. ensure balanced operation of gates.
e) A telephone/wireless set shall be provided b) Hoisting arrangement for the above shall
at gate with trained crews posted for be checked for proper operation.
operation of gate. c) Water level indicators, automatic system
for operation and all the alarms shall be
3.1.2 Head Race Tunnel checked.
a) It shaH be thoroughly inspected. All the d) Drainage glllleries, if provided, around the
COJUtruction material/equipment shall be surge tank shall be cleaned.
18 12633 I 1989

e) Man holes, construction aditl, etc, shall be pumping and followin~ systems in power
properly plugged in accordance with the house be checked f01 proper functioning:
design requirement. I) Operation of draft tube gates under
f) AIr vent shall be clear of any obstruction water,
g) It shall he ensured that the lnstrumenu 2) Cooling water system for power house,
needed for observation before filling, during 3) Pressure filters In the power house,
filling and after filling are installed at
required places and are in working order 4) Draft tube dell atermg system,
5) Emulsifier pumps in the power house,
NOTE - Tho above rhecka apply to upstream a. won as
dowrutteam mrge tanka and
6) All drainage and dewatering system.
3.1.4 Pens/ocks/Pressur, Shafts
e) In case of any malfunctioning, the tad
a) Entire length of penstocks/pressure shafts race may be emptied by pumping and
shall be thoroughly cleaned. The penstocks refilled after rer tifying the defects.
shall be painted and completed in all
respects and inspected for before filling the f) The tall race and draft tube shall be filled
wafer. up to minimum water level hefore the start
of initia] fillmg.
b) All the machine inlet valves shan he
checked for proper operation, 3.1.7 Valve House
c) All the bolts of man-holes shall be checked The follo.... ing checks shall be carried out on
and tightened. valves before fillmg operation is started:
d) All the bolts of the seals of expannon
joints of penstocks should be tested and a) All hydraulic and electrical systems should
team kept ready with required kit to carry be checked
out tightening a. required in case of leak- b) The air inlet valve and vacuum breaking
age. valves should be cleared for overflow of
e) In case of rockers provided as supports for any water.
penstocks, these should be set and greased c) The drain from the valve house should be
for free movement. cleared for overflow of any water.
f) Any instruments provided in pressure d) The communication between valve house
shafts or on anchor blocks shall be and power house shall be tested.
monitored. e) The control system from the control room
~) It shall be ensured that grouting holes are to the valve house shall be checked and
properly plugged and repainted. tested for proper operation.
h) It shall be ensured that the air vents are
clear of any obstruction and air valves are 5.1.8 Pow" House
working properly. a) All pra-comrrussiomng test in the dry stage
j) It shall be ensured that filling and shall be completed in all respects and
dewatering systems are working properly. certified by the manufacturer and the
3.1.5 Draft Tubes
b) The staff required for the operation of
a) All the draft tubes shall be clean and power plant shall be In position and assume
ready for running. the specific duties.
b) Draft tube gates and their hoisting c) Adequate number of spare dewatering
arrangement shall be checked for their pumps shall be in posiiion at various floors
smooth operation. of the power house.
3.1.6 Tall Race d) All temporary stofs provided during the
construction shal be removed and tested
The fcllowrng checks 10 addiuon to those against full tail race level.
mentioned in 3.1.2 shall be carried out e) All drainage and dewatering pumps shall
a) The temporary cofterdam on downstream, be conditioned and made in operational
if any, shall be removed. condition
b) Pumps for dewatering the tail race should f) Turbine seals shan be tested and checked
be ready at hand. for perfect sealing.
c) The area around the tail race should be g) Inlet valve seals shall be tested and check-
cleared of all obstructions for any imme- ed for perfect sealing
diate movement of equipment. h) Alternative source of power supply for
d) After dry testing of draft tube gates, working all auxiharies in the power house
water should be filled in tall race by shall be ensured 24 hours.

IS 12633 I 1989

j) Electrical over head crane shall be in 6 CHECKS BEFORE START OF FILLING

operating condition and tested.
6.1 Obtain final clearance ensuring that no
k] All vacuum valves and air release valve man or material of any kind has been left In the
and drainage valves shall be tested. tunnel and other works. The engineer in-charge
m) The security staff and security arrangement shall himself inspect the tunnel and other works
shall be completed to restrict the entry of and ensure that no material or equipment has
unauthorized person in the power house. been left inside, before he orders closing of access
n) The staff fur operation and maintenance doorsj man holes.
of the power house shall be in position and 6.2 Check that access door.manholes are properly
full compliment shall be detailed on shift closed and locked.
duties bel ore rmtial fillmg starts.
6.3 Check that all the draft tube gates are In
:J.l.9 By-Pa.s raised position.
a) The garcs'stoplogs, where provided, shall 6.4 Check that all the main inlet valves are
be checked for their seals, track, guides, closed.
etc, by lowcung raismg in respective slots
or all the slots as the case may be.
6.5 Check that the guide vanes of all the machines
are closed with 011 pressure applied (Apply gene-
b) It shall be ensured that the liners and rator brakes to prevent creeping, if necessary).
embedded metal works are painted
properly. 6.6 Check that the surge shaft gates/stoplogs are
in open posiuon.
c) It shall be ensilled that dlainage arrange-
rnent around the by-pass has been provided 6.7 Check the reaervoir level. The filling should
in accordanee with design requirements. only start when the reservoir level is at or above
d) It shall be ensured that the air vents are the minimum permissible level.
clear of any obstruction.
e) It shall be ensured that arrangement for
gradual filling/dewatermg are functioning 7.1 General
f) It shall be ensured that the alarm system Filling is normally done from the downstream
end of the water conductor system, that is, the
indicating the sta: t of by-pass arrangement
is working properly. machine inlet valve. However, in case of long
head race tunnel, where a surge shaft is provided,
4 LOCATION OF OBSERVATION POINTS the system shall be filled initially up to the surge
shaft, if provided with gates, otherwise up to the
4.1 Before filling the water conductor system, emergency valves downstream of valve. The
the observation points shall be judiciously located portion of water conductor system between the
at convenient places along the aystem. Such emergency valves downstream of shaft and the
points may be located near the tunnel plugs main inlet valve provided just upstream of the
( such as, those at intermediate adits in a long machine may be filled up only afrer detection
tunnel) and in the Vicinity of the surge shaft and and rectification of leakage upstream of the
along the penstocks slopes (say, in the upper butterfly valve.
expansion chamber). Observation points shall 7.1.1 The water conductor system shall be filled
also be located at water systems, such as, existing at very slow rate so that the internal pressure
springs, water level in wells, retaining walls, etc, increases gradually and the surrounding condi-
in lower cover reaches and monitored after filling. tions get sufficient time for stabilization.
If any leakage is observed at the observation
point or an appreciable drop in surge tank water 7.1.2 In case of gated arrangement, the leakage
level is seen, the same shall be reported and on gates shall be checked and ascertained for the
attended to immediately. Since minor leakages efficacy of the seals.
through plug concrete may be anticipated,
7.1.3 The water conductor system shall be filled
grouting equipment, such as, grout pump', pipes,
at a slow rate so that there is no scope for
nozzles, drilling machine, cement, sand, water,
the air to get entrapped, compressed and then
etc, shall be kept handy for urgent requirements.
5.1 Communication facilities, such as, walkie- 7.2.1 Depending upon the length of the system,
talkie andjor telephone shall be provided at the number of probable seepage observation points
intake as well as at all observation points so that and filling req uirements, the total time taken to
important messages may be flashed across easily complete the initial filling shall be estimated.
and quickly without any loss of time. This can be calculated and arrived at once the

IS 12633 I 1989

volume of water required to fill the system is m) If the drop in water level is more at any
known. step, the reasons for leak Igc shall be inves-
tigated and remedial measures should be
7.2.2 Following steps shall he followed for initial taken. Next filling steps shall only be
filling: taken after ensuring that drop in water
level in the prsceding 'Iep is within the
a) Gates of intake shall be lowered and pond pre-determined limit>.
level maintained at desired level with the
p) All gates, uoplogs, obser vation points,
help of spillway gates and/or other dis-
values and expansion poinn un penstocks
charge outlets.
shall be monitored for leakage dui ing and
h] Surge shaft gales/bulterfly valve and after filling.
machine inlet valve gate shall be kept
closed. 7.3 FUlial of Tail Race Syuem
c) If filling i, to he done by crack opening, 7.3.1 The tail race shall be filled U t ' to the rn un
intake gate shall he raiser! lip to the height mum tail ..... ater level gradually. In r ase of po wei
calculated by e>timating the discharge houses having a clerp setting, the filling of the
requirements for filling up the system in tail race may have to b~ accompliahed by pump-
the programmed schedule of time frame ing water into it from a Source located near the
of filling. The velocity should be restric- tail race.
ted to about 6 Ill/sec. The crack-opening
would generally be of the order of 20 to 8 EMPTYING THE SYSTEM
40 mm, Thus, in order to limit the velo-
city through the gate, water level in the
reservoir should not be marc than 300 to
8.1 If quantity of leakage or any other situation
warrants emptying the tunnel or entire water
500 mm above the crest level of the intake
conductor system, following procedure and pre-
caution, shall be adopted:
d) Surge shaft gates;butterfly valves, machine
a) Close all the intake gates,
inlet valves, penstocks couplings., etc, shall
be checked and tested. b) Emptying of the tunnel shall be done
c) The tunnel shall be filled in appropriate through the by pass. However. if no by-
pre-determined steps of water head so that pass is provided, the water shall be dis.
excessive tension in the lining i. avoided, charged through the turbine.
The steps may be worked out on the basis c) Before emptying the system through the
of known properties of the surrounding turbine, it shall be ensured tbat the turbine
lock mass. is just sufficient to run the machine at no
C) A waiting period of at least 48 h shall U,: load and the generator is not being cnn-
allowed between first and second steps of nected.
filling and of at least 24 h between each <I) Rate of emPtYing the tunnel shall be
subsequent ~teps of fillin~ to get the <lower than the rate of filling. Emptying
surrounding strata surchai ged with wafer of the tunnel shall be done in steps. In no
g) Watel levels in the SUI ge tank shall be case, the number of steps in emptying
recerdecl concurrently during ihe fillin!; 'hall be less than tlr II umber of steps
operation. followed in filling. The number of steps
may be increased if 1\ smaller discharge
h) At the end of each sfep of fiJling, the IS to be passNI through Ihe machines.
intake ~f.Ile~ shall be closed and water
levels in the surge tank shall be observed e) Suitable waiting period shall be allowed
every hour. The loss of water from tunnel between each step of emptying.
through d rainagc galleries around SlIrge
lank and leakage through machine inlet 9 PRECAUTIONS BEFORE ENTERING
valve shall abo be noted. THE TUNNEL AFTER EMPTYING
J) Clo~1' monitoring of instruments ;IlSlalkd
in head I ace tunnel, 'urge tank and pen- 9.1 Un emptying the access dOOI! manhole, there
stock ~hall he done before, during and may be ventilation due to the stork ellect of the
after filling of the system. surge shaft This may clear limited areas on
either side of the surge shaft. Other areas may
k) After the watel conductor system IS filled, be oxygen deficient, contain hydrogen sulphide
t-he reset voir level shall he rnaintained at alld{or methane. The water in the tunnel has
the lowest level. The water level shall he been ~radllally lowered, giving t nue for any gases
raised slowly in the I eservoir till it reaches ( C02. CO, CH~. 802, H2S) m 'hf' water 10 b':
the maximum reservoir level. liberated.
IS 12633 I 1989

9.2 Keep the access door/manhole open for 12 h within the ad it or any section of the tunnel.
to permit fresh air draft imide the tunnel and
thus to bring humidity to a safe level for human 9.i Send an advance party with gum boots,
breathing. raincoats, torch lights for a distance of 500 m
(or less if they feel uneasy) only and report
9.3 Do no! enter the tunnel without carrying back. Dependll.g upon the condition of water
personal monitoring equipment and have breath- and slush. carry out regular Inspection either on
ing apparatus Within reach. Under no circum- foot or on a vehicle WIth spot lights mounted on
stances, less than two persons shall enter or move it.

~-- ~- -- ~ --.
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standard as a furtber safeguard. Details of conditions under which a licence for the use
of the Standard Mark may be granted to manufacturers or producers may be obtained from
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are issued from time to time. Users of Indian Standards sheuld ascertain that they are in
possession of the latest amendments or edition. Comments on this Indian Standard may be sent
to BIS giving the following reference:

Doc : No. BDC 58 ( 4467 )

Ameadm_tl I...eelSiace Pabllcatioll

Amend No. Date of Issue Text Atreeted



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