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Konsep Dasar

Sistem Manajemen Keselamatan


dan Kesehatan Kerja

H d
Hendra
Pokok Bahasan
Definisi SMK3
Tujuan SMK3
FactorcontributingandBarrierstoeffective
Factor contributing and Barriers to effective
OHSMS
Elemen Umum SMK3

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Latar belakangg sejarah
j
OHSMSmenjadi kunci sebagai strategi pencegahan pada
pertengahan tahun 80
80an
an

Dimulai pada Desember 1984,Tragedi Bhopal:Kebocoran tanki


bahan kimia methylisocyanate yangmembunuh sekitar 2500
orang.
Hasil investigasi
g mengindikasikan
g faktor yyangberkontribusi
g
terhadap kejadian tersebut adalahkurangnya perhatian terhadap:
disain dan proses plant
Maintenance dan planttestingserta
Maintenancedan plant testing serta alat pengaman
Trainingdan emergencyplanning
Sistem proteksi terhadap lingkungan penduduk di sekitar pabrik

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Definisi
Manajemen dapat didefinisikan sebagai kemampuan
atau
t keterampilan
k t il untukt k memperoleh
l h sesuatu
t hasil
h il
dalam rangka pencapaian tujuan melalui kegiatan
kegiatan orang lain.
lain.

Manajemen merupakan suatu proses pencapaian


tujuan secara efisien dan efektif,melalui pengarahan,
penggerakan dan pengendalian kegiatankegiatan yang
dilakukan oleh orangorang yangtergabung dalam
suatu bentuk kerja sama.

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Definisi
OccupationalHealthandSafetyManagementSystem
(OHSMS) Sistem Manajemen K3
(OHSMS)

OHSMS
OHSMSas
as aacombinationoftheplanningandreview,the
combination of the planning and review, the
managementorganizationalarrangements,theconsultative
arrangements,andthespecificprogramelementsthatwork
together in an integrated way to improve health and safety
togetherinanintegratedwaytoimprovehealthandsafety
performance(Gallagher,2000)

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Definisi
Occupationalhealthandsafetymanagement
system(OHSMS)
Thatpartoftheoverallmanagementsystem
whichincludesorganizationalstructure,planning
activities,responsibilities,practices,procedures,
processes and resources for developing
processesandresourcesfordeveloping,
implementing,achieving,reviewingand
maintaining the OHS policy and so managing the
maintainingtheOHSpolicy,andsomanagingthe
risksassociatedwiththebusinessofthe
organization.

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Definisi
Occupationalhealthandsafetymanagement
system(OHSMS)
t (OHSMS)
Partoftheoverallmanagementsystemthat
facilitates the management of the OH&S risks
facilitatesthemanagementoftheOH&Srisks
associatedwiththebusinessoftheorganization.
Thisincludestheorganizationalstructure,
planningactivities,responsibilities,practices,
procedures,processesandresourcesfor
developing implementing achieving reviewing
developing,implementingachieving,reviewing
andmaintainingtheorganizationsOH&Spolicy.
(BSI011999/OHSAS180011999)

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Definisi
Occupationalhealthandsafetymanagementsystem
(OHSMS)
Sistem Manajemen K3(SMK3)adalah bagian dari sistem
manajemen
j secara keseluruhan
k l h yangmeliputili ti struktur
t kt
organisasi,perencanaan,tanggung jawab,pelaksanaan,
prosedur,proses
p ,p dan sumber daya
y yyangdibutuhkan
g bagi
g
pengembangan,penerapan,pencapaian,pengkajian dan
pemeliharaan kebijakan keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja
dalam rangka pengendalian risiko yangberkaitan dengan
kegiatan kerja guna terciptanya tempat kerja yangaman,
efisien dan efektif.(Permen
efisien,dan efektif (Permen 05/MEN/1996)

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Definisi
Pada dasarnya SMK3merupakan implementasi ilmu dan
fungsi manajemen dalam melakukan perencanaan,
perencanaan
implementasi,maupun evaluasi programK3di tempat kerja
dalam suatu sistem.

Manajemen K3
+

Manajemen K3
Sistem Manajemen K3
Sistem

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TujuandansasaranSMK3
j
Menciptakan suatu sistem keselamatan dan
k h
kesehatan k j di tempat kerja
kerja k j dengan
d melibatkan
lib k
unsur manajemen,tenaga kerja,kondisi dan
lingkungan kerja yangterintegrasi
yang terintegrasi dlam rangka
mencegah dan mengurangi kecelakaan dan penyakit
akibat kerja
j serta terciptanya
p y tempat p kerjaj yyang
g
aman,efisien,dan efektif.

hdr 2006 10
SystemTypes
y yp
SafetyPersonControlStrategy
Preventionstrategyfocusedonthecontrolof
employeebehavior

SafePlaceControlStrategy
Preventionstrategyfocusedonthecontrolof
hazardsatsourcethroughattentionatthedesign
stageandapplicationofhazardidentification
assessmentandcontrolprinciples

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SystemTypes
y yp
TraditionalManagement
Thekeypersonsinhealthandsafetyarethesupervisorand/orOHSspecialist
yp y p / p
Alowlevelofintegrationofhealthandsafetyintobroadermanagement
systemsandpractices(forexample,integrationofOHSwithingeneral
proceduresorinterfunctionalactivities)
Employeemaybebuttheirinvolvementisnotviewedascriticalforthe
Employee may be but their involvement is not viewed as critical for the
operationoftheOHSMS,oralternativelyatraditionalhealthandsafety
committeeinplace.

InnovativeManagement
Seniorandlinemanagershavethekeyroleinhealthandsafety
Ahighlevelofintegrationofhealthandsafetyintobroadermanagement
systems and practices (with connect OHS to business planning or quality/best
systemsandpractices(withconnectOHStobusinessplanning,orquality/best
practicemanagementinitiatives)
Employeeinvolvementisviewedascriticaltosystemoperationandthereare
mechanisminplacetogiveeffecttoahighlevelofinvolvement.

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FactorcontributingandBarrierstoeffectiveOHSMS
Factors Contributing Barriers
A.TypeofSystem
Customised toorganisation
to organisationss needs Offtheshelfsystem
Off the shelf system imposedwithout
imposed without
modification
Developedwithsupportandinvolvementofall Imposed byseniormanagementwithout
organisation stakeholders consultation
Safeplace/innovative system Safeperson/traditionalsystem
B.InternalOrganisational Factors
(i) Management Commitment
(i)ManagementCommitment
Strongseniormanagementinvolvement DelegatingofOHSresponsibilitytoline&OHS
managementpositions
OHSMSintroducedtoimproveOHS
O S S t oduced to p o e O S Introduced&supportedfornonOHSreasons
t oduced & suppo ted o o O S easo s
Provisionofadequateresources Inadequateresources
OHSintegraltomanagement performance Limitedaccountabilitymechanisms
appraisals
Leadingbyexample Wordsunsupportedbypractice

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FactorcontributingandBarrierstoeffectiveOHSMS
Factors Contributing Barriers
(ii)IntegrationintoManagementSystems
All organisational functionsincorporate
Allorganisational functions incorporate OHS OHSMS activities marginalised
OHSMSactivitiesmarginalised
(iii)EmployeeInvolvement
Allemployeesencouragedandcapableof OHSrestrictedtotechnicalexperts
participation Inadequate training ofemployeesinOHS&in
Inadequatetraining of employees in OHS & in
consultation
Independentrepresentationofemployees Selectiveemployeeinvolvementat
encouraged andsupported managementsdiscretion
(iv)WorkforceCharacteristics
Stableworkforce Highlabour turnover,extensivecasualandpart
timeworkforce
Relianceuponandexclusionoflabour the
employeesfromOHSMS

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FactorcontributingandBarrierstoeffectiveOHSMS
Factors Contributing Barriers
C.NatureofOrganisation
Largerorganisation
Larger organisation familiarwithsystemand
familiar with system and Smallbussiness,withlimitedresourcesand
Small bussiness with limited resources and
withadequate resources unfamiliarwithsystemconcept
Sableworkplace Laborhirecompanywithemployeesworking
betweenmultipleclientsites
Disorganisation ofworkassociatedwith
presenceoflabour hireemployeeand
contractors
D. Contractor Relations
D.ContractorRelations
Principalcontractorworkswithsubcontractor Principalcontractorsmply requires
todevelopcompatibleOHSMS subcontractortohaveOHSMS
Principalcontractorsimplyimposestheir
OHSMSonsubcontractor
SubcontractorsOHSMSinconsistentwith
principalsOHSMS

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FactorcontributingandBarrierstoeffectiveOHSMS
Factors Contributing Barriers
E.AuditsandAuditTools
Appropriatelyusedauditscanverifyand
Appropriately used audits can verify and Inappropriatelyusedauditsencouragepaper
Inappropriately used audits encourage paper
validateOHSMSandfacilitatecontinuous systemsandan instrumentalistapproachto
improvement OHASMS
Adequateaudittoolsaretailoredto Inadequateaudittoolssupportmediocare
organisational needsandreflectkeyOHSMS OHSMS
successfactors
Auditprocessesarerobustandauditorsare Qualitystyle auditprocessesandinadequate
technically competent
technicallycompetent auditor skill limit audit comprehensiveness
auditorskilllimitauditcomprehensiveness
Auditsareintegratedwithinacomprehensive Useofauditsastheprimarymeasurementtool
approachtomeasurement

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Elemen ofOHSMS
DemingCycle

Plan

Action Do

Check

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MainelementsoftheOSHmanagementsystem

Policy

Organizing

Planning &
Action for implementation
improvement

Evaluation

ILO

hdr 2006 18
OH&S Management
g System Elements

Continuousimprovement

OH&Spolicy

Management
review Planning

Checkingand
Checking and Implementation
l
correctiveaction andoperation

BSI 1999

hdr 2006 19
Wassalam.

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