THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
SCIA
Release : 5.20
Module : ESASD.01
Manual : SCIA STEEL DESIGNER
Steel Code Check
Theoretical Background
Revision : 01/2006
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EC 3 ENV 1993 2
EC 3 EN 1993 22
DIN18800 30
ONORM B 4300 54
NEN 59
AISC  ASD 76
AISC  LRFD 83
CM66 89
CM66  ADDITIF 80 94
BS59501:1990 99
BS59501:2000 108
SIA263 115
BSK 99 141
IS 800 152
SECTION CHECK FOR BUILTIN BEAMS (IFB, SFB, THQ SECTIONS) 241
INTRODUCTION 241
REDUCTION OF PLASTIC MOMENT CAPACITY DUE TO PLATE BENDING 241
PLASTIC INTERACTION FORMULA FOR SINGLE BENDING AND SHEAR FORCE 243
PLASTIC CHECK FOR PLATE IN BENDING 244
STRESS CHECK FOR SLIM FLOOR BEAMS 245
NORMAL STRESS CHECK 245
SHEAR STRESS CHECK IN PLATE 246
TORSION CHECK DUE TO UNBALANCED LOADING 246
REFERENCES 249
EC 3 ENV 1993
Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 199311:1992
Material properties
For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined
according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], art.3.2.2.1.)
Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the
previous table
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Remark : For cold formed sections, the average yield strength fya can be used (by setting
the proper data flag in the Cross Section input dialog).
The average yield strength is determined as follows :
knt
f ya = f yb + (f f yb ) min (f u ,1.2f yb )
A u
g
Consulted articles
The crosssection is classified according to Table 5.3.1. (class 1,2,3 or 4). The section is
checked for tension (art. 5.4.3.), compression (art. 5.4.4.), shear (art. 5.4.6.) and the
combination of bending, shear and axial force (art. 5.4.9.).
For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to art.5.5.. The following
criteria are considered :
for compression : art. 5.5.1.
for lateral torsional buckling : art. 5.5.2.
for bending and axial compression : art. 5.5.4.
The shear buckling resistance is checked using the simple postcritical method from art.
5.6.3.
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A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for part 5.3., 5.4., 5.5. and 5.6. in
the following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked
with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.
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Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for nonprismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.
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The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d =
fy,k).
For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is
determined and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective
area) can change for each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the
screen.
For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved
:
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression.
Weff is the effective section modulus of the crosssection when subject only to moment
about the relevant axis. eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross
section is subject to uniform compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.
For nonprismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each
intermediary section, also for the stability check.
For angle sections, see chapter 'Effective crosssection properties for compressed lattice
tower angle members'.
Section properties
5.4.2.2 : The net area properties are not taken into account .
5.4.2.3 : The shear lag effects are neglected .
Bending moment
The reduced design plastic resistance moment for the interaction of bending, shear and
axial force, is taken from Table 5.17. Ref. [2]
Torsion check
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For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping
check'.
Builtin beams
For builtin beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are
performed, taking into account the local plate bending. See Chapter Section check for
builtin beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections)
Compression members
5.5.1.5 For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Calculation of
buckling ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see chapter Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH
elements).
The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[5], Annex D.
Lateraltorsional buckling
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections
and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is
given by the general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. [1]. For the calculation of the moment
factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by
2 EI Iw + LGI t
Mcr = z
L
2
Iz 2 EI z
See also Ref. [3], part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.
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Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
The shear resistance of the web Vw,Rd shall be taken as the lesser of the shear buckling
resistance Vb,Rd and the plastic shear resistance Vpl,Rd.
_ f yb M 0
w 0.83
f y M1
_ sw f yb
w = 0.346
t E
s w t f bv
Vb,Rd =
M1
The plastic shear resistance Vpl,Rd is given by
sw t fy
Vpl ,Rd =
M0 3
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_
w
fbv
<1.40 fyb
0.48
w
1.40 f yb
0.67 _
w
Remarks :
For an arbitrary composed section, the total Vb,Rd and Vpl,Rd is taken as the sum of
resistance of each web, where the angle (teta) is larger than 45 (see figure)
the basic yield strength is taken equal to the average yield strength
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The design buckling resistance Nb,Rd for torsional or torsionalflexural buckling shall be
obtained using buckling curve b, and with relative slenderness given by :
f yb
= A
cr
cr = min( cr ,T , cr ,TF )
1 EC m
cr ,T = GI t +
A g i 02 l T2
i 02 = i 2y + i 2z + y 02
cr ,TF =
1
2
[
( cr ,y + cr ,T ) ( cr , y + cr ,T ) 4 cr ,y cr ,T ]
E
cr ,y =
ly
iy
y
= 1 0
i0
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When the torsional buckling and/or the torsionalflexural buckling is governing, the
formula (6.12) from Ref.[4], article 6.5.2. is applied.
(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc
N G = N f,SD
Vs
VG =
2
Va
MG = s
4
Vs a
T =
h0 2
Vs a
M=
4
For the calculation of Vs, the value of Ms is increased with the value of the internal force
Mzz.
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ho
The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi,d,t are taken from the results of the
analysis. It is recommended to use the accidental combination rules, for calculating the
internal forces used in the fire resistance check.
GA G k + 1,1Q k ,1 + 2, jQ k , j + A d (f )
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Material properties
f y ,
k y , =
fy
f p ,
k p , =
fy
E a ,
k E , =
Ea
The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ky,,
proportional limit kp, and modulus of elasticity kE, is given by tables in ref.[6], table
3.1.
In the simplified calculation method, the following default properties are considered to
be constant during the analysis :
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In this part, the nominal temperaturetime curves and the related net heat flux are
described. See Ref.[8], Section 4, and Ref.[7], II.2.2.
( )
g = 660 1 0.687e 0.32 t 0.313e 3.8 t + 20
c = [25]W / m K
hydrocarbon curve
( )
g = 1080 1 0.325e 0.167 t 0.675e 2.5 t + 20
c = [50]W / m K
g = 1544 t + 20
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h net ,c = c ( g m )
(
h net ,r = res 5.67 10 8 ( r + 273) ( m + 273)
4 4
)
with configuration factor [1.0]
res resultant emissivity
= f m
f emissivity related to fire compartment
= [0.800]
m emissivity related to surface material
= [0.625]
r = g
gas temperature in [C]
m surface temperature of member in [C]
c coefficient of heat transfer by convection
Steel Temperature
The increase of temperature a,t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval
t
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Am / V
a ,t = h net ,d t
ca a
The increase of temperature a,t in an insulated steel member during a time interval t
p A p / V ( g ,t a ,t )
a ,t =
d p ca a
( )
t e / 10 1 g ,t
1 +
3
c pp
= dpAp / V
c a a
with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m/m]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
cp the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
dp the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
t the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
a the unit mass of steel [kg/m]
p the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m]
a,t the steel temperature at time t
g,t the ambient gas temperature at time t
g,t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time
interval
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For the increase of temperature a,t in an insulated steel member with intumescent
coating, we refer to the NEN specifications, Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.
Calculation model
 strength domain
 temperature/time domain
In the strength domain, the strength Rfi,d,t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t
(e.g. strength after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel
temperature cr,d is computed. From this critical temperature, the fire resistance time tfi,d
is calculated (the time domain).
Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed
according to the regulations given in 'ENV 199312:1995' and/or 'Model Code on Fire
Engineering  ECCS N 111'. The checks are performed in the resistance domain or in
the temperature/time domain..
Torsional buckling and shear buckling are not considered.
For each member, the classification of the cross section, the section check and the
stability check are performed.
The following checks are executed :
EC312 :
 classification of cross section : art. 4.2.2.
 resistance for tension members : art. 4.2.3.1
 resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. 4.2.3.2.
 resistance for beams (class 1,2) : art. 4.2.3.3.
 resistance for beams (class 3) : art.4.2.3.4.
 resistance for members (class 1,2,3) subject to bending and compression : art.
4.2.3.5.
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SUPPORTED SECTIONS
The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile
conditions for code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
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REFERENCES
[1] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 199311:1992, 1992
[3] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988
[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 199311:1992/A1, 1994
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[6] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  2 : General rules  Structural fire design
ENV 199312:1995, 1995
[8] Eurocode 1
Basis of design and actions on structures
Part 22 : Actions on structures  Actions on structures exposed to fire
ENV 199122:1995
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EC 3 EN 1993
Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1 : General rules and rules for buildings
EN 199311:2005
Material properties
For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined
according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], table 3.1.)
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The name of the steel grade (e.g. 'S 355 W') is used to identify the steel grade.
Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the
previous table
Remark : For cold formed sections, the average yield strength fya can be used (by setting
the proper data flag in the Cross Section input dialog).
The average yield strength is determined as follows :
knt
f ya = f yb + (f f yb ) min (f u ,1.2f yb )
A u
g
Consulted articles
The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in "Eurocode 3:
Design of steel structures  Part 11: General rules and rules for buildings  EN 19931
1:2005".
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The crosssections are classified according to Table 5.2. All classes of crosssections are
included. For class 4 sections (slender sections) the effective section is calculated in
each intermediary point, according to prEN 199315:2003, Chapter 4.4 .
The stress check is taken from art. 6.2.: the section is checked for tension (art. 6.2.3.),
compression (art. 6.2.4.), bending (art. 6.2.5.), shear (art. 6.2.6.), torsion (art.6.2.7.) and
combined bending, shear and axial force (art. 6.2.8., art.6.2.9. and art.6.2.10.).
The stability check is taken from art. 6.3.: the beam element is checked for buckling
(art. 6.3.1.), lateral torsional buckling (art. 6.3.2.), and combined bending and axial
compression (art. 6.3.3.).
The shear buckling is checked according to prEN 199315:2003, Chapter 5.
For I sections, U sections and cold formed sections warping can be considered.
A check for critical slenderness and torsion moment is also included.
For integrated beams, the local plate bending is taken into account for the plastic
moment capacity and the bending stresses in the section. The outofbalance loading is
checked.
A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The
chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation the following chapters.
EN 199311
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prEN 199313
prEN 199315
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
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For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for nonprismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.
The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d =
fy,k).
For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is
determined and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective
area) can change for each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the
screen.
For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved
:
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression.
Weff is the effective section modulus of the crosssection when subject only to moment
about the relevant axis. eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross
section is subject to uniform compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.
For nonprismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each
intermediary section, also for the stability check.
Section properties
Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping
check'.
Builtin beams
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For builtin beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are
performed, taking into account the local plate bending. See Chapter Section check for
builtin beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections)
Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling
ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see chapter Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH
elements).
Lateraltorsional buckling
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections
and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is
given by the general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. [4]. For the calculation of the moment
factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by
2 EI Iw + LGI t
Mcr = z
L
2
Iz 2 EI z
See also Ref. [5], part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
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Use of diaphragms
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile
conditions for code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
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REFERENCES
[1] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1 : General rules and rules for buildings
EN 199311:2005
[2] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 13: General rules
Supplementary rules for coldformed members and sheeting
EN 199313:20XX, 2003
[3] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1.5 : Plated structural elements
prEN 199315 : 2003
[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988
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DIN18800
Material properties
For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined
according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], Tab.1)
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Consulted articles
For the section check, the cross section is classified according to DIN18800 Teil I, Table
12,13,14,15 and 18.. Depending on this classification, the section is checked as slender
section, EL/EL (elastic/elastic), as EL/PL (elastic/plastic) or as PL/PL (plastic/plastic).
For the EL/EL check, DIN18800 Teil I, Element (746), (747), (748), (749), (750) are
used.
The EL/PL check takes the rules from DIN18800 Teil I, Element (756), (757) and Table
(16) ,(17). The PL/PL check is done according to DIN18800 Teil I, Element (758), Table
(16),(17).
The slender cross section is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2, Element (715).
For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2 for
buckling, lateral torsional buckling and bending and compression. The following criteria
are used :
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For the shear buckling check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 3.
The following criteria are used : Element (113), (504), (602),(603)
A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for the relevant parts following
table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation the following chapters.
Teil 1
7.5. Verfahren beim Tragsicherheitsnachweis Nachweise (*)
7.5.1. Abgrenzungskriterien und Detailregelungen (*)
7.5.2. Nachweis nach dem Verfahren ElastischElastisch x
(745) x
(746) x
(747) x
(748) x
(749) x
(750) x
Nachweis nach dem Verfahren ElastischPlastisch x
(753) x
(756) x
(757) x
Nachweis nach dem Verfahren PlastischPlastisch x
(758) x
Teil 2
3.2. Planmssig mittiger Druck x
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3.2.1. Biegeknicken x
(304) x (*)
3.2.2. Biegedrillknicken x
(306) x (*)
3.3. Einachsige Biegung ohne Normalkraft x
3.3.1. Allgemeines x
(307) x
3.3.2. Behinderung der Verformung x
(309) x (*)
3.3.3. Nachweis des Druckgurtes als Druckstab
3.3.4. Biegedrillknicken x
(311) x (*)
3.4. Einachsige Biegung mit Normalkraft x
3.4.1. Stbe mit geringer Normalkraft x
(312) x
3.4.2. Biegeknicken x
(314) x
3.4.3. Biegedrillknicken x
(320) x
3.5. Zweiachsige Biegung mit oder ohne Normalkraft x
3.5.1. Biegeknicken x
(321) x
(322) x(*)
3.5.2. Biegedrillknicken x
(323) x
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(409). x
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Teil 3
5. Nachweise (*)
(504) x
6. Abminderungsfaktoren x
(601) x
(602) x
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for nonprismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.
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AG
AS/2
h
s/2
Used variable :
A sectional area
AS = s h
AG = (AAS)/2.0
Wel,y elastic section modulus around y axis
Wel,z elastic section modulus around z axis
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Vz,pl,Rd = AS y,d
Vy,pl,Rd = 2AG y,d
M
Vz ,Sd + T ,Sd
if b 1 = 1 .0
Vz ,pl,Rd 4 z
2
M
Vz ,Sd + T ,Sd
else z = 1 b
Vz ,pl,Rd
M
Vy ,Sd + T ,Sd
if h 1 = 1.0
Vy ,pl,Rd 4 y
2
M
Vy ,Sd + T ,Sd
else y = 1 h
Vy ,pl,Rd
Npl,Rd = Ar fy,d
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2
M y ,pl ,Rd = min hN pl ,Rd ,1.25Wel,y f yd
4
1+
M z ,pl ,Rd = min bN pl ,Rd ,1.25Wel,z f yd
4
N Sd
n=
N pl ,Rd
M y ,Sd
my =
M y ,pl ,Rd
M z ,Sd
mz =
M z ,pl ,Rd
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Mv 1
1
M pl ,Q N
cos v
N plQ 2
Q v = Q 2y + Q 2z
M v = M 2y + M 2z
2dt s
Q pl =
3
Qv 1
:=1
Q pl 4
2
Qv 1 Q
> : = 1 v
Q pl 4 Q pl
A r = dt
N pl ,Q = A r s
d
M pl ,Q = min N pl ,Q ,1.25Wel s
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Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping
check'.
The stability check (DIN 18800 T2, formula 28 & 30) for doubly symmetric I section
becomes (Ref.[9], pp. 259) :
N My M + M z ,w
+ ky + z k z 1.0 (28)
N pl ,d M pl ,y ,d M pl ,z ,d
N My M + M z ,w
+ ky + z k z 1.0 (30)
z N pl ,d M M pl ,y ,d M pl ,z ,d
with Mz,w 2M w
=
h
Mw bimoment (see chapter 'Standard diagrams for warping
torque, bimoment and the St.Venant torsion')
kz = 1.50
Builtin beams
For builtin beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are
performed, taking into account the local plate bending. See Chapter Section check for
builtin beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections)
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For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling
ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).
The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[10], Annex D.
Torsional buckling
2
z2 2
4 c 2 i p + 0 . 093 1
2 M
z
zlz c 2 + iM
2
0
vi = 1 + 1
iz 2c2 (c 2
+ iM )
2 2
with l0 the torsional buckling length, refers to the input value for
the system length lyz
lz the system length for buckling around zzaxis
Remark : the zaxis refers to the axis which goes through
the shear force centre.
z refers to the buckling ratio around the zzaxis
Remark : the zaxis refers to the axis which goes through
the shear force centre.
0 refers to end warping and is input by the value kxy
zM the shear center
iy the radius of gyration around major axis
iz the radius of gyration around minor axis
ip = iy + iz
iM = ip + zM
Iw the warping constant
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
I w ( z l z )2 / ( 0 l 0 )2 + 0 . 039 ( z l z )2 I t
c 2
=
Iz
With this slenderness vi and the buckling curve c, the reduction factor is calculated.
Use of diaphragms
a.104
S=
K2
K1 +
Ls
l2
I t ,id = I t + vorhC
2G
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
LTB Check
For aysmmetric I sections, RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS
(Circular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by
the general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. [4]. For the calculation of the moment factors C1,
C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB".
Depending on the input of the basic data, Mcr for symmetric I sections is given by the
general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. [4], by the DIN formula (19), or by formula
according to Ref.[11] "Roik, Carl, Lindner, Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader
dnnwandiger Stbe, Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, 1972".
Mcr = N c 2 + 0 . 25 z p
2
+ 0 . 5 z p
ki
I w ( z l ) / ( 0 l 0 )2 + 0 . 039 ( z l ) I t
2 2
c 2
=
Iz
2 EI z
Nki =
( z l )2
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
5z p
2
5z p
EI z
M ki , y = M cr = + c +
l
I + 0.039 l I t
c= w
Iz
The factor is supported for the following cases (described in Ref.[11], tables 5.13,
5.14, 5.15, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30,
5.33) :
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by
2 EI Iw L 2 GI
Mcr = z
+ 2 t
L2 Iz EI z
See also Ref. [5], part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
The value My is the maximum value of the bending moment around the strong axis in
the member. The value Mz is the maximum value of the bending moment around the
weak axis in the member.
For nonprismatic sections, the values My and Mz are the concurrent bending moments
for each intermediary section.
(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
N a A
NG = + max M z sin( ) G*
2 l Wz
maxVy
VG =
2
maxVy a
MG =
4
 section check of single batten, using the internal forces (Ref.[7], pp.8895) :
maxVy a
T =
hy2
Te
M=
2
For the calculation of maxVy, the value of Mz is increased with the value of the internal
force Mzz.
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
hy
The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d =
fy,k) according to the ElEl procedure (DIN18800 T2, 7.3.).
For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is
determined and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective
area) can change for each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the
screen.
For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved.
The most critical effective area properties are the effective area properties on the
position where the appropriate moment of inertia is the minimum.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.
For nonprismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each
intermediary section, also for the stability check.
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
The following table includes a list of DAStRichtlinie 016 (Ref.[12]) elements which
are implemented in EPW by using the related DIN18800 T2 (Ref.[2]) element.
4.3.1. Biegemomententragfhigkeit
404 715
4.4. Biegedrillknicken
biegebeanspruchter Bauteile
4.4.3. Allgemeiner Nachweis
421 311
422 311
423 725, 726
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SUPPORTED SECTIONS
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The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
REFERENCES
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Stahlbauten
Stabilittsflle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990
[4] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 199311:1992, 1992
[5] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988
[7] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
WernerVerlag, Dsseldorf
[8] BeuthKommentare
Stahlbauten
Erluterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, BerlinKln 1993
[10] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 199311:1992/A1, 1994
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
[13] H. Rubin,
Interaktionsbeziehungen fr doppeltsymmetrische I und Kasten
Querschnitte bei zweiachsiger Biegung und Normalkraft
Der Stahlbau 5/1978, 6/1978
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
ONORM B 4300
NORM B 43001
Stahlbau
Berechnung und Konstruktion der Tragwerke
Bemessung nach Grenzzustnden
DK 624.014.2.046, Mrz 1994
NORM B 43002
Stahlbau
Knicken von Stben und Stabwerken
Bedingungen fr die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 2 und NORM B
43001
DK 624.014.2.075.2, April 1994
NORM B 43003
Plattenbeulen
Bedingungen fr die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 3 und NORM B
43001
DK 624.014.2.075.4, April 1994
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
Material properties
For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined
according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], 2.1. and Ref. [4], Tab.1)
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S 460
Consulted articles
For the section check, the cross section is classified according to ONORM B 43001
Tab.3,4,5 and to DIN18800 Teil I, Table 15,18. Depending on this classification, the
section is checked as slender section, EL/EL (elastic/elastic), as EL/PL (elastic/plastic) or
as PL/PL (plastic/plastic).
For the EL/EL check, ONORM B 43001 Art. 5.2. is used. (The 7% increase of the
moment of inertia is taken into account for rolled I section  see Ref. [1], Art. 5.2.5.4.).
The EL/PL check takes the rules from DIN18800 Teil I, Element (756), (757) and Table
(16) ,(17). The PL/PL check is done according to DIN18800 Teil I, Element (758), Table
(16),(17).
The slender cross section is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2, Element (715).
For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2 for
buckling, lateral torsional buckling and bending and compression. The following criteria
are used :
For the shear buckling check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 3.
The following criteria are used : Element (113), (504), (602),(603)
A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in "DIN18800 Code check".
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
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The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
REFERENCES
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NEN
Material properties
For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined
according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], art.9.1.2.1.1.)
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Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the
previous table.
Consulted articles
The cross section is classified according to NEN 6771 Table 1. (class 1,2,3 or 4).
The section is checked on following criteria :
tension : NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.1., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.1.
compression : NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.2., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.2.
shear : NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.4., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.4.
bending, shear and axial force : NEN 6770 Art. 11.3., NEN 6771 Art. 11.3.
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A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for NEN6770 part 11,12 and
NEN6771 part 10,11,12,13. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters
marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.
NEN6770
11.Toetsing van de doorsnede x
11.1. Algemeen x
11.2. Enkelvoudige krachten en momenten x
11.2.1. Axiale trek x
11.2.2. Axiale druk x
11.2.3. Buiging
11.2.4. Afschuiving x
11.2.5. Torsie x
11.3. Combinaties van krachten en momenten x
11.3.1. Enkele buiging met normaalkracht en afschuiving x
11.3.2. Dubbele buiging met normaalkracht en afschuiving x
11.4. Vloeicriterium x
11.5. De invloed van de boutgaten (*)
NEN6771
10.2.4. Doorsneden x (*)
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Section properties
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for nonprismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d =
fy,k).
For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is
determined and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective
area) can change for each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the
screen.
For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved
:
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression.
Weff is the effective section modulus of the crosssection when subject only to moment
about the relevant axis. eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross
section is subject to uniform compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.
For nonprismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each
intermediary section, also for the stability check.
For angle sections, see chapter 'Effective crosssection properties for compressed lattice
tower angle members'.
Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping
check'.
Builtin beams
For builtin beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are
performed, taking into account the local plate bending. See Chapter Section check for
builtin beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections)
Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer tochapter "Calculation of buckling
ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[5], Annex D.
Lateraltorsional buckling
For symmetric I sections and RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic
critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the formula of Ref [2], part 12.2.5.. When the
factor > 5000, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general
formula in EC3, Annex F, F.2. Ref [3]. For asymmetric I sections, the elastic critical
moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula in EC3, Annex F, F.2. Ref [3].
For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to Ref.[7], tables 9
(case 1), 10 and 11.
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by
2 EI Iw L 2 GI
Mcr = z
+ 2 t
L2 Iz EI z
See also Ref. [4], part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc
N G = N f;s;d
Q f;s;d
VG =
2
Q f;s;d a
MG =
4
Q f;s;d a
Vk;s;d =
h0 2
Q f;s;d a
M k;s;d =
4
For the calculation of Qf;s;d, the value of My;s;d is increased with the value of the internal
force Mzz.
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
ho
The influence of the buckling effect into the shear buckling control, is neglected when
there is a bending moment present, i.e. if <0.9.
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The design effects of actions for the fire situation are taken from the results of the
analysis. It is recommended to use the special combination rules according to Ref.[10],
NEN6702 6.2.2., for calculating the internal forces used in the fire resistance check.
Material properties
f y;;d = f y;d
The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength is
given by :
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with a 482
=
39.2
a steeltemperature in C
fy;d design value for yield strength at room temperature
fy;;d design value for yield strength at increased temperature
The following default properties are considered to be constant during the analysis :
Steel Temperature
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
a = P( t a )t
c a a
= c + r
r 5.67 t + 273 a + 273
4 4
r =
( t a ) 100 100
Pi M ( t a )t (e / 5 1) t
K ef
a =
c a a
i;d ;ef
K ef =
di
1
M =
2
1+
3
c ii
= d i Pi
2c a a
with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m/m]
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
K d ;ef
a = Pi ( t a )t
c a a
with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m/m]
Pi = Ap/V
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
Kd;ef coefficient of heat transfer of the intumescent coating
t the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
a the unit mass of steel [kg/m]
a the steel temperature at time t
t the ambient gas temperature at time t
i;d;ef the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material
[W/mK]
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Calculation model
 strength domain
 temperature/time domain
In the strength domain, the strength (unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e.g.
strength after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel temperature a,cr
is computed. From this critical temperature, the fire resistance time is calculated (the
time domain).
1
a ,cr = 39.2 ln 1 + 482
0.8925()
3.846
Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed
according to the regulations given in NEN6770/6771, adapted with the yield strength
for the increased temperature and the correction factor. The checks are performed in the
resistance domain or in the temperature/time domain. Shear buckling is not considered.
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SUPPORTED SECTIONS
The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
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REFERENCES
[3] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 199311:1992, 1992
[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988
[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 199311:1992/A1, 1994
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AISC  ASD
The cross section is classified according to Table B5.1. (compact, noncompact, or slender
section).
tension : D1
compression : E2, E3
flexural members : F1,F2,F3,F4
plate girders : G2
combined forces : H1,H2
A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the
following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with
(*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.
B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B1. Gross Area x
B2. Net Area (*)
B3. Effective Area
B4. Stability
B5. Local Buckling (*)
1.Classification of Steel Sections x
2.Slender Compression Elements x
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D. TENSION MEMBERS
D1. Allowable Stress x (*)
D2. Builtup members
D3. PinConnected Members
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G. PLATE GIRDERS
G1. Web Slenderness Limitations
G2. Allowable Bending Stress x
G3. Allowable Shear Stress with Tension Field Action
G4. Transverse Stiffeners
G5. Combined Shear and Tension Stress
H. COMBINED STRESSES
H1. Axial Compression and Bending x
H2. Axial Tension and Bending x
Classification of sections
Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.
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Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).
KL E
=
r e Fe
Lateraltorsional buckling
For I sections and channel sections, the allowable LTB stress is given in F1.
For RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) ,
the allowable LTB stress is given in F3.
For angle sections with symmetrical legs, the allowable LTB stress is given in Ref. [1],
pp.309314, Specification for allowable stress  Design of singleangle members.
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by
2 EI Iw L 2 GI
Mcr = z
+ 2 t
L2 Iz EI z
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
With this moment Mcr, the critical LTB stress LTB is calculated :
M cr
LTB =
Iy
E
LTB =
LTB
The allowable LTB stress is calculated using the slenderness LTB with the formulas
given in Ref.[1], E2.
See also Ref. [5], Bijlage E.
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS O COM NUM
REFERENCES
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[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988
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AISC  LRFD
The cross section is classified according to Table B5.1. (compact, noncompact, or slender
section).
tension : D1
compression : E2, E3, Appendix E3
flexural members : F1,Appendix F1, Appendix F2
plate girders : Appendix G2, Appendix G3, Appendix G5
combined forces : H1,H2
A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the
following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with
(*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.
B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B1. Gross Area x
B2. Net Area (*)
B3. Effective Area for Tension Members
B4. Stability
B5. Local Buckling (*)
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D. TENSION MEMBERS
D1. Design Tensile Strength x (*)
D2. Builtup members
D3. PinConnected Members and Eyebars
G. PLATE GIRDERS x
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Classification of sections
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Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.
Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).
Lateraltorsional buckling
2 EI Iw L 2 GI
Mcr = z
+ 2 t
L2 Iz EI z
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Appendix D.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
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REFERENCES
[2] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
CM66
Consulted articles
The crosssection is checked for tension (art. 3,1), bending (art. 3,2.) and shear (art. 3,3.).
A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for the relevant parts in the
following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with
(*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.
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3,9 Dformations x
Section properties
Plastic coefficient
The plastic coefficients are calculated according to the Ref.[1], 13,212 (Valeurs du
coefficient dadaptation plastique).
Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).
Factor kf
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+ 0.25
If Mmed 0.0, the formula 3,513 is used : k f =
1.3
LTB Check
The LTB check is performed for symmetric I sections. For other cross sections the
factor kd=1.0.
For the calculation of the coefficient C, we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for
LTB".
The coefficient B is calculated by interpolating the table for B given in Ref[1] 3,643,
and using the calculated C value with table for C given in Ref[1] 3,642.
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
Combined flexion
The values fx is the maximum value of the bending stress in the member for the
bending around the strong axis. The value fy is the maximum value of the bending
stress in the member for the bending around the weak axis.
For nonprismatic sections the values fx and fy are the local (i.e. in each intermediary
section) bending stresses.
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
Section check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Buckling check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section buckling check x x x x x x x x
LTB Check x
Shear buckling check x x x x
REFERENCES
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
CM66  ADDITIF 80
The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in Additif 80
Consulted articles
A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The
chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation in the following chapters.
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
plastifies
5,22 Moment ultime de dversement en flexion simple x (*)
5,23 Dimensionnement des entretoises
5,24 Rsistance au dversement en flexion dvie x
5,3 Rsistance au flambement
5,31 Elments simplement comprims x
5,32 Elments comprims et flchis x
5,33 Longueur de flambement (*)
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for nonprismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.
Section check
If the sections are not according to the conditions specified in art. 5,1, the sections are
checked according to the regulations given in Ref.[2].
If a torsional moment is present, the sections are checked according to the regulations
given in Ref.[2].
Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).
Lateraltorsional buckling
For the calculation of the moment factors C1 and C2, we refer to "Calculation of
moment factors for LTB", using the EC3 values.
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Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
Classification Add 80 x x
Plastic section check Add x x
80
Buck:ling check Add 80 x x
LTB check Add 80 x x
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Compression + bending x x
Add 80
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REFERENCES
[1] Additif 80
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BS59501:1990
Material properties
For standard steel grades, the yield strength py is defined according to the thickness of
the element (see Table 6 Art.3.1.1.). The standard steel grades are :
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Remark: For coldformed section, values for Py are not influenced by the previous table.
Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material
is defined as material for the selected code.
Consulted articles
According to Art. 3.5. and table 7, cross sections are classified in 4 types:
Plastic
Compact
Semicompact
Slender
A reduction factor is applied to the design strength of the material in use for slender
sections by following the rules described in Art. 3.6 and in Table 8. Partial safety factor
of design strength is included in py value.
The section is checked for bending (Art.4.2.), tension (Art.4.6.), compression (Art.4.7.),
shear (Art.4.2.3.), combined moment and axial force (Art. 4.8.) and biaxial moments
(Art.4.9.). For the stability check, the beam element is checked for lateral torsional
buckling, shear buckling, compression and bending with axial compression. Articles
used for this stability check are the following:
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SCIA 101
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Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check.
So, the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination.
However, for nonprismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.
Slender crosssection
Slender sections are particularly sensitive to local buckling. British Standard code (Art.
3.6.) defines stress reduction factor to prevent this phenomenon. For webs subject to
moments and axial load and for circular hollow sections, the design strength py should
be assumed such that the limiting proportions for semicompact section are met. For
other sections, where a slender outstand is in compression, the design strength should be
reduced by the factor given in Table 8.
Section properties
The net area of a section is taken as its gross section neglecting the deduction due to
fastener holes: Art. 3.3. Shear area of a crosssection is calculated by using Art. 4.2.3.
Bending moment
Before any calculation of members in bending, it's necessary to determine the shear
capacity. For plastic and compact section with high shear load, moment capacity is
calculated with the plastic modulus only for I and PLL sections (Art. 4.2.6. and 4.8.).
For other crosssection, with plastic or compact section classification, characterised or
not by a low shear load, we assumed that the moment capacity is calculated by using the
same approach than for semicompact section: the elastic modulus (elastic calculation).
For plastic and compact sections, BS5950 Art. 4.8.2. & 4.8.3.2. (b) prescribes a detailed
approach to determine the unity check of axially loaded members with moments. The
detailed relationship allows a greater economy for plastic and compact section . In this
expression, we use a reduced moment capacity Mr respectively about the major and the
minor axis. Those values are determined by using EC3 Art.5.4.9. (see Ref.[5]). For
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semicompact and slender section, the simplified approach is applied following Art.
4.8.2.and Art. 4.8.3.2. (a).
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric PPL), rectangular sections (solid and
hollow), T sections, channel sections and angle section, the critical lateral torsional
buckling moment is given by the general formula Art. 4.3.7. and Annex B2&3. For
other sections, we follow conservative recommendation described in Art. 4.3.7.5. and
calculation proposed in EC3 to determine the elastic critical moment Mcr EC3 Annex
F1.1. Formula (F.1.) see Ref [5].
with
Mb=Sxpb
and
For beam without loading point between points of lateral restraint, n=1 and m depends
on the ratio of the end moments at the points of restraint.
For beam loaded between point of lateral restraint, m=1 and n depend on the ratio of the
end moments at the points of restraint and on the ratio of the larger moment to the mid
span free moment.
There are thus two methods for dealing with lateral torsional buckling namely:
'm approach' i.e. the 'equivalent uniform moment method' with n=1
'n approach' i.e. the 'equivalent slenderness method' with m=1
In any given situation, only one method will be admissible, taking into account that it is
always conservative to use m=n=1. Since the publication of BS5950 Part 1 1990, doubt
has been cast on the correctness of using n factors less than 1 in combination with an
effective length LLTB less than the length of the member L in the calculation of LTB.
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By using the settings of BS5950, the user can define which method correspond to his
situation or define his choice as the conservative method m=n=1.
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
Compression member
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
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RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section
The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
REFERENCES
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[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 199311:1992
[6] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988
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BS59501:2000
Material properties
For standard steel grades, the design strength py is defined according to the thickness of
the element (see Table 9 Cl.3.1.1.). The partial safety factor on design strength is
included in the py value.
Grade S275 : yield strength defined between 225 and 275 N/mm
Grade S355 : yield strength defined between 295 and 355 N/mm
Grade S460 : yield strength defined between 410 and 460 N/mm
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Note that the reduced yield/design stresses given in the above table are only applied
when the steel material is chosen from the designated grades S275, S355 or S460
According to Cl. 3.5. and tables 11 and 12, cross sections are classified in 4 types:
Class 1 Plastic
Class 2 Compact
Class 3 Semicompact
Class 4 Slender
The section is checked for shear (Cl 4.2.5 and 4.4.4), bending (Cl.4.2.), tension
(Cl.4.6.), compression (Cl.4.7.), combined moment and axial force (Cl. 4.8.) and biaxial
moments (Cl.4.9.). For the stability checks, the potential buckling length is checked for
lateral torsional buckling due to moments, lateral buckling due to compression and
combined bending with axial compression. Relevant clauses for this stability check are
the following:
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Classification of sections
For each intermediate section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediate point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check.
So, the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination.
However, for nonprismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediate section.
Slender crosssections
Section properties
The net area of a section is taken as its gross section neglecting the deduction due to
fastener holes: Cl. 3.4. Shear area of a crosssection is calculated by using Cl. 4.2.3.
Moment capacity
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For plastic and compact sections, BS5950 Cl. 4.8.2. & 4.8.3.2. (b) prescribes a detailed
approach to determine the unity check (utilisation) of axially loaded members with
moments. The detailed relationship allows a greater economy for plastic and compact
sections . In this expression, reduced moment capacities Mr respectively about the
major and the minor axis are calculated in accordance with Annexe I2 . For semi
compact and slender sections, the simplified approach is applied following Cl. 4.8.2.and
Cl. 4.8.3.2. (a).
This form of buckling under the action of axial compression and/or major axis bending
is also known as restrained buckling and distortional buckling. The term `torsional
refers to the mode of buckling and is not related to torsion loading or torsion moment
effects. Torsional buckling may occur in any member segment between compression
flange restraints which has intermediate restraints to the tension flange. It is therefore
load combination dependent. It is particularly important in portal frames rafters and
columns. The program will detect any potential buckling length and carry out a stability
check in accordance with BS 59501:2000 Cl. 5.3.4 and Annex G.
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The interaction of axial and bending buckling effects is measured by the two simplified
formulae given in Cl 4.8.3.3.1.
The first equation refers to flexural buckling and is applied to the member length
between major axis restraints. The second equation refers to the interaction of lateral
torsional buckling due to the moment field and lateral buckling due to axial
compression and is applied to potential buckling lengths between minor axis restraints.
Clause 4.8.3.3.2 provides a more exact method for symmetrical Isections and Cl.
4.8.3.3.3 for CHS and RHS sections. It is permissible to take the more favourable result.
(Lower utilisation),
The moment gradient (shape of the moment diagram between restraints) is allowed for
by means of the equivalent uniform moment factor mLT in accordance with Cl 4.3.6.6
and Table 18 for lateraltorsional buckling. For flexural (in plane) buckling the factors
mx, my and myx are obtained from Table 26.
Torsion effects
The current version of the BS 59501:2000 steel check does not deal with torsion
moments. Any torsion moments generated by the frame analysis will be ignored.
Most steel structures do not in fact rely on torsion effects to transmit loads.
Where it is found necessary for members to sustain torsion moments as part of the
primary load system, alternative checks should be made. The BS 59501:1990 steel
check does deal with torsion.
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
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SIA263
SIA263
Construction en acier
SIA263:2003
Material properties
The most common steel grades are used in SIA263. Their mechanical properties are
described in table 1 SIA263. The following table gives the yield strength for each type
of grade commonly used in function of the nominal web thickness:
Consulted articles
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obviously make a parallel between the calculation method of SIA263 and the section
classification proposed in EC3.
PP (plasticplastic) or class 1
EP (elasticplastic) or class 2
EE (elasticelastic) or class 3
EER (elasticelastic reduced) or class 4
The first letter of the classification denomination is related to the method used to
calculate internal forces in the structure. The second letter indicates if we perform the
section and the stability check with a elastic or a plastic approach. Finally, we must note
that the steel code SIA263 is essentially oriented for symmetrical and bisymmetrical
profile like I profiles. In the present modulus, others profiles are calculated by using a
classic elastic approach (EE classification) and EC3 prescriptions.
The section is checked for tension, compression, shear, combination of bending and
axial forces. For the stability check, the beam element is checked for lateral torsional
buckling, shear buckling, compression and bending with axial compression. A more
detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table :
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Section classification
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point. For each
load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each
load case/combination. However, for nonprismatic sections, the stability section
classification is determined for each intermediary section.
Slender crosssection
The design of a section that not satisfies the table 5 of SIA263 is always performed by
using a reduced area. This classification correspond to the EER method. The
determination of a reduced area is based on the effective width of each compression
element in the current section (Art. 4.5.4). The using of a reduced area implies the
recalculation of the shear centre position, the inertia and the elastic modulus.
Sections properties
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For double symmetric I profile, we don't have to perform any lateral torsional buckling
check if NEd/Npl,Rd 0.15 and the conditions provided in Table 6 SIA263 are satisfied.
For any other case, a LTB check must be perform.
Calculations described in Annex B for I,U and PPL can be applied to T sections only if
the flange is subjected to compression. Otherwise, as for section not supported by
SIA263 in the LTB check, we use prescriptions given in EC3 Annex F. Those rules
allow us to determine a elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling for
symmetrical (formula F.2 EC3) and non symmetrical (formula F.1. EC3) sections
around the minor axis.
In the case of I, U, PPL and, T only with compression in flange, characterised by a
reduced area or not, we have to determined before any calculation irc, defined as the
radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the
compression web area, taken about an axis in the plane of the web.
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
Shear buckling
Stability check
For double symmetric I profile PP or EP, SIA263 provides specific formula to perform
the stability check of member submitted to biaxial moment. For other sections, non
symmetric or from EE and EER classification, a general formula is provided to design
member under monoaxial sollicitations.
Torsion check
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For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping
check'.
Builtin beams
For builtin beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are
performed, taking into account the local plate bending. See Chapter Section check for
builtin beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections)
The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi,d,t are taken from the results of the
analysis. It is recommended to use the accidental combination rules, for calculating the
internal forces used in the fire resistance check.
Gk + Pk + Ad+ 2,iQk,i
Material properties
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f y , = k y , f y , 20
E a , = k E , E a , 20
The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ky, and
modulus of elasticity kE, is given by tables in ref.[1], Figure 15.
In the simplified calculation method, the following default properties are considered to
be constant during the analysis :
In this part, the nominal temperaturetime curves and the related net heat flux are
described. For more info, EC3 Chapter 'Temperature analysis  Thermal actions'
Steel Temperature
The increase of temperature a,t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval
t
Am / V
a ,t = h net ,d t
ca a
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The increase of temperature a,t in an insulated steel member during a time interval t
p A p / V ( g ,t a ,t )
a ,t =
d p ca a
( )
t e / 10 1 g ,t
1 +
3
c pp
= dpAp / V
c a a
with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m/m]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
cp the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
dp the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
t the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
a the unit mass of steel [kg/m]
p the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m]
a,t the steel temperature at time t
g,t the ambient gas temperature at time t
g,t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time
interval
p the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material
[W/mK]
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For the increase of temperature a,t in an insulated steel member with intumescent
coating, we refer to the NEN specifications, Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.
Calculation model
 strength domain
 temperature/time domain
In the strength domain, the strength Rfi,d,t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t
(e.g. strength after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel
temperature cr,d is computed. From this critical temperature, the fire resistance time tfi,d
is calculated (the time domain).
Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed
according to the regulations given in Ref.[1], 4.8.5.
For each member, the classification of the cross section, the section check and the
stability check are performed.
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
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L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section
Section check EE x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check PP x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check EP x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check EE x x x x x x x x x x x x x
LTB x x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4)
REFERENCES
[1] SIA263
Construction en acier
SIA263:2003
[2] SIA263/1
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GBJ 1788
Material properties
Grade3
16Mn
16Mnq
15Mn
15Mnq
For Steel3, the following groups are defined according to the element thickness (in
mm):
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Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material
is defined as material for the selected code. If they are not defined as GBJ material, the
following rule is used
Consulted articles
The section and elements are checked according to part 4 and 5. When plastic design is
allowed, part 9 is supported.
A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the
following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted.
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4.2.1. x
4.2.2. x
4.2.3. x
4.2.4. x
4.3.Local stability (*)
4.3.1. x
4.3.2. x
4.3.3. x
4.3.9. x
9.Plastic design
9.1.General requirements
9.1.3. x
9.1.4. x
9.2.Calculation of members (*)
9.2.1. x
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9.2.2. x
9.2.3. x
9.2.4. x
9.3.Allowable slenderness and detailing requirements
Section properties
The influence of the net section is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.
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Buckling curves
For welded I and PPL sections the default value for the buckling curve about the weak
axis is b. This can be changed to c on users request.
Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements").
The LTB check is supported for the following sections : I section, U section, RHS
section, T section, PPL section.
For the other section type, the factor b = 1.0.
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
For each intermediary section, the ratios are determined. The section classification and
the effective area properties are determined for each intermediary section for performing
the section check.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification and the effective area
properties over the member are used to perform the stability check. However, for non
prismatic sections, the section classification and the effective area properties are
determined for each intermediary section to perform the stability check.
When the web ratio ( dept /thickness) does not conform to the requirements, the web is
reduced for calculating of the section check and stability check. A width of 20 tw
sqrt(235/fy) on each side of the web is taken into account.
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235
d = 20t w
fy
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check"
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The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
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REFERENCES
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Material properties
Steel fy fy
t<=40 mm t>40 mm
SS41 240 220
SPS41
SPSR41
SS50 280 260
SS55 380 380
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Consulted articles
The section and elements are checked according to part 2 and 3. The shear buckling
check is perfromed using article 7.5.2. The classiffication of sections is based on the
rules of part 4.
A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the
following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted.
TEXT
2.Allowable stress
2.1.Structural material x
2.1.1.Allowable tensile stress x
2.1.2.Allowable shear stress x
2.1.3.Allowable compressive stress x
2.1.4.Allowable bending stress (*)
a) x
b) x
c) x
2.1.5.Allowable bearing stress
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5. Tensile member
6.Compressive member
6.1.Slenderness ratio x
6.2.Buckling length x(*)
7.Beam element
7.5.Stiffener
7.5.2.Buckling verification of the web x
a)
Section classification
For internal compression elements, the remaining parts are symmetrically divided to the
end of the elements. The length of the part d is calculated by the equation in which the
ratio d/t is equal on the limiting ratio.
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The reduced section properties are calculated for I, U, PPL, RHS and Cold formed
sectionstypes.
The slenderness ratios (for buckling and LTB) are calculated with the full section
properties.
Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.
Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member(see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements") .
For I sections, PPL sections, U sections RHS and CHS sections, the formulas from 2.1.4
are used.
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by
2 EI Iw L 2 GI
Mcr = z
+ 2 t
L2 Iz EI z
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With this moment Mcr, the critical LTB stress LTB is calculated :
M cr
LTB =
Iy
E
LTB =
LTB
The allowable LTB stress is calculated using the slenderness LTB with the formulas
given in 2.1.3.
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Combined stresses
c c bx c by
+ + 1
fc f bx f by
t bx + t by c
1
ft
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t c bx c by
+ + 1
f bx f bx f by
t + t bx + t by
1
ft
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
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T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section
The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check"
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
Slender sections x x x x x
Allowable stresses x x x x x x x x x x x x
Shear buckling x x x
REFERENCES
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SCIA 140
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BSK 99
BSK 99
StalKonstruktioner
Boverket, Byggavdelningen, 2000
Material properties
For standard steel grades, the characteristic yield strength fyk and tensile strength fuk
are defined according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], tab.2:21a and
tab.2:21b)
Steel
Name Type Emodulus Poisson Unit mass Extensibility Ultimate Yield
(N/mm2) (kg /m3) (m/m K) tensile strength
strength (N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
S235 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*106 340 235
S 235
S275 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*106 410 275
S 275
S355 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*106 490 355
S 355
S420 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*106 500 420
S 420
S460 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*106 530 460
S 460
S500 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*106 590 500
S 500
S550 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*106 640 550
S 550
S620 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*106 700 620
S 620
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Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the
previous table.
Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material
is defined as material for the selected code.
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Consulted articles
A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for part 6:2 in the following
table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation in the following chapters.
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6:263.Local compression
6:27.Torsional moment x
6:271.Pure torsion x
6:272.Warping
6:273.Torsional moment, shear force and bending moment x
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed using the actual internal forces. The classification can change for
each intermediary point.
The calculation of the effective area properties is performed according to the rules given
in [5], part :23 and :24.
For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is
determined and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective
area) can change for each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the
screen.
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression.
Weff is the effective section modulus of the crosssection when subject only to moment
about the relevant axis. With these properties, the section and stability check is
performed.
Section properties
6:22 ; 6:243 ; 6:251 ; 6:261 : The net area properties are not taken into account .
Section check
 Double symmetric I sections (I) use the formula (6:251a) and (6:251b)
 Solid sections (O, RS) and hollow sections (RHS, CHS) use the formula (6:251c)
 For single bending, the sections U, PPL, T use formula (6:251a). For double
bending the biaxial state of stress is consulted.
 All other cases use the biaxial state of stress.
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x f yd
2x + 3 2 f yd
with =1.1
Compression members
6:232 : For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling
ratio". The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical
Euler force for this member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH
elements") .
For class 3 sections, the rules given in [5], part :34 are used, including the calculating of
Idef.
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A eff f yk
c =
N cr
N cr = cr A
cr = min( cr ,T , cr ,TF )
1 EC m
cr ,T = GI t +
2
A gi0 l T2
i 02 = i 2y + i 2z + y 02
cr ,TF =
1
2
[
( cr,y + cr ,T ) ( cr , y + cr ,T ) 4 cr , y cr ,T ]
E
cr , y =
ly
i
y
y
= 1 0
i0
1.16
c =
1 + 2c
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Lateraltorsional buckling
Alternatively to the regulations given in 6:2442. for bisymmetric sections, the elastic
critical moment for LTB Mcr for I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS
(Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections, can
be calculated using the formula given by the general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. [3].
For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of
moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by
2 EI Iw + LGI t
Mcr = z
L2 Iz 2 EI z
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See also Ref. [4], part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
The shear buckling check is using the values for v from table 6:261 in column 2.
The value for w is (according to [5], part :26, (18:26d)) taken as below :
0.81 b w f yk
w =
k tw Ek
2
a b
if 1 k = 5.34 + 4.00 w
bw a
2
a b
if <1 k = 4.00 + 5.34 w
bw a
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
bw
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile
conditions for code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.
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double bending
Class 3 support x x x x x x
Buck:ling check x x x x x x x x x x x x
LTB check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Compression + bending x
double bending
Compression + bending x x x x x x x x
single bending
Compression + LTB x
double bending
Shear buckling x x x x
Torsional check x
REFERENCES
[1] BSK 99
StalKonstruktioner
Boverket, Byggavdelningen, 2000
[3] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 199311:1992, 1992
[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988
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IS 800
Material properties
Ultimate
Grade/
Yield stress(Mpa) tensile
Classification
stress(Mpa)
A/Fe410WA 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
B/Fe410WB 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
C/Fe410WC 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
Fe440WA 300(<16mm), 290(16mm to 40mm), 280(>41mm to 63mm) 440
Fe440WB 300(<16mm), 290(16mm to 40mm), 280(>41mm to 63mm) 440
Fe490 350(<16mm), 330(16mm to 40mm), 320(>41mm to 63mm) 490
Fe490B 350(<16mm), 330(16mm to 40mm), 320(>41mm to 63mm) 490
Fe540 410(<16mm), 390(16mm to 40mm), 380(>41mm to 63mm) 540
Fe540B 410(<16mm), 390(16mm to 40mm), 380(>41mm to 63mm) 540
The string in the column Grade/Classification is used to determine the proper yield
stress reduction.
Consulted articles
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A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The
chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation in the following chapters.
9.1. General x
9.2. Combined Shear and bending x
9.3. Combined Axial Force and Bending Moment x
Appendix F x
Remarks
 the design of slender compression elements is outside the scope of this
implementation
 the shear buckling check is only using the Simple Post Critical Method

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Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for nonprismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section
The class 4 (slender) section check is not supported. For this sections a class 3 (semi
compact) section check is performed.
Section properties
Section check
In the case of high shear for class 3 sectio, the allowable normal stress is reduced with a
factor (1). When torsional shear stress is present, the VonMisis criterium is checked.
Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements") .
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The design buckling resistance Nb,Rd for torsional or torsionalflexural buckling shall be
obtained using buckling for buckling around the weak axis, and with relative
slenderness given by :
f yb
=
cr A
cr = min( cr ,T , cr ,TF )
1 EC m
cr ,T = GI t +
Ag i02 lT2
i02 = i y2 + i z2 + y 02
cr ,TF =
1
2
[
( cr , y + cr ,T ) ( cr , y + cr ,T ) 4 cr , y cr ,T ]
E
cr , y =
ly
i
y
y0
= 1
i0
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
Lateraltorsional buckling
The elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr for I sections (symmetric and asymmetric),
RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section)
sections, can be calculated using the formula given by Annex F.
For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of
moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by
2 EI Iw + LGI t
Mcr = z
L 2
Iz 2 EI z
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restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
SUPPORTED SECTIONS
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In the following matrix is shown which sections are supported for the different analysis
parts in the Indian steel Code check :
REFERENCES
[1] IS:800
2005
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For the calculation of the buckling ratios, some approximate formulas are used. These
formulas are treated in reference [1], [2] and [3].
The following formulas are used for the buckling ratios (Ref[1],pp.21) :
(1 2 + 5 1 + 5 2 + 24)(1 2 + 4 1 + 4 2 + 12)2
l/L =
(2 1 2 + 11 1 + 5 2 + 24)(2 1 2 + 5 1 + 11 2 + 24)
2
l/L = x +4
1 x
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
4 1 2 + 2 1
x=
2 (1 + 2) + 8 1 2
CL
i = i
EI
M i
Ci =
i
The values for Mi and i are approximately determined by the internal forces and the
deformations, calculated by load cases which generate deformation forms, having an
affinity with the buckling form. (See also Ref.[5], pp.113 and Ref.[6],pp.112).
The following load cases are considered :
load case 1 : on the beams, the local distributed loads qy=1 N/m and qz=100 N/m
are used, on the columns the global distributed loads Qx = 10000 N/m and Qy
=10000 N/m are used.
load case 2 : on the beams, the local distributed loads qy=1 N/m and qz=100 N/m
are used, on the columns the global distributed loads Qx = 10000 N/m and Qy= 
10000 N/m are used.
The used approach gives good results for frame structures with perpendicular rigid or
semirigid beam connections. For other cases, the user has to evaluate the presented
bucking ratios.
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For crossing diagonal elements, the buckling length perpendicular to the diagonal plane,
is calculated according to Ref.[4], DIN18800 Teil 2, table 15. This means that the
buckling length sK is dependant on the load distribution in the element, and it is not a
purely geometrical data anymore.
In the following chapters, the buckling length sK is defined,
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l/2
N N
l1/2
3 Z l
1
4 N l1
sK = l
I1 l3
1 +
I l13
sK 0.5 l
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
l/2
N N
l1/2
Zl
sK = l 1 0.75
N l1
sK 0.5 l
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
l/2
N N
l1/2
Z
sK = 0.5 l
N l1
1
Z l
3 Z l12 N l1
(E I1)d ( 1)
42 Z l
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
N1
l/2
N N
l1/2
N1
N1 l
1 +
N l1
sK = l
I1 l3
1 +
I l13
sK 0.5 l
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
N1
l/2
N N
l1/2
N1
2 N1 l
sK = l 1 +
12 N l1
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N1
l/2
N N
l1/2
N1
sK = 0.5 l
N l3 2 N l1
(E I)d ( + )
l1 12
2
N1
Definitions
The member has the properties of a symmetric I secion (formcode=1), where only the
height is linear variable along the member. The system length for buckling around the
local yy axis (strong axis), is equal to member length.
For this nonprismatic section, the critical Euler force is given in Ref[7].
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L beam length
I i, I j moment of inertia at end i and j
Ai, Aj sectional area at end i and j
E modulus of Young
Ncr critical Euler force
Ri, Rj beam stiffness at end i and j
M
R=
L
R i = R i
EIi
L
R j = R j
EIi
Ij
=
Ii
EIi
N cr = 2
L2
2. We suppose that
1
>
1 2
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
2 1
= 
(  1 ) 2 4
1 1
a= [1 + (  1)(  cotg( ln )]
2
2
1 1
b = c = 2 [1  ]
sin ( ln )
1 (  1) 1
d= [1 + ( + cotg( ln )]
2 2
1 + a R i + d R j + (ad  bc) R i R j = 0
R i (1  a 2) + R j (1  d 2)  2 + R i R j (a  b  c + d  2 (ad  bc)) = 0
1
>
1 2
1 1
(  1)((  )  ( + ) )
1 2 2
a = 2 [1 + ]

1 2(  1)
b = c = 2 [1  ]
(  )
1 1
(  1)((  )   ( + ) )
1 2 2
d = 2 [1 + 
]
(  )
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When the national code EC3 or NEN6770/6771 is selected, the following buckling
configuration can be selected. For each configuration, the critical slendernesses to be
considered, are defined.
The values are taken from Ref.[8].
v
y
z z
y
v
We define :
With the option 'Bracing members are sufficiently supported', the effective
slendernesses may be reduced as follows :
 for vvaxis : = 0.35 + 0.7 vv
 for yyaxis : = 0.50 + 0.7 yy
The buckling curve 'b' is used..
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L
=
i vv
L
=
i yy
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L
=
i yy
max(a1, a 2) 1.52
=
i vv
Single Bracing
L
=
i vv
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
L1
=
i vv
L2
=
i yy
Cross bracing
L1
=
i vv
L' 2 L' 2
= ,
i yy i zz
L' 2 = K b L com = K b L 2
1 Fsup 1
K b = 0.75 0.38 1 1 + + 0.25 1 1 + + 0.5 1.0
K Fcom K
1
K b 0.25 1 1 +
K
L
1 = 1
L com
K = 0.70 + 0.58 com
com
com =
E
E
E =
fy
L com
com =
i yy
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
L1
=
i vv
L2 L2
= ,
i yy i zz
L'3 L'3
= ,
i yy i zz
L'3 = K b L com = K b L 3
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K Bracing
L1
=
i vv
L2 L2
= ,
i yy i zz
L3 L3
= ,
i yy i zz
Horizontal Bracing
L
L
=k
i vv
k = 0.085 R 2 0.316 R + 0.73
P2
R=
P1
0 R 1
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
L
L
=k
i yy
k = 0.085 R 2 0.316 R + 0.73
P2
R=
P1
0 R 1
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a 2a a
= ,
i yy i vv
N1 N2 F = max(FSd , ( N1 + N 2) cos )
F F
N2 N1
REFERENCES
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
[7] Y. Gala
Flambement des poteaux inertie variable
Construction Mtallique 11981
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For determining the moment factors C1 and C2 for lateral torsional buckling (LTB), we
use the standard tables which are defined in Ref.[1] Art.12.25.3 table 9.1.,10 end 11.
The current moment distribution is compared with some standard moment distributions.
This standard moment distributions are moment lines generated by a distributed q load, a
nodal F load, or where the moment line is maximum at the start or at the end of the beam.
The standard moment distributions which is closest to the current moment distribution, is
taken for the calculation of the factors C1 and C2.
The factor C3 is taken out of the tables F.1.1. and F.1.2. from Ref.[2]  Annex F.
if M2 < 0
if M2 > 0
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C1 = 1.13 A* + B* E*
C2 = 0.45A*
if M2 < 0
if M2 > 0
C1 = 1.12 A* + B* E*
C2 = 0.45A*
q l2
with : A * =
8  M2  +q l2
8  M2 
B* =
8  M2  +q l2
94  M2 
C* =
ql2
 M2 
D * = 72( 2
)2
ql
E * = 1.77  0.77
E* < 2.70
for NEN6770/6771, SIA263 Code :
for CM66 :
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E* < 2.70
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
M2 < 0
M2 > 0
Fl Fl
with : A ** = B ** =
4  M2  +Fl 4  M2  +Fl
38  M2 
C ** =
Fl
 M2  2
D ** = 32( )
Fl
The values for E** can be taken as E* from chapter "Moment distribution generated by q
load".
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam
C2 = 0.0
C1 = 1.77  0.77
for CM66 :
3
C1 =
1 + + 0.152(1 )2
2
REFERENCES
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The standard profile sections have fixed sections properties and dimensions, which have
to be present in the profile library.
The section properties are described in chapter "Data for general section stability
check".
The required dimension properties are described in chapter "Data depending in the
profile shape".
The following properties have to be present in the profile library for the execution of the
section and the stability check :
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
When the section is made out of 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can be
calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library. When this is not the case,
these properties have to be input by the user in the profile library.
The plastic moments are calculated with a yield strength of 240 N/mm.
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I section
Formcode 1
PSS Type .I.
Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R
74 W
140 wm1
61 R1
146
109 1
SCIA 187
SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
B
t
R1
RHS
Formcode 2
PSS Type .M.
Property Description
49 H
48 B
67 s
66 R
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
109 2
H
s
CHS
Formcode 3
PSS Type .RO.
Property Description
64 D
65 s
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
109 3
Angle section
Formcode 4
PSS Type .L.
Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
61 R1
66 R
74 W1
75 W2
76 W3
109 4
R1
w2
w1
R w2
B w1
w3
Channel section
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
Formcode 5
PSS Type .U.
Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R
68
41
61 R1
146
109 5
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
R1
T section
Formcode 6
PSS Type .T.
Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R
61 R1
62 R2
146 1
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
147 2
109 6
B
R2
s
a2
H
t
R1
a1
Formcode 7
PSS Type .B.
Property Description
48 B
67 H
SCIA 194
SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
109 7
Formcode 11
PSS Type .RU.
Property Description
64 D
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
109 11
Asymmetric I section
Formcode 101
PSS Type
Property Description
49 H
48
44
47 s
42 Bt
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
43 Bb
45 tt
46 tb
66 R
109 101
Bt
tt
tb
Bb
Z section
Formcode 102
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
67 R
61 R1
109 102
H
s
R R1
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
Dy* 22
Dz* 23
CM* 26
buckling curve around yy axis 106 (1)
buckling curve around zz axis 107 (1)
buckling curve for LTB 108 (1)
(1) The values for the buckling curves are defined as follows :
1 = buckling curve a
2 = buckling curve b
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
3 = buckling curve c
4 = buckling curve d
The conditions are that the section is an open profile. Only the geometry commands O,
L, N, A may be used in the geometry description.
When the section is made out of 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can be
calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library. The properties from the
reduced section can be calculated by the code check.
When the section is made out of more then 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can
NOT be calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library. The properties from
the reduced section can be calculated, except for the marked properties. These
properties have to be input by the user in the profile library.
Formcode 110
PSS Type
Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B
142 sp
143 e2
68 H
109 110
Remark :
r is rounding, special for KLS section (Voest Alpine)
sp is number of shear planes
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
e2
s
H
Formcode 111
PSS Type
Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
68 H
109 111
H
s
Formcode 112
PSS Type
SCIA 202
SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B
49 H
109 112
H
s
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
Formcode 113
PSS Type
Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B
49 H
109 113
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
H
s
Figure 1
Formcode 114
PSS Type
Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B
49 H
68 c
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
109 114
H
s
B
Figure 2
Formcode 115
PSS Type
Property Description
44 s
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
61 r
48 B
49 H
42 c
109 115
Rail type KA
Formcode 150
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
Property Description
148 h1
149 h2
150 h3
151 b1
152 b2
153 b3
154 k
155 f1
156 f2
157 f3
61 r1
62 r2
63 r3
158 r4
159 r5
160 a
109 150
SCIA 208
SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
k
r1
h3
h2 b3
r2
r3
h1
r4
f2
f3 f1
r5
b2
b1
Rail type KF
Formcode 151
PSS Type .KF.
Property Description
48 b
154 k
49 h
153 b3
155 f1
157 f3
148 h1
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
149 h2
61 r1
62 r2
63 r3
109 151
r1
h1 h2
h
r2
r2
f3
r2 r2
f1
r3
b3
b
Rail type KQ
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
Formcode 152
PSS Type .KQ.
Property Description
48 b
154 k
49 h
153 b3
155 f1
149 h2
150 h3
61 r1
109 152
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
r1
h3
h2
f1
b3
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WARPING CHECK
STRESS CHECK
fy
tot,Ed
M
fy
tot,Ed
3 M0
fy
2tot,Ed + 32tot,Ed 1.1
M
tot,Ed = N,Ed + My,Ed + Mz,Ed + w,Ed
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
crosssection
Vz,Ed the shear stress due to shear force in z direction on the gross
crosssection
t,Ed the shear stress due to uniform (St. Venant) torsion on the
gross crosssection
w,Ed the shear stress due to warping on the gross crosssection
The warping effect is considered for standard I sections and U sections, and for (=
cold formed sections) sections. The definition of I sections and U sections, and
sections are described in "Profile conditions for code check".
The other standard sections ( RHS, CHS, Angle section, T section and rectangular
sections) are considered as warping free. See also Ref.[2], Bild 7.4.40.
MwwM
w ,Ed =
Cm
I sections
For I sections, the value of wM is given in the tables (Ref. [2], Tafel 7.87, 7.88). This
value is added to the profile library. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure:
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The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).
The value for wM can be calculated by (Ref.[5] pp.135) :
1
wM = b hm
4
U sections
For I sections, the value of wM is given in the tables as wM1 and wM2 (Ref. [2], Tafel
7.89). This values are added to the profile library. The diagram of wM is given in the
following figure :
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).
sections
The values for wM are calculated for the critical points according to the general
approach given in Ref.[2] 7.4.3.2.3 and Ref.[8] Part 27.
The critical points for each part are shown as circles in the figure.
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I sections
The shear stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure)
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U sections, sections
w
0
M tds
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PLASTIC CHECK
For doubly symmetric I sections of class 1 and class 2 (plastic check), the interaction
formula given in Ref.[10] is used.
b
tf z
tw
y y
h H
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Used variables
Section Properties
A sectional area
b width
H heigth of section
tf flange thickness
tw web thickness
h = H  tf
Aw = 1.05 (h+tf) tw for rolled section
Aw = h tw for welded sections
Af = 2 b tf
Af
f =
A
w = 1 f
Wz,pl plastic section modulus around z
axis
Wy,pl plastic section modulus around y
axis
Material Properties
fy,d yield strength
y,d shear strength
Internal forces
NSd normal force
My,Sd bending moment around y axis
Mz,Sd bending moment around z axis
Mw,Sd bimoment
Vy,Sd shear force in y direction
Vz,Sd shear force in z direction
Mxp,Sd torque due to St. Venant
Mxs,Sd warping torque
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Plastic capacities
Npl,Rd = A fy,d
Mz,pl,Rd = Wz,pl fy,d
Vz,pl,Rd = Aw y,d
t2
M xp,pl ,Rd = bt f2 + h w y ,d
2
My,pl,Rd = Wy,pl fy,d
h
M w ,pl ,Rd = M z ,pl ,Rd
2
Vy,pl,Rd = Af y,d
h
M xs,pl ,Rd = Vy ,pl ,Rd
2
N Sd
n=
N pl ,Rd
M y ,Sd
my =
M y ,pl ,Rd
M z ,Sd
mz =
M z ,pl ,Rd
M w ,Sd
mw =
M w ,pl ,Rd
Vy ,Sd
vy =
Vy ,pl ,Rd
Vz ,Sd
vz =
Vz ,pl ,Rd
M xp,Sd
m xp =
M xp,pl ,Rd
M xs,Sd
m xs =
M xs,pl ,Rd
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y = (m xs + v y ) + m xp
2
f = (2 y 1)
2
Sign
p=sign ( Mz,Sd x Mw,Sd)
m mw s
s = 1 z (m z + m w ) f f
mz + mw 4 w s w
n
1 p
wsw
2
n
= 4 s w s w 1 s p
wsw
Unity checks :
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
if n ( w s w )
2
n
m y (1 + f ) w s w +
wsw mz mw
+ + 1
2 f s f sf sf
if n > ( w s w )
m y (1 + f ) 2( w s w m n )
2
mz m
+ + p w 1
2 f s f sf sf
and
m y (1 + f ) 2( w s w m n )
2
mz m
+ p w 1
2 f s f sf sf
The following 6 standard situations are given in the literature (Ref.[2], Ref.[3]).
The value is defined as follows :
G It
=
E Cm
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Mx
Mt b
M xa =
L
Mt a
M xb =
L
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Mx
Mt b
M xa =
L
M a
M xb = t
L
Mxp for a b + k 2 k1
M xp = M t D3
side L
Mxp for b k 2 a k1
M xp = M t D4
side L
Mxs for a M xs = M t D3
side
Mxs for b M xs = M t D4
side
Mw for a side Mt
Mw = D1
Mw for b side Mt
Mw = D2
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D1 =
(sinh( b ) + k 2 )sinh( x ) + k 1 sinh( x ' )
sinh( L )
k 2 sinh( x ) + (sinh( a ) + k 1 )sinh( x ' )
D2 =
sinh( L )
D3 =
(sinh( b ) + k 2 ) cosh( x ) k 1 cosh( x ' )
sinh( L )
k 2 cosh( x ) (sinh( a ) + k 1 )cosh( x ' )
D4 =
sinh( L )
sinh( a ) + sinh( b ) a b sinh( a ) sinh( b ) L L
1 tanh( )
sinh( L ) 2 sinh( L ) 2 2
k1 = + +
L 2 L
2 tanh( ) L tanh( )
2 2
sinh( a ) + sinh( b ) a b sinh( a ) sinh( b ) L L
1 tanh( )
sinh( L ) 2 sinh( L ) 2 2
k2 = +
L 2 L
2 tanh( ) L tanh( )
2 2
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Mx
mt L
M xa =
2
mt L
M xb =
2
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Mx
mt L
M xa =
2
m L
M xb = t
2
L
k = 1 2
L
tanh( )
2
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One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, local torsional loading Mt
Mx
M xa = M t
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, distributed torsional loading mt
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Mx M xa = m t L
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There the EPW solver does not take into account the extra DOF for warping, the
determination of the warping torque and the related bimoment, is based on some
standard situations.
warping free
warping fixed
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The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations :
The values for Mxp, Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local
torsional loadings Mtn and the distributed loading mt. The value Mt0 is added to the Mxp
value.
The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations :
The values for Mxp, Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local
torsional loading Mt and the distributed loading mt.
REFERENCES
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[3] Kaltprofile
3. Auflage
Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Dsseldorf 1982
[8] C. Petersen
Stahlbau : Grundlagen der Berechnung und baulichen Ausbildung von
Stahlbauten
Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig 1988
[9] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1  1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 199311:1992, 1992
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[10] I. Vayas,
Interaktion der plastischen Grenzschnittgrssen doppelsymmetrischer I
Querschnitte
Stahlbau 69 (2000), Heft 9
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STRESS CHECK
vm = 2tot + 3 2tot
tot = N + My + Mz
tot = Vy + Vz
N
N =
Ax
M yy
My =
Wy
M zz
Mz =
Wz
Vy
Vy =
Ay
Vz
Vz =
Az
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USE OF DIAPHRAGMS
When diaphragms (steel sheeting) are used, the torsional contant It is adapted for
symmetric/asymmetric I sections, channel sections, Z sections, cold formed U, C , Z
sections.
l2
I t ,id = I t + vorhC
2G
1 1 1 1
= + +
vorhC C M ,k C A ,k C P ,k
EI eff
C M ,k = k
s
2
b
C A ,k = C100 a if b a 125
100
b
C A ,k = 1.25 C100 a if 125 < b a < 200
100
3 E Is
C P ,k
(h t)
s
Is =
12
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REFERENCES
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
[2] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
WernerVerlag, Dsseldorf
[3] BeuthKommentare
Stahlbauten
Erluterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, BerlinKln 1993
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INTRODUCTION
For the national codes EC3, NEN6770/6771, DIN18800 and SIA263, special checks are
performed for builtin beams, according to Ref.[1].
bo
0.5 q 0.5 q
tu
e2=bo
e1
bu
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bo
to
0.5 q 0.5 q
tu
e2=bo
e1
bu
bo
to
0.5 q 0.5 q
tu
e2=0
e1
bu
When the lower plate is loaded by qload (uniform distributed load), the effective area
of the loaded plate (flange) for the calculation of the plastic capacity is reduced as
follows :
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A u ,eff = A u
t u 3 3 + (2e1 + e 2 ) (e1 e 2 )
= 1
6b u
(e1 e 2 ) M q
=
t uf y t u
= 1 1
A eff = u A u + o A o
The following plastic interaction formula can be used, when single bending around yy
axis My,Sd, in combination with shear force Vz,Sd, is acting :
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M y ,Sd A v Vz ,Sd
+ 1. 0
M
pl ,y ,Rd A m Vpl ,z ,Rd
A h
= m f
2Wpl ,y
2
3 M q (1 + ) M q (1 + ) e1 e 2
+ 1. 0
4 f y t u f y t u t u
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At the edges of the bottom plate, the following composed stress check is performed :
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fy
( 2
x x y + 2y )
M
Mx tu
y =
Ix 2
e1 e 2
M x = (q max , q min )
2
t 3u
Ix =
12
fy
2x + 3
M
3 (q max , q min )
=
2 tu
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
fy
t ,max + w ,max
M 3
M t ,max t o
t ,max =
It
L
tanh
QeL Lk
M t ,max = 1
2 L
Lk
3 M w ,max
w ,max =
2 bo t o h f
QeL k L
M w ,max = tanh
2
Lk
EI o
L k = 2h f
GI t
Et o b 3o
EI o =
12
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
qL e Vpl ,z ,Rd
1
4 bf 2
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bf
q min q max
e e
REFERENCES
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The effective crosssection properties shall be based on the effective width beff of the
leg. See Ref.[1], Chapter J.2.3.
The effective width shall be obtained from the nominal width of the leg, assuming
uniform stress distribution :
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b
p =
t
p
p =
28.4 K c
K c = 0.43
235
=
fy
b eff = b
For rolled angle :
p 0.91 = 1.0
p
0.91 < p 1.213 = 2
0.91
0.98
p > 1.213 = 2
p
p 0.809 = 1.0
p
5
0.404
0.809 < p 1.213 =
3
0.98
p > 1.213 = 2
p
REFERENCES
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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
[1] EN 503411:2001
Overhead electrical lines exceeding AC 45 kV Part 1: General
requirements
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