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SCIA.

ESA PT Steel Code Check

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

SCIA

Scientific Application Group


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Release : 5.20
Module : ESASD.01
Manual : SCIA STEEL DESIGNER
Steel Code Check
Theoretical Background

Revision : 01/2006
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SCIA Group n.v.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

EC 3 ENV 1993 2

EC3 CODE CHECK 2


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 2
CONSULTED ARTICLES 3
Classification of sections 5
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section 6
Section properties 6
Bending moment 6
Bending, shear and axial force 6
Torsion check 6
Built-in beams 7
Compression members 7
Lateral-torsional buckling 7
Use of diaphragms 8
Shear buckling check 8
Shear buckling check for cold formed sections 8
Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling 10
Bending and axial compression 11
Battened compression members 12
EC3 - FIRE RESISTANCE 13
FIRE ACTIONS EFFECT EFI 13
MATERIAL PROPERTIES 14
TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS - THERMAL ACTIONS 15
NOMINAL TEMPERATURE-TIME CURVE 15
NET HEAT FLUX 16
STEEL TEMPERATURE 16
CALCULATION MODEL 18
CODE CHECK 18
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 19
REFERENCES 20

EC 3 EN 1993 22

EC3 CODE CHECK 22


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 22
CONSULTED ARTICLES 23
Classification of sections 25
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section 26
Section properties 26
Torsion check 26
Built-in beams 26
Compression members 27
Lateral-torsional buckling 27
Use of diaphragms 28
Shear buckling check 28
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 28
REFERENCES 29

DIN18800 30

DIN18800 CODE CHECK 30


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 30
CONSULTED ARTICLES 31
Classification of sections 35
Net area properties 35
Plastic interaction formula for RHS section 35
Plastic interaction formula for CHS section 38
Torsion check 40
Built-in beams 40
Calculation of the buckling length 41
Torsional buckling 41
Use of diaphragms 42
LTB Check 43
Combined flexion for check method 2 46
Battened compression members 46
Effective area properties 48
Shear buckling check 49
Shear buckling check with buckling influence 49
COLD FORMED THIN GAUGE MEMBERS 49
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 50
REFERENCES 51

ONORM B 4300 54

ONORM B 4300 CODE CHECK 54


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 55
CONSULTED ARTICLES 56
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 56
REFERENCES 57

NEN 59

NEN6770/6771 CODE CHECK 59


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 59
CONSULTED ARTICLES 60
Section properties 63
Classification of sections 63
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section 64
Torsion check 64
Built-in beams 64
Buckling length 64
Lateral-torsional buckling 65
Use of diaphragms 65
Battened compression members 66
Shear buckling check 67
Shear buckling check with buckling influence 67
NEN6072 - FIRE RESISTANCE 68
FIRE ACTIONS EFFECT 68
MATERIAL PROPERTIES 68
NOMINAL TEMPERATURE-TIME CURVE 69
STEEL TEMPERATURE 69
CALCULATION MODEL 72
CODE CHECK 72
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 73
REFERENCES 74

AISC - ASD 76

AISC - ASD CODE CHECK 76


CLASSIFICATION OF SECTIONS 78
SECTION PROPERTIES 78
BUCKLING LENGTH 79
FLEXURAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING 79
LATERAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING 79
SHEAR BUCKLING CHECK 80
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 81
REFERENCES 81

AISC - LRFD 83

AISC - LRFD CODE CHECK 83


CLASSIFICATION OF SECTIONS 85
SECTION PROPERTIES 86
BUCKLING LENGTH 86
LATERAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING 86
USE OF DIAPHRAGMS 87
SHEAR BUCKLING CHECK 87
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 87
REFERENCES 88

CM66 89

CM66 CODE CHECK 89


CONSULTED ARTICLES 89
Section properties 91
Plastic coefficient 91
Compression members 91
Factor kf 91
LTB Check 92
Use of diaphragms 92
Combined flexion 92
Shear buckling check 92
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 92
REFERENCES 93

CM66 - ADDITIF 80 94

CM66 - ADDITIF 80 CODE CHECK 94


CONSULTED ARTICLES 94
Classification of sections 95
Section check 95
Compression members 95
Lateral-torsional buckling 95
Use of diaphragms 96
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 96
REFERENCES 98

BS5950-1:1990 99

BS5950-1:1990 CODE CHECK 99


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 99
CONSULTED ARTICLES 100
Classification of sections 103
Slender cross-section 103
Section properties 103
Bending moment 103
Bending, shear, axial force 103
Lateral torsional buckling 104
Use of diaphragms 105
Compression member 105
Shear buckling check 105
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 105
REFERENCES 106

BS5950-1:2000 108

BS5950-1:2000 CODE CHECK 108


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 108
GOVERNING CODE CLAUSES 109
Classification of sections 112
Slender cross-sections 112
Section properties 112
Moment capacity 112
Bending, shear, axial force/capacity interaction 113
Lateral torsional buckling due to major axis moments 113
Torsional buckling about an eccentric axis (Annex G) 113
Lateral buckling due axial compression 113
Combined axial and bending buckling unity check/utilisation 114
Torsion effects 114
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 114

SIA263 115

SIA263 CODE CHECK 115


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 115
CONSULTED ARTICLES 115
Section classification 117
Slender cross-section 117
Sections properties 117
Lateral torsional buckling 118
Use of diaphragms 118
Shear buckling 118
Stability check 118
Torsion check 118
Built-in beams 119
SIA263 - FIRE RESISTANCE 119
FIRE ACTIONS EFFECT EFI 119
MATERIAL PROPERTIES 119
TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS - THERMAL ACTIONS 120
NOMINAL TEMPERATURE-TIME CURVE 120
NET HEAT FLUX 120
STEEL TEMPERATURE 120
CALCULATION MODEL 122
CODE CHECK 122
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 122
REFERENCES 123

GBJ 17-88 125

THE GBJ 17-88 CODE CHECK 125


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 125
CONSULTED ARTICLES 126
Section properties 128
Shear buckling check 128
Buckling curves 129
Buckling length 129
Lateral torsional buckling 129
Local stability of compressed members 129
Shear buckling check 130
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 130
REFERENCES 132

KOREAN STEEL CODE CHECK 133

THE KOREAN STEEL CODE CHECK 133


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 133
CONSULTED ARTICLES 134
Section classification 135
Section properties 136
Buckling length 136
Lateral torsional buckling 136
Combined stresses 137
Shear buckling check 138
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 138
REFERENCES 139

BSK 99 141

BSK 99 CODE CHECK 141


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 141
CONSULTED ARTICLES 143
Classification of sections 144
Effective cross-section properties for class 3 cross-section 144
Section properties 144
Section check 144
Compression members 145
Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling 145
Lateral-torsional buckling 147
Use of diaphragms 148
Shear force ( shear buckling) 148
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 149
REFERENCES 150

IS 800 152

IS:800 CODE CHECK 152


MATERIAL PROPERTIES 152
CONSULTED ARTICLES 152
Classification of sections 154
Section properties 154
Section check 154
Compression members 154
Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling 154
Lateral-torsional buckling 156
Use of diaphragms 157
SUPPORTED SECTIONS 157
REFERENCES 158

CALCULATION OF BUCKLING RATIO 159

INTRODUCTION TO THE CALCULATION OF BUCKLING RATIO 159


CALCULATION BUCKLING RATIO GENERAL FORMULA 159
CALCULATION BUCKLING RATIOS FOR CROSSING DIAGONALS 161
CONTINUOUS COMPRESSION DIAGONAL, SUPPORTED BY CONTINUOUS TENSION DIAGONAL 162
CONTINUOUS COMPRESSION DIAGONAL, SUPPORTED BY PINNED TENSION DIAGONAL 163
PINNED COMPRESSION DIAGONAL, SUPPORTED BY CONTINUOUS TENSION DIAGONAL 164
CONTINUOUS COMPRESSION DIAGONAL, SUPPORTED BY CONTINUOUS COMPRESSION DIAGONAL
165
CONTINUOUS COMPRESSION DIAGONAL, SUPPORTED BY PINNED COMPRESSION DIAGONAL 166
PINNED COMPRESSION DIAGONAL, SUPPORTED BY CONTINUOUS COMPRESSION DIAGONAL 167
CALCULATION OF CRITICAL EULER FORCE FOR VARH ELEMENTS 167
DEFINITIONS 167
CALCULATION OF THE CRITICAL EULER FORCE 168
CALCULATION BUCKLING RATIO FOR LATTICE TOWER MEMBERS 170
LEG WITH SYMMETRICAL BRACING 171
LEG WITH INTERMEDIATE TRANSVERSE SUPPORT 171
LEG WITH STAGGERED BRACING 172
SINGLE BRACING 172
SINGLE BRACING WITH SBS (SECONDARY BRACING SYSTEM) 172
CROSS BRACING 173
CROSS BRACING WITH SBS 174
K BRACING 175
HORIZONTAL BRACING 175
HORIZONTAL BRACING WITH SBS 176
DISCONTINUOUS CROSS BRACING WITH HORIZONTAL MEMBER 176
REFERENCES 177

CALCULATION OF MOMENT FACTORS FOR LTB 179

INTRODUCTION TO THE CALCULATION OF MOMENT FACTORS 179


CALCULATION MOMENT FACTORS 179
MOMENT DISTRIBUTION GENERATED BY Q LOAD 179
MOMENT DISTRIBUTION GENERATED BY F LOAD 182
MOMENT LINE WITH MAXIMUM AT THE START OR AT THE END OF THE BEAM 183
REFERENCES 183

PROFILE CONDITIONS FOR CODE CHECK 185

INTRODUCTION TO PROFILE CHARACTERISTICS 185


DATA FOR GENERAL SECTION STABILITY CHECK 185
DATA DEPENDING IN THE PROFILE SHAPE 187
I SECTION 187
RHS 188
CHS 189
ANGLE SECTION 190
CHANNEL SECTION 191
T SECTION 193
FULL RECTANGULAR SECTION 194
FULL CIRCULAR SECTION 195
ASYMMETRIC I SECTION 196
Z SECTION 197
GENERAL COLD FORMED SECTION 199
COLD FORMED ANGLE SECTION 201
COLD FORMED CHANNEL SECTION 202
COLD FORMED Z SECTION 204
COLD FORMED C SECTION 205
COLD FORMED OMEGA SECTION 206
RAIL TYPE KA 207
RAIL TYPE KF 209
RAIL TYPE KQ 210

WARPING CHECK 213

CALCULATION OF THE DIRECT STRESS DUE TO WARPING 214


I SECTIONS 214
U SECTIONS 215
SECTIONS 216
CALCULATION OF THE SHEAR STRESS DUE TO WARPING 217
I SECTIONS 217
U SECTIONS, SECTIONS 218
PLASTIC CHECK 219
STANDARD DIAGRAMS FOR WARPING TORQUE, BIMOMENT AND THE ST.VENANT TORSION
223
TORSION FIXED ENDS, WARPING FREE ENDS, LOCAL TORSIONAL LOADING MT 225
TORSION FIXED ENDS, WARPING FIXED ENDS, LOCAL TORSIONAL LOADING MT 226
TORSION FIXED ENDS, WARPING FREE ENDS, DISTRIBUTED TORSIONAL LOADING MT 228
TORSION FIXED ENDS, WARPING FIXED ENDS, DISTRIBUTED TORSIONAL LOADING MT 229
ONE END FREE, OTHER END TORSION AND WARPING FIXED, LOCAL TORSIONAL LOADING MT 230
ONE END FREE, OTHER END TORSION AND WARPING FIXED, DISTRIBUTED TORSIONAL LOADING
MT 230
DECOMPOSITION OF ARBITRARY TORSION LINE 232
DECOMPOSITION FOR SITUATION 1 AND SITUATION 3 233
DECOMPOSITION FOR SITUATION 2 233
REFERENCES 233

CHECK OF NUMERICAL SECTIONS 236


STRESS CHECK 236

USE OF DIAPHRAGMS 238

ADAPTION OF TORSIONAL CONSTANT 238


REFERENCES 239

SECTION CHECK FOR BUILT-IN BEAMS (IFB, SFB, THQ SECTIONS) 241

INTRODUCTION 241
REDUCTION OF PLASTIC MOMENT CAPACITY DUE TO PLATE BENDING 241
PLASTIC INTERACTION FORMULA FOR SINGLE BENDING AND SHEAR FORCE 243
PLASTIC CHECK FOR PLATE IN BENDING 244
STRESS CHECK FOR SLIM FLOOR BEAMS 245
NORMAL STRESS CHECK 245
SHEAR STRESS CHECK IN PLATE 246
TORSION CHECK DUE TO UNBALANCED LOADING 246
REFERENCES 249

EFFECTIVE CROSS-SECTION PROPERTIES FOR LATTICE TOWER ANGLE


MEMBERS 250

EFFECTIVE CROSS-SECTION PROPERTIES FOR COMPRESSED LATTICE TOWER ANGLE


MEMBERS 250
REFERENCES 251
SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

EC 3 ENV 1993

EC3 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992

Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined
according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], art.3.2.2.1.)

(fy, fu in N/mm, t in mm)


t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100 100<t<=250 100<t<=250
fy fu fy fu fy fy

S235 235 360 215 340 175 320


S 235
S275 275 430 255 410 205 380
S 275
S355 355 510 335 490 275 450
S 355
S420 420 520 390 520
S 420
S460 460 550 430 550
S 460

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the
previous table

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Remark : For cold formed sections, the average yield strength fya can be used (by setting
the proper data flag in the Cross Section input dialog).
The average yield strength is determined as follows :

knt
f ya = f yb + (f f yb ) min (f u ,1.2f yb )
A u
g

with fyb the tensile yield strength = fy


fu the tensile ultimate strength
t the material thickness
Ag the gross cross-sectional area
k is a coefficient depending on the type of forming :
k = 0.7 for cold rolling
k = 0.5 for other methods of forming
n the number of 90 bends in the section

Consulted articles

The cross-section is classified according to Table 5.3.1. (class 1,2,3 or 4). The section is
checked for tension (art. 5.4.3.), compression (art. 5.4.4.), shear (art. 5.4.6.) and the
combination of bending, shear and axial force (art. 5.4.9.).

For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to art.5.5.. The following
criteria are considered :
for compression : art. 5.5.1.
for lateral torsional buckling : art. 5.5.2.
for bending and axial compression : art. 5.5.4.

The shear buckling resistance is checked using the simple post-critical method from art.
5.6.3.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for part 5.3., 5.4., 5.5. and 5.6. in
the following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked
with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.

5.3. Classification of cross sections


5.3.1. Basis x
5.3.2. Classification x
5.3.3. Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis
5.3.4. Cross-section requirements when elastic global analysis is
used
5.3.5. Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section x (*)
5.3.6. Effects of transverse forces on webs

5.4. Resistance of cross-sections


5.4.1. General x
5.4.2. Section properties (*)
5.4.3. Tension x
5.4.4. Compression x
5.4.5. Bending moment x (*)
5.4.6. Shear x
5.4.7. Bending and shear x
5.4.8. Bending and axial force x
5.4.9. Bending, shear and axial force x (*)
5.4.10. Transverse forces on webs

5.5. Buckling resistance of members


5.5.1. Compression members x (*)
5.5.2. Lateral-torsional buckling x (*)
5.5.3. Bending and axial tension
5.5.4. Bending and axial compression x (*)
5.6. Shear buckling resistance
5.6.1. Basis x

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

5.6.2. Design methods


5.6.3. Simple post-critical method x
5.6.4. Tension field method
5.6.5. Intermediate transverse stiffeners
5.6.6. Welds
5.6.7. Interaction between shear force, bending moment and axial x
force

5.9. Built-up compression members


5.9.3. Battened compression members
5.9.3.1. Application x(*)
5.9.3.2. Constructional details
5.9.3.3. Second moment of inertia x
5.9.3.4. Chord forces ar mid-length x
5.9.3.5. Buckling resistance of chords x
5.9.3.6. Moments and shear due to battening x

Classification of sections

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section

The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d =
fy,k).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is
determined and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective
area) can change for each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the
screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved
:
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression.
Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment
about the relevant axis. eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross
section is subject to uniform compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.

For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each
intermediary section, also for the stability check.

For angle sections, see chapter 'Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice
tower angle members'.

Section properties

5.4.2.2 : The net area properties are not taken into account .
5.4.2.3 : The shear lag effects are neglected .

Bending moment

5.4.5.3 : The holes for fasteners are neglected.

Bending, shear and axial force

The reduced design plastic resistance moment for the interaction of bending, shear and
axial force, is taken from Table 5.17. Ref. [2]

Torsion check

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping
check'.

Built-in beams

For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are
performed, taking into account the local plate bending. See Chapter Section check for
built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections)

Compression members

5.5.1.5 For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Calculation of
buckling ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see chapter Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH
elements).
The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[5], Annex D.

Lateral-torsional buckling

For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections
and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is
given by the general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. [1]. For the calculation of the moment
factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

2 EI Iw + LGI t
Mcr = z
L
2
Iz 2 EI z

with E the modulus of elasticity


G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral
restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

See also Ref. [3], part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms

See Chapter 'Adaption of torsional constant'.

Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check for cold formed sections

See Ref.[4] 5.8 :

The shear resistance of the web Vw,Rd shall be taken as the lesser of the shear buckling
resistance Vb,Rd and the plastic shear resistance Vpl,Rd.

The shear resistance of the web should be checked if

_ f yb M 0
w 0.83
f y M1
_ sw f yb
w = 0.346
t E

The shear buckling resistance Vb,Rd is given by

s w t f bv
Vb,Rd =
M1
The plastic shear resistance Vpl,Rd is given by

sw t fy
Vpl ,Rd =
M0 3

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

with w the relative web slenderness


fyb the basic yield strength
fy the average yield strength
sw the web length
t the web thickness
E the modulus of elasticity
fbv the shear buckling strength
M0 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where
failure is caused by yielding (=1.1)
M1 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where
failure is caused by buckling (=1.1)

The value for fbv is given by :

_
w
fbv
<1.40 fyb
0.48
w
1.40 f yb
0.67 _
w

Remarks :

For an arbitrary composed section, the total Vb,Rd and Vpl,Rd is taken as the sum of
resistance of each web, where the angle (teta) is larger than 45 (see figure)

the basic yield strength is taken equal to the average yield strength

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling

See Ref.[4] 6.2.3.

The design buckling resistance Nb,Rd for torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be
obtained using buckling curve b, and with relative slenderness given by :

f yb
= A
cr
cr = min( cr ,T , cr ,TF )
1 EC m
cr ,T = GI t +
A g i 02 l T2

i 02 = i 2y + i 2z + y 02

cr ,TF =
1
2
[
( cr ,y + cr ,T ) ( cr , y + cr ,T ) 4 cr ,y cr ,T ]
E
cr ,y =
ly

iy

y
= 1 0
i0

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

with A the ratio Aeff/A (see Ref.[1] 5.5)


fyb the basic yield strength
cr the critical stress
cr,T the elastic critical stress for torsional buckling
cr,TF the elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling
G the shear modulus
E the modulus of elasticity
IT the torsion constant of the gross section
CM the warping constant
iy the radius of gyration about yy-axis
iz the radius of gyration about zz-axis
lT the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling
y0 the position of the shear center
ly the buckling length for flexural buckling about the yy-axis

Bending and axial compression

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

When the torsional buckling and/or the torsional-flexural buckling is governing, the
formula (6.12) from Ref.[4], article 6.5.2. is applied.

Battened compression members

The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member :

(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc

Two links (battens) are used.


The following additional checks are performed :
- buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with Nf,Sd
- section check of single chord, using internal forces :

N G = N f,SD
Vs
VG =
2
Va
MG = s
4

- section check of single batten, using the internal forces :

Vs a
T =
h0 2
Vs a
M=
4

For the calculation of Vs, the value of Ms is increased with the value of the internal force
Mzz.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

ho

EC3 - FIRE RESISTANCE

Fire actions effect Efi

The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi,d,t are taken from the results of the
analysis. It is recommended to use the accidental combination rules, for calculating the
internal forces used in the fire resistance check.

The accidental combination is given by

GA G k + 1,1Q k ,1 + 2, jQ k , j + A d (f )

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

with Gk characteristic values of permanent actions


Qk,1 characteristic value of the (main) variable action
Qk,j characteristic values of the other variable actions
Af(d) design values of actions from fire exposure
GA partial safety factor for permanent actions in the accidental
situation
=[1.0]
1,1 2,j combination coefficients

Material properties

The material properties are depending on the steel temperature.

Strength and deformation properties :

f y ,
k y , =
fy
f p ,
k p , =
fy
E a ,
k E , =
Ea

The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ky,,
proportional limit kp, and modulus of elasticity kE, is given by tables in ref.[6], table
3.1.

In the simplified calculation method, the following default properties are considered to
be constant during the analysis :

unit mass a 7850 kg/m


thermal elongation l/l 14 x 10-6 (a-20)
thermal conductivity a 45 W/mK

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Temperature analysis - Thermal actions

In this part, the nominal temperature-time curves and the related net heat flux are
described. See Ref.[8], Section 4, and Ref.[7], II.2.2.

Nominal temperature-time curve

The following temperature-time curves can be selected :

with t time in [min]


g gas temperature in [C]
c the coefficient of heat transfer by convection

ISO 834 curve

g = 20 + 345 log10 (8t + 1)


c = [25]W / m K

external fire curve

( )
g = 660 1 0.687e 0.32 t 0.313e 3.8 t + 20
c = [25]W / m K

hydrocarbon curve

( )
g = 1080 1 0.325e 0.167 t 0.675e 2.5 t + 20
c = [50]W / m K

smoldering fire curve

g = 1544 t + 20

during 20 minutes, followed by the standard ISO 834 curve

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Net heat flux

h net ,d = n ,c h net ,c + n ,r h net ,r

with hnet,d the net heat flux


hnet,c the convective heat flux
hnet,r the radiative heat flux
n,c factor depending on NAD [1.0]
n,r factor depending on NAD [1.0]

h net ,c = c ( g m )

(
h net ,r = res 5.67 10 8 ( r + 273) ( m + 273)
4 4
)
with configuration factor [1.0]
res resultant emissivity
= f m
f emissivity related to fire compartment
= [0.800]
m emissivity related to surface material
= [0.625]
r = g
gas temperature in [C]
m surface temperature of member in [C]
c coefficient of heat transfer by convection

Steel Temperature

The increase of temperature a,t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval
t

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Am / V
a ,t = h net ,d t
ca a

with Am the exposed surface area per unit length [m/m]


V the volume of the member per unit length [m/m]
The factor Am/V should not be taken as less than 10m-1
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
hnet,d the net heat flux per unit area [W/m]
t the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 5 seconds
a the unit mass of steel [kg/m]

The increase of temperature a,t in an insulated steel member during a time interval t

p A p / V ( g ,t a ,t )
a ,t =
d p ca a
( )
t e / 10 1 g ,t
1 +
3
c pp
= dpAp / V
c a a

with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m/m]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
cp the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
dp the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
t the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
a the unit mass of steel [kg/m]
p the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m]
a,t the steel temperature at time t
g,t the ambient gas temperature at time t
g,t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time
interval

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

p the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material


[W/mK]

The value a,t 0.0

For the increase of temperature a,t in an insulated steel member with intumescent
coating, we refer to the NEN specifications, Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.

Calculation model

The calculation can be performed in 2 domains :

- strength domain
- temperature/time domain

In the strength domain, the strength Rfi,d,t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t
(e.g. strength after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel
temperature cr,d is computed. From this critical temperature, the fire resistance time tfi,d
is calculated (the time domain).

Code Check

The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed
according to the regulations given in 'ENV 1993-1-2:1995' and/or 'Model Code on Fire
Engineering - ECCS N 111'. The checks are performed in the resistance domain or in
the temperature/time domain..
Torsional buckling and shear buckling are not considered.

For each member, the classification of the cross section, the section check and the
stability check are performed.
The following checks are executed :

EC3-1-2 :
- classification of cross section : art. 4.2.2.
- resistance for tension members : art. 4.2.3.1
- resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. 4.2.3.2.
- resistance for beams (class 1,2) : art. 4.2.3.3.
- resistance for beams (class 3) : art.4.2.3.4.
- resistance for members (class 1,2,3) subject to bending and compression : art.
4.2.3.5.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

- critical temperature : art. 4.2.4.

ECCS Model Code on Fire Engineering


- resistance for tension members : art. III.5.2.
- resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. III.5.3.
- resistance for beams (class 1,2) : art. III.5.4.
- resistance for beams (class 3) : art. III.5.5.
- resistance for members (class 1,2,3) subject to bending and compression : art.
III.5.6.
- resistance for members (class 4) : art. III.5.7.
- critical temperature : art. III.5.8.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile
conditions for code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS Z O COM NUM

Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)


Section check class 1 x x x

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Section check class 2 x x x


Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x
Stability check class 1 x x x
Stability check class 2 x x x
Stability check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 4 x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.

REFERENCES

[1] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[2] Essentials of Eurocode 3


Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building
ECCS - N 65, 1991

[3] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988

[4] ENV 1993-1-3:1996


Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

[6] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 2 : General rules - Structural fire design
ENV 1993-1-2:1995, 1995

[7] Model Code on Fire Engineering


ECCS - N 111
May 2001

[8] Eurocode 1
Basis of design and actions on structures
Part 2-2 : Actions on structures - Actions on structures exposed to fire
ENV 1991-2-2:1995

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

EC 3 EN 1993

EC3 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-1:2005

Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined
according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], table 3.1.)

Steel Grade fy (N/mm) fu (N/mm)


S 235 235 360
S 275 275 430
S 355 355 510
S 275 N/NL 275 390
S 355 N/NL 355 490
S 420 N/NL 420 540
S 460 N/NL 460 570
S 275 M/ML 275 380
S 355 M/ML 355 470
S 420 M/ML 420 520
S 460 M/ML 460 550
S 460 Q/QL/QL1 460 570
S 235 W 235 360
S 355 W 355 510
S 235 H 235 360
S 275 H 275 430
S 355 H 355 510
S 275 NH/NLH 275 370
S 355 NH/NLH 355 470

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

S 460 NH/NLH 460 550


S 275 MH/MLH 275 360
S 355 MH/MLH 355 470
S 420 MH/MLH 420 500
S 460 MH/MLH 460 530
Table 1

The name of the steel grade (e.g. 'S 355 W') is used to identify the steel grade.

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the
previous table

Remark : For cold formed sections, the average yield strength fya can be used (by setting
the proper data flag in the Cross Section input dialog).
The average yield strength is determined as follows :

knt
f ya = f yb + (f f yb ) min (f u ,1.2f yb )
A u
g

with fyb the tensile yield strength = fy


fu the tensile ultimate strength
t the material thickness
Ag the gross cross-sectional area
k is a coefficient depending on the type of forming :
k = 0.7 for cold rolling
k = 0.5 for other methods of forming
n the number of 90 bends in the section

Consulted articles

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in "Eurocode 3:
Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings - EN 1993-1-
1:2005".

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

The cross-sections are classified according to Table 5.2. All classes of cross-sections are
included. For class 4 sections (slender sections) the effective section is calculated in
each intermediary point, according to prEN 1993-1-5:2003, Chapter 4.4 .
The stress check is taken from art. 6.2.: the section is checked for tension (art. 6.2.3.),
compression (art. 6.2.4.), bending (art. 6.2.5.), shear (art. 6.2.6.), torsion (art.6.2.7.) and
combined bending, shear and axial force (art. 6.2.8., art.6.2.9. and art.6.2.10.).
The stability check is taken from art. 6.3.: the beam element is checked for buckling
(art. 6.3.1.), lateral torsional buckling (art. 6.3.2.), and combined bending and axial
compression (art. 6.3.3.).
The shear buckling is checked according to prEN 1993-1-5:2003, Chapter 5.
For I sections, U sections and cold formed sections warping can be considered.
A check for critical slenderness and torsion moment is also included.
For integrated beams, the local plate bending is taken into account for the plastic
moment capacity and the bending stresses in the section. The out-of-balance loading is
checked.

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The
chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation the following chapters.

EN 1993-1-1

5.5 Classification of cross section (*)


5.5.1. Basis x
5.5.2. Classification x
6. Ultimate limit states
6.1. General x
6.2. Resistance of cross-sections
x
6.2.1 General
6.2.2 Section properties x(*)
6.2.3 Tension x
6.2.4 Compression x
6.2.5 Bending moment x
6.2.6 Shear x
6.2.7 Torsion x(*)
6.2.8 Bending and shear x
6.2.9 Bending and axial force x
6.2.10 Bending, shear and axial force x

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

6.3. Buckling resistance of members


x(*)
6.3.1 Uniform members in compression
6.3.2 Uniform members in bending x
6.3.3 Uniform members in bending and axial compression x(*)

Annex A:Method 1:Interaction factors kij for interaction formula in 6.3.3.(4) x


Annex B:Method 2:Interaction factors kij for interaction formula in 6.3.3.(4) x

prEN 1993-1-3

6.1.2. Axial tension x


6.1.3. Axial compression x
6.1.5. Shear force x
6.1.6. Torsional moment x

prEN 1993-1-5

4.4. Plate elements without longitudinal stiffeners x


5. Resistance to shear x
5.1. Basis
5.2. Design resistance x
5.3. Contribution from webs x
5.4. Contribution from flanges x
5.5. Verification x
7.1. Interaction between shear force, bending moment and axial force x

Classification of sections

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.

Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section

The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d =
fy,k).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is
determined and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective
area) can change for each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the
screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved
:
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression.
Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment
about the relevant axis. eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross
section is subject to uniform compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.

For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each
intermediary section, also for the stability check.

Section properties

The net area properties are not taken into account .


The shear lag effects are neglected .

Torsion check

For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping
check'.

Built-in beams

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are
performed, taking into account the local plate bending. See Chapter Section check for
built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections)

Compression members

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling
ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see chapter Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH
elements).

Lateral-torsional buckling

For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections
and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is
given by the general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. [4]. For the calculation of the moment
factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

2 EI Iw + LGI t
Mcr = z
L
2
Iz 2 EI z

with E the modulus of elasticity


G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral
restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

See also Ref. [5], part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Use of diaphragms

See Chapter 'Adaption of torsional constant'.

Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile
conditions for code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS Z O COM NUM

Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Section check class 1 x x x


Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x
Stability check class 1 x x x
Stability check class 2 x x x
Stability check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 4 x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.

REFERENCES

[1] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-1:2005

[2] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1-3: General rules
Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting
EN 1993-1-3:20XX, 2003

[3] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1.5 : Plated structural elements
prEN 1993-1-5 : 2003

[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

DIN18800

DIN18800 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

DIN 18800 Teil 1


Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

DIN 18800 Teil 2


Stahlbauten
Stabilittsflle, Knicken von Stben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

DIN 18800 Teil 3


Stahlbauten
Stabilittsflle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990

Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined
according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], Tab.1)

The standard steel grades are :

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

(fy, fu in N/mm, t in mm)

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=80 40<t<=80


fy fu fy fu
S235 240 360 215 360
S 235
St 37-2
S275 280 430 255 430
S 275
S355 360 510 325 510
S 355
St 52-3

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100


fy fu fy fu
S420 420 520 390 520
S 420
S460 460 550 430 550
S 460

Consulted articles

For the section check, the cross section is classified according to DIN18800 Teil I, Table
12,13,14,15 and 18.. Depending on this classification, the section is checked as slender
section, EL/EL (elastic/elastic), as EL/PL (elastic/plastic) or as PL/PL (plastic/plastic).
For the EL/EL check, DIN18800 Teil I, Element (746), (747), (748), (749), (750) are
used.
The EL/PL check takes the rules from DIN18800 Teil I, Element (756), (757) and Table
(16) ,(17). The PL/PL check is done according to DIN18800 Teil I, Element (758), Table
(16),(17).
The slender cross section is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2, Element (715).
For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2 for
buckling, lateral torsional buckling and bending and compression. The following criteria
are used :

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compression : Element (304),(306)


lateral torsional buckling : Element (311),(309)
bending and axial compression : Element (313),(321),(322)
bending (LTB) and compression : Element (320),(323)

For slender sections, the following criteria are used :


calculation of effective area : Element (705),(706),(708),(709),(712),(713)
buckling check : Element (715),(716),(718),(719)
LTB check : Element (725),(726),(728),(729)

For the shear buckling check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 3.
The following criteria are used : Element (113), (504), (602),(603)

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for the relevant parts following
table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation the following chapters.

Teil 1
7.5. Verfahren beim Tragsicherheitsnachweis Nachweise (*)
7.5.1. Abgrenzungskriterien und Detailregelungen (*)
7.5.2. Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch x
(745) x
(746) x
(747) x
(748) x
(749) x
(750) x
Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Elastisch-Plastisch x
(753) x
(756) x
(757) x
Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Plastisch-Plastisch x
(758) x

Teil 2
3.2. Planmssig mittiger Druck x

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3.2.1. Biegeknicken x
(304) x (*)
3.2.2. Biegedrillknicken x
(306) x (*)
3.3. Einachsige Biegung ohne Normalkraft x
3.3.1. Allgemeines x
(307) x
3.3.2. Behinderung der Verformung x
(309) x (*)
3.3.3. Nachweis des Druckgurtes als Druckstab
3.3.4. Biegedrillknicken x
(311) x (*)
3.4. Einachsige Biegung mit Normalkraft x
3.4.1. Stbe mit geringer Normalkraft x
(312) x
3.4.2. Biegeknicken x
(314) x
3.4.3. Biegedrillknicken x
(320) x
3.5. Zweiachsige Biegung mit oder ohne Normalkraft x
3.5.1. Biegeknicken x
(321) x
(322) x(*)
3.5.2. Biegedrillknicken x
(323) x

4. Mehrteilige, einfeldrige Stbes x(*)


4.1. Allgemeines
4.2. Hufig verwendete Formelzeichnen
(404) x
4.3. Ausweichen rechtwinklig zur stofffreien Achse
(405) x
(406). x
(408). x

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

(409). x

7. Planmssig gerade Stbe mit ebenen dnnwandigen Quenschnittsteilen x


7.1. Allgemeines x
(701) x
(702) x
(704) x
7.2. Berechnungsgrundlage x
(705) x
(706) x
(707) x
(708) x
(709) x
7.3. Wirksame Breite beim Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch x
(711) x
(712) x (*)
(713) x
7.4. Wirksame Breite beim Verfahren Elastisch-Plastisch
7.5. Biegeknicken x
7.5.1. Spannungsnachweis beim Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch x
(715) x
7.5.2. Vereinfachte Nachweise x
(716) x
(718) x
(719) x
(721) x
7.6. Biegedrillknicken x
(722) x
(723) x
(725) x
(726) x
(728) x
(729) x

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Teil 3
5. Nachweise (*)
(504) x
6. Abminderungsfaktoren x
(601) x
(602) x

Classification of sections

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.

Net area properties

The net area properties are not taken into account .


The holes for fasteners are neglected.

Plastic interaction formula for RHS section

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

AG

AS/2

h
s/2

For RHS section, classified as Plastic-Plastic or Elastic-Plastic, the plastic interaction


formula according to Ref.[13], can be selected.

Used variable :

A sectional area
AS = s h
AG = (A-AS)/2.0
Wel,y elastic section modulus around y axis
Wel,z elastic section modulus around z axis

fy,d yield strength


y,d shear strength

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Vz,pl,Rd = AS y,d
Vy,pl,Rd = 2AG y,d

NSd normal force


My,Sd bending moment around y axis
Mz,Sd bending moment around z axis
Vy,Sd shear force in y direction
Vz,Sd shear force in z direction
MT,Sd torsional moment

M
Vz ,Sd + T ,Sd
if b 1 = 1 .0
Vz ,pl,Rd 4 z


2
M
Vz ,Sd + T ,Sd
else z = 1 b
Vz ,pl,Rd


M
Vy ,Sd + T ,Sd
if h 1 = 1.0
Vy ,pl,Rd 4 y


2
M
Vy ,Sd + T ,Sd
else y = 1 h
Vy ,pl,Rd

Ar= zAS + 2yAG


AS
= z
Ar

Npl,Rd = Ar fy,d

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

2
M y ,pl ,Rd = min hN pl ,Rd ,1.25Wel,y f yd
4

1+
M z ,pl ,Rd = min bN pl ,Rd ,1.25Wel,z f yd
4

N Sd
n=
N pl ,Rd
M y ,Sd
my =
M y ,pl ,Rd
M z ,Sd
mz =
M z ,pl ,Rd

The following interaction formula are checked :

Plastic interaction formula for CHS section

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

For CHS section, classified as Plastic-Plastic or Elastic-Plastic, the plastic interaction


formula according to Ref.[14], Tafel 6.74, is used :

Mv 1
1
M pl ,Q N
cos v
N plQ 2
Q v = Q 2y + Q 2z

M v = M 2y + M 2z
2dt s
Q pl =
3
Qv 1
:=1
Q pl 4
2
Qv 1 Q
> : = 1 v
Q pl 4 Q pl
A r = dt
N pl ,Q = A r s
d
M pl ,Q = min N pl ,Q ,1.25Wel s

with Qy,Qz internal shear force


Nv internal normal force
My,Mz internal bending moments
s yield strength
d,t dimensions from CHS
Wel elastic section modulus

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Torsion check

For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping
check'.

The stability check (DIN 18800 T2, formula 28 & 30) for doubly symmetric I section
becomes (Ref.[9], pp. 259) :

N My M + M z ,w
+ ky + z k z 1.0 (28)
N pl ,d M pl ,y ,d M pl ,z ,d
N My M + M z ,w
+ ky + z k z 1.0 (30)
z N pl ,d M M pl ,y ,d M pl ,z ,d

with Mz,w 2M w
=
h
Mw bimoment (see chapter 'Standard diagrams for warping
torque, bimoment and the St.Venant torsion')
kz = 1.50

Built-in beams

For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are
performed, taking into account the local plate bending. See Chapter Section check for
built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections)

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Calculation of the buckling length

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling
ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).

The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[10], Annex D.

Torsional buckling

The slenderness for torsional buckling vi is given by (see Ref.[6] , 7.5):

2
z2 2
4 c 2 i p + 0 . 093 1
2 M
z
zlz c 2 + iM
2
0
vi = 1 + 1
iz 2c2 (c 2
+ iM )
2 2


with l0 the torsional buckling length, refers to the input value for
the system length lyz
lz the system length for buckling around zz-axis
Remark : the z-axis refers to the axis which goes through
the shear force centre.
z refers to the buckling ratio around the zz-axis
Remark : the z-axis refers to the axis which goes through
the shear force centre.
0 refers to end warping and is input by the value kxy
zM the shear center
iy the radius of gyration around major axis
iz the radius of gyration around minor axis
ip = iy + iz
iM = ip + zM
Iw the warping constant

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Iz the moment of inertia around minor axis


It the torsional constant

I w ( z l z )2 / ( 0 l 0 )2 + 0 . 039 ( z l z )2 I t
c 2
=
Iz

With this slenderness vi and the buckling curve c, the reduction factor is calculated.

Use of diaphragms

(see also Ref.[7],3.5 and Ref.[8],3.3.4.)

The shear stiffness S for diaphragm is calculated as follows

a.104
S=
K2
K1 +
Ls

with a the frame distance


Ls the length of diaphragm
K1 factor K1
K2 factor K2

The torsional constant It is adapted with the stiffness of the diaphragms :

l2
I t ,id = I t + vorhC
2G

with l the LTB length


G the shear modulus
vorhC the actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

LTB Check

For aysmmetric I sections, RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS
(Circular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by
the general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. [4]. For the calculation of the moment factors C1,
C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB".

Depending on the input of the basic data, Mcr for symmetric I sections is given by the
general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. [4], by the DIN formula (19), or by formula
according to Ref.[11] "Roik, Carl, Lindner, Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader
dnnwandiger Stbe, Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, 1972".

DIN formula (19) :

Mcr = N c 2 + 0 . 25 z p
2
+ 0 . 5 z p
ki

I w ( z l ) / ( 0 l 0 )2 + 0 . 039 ( z l ) I t
2 2
c 2
=
Iz

with l,l0 the LTB length


z refers to rotational end-restraint in plan (about the z-z local axis).
0 refers to end warping
zp the point of load application
Iw the warping constant
Iz the moment of inertia around minor axis
It the torsional constant
A the sectional area
E the modulus of elasticity
vi the slenderness for torsional buckling ( see above)
the moment factor ( equivalent for factor C1)

2 EI z
Nki =
( z l )2

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Roik, Carl & Lindner

5z p
2
5z p
EI z
M ki , y = M cr = + c +
l

I + 0.039 l I t
c= w
Iz

with moment factor according to Roik, Carl, Lindner


E modulus of elasticity
Iz moment of inertia around weak axis zz
l system length for LTB
zp application point for loading, negative value is on top and has
negative influence
Iw warping constant
It torsional constant

The factor is supported for the following cases (described in Ref.[11], tables 5.13,
5.14, 5.15, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30,
5.33) :

- linear moment distribution :

- moment line according to distributed loading

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

- moment line according to concentrated loading

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

2 EI Iw L 2 GI
Mcr = z
+ 2 t
L2 Iz EI z

with E the modulus of elasticity


G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint
(= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

See also Ref. [5], part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Combined flexion for check method 2

The value My is the maximum value of the bending moment around the strong axis in
the member. The value Mz is the maximum value of the bending moment around the
weak axis in the member.
For non-prismatic sections, the values My and Mz are the concurrent bending moments
for each intermediary section.

Battened compression members

The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member :

(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Two links (battens) are used.


The following additional checks are performed :
- buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with NG
- section check of single chord, using internal forces (Ref.[7], pp.88-95) :

N a A
NG = + max M z sin( ) G*
2 l Wz
maxVy
VG =
2
maxVy a
MG =
4

- section check of single batten, using the internal forces (Ref.[7], pp.88-95) :

maxVy a
T =
hy2
Te
M=
2

For the calculation of maxVy, the value of Mz is increased with the value of the internal
force Mzz.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

hy

Effective area properties

The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d =
fy,k) according to the El-El procedure (DIN18800 T2, 7.3.).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is
determined and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective
area) can change for each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the
screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved.
The most critical effective area properties are the effective area properties on the
position where the appropriate moment of inertia is the minimum.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.

For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each
intermediary section, also for the stability check.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check with buckling influence


The influence of the buckling effect into the shear buckling control, is neglected when
there is a bending moment present.
It means that k=1 if <0.9. See also Ref.[3], Element 503.

Cold formed thin gauge members

The following table includes a list of DASt-Richtlinie 016 (Ref.[12]) elements which
are implemented in EPW by using the related DIN18800 T2 (Ref.[2]) element.

Supported elements from Covered by DIN Remarks


DASt - Richtlinie 016 18800 T2 elements
3.7.1. Grenzzustand der Tragfhigkeit
328 Tab.26
329 712
330 712
333 Tab.27
335 706

4.3.1. Biegemomententragfhigkeit
404 715

4.4. Biegedrillknicken
biegebeanspruchter Bauteile
4.4.3. Allgemeiner Nachweis
421 311
422 311
423 725, 726

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

4.5. Druckbeanspruchte einteilige Stbe


4.5.1. Allgemeines
429 708-710
430 708-710
431 708-710
432 708-710
433 708-710
434 708-710
4.5.2. Planmig mittiger Druck
435 716 ADef is not used
436 manual input / input in
profile library for KSL
437 723
438 723
4.5.3. Einachsige Biegung mit Druck
440 707
441 718
442 728
4.5.3. Zweiachsige Biegung mit Druck
443 707
444 721 ADef is not used
445 729

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

PPL Asymmetric I shapes


RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS O COM NUM

Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)


Section check PL-PL x x
Section check EL-PL x x
Section check EL-EL x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check slender section x x x x x x
Stability check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check slender section x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) sections are classified as EL-EL cross section by default.

REFERENCES

[1] DIN 18800 Teil 1


Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

[2] DIN 18800 Teil 2


Stahlbauten
Stabilittsflle, Knicken von Stben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

[3] DIN 18800 Teil 3

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Stahlbauten
Stabilittsflle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990

[4] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[5] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988

[6] G. Hnersen, E. Fritzsche


Stahlbau in Beispielen
Berechnungspraxis nach DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 3 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Dsseldorf 1991

[7] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Dsseldorf

[8] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erluterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Kln 1993

[9] Stahlbau Kalender 1999


DSTV
Ernst & Sohn, 1999

[10] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

[11] Roik, Carl, Lindner


Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader dnnwandiger Stbe
Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn
1972

[12] DASt-Richtlinie 016


Bemessung und konstruktive Gestaltung von Tragwerken aus
dnnwandigen kaltgeformted Bauteilen
Stahlbau-Verlagsgesellschaft - 1992

[13] H. Rubin,
Interaktionsbeziehungen fr doppeltsymmetrische I- und Kasten-
Querschnitte bei zweiachsiger Biegung und Normalkraft
Der Stahlbau 5/1978, 6/1978

[14] Stahl im Hochbau


14. Auflage, Band I / Teil 2
1986, Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Dsseldorf

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

ONORM B 4300

ONORM B 4300 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

NORM B 4300-1
Stahlbau
Berechnung und Konstruktion der Tragwerke
Bemessung nach Grenzzustnden
DK 624.014.2.046, Mrz 1994

NORM B 4300-2
Stahlbau
Knicken von Stben und Stabwerken
Bedingungen fr die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 2 und NORM B
4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.2, April 1994

NORM B 4300-3
Plattenbeulen
Bedingungen fr die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 3 und NORM B
4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.4, April 1994

DIN 18800 Teil 1


Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

DIN 18800 Teil 2


Stahlbauten
Stabilittsflle, Knicken von Stben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

DIN 18800 Teil 3


Stahlbauten
Stabilittsflle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990

Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined
according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], 2.1. and Ref. [4], Tab.1)

The standard steel grades are :

(fy, fu in N/mm, t in mm)

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=80 40<t<=80


fy fu fy fu
St 360 240 360 215 360
S235
S 235
St 430 280 430 255 430
S275
S 275
St 510 360 510 325 510
S355
S 355

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100


fy fu fy fu
S420 420 520 390 520
S 420
S460 460 550 430 550

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

S 460

Consulted articles

For the section check, the cross section is classified according to ONORM B 4300-1
Tab.3,4,5 and to DIN18800 Teil I, Table 15,18. Depending on this classification, the
section is checked as slender section, EL/EL (elastic/elastic), as EL/PL (elastic/plastic) or
as PL/PL (plastic/plastic).
For the EL/EL check, ONORM B 4300-1 Art. 5.2. is used. (The 7% increase of the
moment of inertia is taken into account for rolled I section - see Ref. [1], Art. 5.2.5.4.).
The EL/PL check takes the rules from DIN18800 Teil I, Element (756), (757) and Table
(16) ,(17). The PL/PL check is done according to DIN18800 Teil I, Element (758), Table
(16),(17).
The slender cross section is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2, Element (715).

For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2 for
buckling, lateral torsional buckling and bending and compression. The following criteria
are used :

compression : Element (304),(306)


lateral torsional buckling : Element (311),(309)
bending and axial compression : Element (313),(321),(322)
bending (LTB) and compression : Element (320),(323)

For slender sections, the following criteria are used :


calculation of effective area : Element (705),(706),(708),(709),(712),(713)
buckling check : Element (715),(716),(718),(719)
LTB check : Element (725),(726),(728),(729)

For the shear buckling check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 3.
The following criteria are used : Element (113), (504), (602),(603)

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in "DIN18800 Code check".

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)


L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical sections

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS O COM NUM

Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)


Section check PL-PL x
Section check EL-PL x
Section check EL-EL x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check slender section x x x x x x
Stability check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check slender section x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) sections are classified as EL-EL cross section by default.

REFERENCES

[1] NORM B 4300-1


Stahlbau
Berechnung und Konstruktion der Tragwerke
Bemessung nach Grenzzustnden
DK 624.014.2.046, Mrz 1994

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[2] NORM B 4300-2


Stahlbau
Knicken von Stben und Stabwerken
Bedingungen fr die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 2
und NORM B 4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.2, April 1994

[3] NORM B 4300-3


Plattenbeulen
Bedingungen fr die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 3
und NORM B 4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.4, April 1994

[4] DIN 18800 Teil 1


Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

[5] DIN 18800 Teil 2


Stahlbauten
Stabilittsflle, Knicken von Stben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

[6] DIN 18800 Teil 3


Stahlbauten
Stabilittsflle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990

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NEN

NEN6770/6771 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Staalconstructies TGB 1990


Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies
NEN 6770, december 1991

Staalconstructies TGB 1990


Stabiliteit
NEN 6771, december 1991-januari 2000

Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined
according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], art.9.1.2.1.1.)

The standard steel grades are :

(fy, fu in N/mm, t in mm)


t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100 100<t<=250 100<t<=250
fy fu fy fu fy fy
S235 235 360 215 340 175 320
S 235
S275 275 430 255 410 205 380
S 275
S355 355 510 335 490 275 450
S 355
S420 420 520 390 520
S 420
S460 460 550 430 550
S 460

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the
previous table.

Consulted articles

The cross section is classified according to NEN 6771 Table 1. (class 1,2,3 or 4).
The section is checked on following criteria :
tension : NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.1., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.1.
compression : NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.2., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.2.
shear : NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.4., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.4.
bending, shear and axial force : NEN 6770 Art. 11.3., NEN 6771 Art. 11.3.

For the stability check, the element is checked on following criteria :


compression : NEN 6771 Art.12.1.1.1/ 12.1.2./12.1.3.
lateral torsional buckling : NEN 6771 Art.12.2.
bending and axial compression: NEN 6771 Art.12.3.
shear buckling : NEN 6771 Art.13.8. / 13.9.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for NEN6770 part 11,12 and
NEN6771 part 10,11,12,13. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters
marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.

NEN6770
11.Toetsing van de doorsnede x
11.1. Algemeen x
11.2. Enkelvoudige krachten en momenten x
11.2.1. Axiale trek x
11.2.2. Axiale druk x
11.2.3. Buiging
11.2.4. Afschuiving x
11.2.5. Torsie x
11.3. Combinaties van krachten en momenten x
11.3.1. Enkele buiging met normaalkracht en afschuiving x
11.3.2. Dubbele buiging met normaalkracht en afschuiving x
11.4. Vloeicriterium x
11.5. De invloed van de boutgaten (*)

NEN6771
10.2.4. Doorsneden x (*)

11.Toetsing van de doorsnede x


11.1. Algemeen x
11.2. Enkelvoudige krachten en momenten x
11.2.1. Axiale trek x
11.2.2. Axiale druk x
11.2.3. Buiging
11.2.4. Afschuiving x
11.2.5. Torsie
11.3. Combinaties van krachten en momenten x

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12. Toetsing van de stabiliteit x


12.1. Op druk belaste staven x
12.1.1. Knikstabiliteit x (*)
12.1.2. Torsiestabiliteit x
12.1.3. Torsieknikstabiliteit x
12.1.4. Verend gesteunde staven
12.1.5. Staven in vakwerken
12.1.6. Samengestelde staven x(*)
12.1.6.1 Algemeen x
12.1.6.2. Benodigde grootheden x
12.1.6.3. Toetsing van het middenveld van de samengestelde staaf x
12.1.6.4. Toetsing van de eindvelden van de samengestelde staaf x
12.1.6.4.2 Staven met raamwerkverband x
12.2. Op buiging belaste staven(kipstabiliteit) xx
12.2.1. Toepassingsgebied x
12.2.2. Toetsingsregel x
12.2.3. Ongesteunde lengte
12.2.4. Opleggingen en zijdelingse steunen
12.2.5. Het theoretisch elastische kipmoment x (*)
12.3. Op druk en buiging belaste staven x
12.3.1. Knikstabiliteit x
12.3.2. Torsiestabilteit x
12.3.3. Torsieknikstabiliteit x
12.4. Op trek en buiging belaste staven

13. Toetsing van de plooistabiliteit x


13.1. Algemeen x
13.2. Geometrie van het verstijfde en onverstijfde plaatveld x
13.3. Geometrie van de verstijvingen
13.4. Belasting in het vlak van het plaatveld x
13.4.1. Normaalspanning in langsrichting x
13.4.2. Schuifspanningen x
13.4.3. Normaalspanningen in dwarsrichting
13.4.4. Platen in en loodrecht op hun vlak belast

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13.5. Belasting op verstijvingen


13.6. Idele kritieke plooispanning van een onverstijfd plaatveld x
13.7. De plooispanning van een onverstijfd plaatveld x
13.7.1. Bepaling van de relatieve slankheid van het plaatveld x
13.7.2. De plooispanning voor een onverstijfd plaatveld met als
opleggingen dwarsverstijving(en) en/of randen x
13.7.3. De plooispanning voor een onverstijfd plaatveld met ten
minste een langsverstijving als oplegging
13.8. Eisen waaraan plaatvelden en verstijvingen moeten voldoen x
13.8.1. Onverstijfd plaatveld x
13.8.2. Dwarsverstijvingen
13.8.3. Langsverstijvingen
13.8.4. Stijfheidseisen te stellen aan langs- en dwarsverstijvingen
13.8.5. Doorsnedecontrole voor langs- en dwarsverstijvingen
13.9. Interactie tussen plooi en knik x (*)
13.9.1. Algemeen x
13.9.2. Constructies opgebouwd uit plaatvelden al of niet verstijfd
met dwarsverstijvingen x
13.9.3. Constructies opgebouwd uit plaatvelden verstijfd met
langsverstijvingen en/of niet verstijfd met dwarsverstijvingen
13.9.4. Berekeningen van de dwarsverstijvingen

Section properties

The influence of the bore hole is neglected.

Classification of sections

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.

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Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section

The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d =
fy,k).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is
determined and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective
area) can change for each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the
screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved
:
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression.
Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment
about the relevant axis. eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross
section is subject to uniform compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.

For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each
intermediary section, also for the stability check.

For angle sections, see chapter 'Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice
tower angle members'.

Torsion check

For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping
check'.

Built-in beams

For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are
performed, taking into account the local plate bending. See Chapter Section check for
built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections)

Buckling length

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer tochapter "Calculation of buckling
ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).

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The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[5], Annex D.

Lateral-torsional buckling

For symmetric I sections and RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic
critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the formula of Ref [2], part 12.2.5.. When the
factor > 5000, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general
formula in EC3, Annex F, F.2. Ref [3]. For asymmetric I sections, the elastic critical
moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula in EC3, Annex F, F.2. Ref [3].
For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to Ref.[7], tables 9
(case 1), 10 and 11.
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

2 EI Iw L 2 GI
Mcr = z
+ 2 t
L2 Iz EI z

with E the modulus of elasticity


G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint
(= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

See also Ref. [4], part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms

See Chapter 'Adaption of torsional constant'.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Battened compression members

The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member :

(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc

Two links (battens) are used.


The following additional checks are performed :
- buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with Nf,s;d
- section check of single chord, using internal forces :

N G = N f;s;d
Q f;s;d
VG =
2
Q f;s;d a
MG =
4

- section check of single batten, using the internal forces :

Q f;s;d a
Vk;s;d =
h0 2
Q f;s;d a
M k;s;d =
4

For the calculation of Qf;s;d, the value of My;s;d is increased with the value of the internal
force Mzz.

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ho

Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check with buckling influence

The influence of the buckling effect into the shear buckling control, is neglected when
there is a bending moment present, i.e. if <0.9.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

NEN6072 - FIRE RESISTANCE

For more info, we refer to Ref.[8], Ref.[9].

Fire actions effect

The design effects of actions for the fire situation are taken from the results of the
analysis. It is recommended to use the special combination rules according to Ref.[10],
NEN6702 6.2.2., for calculating the internal forces used in the fire resistance check.

This special combination is given by

f ;g G rep + f ;q i Q i;rep + f ;a Fa ;rep

with Grep characteristic values of permanent actions


Qi characteristic value of the variable action
Fa;rep design values of special action (from fire exposure)
f;g partial safety factor for permanent actions in the special
combination
=1.0
f;q partial safety factor for variable actions in the special
combination
=1.0
f;a partial safety factor for special actions in the special
combination
=1.0
I the 'momentaaan' factor for the variable action

Material properties

The yield strength is depending on the steel temperature :

f y;;d = f y;d

The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength is
given by :

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

- =1.0 when a 400 C


1.03
- = when 400C < a 1200 C
(e + 1)0.26

with a 482
=
39.2
a steeltemperature in C
fy;d design value for yield strength at room temperature
fy;;d design value for yield strength at increased temperature

The following default properties are considered to be constant during the analysis :

unit mass a 7850 kg/m


thermal elongation l/l 14 x 10-6 (a-20)
thermal conductivity a 45 W/mK

Nominal temperature-time curve

The standard temperature-time (ISO 834) curve is used :

g = 20 + 345 log10 (8t + 1)

with t time in [min]


g gas temperature in [C]

Steel Temperature

The increase of temperature a in an unprotected steel member during a time interval


t

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a = P( t a )t
c a a
= c + r
r 5.67 t + 273 a + 273
4 4

r =
( t a ) 100 100

with Am the exposed surface area per unit length [m/m]


V the volume of the member per unit length [m/m]
P = Am/V
t gas temperature in [C]
a steel temperature [C]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
t the time interval [seconds]
a the unit mass of steel [kg/m]
r resultant emissivity
= 0.5
c coefficient of heat transfer by convection
= 25 W/(mK)

The increase of temperature a in an insulated (non intumescent coating) steel member


during a time interval t

Pi M ( t a )t (e / 5 1) t
K ef
a =
c a a
i;d ;ef
K ef =
di
1
M =
2
1+
3
c ii
= d i Pi
2c a a

with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m/m]

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

V the volume of the member per unit length [m/m]


Pi = Ap/V
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
ci the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
di the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
t the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
a the unit mass of steel [kg/m]
i the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m]
a the steel temperature at time t
t the ambient gas temperature at time t
t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time
interval
i;d;ef the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material
[W/mK]

The increase of temperature a in an insulated (intumescent coating) steel member


during a time interval t

K d ;ef
a = Pi ( t a )t
c a a

with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m/m]
Pi = Ap/V
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
Kd;ef coefficient of heat transfer of the intumescent coating
t the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
a the unit mass of steel [kg/m]
a the steel temperature at time t
t the ambient gas temperature at time t
i;d;ef the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material
[W/mK]

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Calculation model

The calculation can be performed in 2 domains :

- strength domain
- temperature/time domain

In the strength domain, the strength (unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e.g.
strength after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel temperature a,cr
is computed. From this critical temperature, the fire resistance time is calculated (the
time domain).

The critical steel temperature a,cr is given by :

1
a ,cr = 39.2 ln 1 + 482
0.8925()
3.846

with degree of utilization at time t=0


correction factor
= 1.00 for tension elements
= 1.00 for beams, statically determined, 4 side exposure
= 0.70 for beams, statically determined, 3 side exposure
= 0.85 for beams, statically undetermined, 4 side exposure
= 0.60 for beams, statically undetermined, 3 side exposure
= 1.20 for compression elements (inclusive the buckling
check)
= 1.20 for compression and bending elements (inclusive the
buckling and LTB check)

Code Check

The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed
according to the regulations given in NEN6770/6771, adapted with the yield strength
for the increased temperature and the correction factor. The checks are performed in the
resistance domain or in the temperature/time domain. Shear buckling is not considered.

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SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS Z O COM NUM

Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)


Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x
Stability check class 1 x x x
Stability check class 2 x x x
Stability check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 4 x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.

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REFERENCES

[1] Staalconstructies TGB 1990


Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste
constructies
NEN 6770, december 1991

[2] Staalconstructies TGB 1990


Stabiliteit
NEN 6771, december 1991

[3] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988

[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

[6] ENV 1993-1-3:1996


Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

[7] Staalconstructies TGB 1990


Stabiliteit
NEN 6771, januari 2000

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

[8] NEN 6072


Rekenkundige bepaling van de brandwerendheid van bouwdelen
Staalconstructies
December 1991

[9] NEN 6072/A2 - Wijzigingsblad


Rekenkundige bepaling van de brandwerendheid van bouwdelen
Staalconstructies
December 2001

[10] NEN 6702


Belastingen en vervormingen TGB 1990
December 1991

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

AISC - ASD

AISC - ASD CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Manual of Steel Construction


Allowable Stress Design
Part 5 : Specification and Codes
AISC, Ninth Edition, 1989

The cross section is classified according to Table B5.1. (compact, noncompact, or slender
section).

The member is checked on following criteria :

tension : D1
compression : E2, E3
flexural members : F1,F2,F3,F4
plate girders : G2
combined forces : H1,H2

A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the
following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with
(*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.

B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B1. Gross Area x
B2. Net Area (*)
B3. Effective Area
B4. Stability
B5. Local Buckling (*)
1.Classification of Steel Sections x
2.Slender Compression Elements x

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

B6. Rotational Restraint at Points of Support


B7. Limiting Slenderness Ratios x
B8. Simple Spans
B9. End Restraint
B10. Proportions of Beams and Girders
B11. Proportioning of Crane Girders

D. TENSION MEMBERS
D1. Allowable Stress x (*)
D2. Built-up members
D3. Pin-Connected Members

E. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS


E1. Effective Length and Slenderness Ratio x (*)
E2. Allowable Stress x
E3. Flexural-torsional Buckling x (*)
E4. Built-up Members
E5. Pin-Connected Compression Members
E6. Column Web Shear

F. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS (*)


F1. Allowable Stress : Strong Axis Bending of I-Shaped Members and x
Channels
1.Members with Compact Sections x
2.Members with Non-Compact Sections x
3.Members with Compact or Non-Compact Sections with Unbraded x
Length Greater then Lc
F2. Allowable Stress : Weak Axis Bending of I-Shaped Members, Solid x
Bars and Rectangular Plates
1.Members with Compact Sections x
2.Members with Non-Compact Sections x
F3. Allowable Stress : Bending of Box Members, Rectangular Tubes and x
Circular Tubes
1.Members with Compact Sections x

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2.Members with Non-Compact Sections x


F4. Allowable Shear Stress x
F5. Transverse Stiffeners
F6. Built-up Members
F7. Web-tapered Members

G. PLATE GIRDERS
G1. Web Slenderness Limitations
G2. Allowable Bending Stress x
G3. Allowable Shear Stress with Tension Field Action
G4. Transverse Stiffeners
G5. Combined Shear and Tension Stress

H. COMBINED STRESSES
H1. Axial Compression and Bending x
H2. Axial Tension and Bending x

APPENDIX B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


B5. Local Buckling x

Classification of sections

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined..


For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the code check. However, for non-prismatic sections, the section
classification is determined for each intermediary section.

Section properties

The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

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Buckling length

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).

Flexural Torsional Buckling

The slenderness ratio for flexural torsional buckling (KL/r)e is given by

KL E
=
r e Fe

See Ref. [1], Commentary Chapter E1.


The calculation of Fe is given in Ref. [2], Appendix E.

Lateral-torsional buckling

For I sections and channel sections, the allowable LTB stress is given in F1.
For RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) ,
the allowable LTB stress is given in F3.
For angle sections with symmetrical legs, the allowable LTB stress is given in Ref. [1],
pp.309-314, Specification for allowable stress - Design of single-angle members.

For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

2 EI Iw L 2 GI
Mcr = z
+ 2 t
L2 Iz EI z

with E the modulus of elasticity


G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint
(= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

See also Ref. [4], part 7.

With this moment Mcr, the critical LTB stress LTB is calculated :

M cr
LTB =
Iy

with Iy the moment of inertia about the major axis

The slenderness ratio for LTB LTB, is given by

E
LTB =
LTB

The allowable LTB stress is calculated using the slenderness LTB with the formulas
given in Ref.[1], E2.
See also Ref. [5], Bijlage E.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS O COM NUM

Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)


Compact section x x x x x
Non-compact section x x x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x

(1) sections are classified as non-compact section by default.

REFERENCES

[1] Manual of Steel Construction


Allowable Stress Design
AISC, Ninth Edition, 1989

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

[2] Manual of Steel Construction


Load & Resistance Factor Design
AISC, First Edition, 1986

[3] Manual of Steel Construction


Load & Resistance Factor Design
AISC, Volume I, Second Edition, 1995

[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988

[5] NBN B 51-001


Stalen Bouwconstructies
BIN, 5e uitg. April 1977

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AISC - LRFD

AISC - LRFD CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

AISC Manual of steel construction


Load and Resistance Factor Design
Part 16 Specifications and Codes
Third Edition
2001

The cross section is classified according to Table B5.1. (compact, noncompact, or slender
section).

The member is checked on following criteria :

tension : D1
compression : E2, E3, Appendix E3
flexural members : F1,Appendix F1, Appendix F2
plate girders : Appendix G2, Appendix G3, Appendix G5
combined forces : H1,H2

A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the
following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with
(*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.

B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B1. Gross Area x
B2. Net Area (*)
B3. Effective Area for Tension Members
B4. Stability
B5. Local Buckling (*)

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

1.Classification of Steel Sections x


2.Slender Compression Elements x
3.Slender-Element Compression Sections x
B6. Bracing at Support
B7. Limiting Slenderness Ratios x
B8. Simple Spans
B9. End Restraint
B10. Proportions of Beams and Girders

D. TENSION MEMBERS
D1. Design Tensile Strength x (*)
D2. Built-up members
D3. Pin-Connected Members and Eyebars

E. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS


E1. Effective Length and Slenderness Limitations x
1.Effective Length x (*)
2.Design by Plastic Analysis
E2. Design Compressive Strength for Flexural Buckling x
E3. Design Compressive Strength for Flexural-Torsional Buckling x
E4. Built-up Members
E5. Pin-Connected Compression Members

F. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS (*)


F1. Design for Flexure x
1.Yielding x
2.Lateral-Torsional Buckling x
F2. Design for Shear x
F3. Web-tapered Members
F4. Beams and Girders with Web Openings

G. PLATE GIRDERS x

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H. MEMBERS UNDER COMBINED FORCES AND


TORSION
H1. Symmetric Members Subject to Bending and Axial Force x
H2. Unsymmetric Members and Members under Torsion and x
Combined Torsion, Flexure, Shear and/or Axial Force
H3. Alternative Interaction Equation for Members under
Combined Stress

APPENDIX B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


B5. Local Buckling x

APPENDIX E. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION


MEMBERS
E3. Design Compressive Strength for Flexural-Torsional Buckling x

APPENDIX F. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL


MEMBERS
F1. Design for Flexure x
F2. Design for Shear x
F3. Web-tapered Members

APPENDIX G. PLATE GIRDERS


G1. Limitations
G2. Design Flexural Strength x(*)
G3. Design Shear Strength with Tension Field Action x(*)
G4. Transverse Stiffeners
G5. Flexure-Shear Interaction x(*)

Classification of sections

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined..


For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the code check. However, for non-prismatic sections, the section
classification is determined for each intermediary section.

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Section properties

The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

Buckling length

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).

Lateral-torsional buckling

For I sections, channel sections, RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections, T


sections, rectangular sections, and asymmetric I sections, the critical LTB moment is
given in F1 and Appendix F1.
For angle sections with symmetrical legs, the critical LTB moment is given in Ref. [1],
pp.281-288, Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Single-Angle
members.
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

2 EI Iw L 2 GI
Mcr = z
+ 2 t
L2 Iz EI z

with E the modulus of elasticity


G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint
(= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

See also Ref. [2], part 7.

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms

See Chapter 'Adaption of torsional constant'.

Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in Appendix D.
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS O COM NUM

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Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)


Compact section x x x x x
Non-compact section x x x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x

(1) sections are classified as non-compact section by default.

REFERENCES

[1] AISC Manual of steel construction


Load and Resistance Factor Design
Third Edition
2001

[2] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988

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CM66

CM66 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Rgles de calcul des constrcutions en acier


ITBTP / CTICM
Rgles CM Decembre 1966
Editions Eyrolles 1982

Consulted articles

The cross-section is checked for tension (art. 3,1), bending (art. 3,2.) and shear (art. 3,3.).

For the stability check, the following criteria are considered :


for compression : art. 3,4.
for compression and bending : art. 3,5
for lateral torsional buckling : art. 3,6.
for double bending and axial compression : art. 3,7.
for shear buckling : art 5,212

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for the relevant parts in the
following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with
(*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.

3 Rgles gnrales concernant les calculs de rsistance et de


dformation
3,0 Donnes numriques x

3,1 Pices soumises traction simple x (*)

3,2 Pices soumises flexion simple ou dvie x

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

3,21 Flexion simple x(*)


3,22 Flexion dvie

3,3 Effet de leffort tranchant dans les pices flchies x

3,4 Pices soumises la compression flambement simple


3,40 Gnralits x(*)
3,41 Pices comprimes a parois pleines x
3,42 Pices composes a treilis
3,43 Pices composes a traverses de liaison
3,44 Conditions spciales imposes aux lments comprims a x
parois minces

3,5 Pices soumises compression avec flexion dans le plan de


flambement
3,50 Principe x
3,51 Coefficient damplification des contraintes de flexion x (*)
3,52 Vrfication des pices a parois pleines x

3,53 Vrification des pices composes treilis


3,54 Vrification des pices composes traverses de liaison

3,6 Dversement en flexion simple


3,60 Gnralits x
3,61 Pices symtriquement charges et appuyes
3,611 Poutres me pleine x(*)
3,612 Poutres treilis
3,62 Cas des pices soumises deux moments diffrents au droit x(*)
des appuis
3,63 Cas des poutrelles en console parfaitement encastres
3,64 Coeffcients utiliss pour la dtermination de kd
3,641 Coefficient D x
3,642 Coefficient C x(*)
3,643 Coefficient B x(*)

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

3,7 Flexion compose


3,70 Domaine dapplication x
3,71 Notations x
3,72 Principe des vrifications x
3,73 Formules enveloppes pour les pices parois pleines x (*)

3,8 Flambement dans les systmes hyperstatiques

3,9 Dformations x

5 Rgles spciales certains lments


5,212 Poutres composes me pleine mes x

Section properties

The net area properties are not taken into account .

Plastic coefficient

The plastic coefficients are calculated according to the Ref.[1], 13,212 (Valeurs du
coefficient dadaptation plastique).

Compression members

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).

Factor kf

The factor kf is calculated using the formula given in Ref[1], 3,516


2
AM
+ 0.25 1.721
M med l
kf =
1;3

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+ 0.25
If Mmed 0.0, the formula 3,513 is used : k f =
1.3

LTB Check

The LTB check is performed for symmetric I sections. For other cross sections the
factor kd=1.0.
For the calculation of the coefficient C, we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for
LTB".
The coefficient B is calculated by interpolating the table for B given in Ref[1] 3,643,
and using the calculated C value with table for C given in Ref[1] 3,642.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms

See Chapter 'Adaption of torsional constant'.

Combined flexion

The values fx is the maximum value of the bending stress in the member for the
bending around the strong axis. The value fy is the maximum value of the bending
stress in the member for the bending around the weak axis.
For non-prismatic sections the values fx and fy are the local (i.e. in each intermediary
section) bending stresses.

Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB,


.)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)

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CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)


L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS O COM NUM

Section check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Buckling check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section buckling check x x x x x x x x
LTB Check x
Shear buckling check x x x x

REFERENCES

[1] Rgles de calcul des constrcutions en acier


ITBTP / CTICM
Rgles CM Decembre 1966
Editions Eyrolles 1982

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CM66 - ADDITIF 80

CM66 - ADDITIF 80 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in Additif 80

Consulted articles

The cross-section is classified according to art. 5,12. (classification 'plastic' or 'elastic').


The section is checked for tension and compression (art. 4,2), bending (art 4,3), shear
force (art. 4,4), the combination of bending and axial force (art. 4,5 and art 4.6).

For the stability check, the following criteria are considered :


for lateral torsional buckling : art. 5,2.
for compression : art. 5,31.
for compression and bending : art. 5,32

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The
chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation in the following chapters.

4 Resistance des sections


4,1 Rgle gnrale (*)
4,2 Effort normale x
4,3 Moment de flexion x
4,4 Effort tranchant x
4,5 Moment de flexion et effort normal x
4,6 Momens de flexion, effort normal et effort tranchant x

5 Stabilit des lments


5,1 Conditions de non voilement local x (*)
5,2 Rsistance au dversement des poutre flchies
5,21 Rgles de contreventement latral au voisinage des sections

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plastifies
5,22 Moment ultime de dversement en flexion simple x (*)
5,23 Dimensionnement des entretoises
5,24 Rsistance au dversement en flexion dvie x
5,3 Rsistance au flambement
5,31 Elments simplement comprims x
5,32 Elments comprims et flchis x
5,33 Longueur de flambement (*)

Classification of sections

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.

Section check

If the sections are not according to the conditions specified in art. 5,1, the sections are
checked according to the regulations given in Ref.[2].
If a torsional moment is present, the sections are checked according to the regulations
given in Ref.[2].

Compression members

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements).

Lateral-torsional buckling

For the calculation of the moment factors C1 and C2, we refer to "Calculation of
moment factors for LTB", using the EC3 values.

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Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms

See Chapter 'Adaption of torsional constant'.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB,


.)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS O COM NUM

Classification Add 80 x x
Plastic section check Add x x
80
Buck:ling check Add 80 x x
LTB check Add 80 x x

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Compression + bending x x
Add 80

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REFERENCES

[1] Additif 80

[2] Rgles de calcul des constrcutions en acier


ITBTP / CTICM
Rgles CM Decembre 1966
Editions Eyrolles 1982

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BS5950-1:1990

BS5950-1:1990 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in :

British Standard BS 5950


Structural use of steelwork in building
Part1. Code of practice for design in simple
and continuous construction:hot rolled section
British Standard distribution BS5950 Part1 1990 revised in 1992

Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength py is defined according to the thickness of
the element (see Table 6 Art.3.1.1.). The standard steel grades are :

Grade 43 : yield strength defined between 245 and 275 N/mm


Grade 50 : yield strength defined between 325 and 355 N/mm
Grade 55 : yield strength defined between 415 and 450 N/mm

(pY in N/mm, t in mm)

Steel grade Thickness limits PY

t16 mm 275 N/Mm

Grade 43 t40 mm 265 N/mm

t63 mm 255 N/mm

t100 mm 245 N/mm

t16 mm 355 N/mm

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Grade 50 t40 mm 345 N/mm

t63 mm 340 N/mm

t100 mm 325 N/mm

t16 mm 450 N/mm

Grade 55 t25 mm 430 N/mm

t40 mm 415 N/mm

t63 mm 400 N/mm

Remark: For cold-formed section, values for Py are not influenced by the previous table.
Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material
is defined as material for the selected code.

Consulted articles

According to Art. 3.5. and table 7, cross sections are classified in 4 types:

Plastic
Compact
Semi-compact
Slender

A reduction factor is applied to the design strength of the material in use for slender
sections by following the rules described in Art. 3.6 and in Table 8. Partial safety factor
of design strength is included in py value.
The section is checked for bending (Art.4.2.), tension (Art.4.6.), compression (Art.4.7.),
shear (Art.4.2.3.), combined moment and axial force (Art. 4.8.) and biaxial moments
(Art.4.9.). For the stability check, the beam element is checked for lateral torsional
buckling, shear buckling, compression and bending with axial compression. Articles
used for this stability check are the following:

for lateral torsional buckling : Art. 4.3.


shear buckling : Art. 4.4.5.

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for compression : Art. 4.7.


for bending and axial compression : Art. 4.8.

A more detailed overview of used articles is given in the following table.

Part. 3 Section properties


3.5. Limiting proportions of cross Art. 3.5.1.
sections
Art. 3.5.2.
Art. 3.5.4.
Table 7
Fig.3
3.6. Slender cross section Art. 3.6.1.
Art. 3.6.2.-3.6.3.
Art. 3.6.4.
Table 8
Part. 4 Design of structural elements
4.2. Member in bending Art. 4.2.1.3. (a) (c)

Shear capacity Art. 4.2.3.


Moment capacity with low shear Art. 4.2.5.
Moment capacity with high shear Art. 4.2.6.
4.3. Lateral torsional buckling

Member in bending Art. 4.3.7.


LTB factor
General Art. 4.3.7.1.
Equivalent uniform moment Art. 4.3.7.2.
Buckling Resistance Art. 4.3.7.3.
Bending strength pb Art. 4.3.7.4.
Equivalent slenderness LT, , , u, v Art. 4.3.7.5.
Appendix B.
Factors m, n Art. 4.3.7.6.
Equal flanged rolled section Art. 4.3.7.7.

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Buckling resistance moment for single Art.4.3.8.


angle

4.4. Plate Girders

General Art. 4.4.1.


Dimensions of webs and flanges Art. 4.4.2.2. Art. 4.4.2.3.
Moment capacity Art. 4.4.4.
Section with slender webs Art. 4.4.4.2. (a)
Shear buckling resistance of thin webs Art. 4.4.5.1.
Design without using tension field action Art. 4.4.5.3. and Appendix H.1.

4.6. Axially loaded tension members

Tension capacity Art. 4.6.1.


Effective Area of simple tension members Art. 4.6.3.1. Art. 4.6.3.3.

4.7. Compression member

Slenderness Art. 4.7.3.2.


Compression resistance Art. 4.7.4.
Compressive strength Art. 4.7.5. Appendix C

4.8. Axially loaded members with


moments

Tension members with moments Art. 4.8.2. + EC3 5.4.9.&Annex


F
Compression members with moments Art. 4.8.3.
Local capacity check Art. 4.8.3.2.
Buckling check with exact approach Art. 4.8.3.3.2.

4.9. Members with biaxial moments See 4.8.

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Classification of sections

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check.
So, the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section.

Slender cross-section

Slender sections are particularly sensitive to local buckling. British Standard code (Art.
3.6.) defines stress reduction factor to prevent this phenomenon. For webs subject to
moments and axial load and for circular hollow sections, the design strength py should
be assumed such that the limiting proportions for semi-compact section are met. For
other sections, where a slender outstand is in compression, the design strength should be
reduced by the factor given in Table 8.

Section properties

The net area of a section is taken as its gross section neglecting the deduction due to
fastener holes: Art. 3.3. Shear area of a cross-section is calculated by using Art. 4.2.3.

Bending moment

Before any calculation of members in bending, it's necessary to determine the shear
capacity. For plastic and compact section with high shear load, moment capacity is
calculated with the plastic modulus only for I and PLL sections (Art. 4.2.6. and 4.8.).
For other cross-section, with plastic or compact section classification, characterised or
not by a low shear load, we assumed that the moment capacity is calculated by using the
same approach than for semi-compact section: the elastic modulus (elastic calculation).

Bending, shear, axial force

For plastic and compact sections, BS5950 Art. 4.8.2. & 4.8.3.2. (b) prescribes a detailed
approach to determine the unity check of axially loaded members with moments. The
detailed relationship allows a greater economy for plastic and compact section . In this
expression, we use a reduced moment capacity Mr respectively about the major and the
minor axis. Those values are determined by using EC3 Art.5.4.9. (see Ref.[5]). For

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semi-compact and slender section, the simplified approach is applied following Art.
4.8.2.and Art. 4.8.3.2. (a).

Lateral torsional buckling

For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric PPL), rectangular sections (solid and
hollow), T sections, channel sections and angle section, the critical lateral torsional
buckling moment is given by the general formula Art. 4.3.7. and Annex B2&3. For
other sections, we follow conservative recommendation described in Art. 4.3.7.5. and
calculation proposed in EC3 to determine the elastic critical moment Mcr EC3 Annex
F1.1. Formula (F.1.) see Ref [5].

The condition to be satisfied in all the cases is that

with

Mb=Sxpb

and

(m is an equivalent uniform moment factor)

pb is the bending strength and is related to the equivalent slenderness :

in which n is an equivalent slenderness factor.

For beam without loading point between points of lateral restraint, n=1 and m depends
on the ratio of the end moments at the points of restraint.
For beam loaded between point of lateral restraint, m=1 and n depend on the ratio of the
end moments at the points of restraint and on the ratio of the larger moment to the mid-
span free moment.
There are thus two methods for dealing with lateral torsional buckling namely:
'm approach' i.e. the 'equivalent uniform moment method' with n=1
'n approach' i.e. the 'equivalent slenderness method' with m=1
In any given situation, only one method will be admissible, taking into account that it is
always conservative to use m=n=1. Since the publication of BS5950 Part 1 1990, doubt
has been cast on the correctness of using n factors less than 1 in combination with an
effective length LLTB less than the length of the member L in the calculation of LTB.

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However, as a interim measure, pending clarification ina future version of BS5950, it is


recommended that LTB is taken as the smaller of the two following values:

By using the settings of BS5950, the user can define which method correspond to his
situation or define his choice as the conservative method m=n=1.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms

See Chapter 'Adaption of torsional constant'.

Compression member

For member submitted to compression, we applied the recommendations given in BS


5950 and Appendix C to determine the compressive strength.

Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes

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RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS O COM NUM

Classification x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)


Section check class 1 x x x x x x x x
Section check class 2 x x x x x x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 1 x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 2 x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 4 x x x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x

(1)sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default

REFERENCES

[1] British Standard BS5950 Part 1 : 1990+Revised text 1992


Structural use of steel work in building
Part1 Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction: hot
rolled sections

[2] Plastic design to BS5950


J.M. Davies & B.A. Brown
The steel Construction institute

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[3] Steelwork design


Guide to BS5950: Part 1: 1990
Volume 2 Worked examples (revised edition)

[4] Essentials of Eurocode 3


Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building
ECCS - N 65, 1991

[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992

[6] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988

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BS5950-1:2000

BS5950-1:2000 CODE CHECK

The steel members are checked according to the recommendations given in :

British Standard BS 5950-1:2000


Structural use of steelwork in building
Part1. Code of practice for design Rolled and welded sections

Material properties

For standard steel grades, the design strength py is defined according to the thickness of
the element (see Table 9 Cl.3.1.1.). The partial safety factor on design strength is
included in the py value.

The standard steel grades are :

Grade S275 : yield strength defined between 225 and 275 N/mm
Grade S355 : yield strength defined between 295 and 355 N/mm
Grade S460 : yield strength defined between 410 and 460 N/mm

(pY in N/mm, t in mm)

Steel grade Thickness limits PY

t16 mm 275 N/Mm

Grade S275 t40 mm 265 N/mm

t63 mm 255 N/mm

t80 mm 245 N/mm


t<100 mm 235 N/mm2

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t< 150 mm 225 N/mm2

t16 mm 355 N/mm

Grade S355 t40 mm 345 N/mm

t63 mm 335 N/mm

t80 mm 325 N/mm


t<100 mm 315 N/mm2

t< 150 mm 295 N/mm2

t16 mm 460 N/mm

Grade S460 t40 mm 440 N/mm

t63 mm 430 N/mm

t80 mm 410 N/mm


t< 100 mm 400 N/mm2

Note that the reduced yield/design stresses given in the above table are only applied
when the steel material is chosen from the designated grades S275, S355 or S460

Governing code clauses

According to Cl. 3.5. and tables 11 and 12, cross sections are classified in 4 types:

Class 1 Plastic
Class 2 Compact
Class 3 Semi-compact
Class 4 Slender

The section is checked for shear (Cl 4.2.5 and 4.4.4), bending (Cl.4.2.), tension
(Cl.4.6.), compression (Cl.4.7.), combined moment and axial force (Cl. 4.8.) and biaxial
moments (Cl.4.9.). For the stability checks, the potential buckling length is checked for
lateral torsional buckling due to moments, lateral buckling due to compression and
combined bending with axial compression. Relevant clauses for this stability check are
the following:

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for lateral torsional buckling : Cl. 4.3.


for compression : Cl. 4.7.
for bending and axial compression : Cl. 4.8.
Where appropriate, restrained or torsional buckling lengths are identified and checked to
Annex G

More detailed clause references are given in the following table.

Part. 3 Section properties


3.5. Limiting proportions of cross Cl. 3.5.1.
sections
Cl. 3.5.2.
Cl. 3.5.5.
Cl. 3.5.6
Tables 11 and 12
Fig.5
3.6. Slender cross section Cl. 3.6.1.
Cl. 3.6.2.-3.6.4.
Cl. 3.6.5.
Fig. 8
Part. 4 Design of structural elements
4.2. Member in bending Cl. 4.2.1.1. (a) (d)

Shear capacity Cl. 4.2.3.


Moment capacity with low shear Cl. 4.2.5.2
Moment capacity with high shear Cl. 4.2.5.3
4.3. Lateral torsional buckling

Member in bending Cl. 4.3.6


Lateral-torsional buckling factors
General Cl. 4.3.6.1
Equivalent uniform moment Cl. 4.3.6.2
Buckling Resistance moment Cl. 4.3.6.4
Bending strength pb Cl. 4.3.6.5

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Equivalent slenderness LT, , , u, v, W, Cl. 4.3.6.7-9


x Annex B.
Factors m Cl. 4.3.6.6.
Equal flanged rolled section Cl. 4.3.7
Buckling resistance moment for single Cl.4.3.8.
angles

4.4. Plate Girders

General Cl. 4.4.1.


Dimensions of webs and flanges Cl. 4.4.3
Moment capacity Cl. 4.4.4.
Section with slender webs Cl. 4.4.4.2
Shear buckling resistance of thin webs Cl. 4.4.5.1(a).
Design without using tension field action Cl. 4.4.5.2. and Annex H.1.

4.6. Axially loaded tension members

Tension capacity Cl. 4.6.1.


Effective Area of simple tension members Cl. 4.6.3.1-3

4.7. Compression members

Segment length Cl. 4.7.1.1


Restraints Cl. 4.7.1.2
Slenderness Cl. 4.7.2
Compression resistance Cl. 4.7.4.
Compressive strength Cl. 4.7.5. Annex C

4.8. Axially loaded members with


moments

Tension members with moments Cl. 4.8.2.


Compression members with moments Cl. 4.8.3.

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Local capacity check Cl. 4.8.3.2.


Buckling check simplified method Cl 4.8.3.3.1
Buckling check more exact approach Cl. 4.8.3.3.2.

4.9. Members with biaxial moments See 4.8.

Classification of sections

For each intermediate section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediate point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check.
So, the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediate section.

Slender cross-sections

Slender sections are particularly sensitive to local buckling. BS 5950-1:2000 generally


allows for the resultant reduction in strength by the method of effective section
properties adapted from EC3. Refer to 3.6.2-6.

Section properties

The net area of a section is taken as its gross section neglecting the deduction due to
fastener holes: Cl. 3.4. Shear area of a cross-section is calculated by using Cl. 4.2.3.

Moment capacity

Before any calculation of members in bending, it is necessary to determine the shear


capacity. For plastic and compact sections with high shear, moment capacity is
calculated with the plastic modulus only for symmetrical sections (Cl. 4.2.5.3. and 4.8.).
For other sections, with plastic or compact section classification, and high shear,
moment capacity is calculated by the same method as for semi-compact sections using
the elastic modulus (elastic calculation).

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Bending, shear, axial force/capacity interaction

For plastic and compact sections, BS5950 Cl. 4.8.2. & 4.8.3.2. (b) prescribes a detailed
approach to determine the unity check (utilisation) of axially loaded members with
moments. The detailed relationship allows a greater economy for plastic and compact
sections . In this expression, reduced moment capacities Mr respectively about the
major and the minor axis are calculated in accordance with Annexe I2 . For semi-
compact and slender sections, the simplified approach is applied following Cl. 4.8.2.and
Cl. 4.8.3.2. (a).

Lateral torsional buckling due to major axis moments

The lateral-torsional buckling resistance moment Mb is calculated in accordance with Cl


4.3.6 for each potential buckling length between adjacent lateral restraints
The lateral-torsional bending strength pb is calculated in accordance with Cl 4.3.6.5 and
Annex B 2.1. This bending strength is dependent on the equivalent slenderness LT
which is calculated in accordance with Cl 4.3.6.7-9.
The moment gradient (shape of the moment diagram between restraints) is allowed for
by means of the equivalent uniform moment factor mLT in accordance with Cl 4.3.6.6
and Table 18.

Torsional buckling about an eccentric axis (Annex G)

This form of buckling under the action of axial compression and/or major axis bending
is also known as restrained buckling and distortional buckling. The term `torsional
refers to the mode of buckling and is not related to torsion loading or torsion moment
effects. Torsional buckling may occur in any member segment between compression
flange restraints which has intermediate restraints to the tension flange. It is therefore
load combination dependent. It is particularly important in portal frames rafters and
columns. The program will detect any potential buckling length and carry out a stability
check in accordance with BS 5950-1:2000 Cl. 5.3.4 and Annex G.

Lateral buckling due axial compression

The lateral buckling compression resistance Pc of any member or segment between


lateral restraints is calculated in accordance with Cl 4.7.4. The compressive strength pc
allowing for buckling is calculated using Cl. 4.7.5 using the strut curves appropriate to
the section type, thickness and axis of buckling (Table 23) as expressed in the formulae
of Annex C. This compressive strength is dependent on the slenderness per Cl 4.7.2

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Combined axial and bending buckling unity check/utilisation

The interaction of axial and bending buckling effects is measured by the two simplified
formulae given in Cl 4.8.3.3.1.
The first equation refers to flexural buckling and is applied to the member length
between major axis restraints. The second equation refers to the interaction of lateral-
torsional buckling due to the moment field and lateral buckling due to axial
compression and is applied to potential buckling lengths between minor axis restraints.
Clause 4.8.3.3.2 provides a more exact method for symmetrical I-sections and Cl.
4.8.3.3.3 for CHS and RHS sections. It is permissible to take the more favourable result.
(Lower utilisation),
The moment gradient (shape of the moment diagram between restraints) is allowed for
by means of the equivalent uniform moment factor mLT in accordance with Cl 4.3.6.6
and Table 18 for lateral-torsional buckling. For flexural (in plane) buckling the factors
mx, my and myx are obtained from Table 26.

Torsion effects

The current version of the BS 5950-1:2000 steel check does not deal with torsion
moments. Any torsion moments generated by the frame analysis will be ignored.
Most steel structures do not in fact rely on torsion effects to transmit loads.
Where it is found necessary for members to sustain torsion moments as part of the
primary load system, alternative checks should be made. The BS 5950-1:1990 steel
check does deal with torsion.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (UB, UC, IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) [hot rolled or cold formed]
CHS Circular Hollow Sections (CHS) [hot rolled or cold formed]
L Angle sections and double angles
U Channel sections and double channels
T T sections
PPL Asymmetric I shapes used in haunches
RS Rectangular single plate sections

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SIA263

SIA263 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

SIA263
Construction en acier
SIA263:2003

Material properties

The most common steel grades are used in SIA263. Their mechanical properties are
described in table 1 SIA263. The following table gives the yield strength for each type
of grade commonly used in function of the nominal web thickness:

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100


fy fu fy fu

S235 235 360 215 340


S 235
S275 275 430 255 410
S 275
S355 355 510 335 490
S 355
S460 460 550 430 530
S 460

Consulted articles

The classification described in SIA263 is based on the calculation method. The


calculation method in SIA263 distinguish the method used respectively to determine the
internal forces and to perform the section and the stability check. By facility, we can

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obviously make a parallel between the calculation method of SIA263 and the section
classification proposed in EC3.

According to SIA263 Table 5a-5b , cross sections are classified in 4 types:

PP (plastic-plastic) or class 1
EP (elastic-plastic) or class 2
EE (elastic-elastic) or class 3
EER (elastic-elastic reduced) or class 4

The first letter of the classification denomination is related to the method used to
calculate internal forces in the structure. The second letter indicates if we perform the
section and the stability check with a elastic or a plastic approach. Finally, we must note
that the steel code SIA263 is essentially oriented for symmetrical and bisymmetrical
profile like I profiles. In the present modulus, others profiles are calculated by using a
classic elastic approach (EE classification) and EC3 prescriptions.

The section is checked for tension, compression, shear, combination of bending and
axial forces. For the stability check, the beam element is checked for lateral torsional
buckling, shear buckling, compression and bending with axial compression. A more
detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table :

4 Analyse structurale et dimensionnement


4.1 Gnralits x
4.2 Bases de l'analyse structurale et du dimensionnement
4.3 Modlisation
4.3.1 Classification des sections x
4.4 Rsistance des sections
4.4.1 Effort normal x
4.4.2 Flexion x
4.4.3 Effort tranchant x
4.4.4 Flexion et effort tranchant x
4.4.5 Flexion et effort normal x
4.4.6 Sollicitations multiaxiales x
4.5 Stabilit
4.5.1 Flambage x
4.5.2 Dversement des poutres flchies x
4.5.3 Flexion et compression x

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4.5.4 Voilement des lments plans comprims x


4.5.5 Voilement des lments plans cisaills x
4.8 Situtation de projet incendie
4.8.1 PRINCIPES x
4.8.2 Proprits de l'acier en cas d'incendie x
4.8.5 Mthode de calcul simplifie x
5 Elments de construction
5.1 POUTRES ET POTEAUX DES CLASSES DE SECTION 1 x
ET 2
5.3 Elments comprims section compose
5.3.1 Barres trsillones ( travers de liaison) x
5.4 Poutres composes me pleine
5.4.1 Rsistance la flexion x
5.4.2 Rsistance l'effort tranchant x
5.4.3 Interaction entre flexion et effort tranchant x
Annexe B Moment critique de dversement lastique Mcr x
Annexe C Echauffement des lments de construction en cas x
d'incendie

Section classification
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point. For each
load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each
load case/combination. However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section
classification is determined for each intermediary section.

Slender cross-section

The design of a section that not satisfies the table 5 of SIA263 is always performed by
using a reduced area. This classification correspond to the EER method. The
determination of a reduced area is based on the effective width of each compression
element in the current section (Art. 4.5.4). The using of a reduced area implies the
recalculation of the shear centre position, the inertia and the elastic modulus.

Sections properties

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The holes due to fastener are neglected in the area of a section

Lateral torsional buckling

For double symmetric I profile, we don't have to perform any lateral torsional buckling
check if NEd/Npl,Rd 0.15 and the conditions provided in Table 6 SIA263 are satisfied.
For any other case, a LTB check must be perform.
Calculations described in Annex B for I,U and PPL can be applied to T sections only if
the flange is subjected to compression. Otherwise, as for section not supported by
SIA263 in the LTB check, we use prescriptions given in EC3 Annex F. Those rules
allow us to determine a elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling for
symmetrical (formula F.2 EC3) and non symmetrical (formula F.1. EC3) sections
around the minor axis.
In the case of I, U, PPL and, T only with compression in flange, characterised by a
reduced area or not, we have to determined before any calculation irc, defined as the
radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the
compression web area, taken about an axis in the plane of the web.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms

See Chapter 'Adaption of torsional constant'.

Shear buckling

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Stability check

For double symmetric I profile PP or EP, SIA263 provides specific formula to perform
the stability check of member submitted to biaxial moment. For other sections, non
symmetric or from EE and EER classification, a general formula is provided to design
member under mono-axial sollicitations.

Torsion check

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For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping
check'.

Built-in beams

For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are
performed, taking into account the local plate bending. See Chapter Section check for
built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections)

SIA263 - FIRE RESISTANCE

Fire actions effect Efi

The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi,d,t are taken from the results of the
analysis. It is recommended to use the accidental combination rules, for calculating the
internal forces used in the fire resistance check.

The accidental combination is given by

The accidental combination is given by

Gk + Pk + Ad+ 2,iQk,i

with Gk characteristic values of permanent actions


Qk,i characteristic value of the variable action i
Ad design values of accidental action from fire exposure
2,j combination coefficients
Pk characteristic value of prestressing action

Material properties

The material properties are depending on the steel temperature.

Strength and deformation properties :

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f y , = k y , f y , 20
E a , = k E , E a , 20

The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ky, and
modulus of elasticity kE, is given by tables in ref.[1], Figure 15.

In the simplified calculation method, the following default properties are considered to
be constant during the analysis :

thermal elongation l/l 14 x 10-6 (a-20)


thermal conductivity a 45 W/mK

Temperature analysis - Thermal actions

In this part, the nominal temperature-time curves and the related net heat flux are
described. For more info, EC3 Chapter 'Temperature analysis - Thermal actions'

Nominal temperature-time curve

See EC3 Chapter 'Nominal temperature-time curve'.

Net heat flux

See EC3 Chapter 'Net heat flux'

Steel Temperature

See Ref.[1], Annexe C.

The increase of temperature a,t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval
t

Am / V
a ,t = h net ,d t
ca a

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with Am the exposed surface area per unit length [m/m]


V the volume of the member per unit length [m/m]
The factor Am/V should not be taken as less than 10m-1
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
hnet,d the net heat flux per unit area [W/m]
t the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 5 seconds
a the unit mass of steel [kg/m]

The increase of temperature a,t in an insulated steel member during a time interval t

p A p / V ( g ,t a ,t )
a ,t =
d p ca a
( )
t e / 10 1 g ,t
1 +
3
c pp
= dpAp / V
c a a

with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m/m]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
cp the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
dp the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
t the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
a the unit mass of steel [kg/m]
p the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m]
a,t the steel temperature at time t
g,t the ambient gas temperature at time t
g,t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time
interval
p the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material
[W/mK]

The value a,t 0.0

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For the increase of temperature a,t in an insulated steel member with intumescent
coating, we refer to the NEN specifications, Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.

Calculation model

The calculation can be performed in 2 domains :

- strength domain
- temperature/time domain

In the strength domain, the strength Rfi,d,t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t
(e.g. strength after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel
temperature cr,d is computed. From this critical temperature, the fire resistance time tfi,d
is calculated (the time domain).

Code Check

The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed
according to the regulations given in Ref.[1], 4.8.5.

For each member, the classification of the cross section, the section check and the
stability check are performed.

The following checks are executed :

- classification of cross section : art. 4.8.5.2.


- resistance for tension members : art. 4.8.5.4.
- resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. 4.8.5.5..
- resistance for beams (class 1,2,3) : art. 4.8.5.6., art. 4.8.5.7., art. 4.8.5.8.
- resistance for members (class 4) : art. 4.8.5.9.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section

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L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS Z O COM NUM

Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)

Section check PP x x(2) x(3)

Section check EP x x(2) x(3)

Section check EE x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Section check EER x x x x x x

Stability check PP x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Stability check EP x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Stability check EE x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Stability check EER x x x x x x

Shear buckling check x x x

LTB x x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4)

(1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.


(2) check according to EN 1993-1-1
(3) check according to ENV 1993-1-1
(4) general formula for Mcr

REFERENCES

[1] SIA263
Construction en acier
SIA263:2003

[2] SIA263/1

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Construction en acier / Spcification complmentaires


SIA263/1:2003

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GBJ 17-88

THE GBJ 17-88 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in :

National standard of the Peoples Republic of China


Code for design of steel structures
GBJ 17-88
Beijing 1995

Material properties

The used steel grades are

Grade3
16Mn
16Mnq
15Mn
15Mnq

For Steel3, the following groups are defined according to the element thickness (in
mm):

Group Diameter or thickness of bars Thickness of L-, I- and U Thickness of Plates


sections
1 <=40 <=15 <=20
2 >40-100 >15-20 >20-40
3 >20 >40-80

The design values are (in N/mm)

Steel Group Thickness f fv fce fy


Steel3 1 215 125 320 235
2 200 115 320 235
3 190 110 320 235

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Steel Group Thickness f fv fce fy


16Mn <=16 315 185 445 345
16Mnq 17-25 300 175 425 345
26-36 290 170 410 345
15Mn <=16 350 205 450 390
15Mnq 17-25 335 195 435 390
26-36 320 185 415 390

with f the resistance design value for tension, compression, bending


(N/mm)
fv the resistance design value for shear (N/mm)
fce the bearing resistance (N/mm)
fy the yield strength (N/mm)

Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material
is defined as material for the selected code. If they are not defined as GBJ material, the
following rule is used

f = 0.91 x yield strength


fv = 0.58 x yield strength

Consulted articles

The section and elements are checked according to part 4 and 5. When plastic design is
allowed, part 9 is supported.
A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the
following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted.

4. Calculation of flexural members


4.1.Strength
4.1.1. x (*)
4.1.2. x
4.2.Overall stability (*)

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4.2.1. x
4.2.2. x
4.2.3. x
4.2.4. x
4.3.Local stability (*)
4.3.1. x
4.3.2. x
4.3.3. x
4.3.9. x

5.Calculation of axially loaded members and members


subjected to combined axial load and bending
5.1.Axially loaded members
5.1.1. x(*)
5.1.2. x(*)
5.2.Members subjected ot combined axial load and
bending
5.2.1. x(*)
5.2.2. x
5.2.5. x
5.3.Effective length and allowable slenderness ratio (*)
5.4.Local stability of compression members
5.4.1. x
5.4.2. x
5.4.3. x
5.4.4. x
5.4.5. x (*)

9.Plastic design
9.1.General requirements
9.1.3. x
9.1.4. x
9.2.Calculation of members (*)
9.2.1. x

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9.2.2. x
9.2.3. x
9.2.4. x
9.3.Allowable slenderness and detailing requirements

Appendix 1 Overall stability factor of beams


A1.1.Simply supported beam of uniform welded I section x
A1.2.Simply supported beam of rolled I section x
A1.3.Simply supported beam of rolled channel section x
A1.4.Cantilever beams of doubly symmetric I section x
A1.5.Approximate calculation of overall stability factors x

Appendix 2 Calculation of local stability of girder web


A2.1.Web plate strengthened with transverse stiffeners x(*)
A2.2.Web strengthened with transverse and longitudinal
stiffeners
A2.2.Web strengthened with transverse, longitudinal and
short stiffeners

Appendix 3 Stability factor of axially loaded compression x


members

Section properties

The influence of the net section is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

Shear buckling check

The local compressive stress c, is considered as 0.0.

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Buckling curves

For welded I and PPL sections the default value for the buckling curve about the weak
axis is b. This can be changed to c on users request.

Buckling length

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements").

Lateral torsional buckling

The LTB check is supported for the following sections : I section, U section, RHS
section, T section, PPL section.
For the other section type, the factor b = 1.0.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Local stability of compressed members

For each intermediary section, the ratios are determined. The section classification and
the effective area properties are determined for each intermediary section for performing
the section check.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification and the effective area
properties over the member are used to perform the stability check. However, for non-
prismatic sections, the section classification and the effective area properties are
determined for each intermediary section to perform the stability check.

When the web ratio ( dept /thickness) does not conform to the requirements, the web is
reduced for calculating of the section check and stability check. A width of 20 tw
sqrt(235/fy) on each side of the web is taken into account.

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235
d = 20t w
fy

Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check"

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The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS O COM NUM

Plastic (single bending) x x


Compact section (with ) x x x x x x
Non-compact section x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section x x x x x x
Normal buckling x x x x x x x x x x x x
LTB x x x x x
Shear buckling x x x
Plastic stability check (single x x
bending)

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REFERENCES

[1] Chinese Steel Code


GBJ 17-88
(Chinese version)

.[2] National standard of the Peoples Republic of


China
Code for design of steel structures
GBJ 17-88
Beijing 1995

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KOREAN STEEL CODE CHECK

THE KOREAN STEEL CODE CHECK

Material properties

The following design values are used :

Steel fy fy
t<=40 mm t>40 mm
SS41 240 220
SPS41
SPSR41
SS50 280 260
SS55 380 380

with fy the yield strength (N/mm)

The following steel characteristics are valid :

modulus of elasticity 210000 N/mm


shear modulus 81000 N/mm
coefficient of linear thermal expansion 12 x 10-6
density 7850 kg/m

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Consulted articles

The section and elements are checked according to part 2 and 3. The shear buckling
check is perfromed using article 7.5.2. The classiffication of sections is based on the
rules of part 4.
A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the
following table. The chapters marked with x are consulted.

TEXT

2.Allowable stress

2.1.Structural material x
2.1.1.Allowable tensile stress x
2.1.2.Allowable shear stress x
2.1.3.Allowable compressive stress x
2.1.4.Allowable bending stress (*)
a) x
b) x
c) x
2.1.5.Allowable bearing stress

3.Load and stresses

3.3.Combined stresses (*)


3.3.1.Compression force and bending moment x
3.3.2.Tensile force and bending moment x (*)
3.3.3.Shear force and tensile stress

4.Width-Thickness ratio of plates (*)


4.1.1.Cantilever plate x
4.1.2.Two side fixed plate x
4.1.3.Effective area x
4.2.CHS section and thickness ratio x

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5. Tensile member

6.Compressive member

6.1.Slenderness ratio x
6.2.Buckling length x(*)

7.Beam element

7.5.Stiffener
7.5.2.Buckling verification of the web x
a)

Section classification

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined..


For each load case/combination, the critical section classification and the effective area
properties over the member are used to perform the code check. However, for non-
prismatic sections, the section classification and the effective area properties are
determined for each intermediary section.
When the element properties dont satisfy the limiting values for the ratios, the section
is classified as slender. The section have to be reduced for the calculation of the stresses.
For outstand compression elements, the part that is situated on the fixed side, remains.
The length of the part b is calculated by the equation in which the ratio b/t is equal on
the limiting ratio.

For internal compression elements, the remaining parts are symmetrically divided to the
end of the elements. The length of the part d is calculated by the equation in which the
ratio d/t is equal on the limiting ratio.

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The reduced section properties are calculated for I, U, PPL, RHS and Cold formed
sections-types.
The slenderness ratios (for buckling and LTB) are calculated with the full section
properties.

Section properties

The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

Buckling length

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member(see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements") .

Lateral torsional buckling

For I sections, PPL sections, U sections RHS and CHS sections, the formulas from 2.1.4
are used.
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

2 EI Iw L 2 GI
Mcr = z
+ 2 t
L2 Iz EI z

with L LTB length


E modulus of elasticity
G shear modulus
Iw warping constant
It torsion constant
Iz moment of inertia about minor axis

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With this moment Mcr, the critical LTB stress LTB is calculated :

M cr
LTB =
Iy

with Iy moment of inertia about major axis

The slenderness ratio for LTB LTB, is given by

E
LTB =
LTB

The allowable LTB stress is calculated using the slenderness LTB with the formulas
given in 2.1.3.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Combined stresses

For compression and bending, the following formulas are used :

c c bx c by
+ + 1
fc f bx f by
t bx + t by c
1
ft

For tension and bending, the following formulas are used :

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t c bx c by
+ + 1
f bx f bx f by
t + t bx + t by
1
ft

with c normal compression stress


t normal tension stress
cb bending compression stress
tb bending tension stress
cbx bending compression stress around x axis
tbx bending tension stress around x axis
cby bending compression stress around y axis
tby bending tension stress around y axis
ft allowable tension stress
fc allowable compression stress
fb allowable bending stress
fbx allowable bending stress around x axis
fby allowable bending stress around y axis

Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section

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T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in "Profile conditions for
code check"
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS O COM NUM

Slender sections x x x x x

Allowable stresses x x x x x x x x x x x x

Shear buckling x x x

REFERENCES

[1] Korean Standard


(Korean Version)
1983

[2] Extracts Korean Standard


(Internal English Version)
Translated by Karam Kim - 19.03.1998

[3] Regulations of Structural Standard of


Building Architecture
(internal english document)

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BSK 99

BSK 99 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

BSK 99
StalKonstruktioner
Boverket, Byggavdelningen, 2000

Material properties

For standard steel grades, the characteristic yield strength fyk and tensile strength fuk
are defined according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. [1], tab.2:21a and
tab.2:21b)

The standard steel grades are :

Steel
Name Type E-modulus Poisson Unit mass Extensibility Ultimate Yield
(N/mm2) (kg /m3) (m/m K) tensile strength
strength (N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
S235 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10-6 340 235
S 235
S275 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10-6 410 275
S 275
S355 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10-6 490 355
S 355
S420 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10-6 500 420
S 420
S460 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10-6 530 460
S 460
S500 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10-6 590 500
S 500
S550 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10-6 640 550
S 550
S620 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10-6 700 620
S 620

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S690 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10-6 770 690


S 690

(fyk, fuk in N/mm, t in mm)


Steel grade Thickness fuk fyk
S235, S 235 0 < t <= 16 340 235
16 < t <= 40 340 225
40 < t <= 63 340 215
63 < t <= 80 340 215
80 < t <=100 340 215
S275, S 275 0 < t <= 16 410 275
16 < t <= 40 410 265
40 < t <= 63 410 255
63 < t <= 80 410 245
80 < t <=100 410 235
S355, S 355 0 < t <= 16 490 355
16 < t <= 40 490 345
40 < t <= 63 490 335
63 < t <= 80 490 325
80 < t <=100 490 315
S420, S 420 0 < t <= 16 500 420
16 < t <= 40 500 400
40 < t <= 63 500 390
S460, S 460 0 < t <= 16 530 460
16 < t <= 40 530 440
40 < t <= 63 530 430
S500, S 500 0 < t <= 50 550 500
50 < t <= 100 550 480
S550, S 550 0 < t <= 50 640 550
50 < t <= 100 640 550
S620, S 620 0 < t <= 50 700 620
50 < t <= 100 700 580
S690, S 690 0 < t <= 50 770 690
50 < t <= 100 760 650

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the
previous table.
Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material
is defined as material for the selected code.

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Consulted articles

The cross-section is classified according to Table 6:211a . (class 1,2 or 3).


The section is checked for tension (art. 6:22), compression (6:23), bending (6:24), shear
force (art. 6:26), torsion (art. 6:27), the combination of bending and axial force (art.
6:25).

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for part 6:2 in the following
table. The chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation in the following chapters.

6:2.Calculation of the capacity of construction elements


6:21.Limiting values of slenderness for cross section parts x
6:211.Classes of cross sections x (*)
6:212.Design methods for the different section classes x (*)
6:22.Tensile force x
6:23.Compression force x
6:231. Initial curvature, initial inclination and load eccentricity
6:232.Loss of restraint x (*)
6:233.Reduction factor for flexural buckling x
6:24.Bending moment x
6:241.Cross section classes x (*)
6:242.Shape factors in flexure x (*)
6:243.Bending moment x
6:244.Lateral torsional buckling x (*)
6:2441.Lateral bracing of beam x
6:2442.Reduction factor for LTB x
6:25. Bending and axial force
6:251.Section check x
6:252.Flexural buckling x
6:253.Flexural-torsional buckling x
6:26.Shear force and concentrated load
6:261.Shear force x(*)
6:262.Web crippling under concentrated force

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6:263.Local compression
6:27.Torsional moment x
6:271.Pure torsion x
6:272.Warping
6:273.Torsional moment, shear force and bending moment x

Classification of sections

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed using the actual internal forces. The classification can change for
each intermediary point.

Effective cross-section properties for class 3 cross-section

The calculation of the effective area properties is performed according to the rules given
in [5], part :23 and :24.

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is
determined and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective
area) can change for each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the
screen.
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression.
Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment
about the relevant axis. With these properties, the section and stability check is
performed.

Section properties

6:22 ; 6:243 ; 6:251 ; 6:261 : The net area properties are not taken into account .

Section check

- Double symmetric I sections (I) use the formula (6:251a) and (6:251b)
- Solid sections (O, RS) and hollow sections (RHS, CHS) use the formula (6:251c)
- For single bending, the sections U, PPL, T use formula (6:251a). For double
bending the biaxial state of stress is consulted.
- All other cases use the biaxial state of stress.

The (bi)axial stress check is given by formula (3:412a) and (3:412c):

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x f yd
2x + 3 2 f yd

with =1.1

Compression members

6:232 : For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling
ratio". The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical
Euler force for this member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH
elements") .

For class 3 sections, the rules given in [5], part :34 are used, including the calculating of
Idef.

Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling

See [5], part :37.


The design buckling resistance for torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be
obtained using the following reduction factor c and slenderness c :

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A eff f yk
c =
N cr
N cr = cr A
cr = min( cr ,T , cr ,TF )
1 EC m
cr ,T = GI t +
2

A gi0 l T2
i 02 = i 2y + i 2z + y 02

cr ,TF =
1
2
[
( cr,y + cr ,T ) ( cr , y + cr ,T ) 4 cr , y cr ,T ]
E
cr , y =
ly

i
y
y
= 1 0
i0
1.16
c =
1 + 2c

with fyk the basic yield strength


cr the critical stress
cr,T the elastic critical stress for torsional buckling
cr,TF the elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling
G the shear modulus
E the modulus of elasticity
IT the torsion constant of the gross section
CM the warping constant
iy the radius of gyration about yy-axis
iz the radius of gyration about zz-axis
lT the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling
y0 the position of the shear center
ly the buckling length for flexural buckling about the yy-axis

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The calculation of cr based on [6], part 6.2.3.(5).

Lateral-torsional buckling

Alternatively to the regulations given in 6:2442. for bisymmetric sections, the elastic
critical moment for LTB Mcr for I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS
(Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections, can
be calculated using the formula given by the general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. [3].
For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of
moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

2 EI Iw + LGI t
Mcr = z
L2 Iz 2 EI z

with E the modulus of elasticity


G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral
restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

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See also Ref. [4], part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

For class 3 section, Izdef according to [5], part :44 is used.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms

See Chapter 'Adaption of torsional constant'.

Shear force ( shear buckling)

The shear buckling check is using the values for v from table 6:261 in column 2.

The value for w is (according to [5], part :26, (18:26d)) taken as below :

0.81 b w f yk
w =
k tw Ek
2
a b
if 1 k = 5.34 + 4.00 w
bw a
2
a b
if <1 k = 4.00 + 5.34 w
bw a

with Ek the modulus of elasticity


fyk the yield strength
a the field length
bw the field height
tw the web thickness

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bw

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail,


I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile
conditions for code check".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS O COM NUM

Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)


Section check x x x x x x x x x x x x

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double bending
Class 3 support x x x x x x
Buck:ling check x x x x x x x x x x x x
LTB check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Compression + bending x
double bending
Compression + bending x x x x x x x x
single bending
Compression + LTB x
double bending
Shear buckling x x x x
Torsional check x

(1) sections are classified as class 2 cross section by default.

REFERENCES

[1] BSK 99
StalKonstruktioner
Boverket, Byggavdelningen, 2000

[2] Swedish Regulations for Steel Structures


BSK
SBI Swedish Institute of Steel Construction, Publication 118, 1989

[3] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Facult des Sciences Appliques, 1988

[5] Torsten Hglund


K18, Dimensionering av Stalkonstruktioner
Utdrag ur Handboken Bygg, kapitel K18 och K19
C E Fritzes AB, Stockholm

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[6] ENV 1993-1-3:1996


Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

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IS 800

IS:800 CODE CHECK

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

IS 800 Draft version

Material properties

The following steel grades are supported :

Ultimate
Grade/
Yield stress(Mpa) tensile
Classification
stress(Mpa)
A/Fe410WA 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
B/Fe410WB 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
C/Fe410WC 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
Fe440WA 300(<16mm), 290(16mm to 40mm), 280(>41mm to 63mm) 440
Fe440WB 300(<16mm), 290(16mm to 40mm), 280(>41mm to 63mm) 440
Fe490 350(<16mm), 330(16mm to 40mm), 320(>41mm to 63mm) 490
Fe490B 350(<16mm), 330(16mm to 40mm), 320(>41mm to 63mm) 490
Fe540 410(<16mm), 390(16mm to 40mm), 380(>41mm to 63mm) 540
Fe540B 410(<16mm), 390(16mm to 40mm), 380(>41mm to 63mm) 540

The string in the column Grade/Classification is used to determine the proper yield
stress reduction.

Consulted articles

The cross-section is classified according to Table 3.1.


The section is checked for tension (Section 6), compression (Section 7), bending (Section
8) and the combination of forces (Section 9).

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A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The
chapters marked with x are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation in the following chapters.

3.7. Classification of Cross Section x(*)

6.1. Tension members x


6.2. Design strength due to Yielding of Gross section

7.1. Design Strength x(*)

8.2. Design strength in bending x


8.2.1. Laterally supported beam
8.2.1.1. Section with slender webs x
8.2.1.2. When factored shear force < 0.6 Vd x
8.2.1.3. When factored shear force > 0.6 Vd x
8.2.2. Laterally unsupported beam x
8.2.2.1. Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling moment x
8.4. Shear x
8.4.1. The nominal plastic shear resistance x
8.4.2. Resistance to shear buckling x

9.1. General x
9.2. Combined Shear and bending x
9.3. Combined Axial Force and Bending Moment x

Appendix F x

Remarks
- the design of slender compression elements is outside the scope of this
implementation
- the shear buckling check is only using the Simple Post Critical Method
-

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Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section
check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is
used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for
each load case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined
for each intermediary section

The cross sections are classified as


- class 1 : plastic
- class 2 : compact
- class 3 : semi-compact
- class 4 : slender section

The class 4 (slender) section check is not supported. For this sections a class 3 (semi-
compact) section check is performed.

Section properties

The net area properties are not taken into account .

Section check
In the case of high shear for class 3 sectio, the allowable normal stress is reduced with a
factor (1-). When torsional shear stress is present, the VonMisis criterium is checked.

Compression members

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler
force for this member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements") .

Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling

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The design buckling resistance Nb,Rd for torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be
obtained using buckling for buckling around the weak axis, and with relative
slenderness given by :

f yb
=
cr A

cr = min( cr ,T , cr ,TF )
1 EC m
cr ,T = GI t +
Ag i02 lT2
i02 = i y2 + i z2 + y 02

cr ,TF =
1
2
[
( cr , y + cr ,T ) ( cr , y + cr ,T ) 4 cr , y cr ,T ]
E
cr , y =
ly

i
y
y0
= 1
i0

with fyb the basic yield strength


cr the critical stress
cr,T the elastic critical stress for torsional buckling
cr,TF the elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling
G the shear modulus
E the modulus of elasticity
IT the torsion constant of the gross section
CM the warping constant
iy the radius of gyration about yy-axis
iz the radius of gyration about zz-axis
lT the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling
y0 the position of the shear center
ly the buckling length for flexural buckling about the yy-axis

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Lateral-torsional buckling

The elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr for I sections (symmetric and asymmetric),
RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section)
sections, can be calculated using the formula given by Annex F.

For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of
moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

2 EI Iw + LGI t
Mcr = z
L 2
Iz 2 EI z

with E the modulus of elasticity


G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral

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restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail
sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms

See Chapter 'Adaption of torsional constant'.

SUPPORTED SECTIONS

The following standard sections are defined :

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, .)


RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
Cold formed section
COM Composed section ( sheet welded, section
pairs, )
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

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In the following matrix is shown which sections are supported for the different analysis
parts in the Indian steel Code check :

I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS Z O COM NUM

Section Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)


Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4
Stability check class 1 x x x
Stability check class 2 x x x
Stability check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 4
Shear buckling check x x x

(1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.

REFERENCES

[1] IS:800
2005

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CALCULATION OF BUCKLING RATIO

INTRODUCTION TO THE CALCULATION OF BUCKLING RATIO

For the calculation of buckling ratio, several methods can be applied.


The general method is described in chapter "Calculation buckling ratio general
formula". For crossing diagonals, the buckling ratio is explained in chapter "Calculation
buckling ratios for crossing diagonalS". For VARH elements, the critical Euler force is
calculated according to the method given in chapter "Calculation of critical Euler force
for VARH elements". For lattice tower members, see the chapter "Calculation buckling
ratio for lattice tower members".

CALCULATION BUCKLING RATIO GENERAL FORMULA

For the calculation of the buckling ratios, some approximate formulas are used. These
formulas are treated in reference [1], [2] and [3].

The following formulas are used for the buckling ratios (Ref[1],pp.21) :

for a non sway structure :

(1 2 + 5 1 + 5 2 + 24)(1 2 + 4 1 + 4 2 + 12)2
l/L =
(2 1 2 + 11 1 + 5 2 + 24)(2 1 2 + 5 1 + 11 2 + 24)

for a sway structure :

2
l/L = x +4
1 x

with L the system length


E the modulus of Young
I the moment of inertia
Ci the stiffness in node I
Mi the moment in node I
Fi the rotation in node I

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4 1 2 + 2 1
x=
2 (1 + 2) + 8 1 2
CL
i = i
EI
M i
Ci =
i

The values for Mi and i are approximately determined by the internal forces and the
deformations, calculated by load cases which generate deformation forms, having an
affinity with the buckling form. (See also Ref.[5], pp.113 and Ref.[6],pp.112).
The following load cases are considered :
load case 1 : on the beams, the local distributed loads qy=1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m
are used, on the columns the global distributed loads Qx = 10000 N/m and Qy
=10000 N/m are used.
load case 2 : on the beams, the local distributed loads qy=-1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m
are used, on the columns the global distributed loads Qx = -10000 N/m and Qy= -
10000 N/m are used.

The used approach gives good results for frame structures with perpendicular rigid or
semi-rigid beam connections. For other cases, the user has to evaluate the presented
bucking ratios.

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CALCULATION BUCKLING RATIOS FOR CROSSING DIAGONALS

For crossing diagonal elements, the buckling length perpendicular to the diagonal plane,
is calculated according to Ref.[4], DIN18800 Teil 2, table 15. This means that the
buckling length sK is dependant on the load distribution in the element, and it is not a
purely geometrical data anymore.
In the following chapters, the buckling length sK is defined,

with sK buckling length


l member length
l1 length of supporting diagonal
I moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the member
I1 moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the
supporting diagonal
N compression force in member
N1 compression force in supporting diagonal
Z tension force in supporting diagonal
E elastic modulus

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Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension diagonal

l/2
N N

l1/2

3 Z l
1
4 N l1
sK = l
I1 l3
1 +
I l13
sK 0.5 l

See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 1.

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Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned tension diagonal

l/2
N N

l1/2

Zl
sK = l 1 0.75
N l1
sK 0.5 l

See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 4.

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Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension diagonal

l/2
N N

l1/2

Z
sK = 0.5 l
N l1
1
Z l
3 Z l12 N l1
(E I1)d ( 1)
42 Z l

See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 5.

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Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous compression diagonal

N1

l/2
N N

l1/2

N1
N1 l
1 +
N l1
sK = l
I1 l3
1 +
I l13
sK 0.5 l

See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 2.

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Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned compression diagonal

N1

l/2
N N

l1/2

N1
2 N1 l
sK = l 1 +
12 N l1

See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 3 (2).

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Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous compression diagonal

N1

l/2
N N

l1/2

N1
sK = 0.5 l
N l3 2 N l1
(E I)d ( + )
l1 12
2
N1

See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 3 (3).

CALCULATION OF CRITICAL EULER FORCE FOR VARH ELEMENTS

Definitions

A VARH element is defined as follows :

The member has the properties of a symmetric I secion (formcode=1), where only the
height is linear variable along the member. The system length for buckling around the
local yy axis (strong axis), is equal to member length.
For this non-prismatic section, the critical Euler force is given in Ref[7].

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Calculation of the critical Euler force

For a VARH element (form node i to node j), we can define

L beam length
I i, I j moment of inertia at end i and j
Ai, Aj sectional area at end i and j
E modulus of Young
Ncr critical Euler force
Ri, Rj beam stiffness at end i and j

The stiffness R and R' is given by :

M
R=

L
R i = R i
EIi
L
R j = R j
EIi

Ij
=
Ii

The critical Euler force is given by

EIi
N cr = 2
L2

To calculate , the next steps are followed :

1. Calculate L, Ii, Ij, Ri, Rj, R'i, R'j,

2. We suppose that
1
>
-1 2

3. Calculate a, b, c and d as follows

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2 1
= -
( - 1 ) 2 4
1 1
a= [1 + ( - 1)( - cotg( ln )]
2
2
1 -1
b = c = 2 [1 - ]
sin ( ln )
1 ( - 1) 1
d= [1 + ( + cotg( ln )]
2 2

4. For a beam in non-sway system, we solve

1 + a R i + d R j + (ad - bc) R i R j = 0

For a beam in sway system, we solve

R i (1 - a 2) + R j (1 - d 2) - 2 + R i R j (a - b - c + d - 2 (ad - bc)) = 0

5. When a solution is found, we check if

1
>
-1 2

6. If not, then recalculate a,b,c en d as follows :

1 1
( - 1)(( - ) - ( + ) -)
1 2 2
a = 2 [1 + ]
-
1 2( - 1)
b = c = 2 [1 - ]
( - -)
1 1
( - 1)(( - ) - - ( + ) )
1 2 2
d = 2 [1 + -
]
( - )

and resolve the proper equation of 4.

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CALCULATION BUCKLING RATIO FOR LATTICE TOWER MEMBERS

When the national code EC3 or NEN6770/6771 is selected, the following buckling
configuration can be selected. For each configuration, the critical slendernesses to be
considered, are defined.
The values are taken from Ref.[8].
v
y

z z

y
v

We define :

iyy radius of gyration around yy axis


izz radius of gyration around zz axis
ivv radius of gyration around vv axis

With the option 'Bracing members are sufficiently supported', the effective
slendernesses may be reduced as follows :
- for vv-axis : = 0.35 + 0.7 vv
- for yy-axis : = 0.50 + 0.7 yy
The buckling curve 'b' is used..

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Leg with symmetrical bracing

L
=
i vv

Leg with intermediate transverse support

L
=
i yy

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Leg with staggered bracing

L
=
i yy
max(a1, a 2) 1.52
=
i vv

Single Bracing

L
=
i vv

Single Bracing with SBS (Secondary Bracing System)

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L1
=
i vv
L2
=
i yy

Cross bracing

L1
=
i vv
L' 2 L' 2
= ,
i yy i zz
L' 2 = K b L com = K b L 2
1 Fsup 1
K b = 0.75 0.38 1 1 + + 0.25 1 1 + + 0.5 1.0
K Fcom K
1
K b 0.25 1 1 +
K
L
1 = 1
L com
K = 0.70 + 0.58 com
com
com =
E
E
E =
fy
L com
com =
i yy

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with Lcom Length of compressed member (L2 from figure)


Fcom Force in compressed member (L2 from figure)
Fsup Force in supporting member (member crossing member L2)
E Modulus of Young
fy Yield strength

Cross bracing with SBS

L1
=
i vv
L2 L2
= ,
i yy i zz
L'3 L'3
= ,
i yy i zz
L'3 = K b L com = K b L 3

with Lcom Length of compressed member (L3 from figure)


Fcom Force in compressed member (L3 from figure)
Fsup Force in supporting member (member crossing member L3)
Kb See Chapter 'Cross bracing'

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K Bracing

L1
=
i vv
L2 L2
= ,
i yy i zz
L3 L3
= ,
i yy i zz

Horizontal Bracing

L
L
=k
i vv
k = 0.085 R 2 0.316 R + 0.73
P2
R=
P1
0 R 1

with P1 Compression load


P2 Tensile load

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Horizontal Bracing with SBS

L
L
=k
i yy
k = 0.085 R 2 0.316 R + 0.73
P2
R=
P1
0 R 1

with P1 Compression load


P2 Tensile load

Discontinuous Cross bracing with horizontal member

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a 2a a
= ,
i yy i vv

N1 N2 F = max(FSd , ( N1 + N 2) cos )

F F

N2 N1

with F normal force to check


FSd actual compression force in horizontal member
N1 tensile force in diagonal
N2 compression force in diagonal

REFERENCES

[1] Handleiding moduul STACO VGI


Staalbouwkundig Genootschap
Staalcentrum Nederland
5684/82

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[2] Newmark N.M. A simple approximate formula for effective end-fixity of


columns
J.Aero.Sc. Vol.16 Feb.1949 pp.116

[3] Stabiliteit voor de staalconstructeur


uitgave Staalbouwkundig Genootschap

[4] DIN18800 Teil 2


Stahlbauten : Stabilittsflle, Knicken von Stben und Stabwerken
November 1990

[5] Rapportnr. BI-87-20/63.4.3360


Controleregels voor lijnvormige constructie-elementen
IBBC Maart 1987

[6] Staalconstructies TGB 1990


Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies
NEN 6770, december 1991

[7] Y. Gala
Flambement des poteaux inertie variable
Construction Mtallique 1-1981

[8] NEN-EN 50341-3-15


Overhead electrical lines exceeding AC 45 kV - Part 3: Set of National
Normative Aspects
Number 15: National Normative Aspects (NNA) for The Netherlands

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CALCULATION OF MOMENT FACTORS FOR LTB

INTRODUCTION TO THE CALCULATION OF MOMENT FACTORS

For determining the moment factors C1 and C2 for lateral torsional buckling (LTB), we
use the standard tables which are defined in Ref.[1] Art.12.25.3 table 9.1.,10 end 11.

The current moment distribution is compared with some standard moment distributions.
This standard moment distributions are moment lines generated by a distributed q load, a
nodal F load, or where the moment line is maximum at the start or at the end of the beam.

The standard moment distributions which is closest to the current moment distribution, is
taken for the calculation of the factors C1 and C2.

The factor C3 is taken out of the tables F.1.1. and F.1.2. from Ref.[2] - Annex F.

CALCULATION MOMENT FACTORS

Moment distribution generated by q load

For EC3, IS800 and CM66 :

if M2 < 0

C1 = A* (1.45 B* + 1) 1.13 + B* (-0.71 A* + 1) E*


C2 = 0.45 A* [1 + C* eD* ( + )]

if M2 > 0

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C1 = 1.13 A* + B* E*
C2 = 0.45A*

For DIN18800 and ONORM4300 :

if M2 < 0

C1 = A* (1.45 B* + 1) 1.12 + B* (-0.71 A* + 1) E*


C2 = 0.45 A* [1 + C* eD* ( + )]

if M2 > 0

C1 = 1.12 A* + B* E*
C2 = 0.45A*

q l2
with : A * =
8 | M2 | +q l2

8 | M2 |
B* =
8 | M2 | +q l2

94 | M2 |
C* =
ql2

| M2 |
D * = -72( 2
)2
ql

for DIN18800 / ONORM 4300 :

E * = 1.77 - 0.77

for EC3 Code and IS800 :

E* = 1.88 - 1.40 + 0.52


2

E* < 2.70
for NEN6770/6771, SIA263 Code :

E*=1.75-1.05*+0.30* and E*<2.3

for CM66 :

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E* = 1.88 - 1.40 + 0.52


2

E* < 2.70

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Moment distribution generated by F load

M2 < 0

C1 = A** (2.75 B** + 1) 1.35 + B** (-1.62 A** + 1) E**


C2 = 0.55 A** [1 + C** eD** ( + )]

M2 > 0

C1 = 1.35 A** + B** E**


C2 = 0.55 A**

Fl Fl
with : A ** = B ** =
4 | M2 | +Fl 4 | M2 | +Fl
38 | M2 |
C ** =
Fl
| M2 | 2
D ** = -32( )
Fl

The values for E** can be taken as E* from chapter "Moment distribution generated by q
load".

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Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam

C2 = 0.0

for DIN18800 / ONORM 4300

C1 = 1.77 - 0.77

for EC3 Code / IS800 :

C1 = 1.88 - 1.40 + 0.52 2


and C1 < 2.70

for CM66 :

3
C1 =
1 + + 0.152(1 )2
2

for NEN6770/6771, SIA263 Code :

E*=1.75-1.05*+0.30* and E*<2.3

REFERENCES

[1] Staalconstructies TGB 1990


Stabiliteit
NEN 6771 - 1991

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[2] Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures


Part 1-1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992

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PROFILE CONDITIONS FOR CODE CHECK

INTRODUCTION TO PROFILE CHARACTERISTICS

The standard profile sections have fixed sections properties and dimensions, which have
to be present in the profile library.
The section properties are described in chapter "Data for general section stability
check".
The required dimension properties are described in chapter "Data depending in the
profile shape".

DATA FOR GENERAL SECTION STABILITY CHECK

The following properties have to be present in the profile library for the execution of the
section and the stability check :

Description Property number


Iy moment of inertie yy 8
Wy elastic section modulus yy 10
Sy statical moment of area yy 6
Iz moment of inertia zz 9
Wz elastic section modulus zz 11
Sz statical moment of area zz 7
It* torsional constant 14
Wt* torsional resistance 13
A0 sectional area 1
Iyz centrifugal moment 12
iy radius of gyration yy 2
iz radius of gyration zz 3
Mpy plastic moment yy 30
Mpz plastic moment zz 31
fab fabrication code 105
0=rolled section (default value)
1=welded section

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2=cold formed section

The fabrication code is not obligatory.

When the section is made out of 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can be
calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library. When this is not the case,
these properties have to be input by the user in the profile library.

The plastic moments are calculated with a yield strength of 240 N/mm.

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DATA DEPENDING IN THE PROFILE SHAPE

I section

Formcode 1
PSS Type .I.

Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R
74 W
140 wm1
61 R1
146

109 1

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B
t

R1

RHS

Formcode 2
PSS Type .M.

Property Description
49 H
48 B
67 s
66 R

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109 2

H
s

CHS

Formcode 3
PSS Type .RO.

Property Description
64 D
65 s

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109 3

Angle section

Formcode 4
PSS Type .L.

Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t

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61 R1
66 R

74 W1
75 W2
76 W3

109 4

R1

w2

w1
R w2

B w1

w3

Channel section

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Formcode 5
PSS Type .U.

Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R

68
41
61 R1
146

109 5

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R1

T section

Formcode 6
PSS Type .T.

Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R
61 R1
62 R2
146 1

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

147 2

109 6

B
R2

s
a2

H
t

R1
a1

Full rectangular section

Formcode 7
PSS Type .B.

Property Description
48 B
67 H

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109 7

Full circular section

Formcode 11
PSS Type .RU.

Property Description
64 D

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109 11

Asymmetric I section

Formcode 101
PSS Type

Property Description
49 H
48
44
47 s
42 Bt

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43 Bb
45 tt
46 tb
66 R

109 101

Bt
tt

tb

Bb

Z section

Formcode 102

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PSS Type .Z.

Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
67 R
61 R1

109 102

H
s

R R1

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General cold formed section

Each section is considered as a composition of rectangular parts. Each part represents a


plate unit which is considered as element for defining the effective width. The start and
end parts are considered as unstiffened elements, the intermediate parts are considered
as stifffened parts.
This way of definition of the section assumes that the area is concentrated at its centre
line. The rounding in the corners are ignored.

Description Property number Value


form code 109 110

Dy* 22
Dz* 23
CM* 26
buckling curve around yy axis 106 (1)
buckling curve around zz axis 107 (1)
buckling curve for LTB 108 (1)

(1) The values for the buckling curves are defined as follows :
1 = buckling curve a
2 = buckling curve b

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3 = buckling curve c
4 = buckling curve d

The conditions are that the section is an open profile. Only the geometry commands O,
L, N, A may be used in the geometry description.

When the section is made out of 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can be
calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library. The properties from the
reduced section can be calculated by the code check.

When the section is made out of more then 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can
NOT be calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library. The properties from
the reduced section can be calculated, except for the marked properties. These
properties have to be input by the user in the profile library.

Formcode 110
PSS Type

Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B
142 sp
143 e2
68 H

109 110

Remark :
r is rounding, special for KLS section (Voest Alpine)
sp is number of shear planes

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e2

s
H

Cold formed angle section

Formcode 111
PSS Type

Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B

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68 H

109 111

H
s

Cold formed channel section

Formcode 112
PSS Type

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Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B

49 H

109 112

H
s

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Cold formed Z section

Formcode 113
PSS Type

Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B

49 H

109 113

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H
s

Figure 1

Cold formed C section

Formcode 114
PSS Type

Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B

49 H
68 c

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109 114

H
s

B
Figure 2

Cold formed Omega section

Formcode 115
PSS Type

Property Description
44 s

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61 r
48 B

49 H
42 c

109 115

Rail type KA

Formcode 150

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

PSS Type .KA.

Property Description
148 h1
149 h2
150 h3
151 b1
152 b2
153 b3
154 k
155 f1
156 f2
157 f3
61 r1
62 r2
63 r3
158 r4
159 r5
160 a

109 150

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

k
r1

h3
h2 b3
r2
r3

h1

r4
f2
f3 f1
r5
b2

b1

Rail type KF

Formcode 151
PSS Type .KF.

Property Description
48 b
154 k
49 h
153 b3
155 f1
157 f3
148 h1

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149 h2
61 r1
62 r2
63 r3

109 151

r1

h1 h2

h
r2
r2

f3
r2 r2
f1

r3

b3
b

Rail type KQ

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Formcode 152
PSS Type .KQ.

Property Description
48 b
154 k
49 h
153 b3
155 f1
149 h2
150 h3
61 r1

109 152

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

r1

h3

h2

f1
b3

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WARPING CHECK

STRESS CHECK

In cross sections subject to torsion, the following is checked :

fy
tot,Ed
M
fy
tot,Ed
3 M0
fy
2tot,Ed + 32tot,Ed 1.1
M
tot,Ed = N,Ed + My,Ed + Mz,Ed + w,Ed

tot,Ed = Vy,Ed + Vz,Ed + t,Ed + w,Ed

with fy the yield strength


tot,Ed the total direct stress
tot,Ed the total shear stress
M = M0 (class 1,2 and 3 section)
= M1 (class 4 section)
M0 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections
where failure is caused by yielding (=1.1)
M1 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections
where failure is caused by buckling (=1.1)
N,Ed the direct stress due to the axial force on the relevant
effective cross-section
My,Ed the direct stress due to the bending moment around y axis on
the relevant effective cross-section
Mz,Ed the direct stress due to the bending moment around z axis on
the relevant effective cross-section
w,Ed the direct stress due to warping on the gross cross-section
Vy,Ed the shear stress due to shear force in y direction on the gross

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cross-section
Vz,Ed the shear stress due to shear force in z direction on the gross
cross-section
t,Ed the shear stress due to uniform (St. Venant) torsion on the
gross cross-section
w,Ed the shear stress due to warping on the gross cross-section

The warping effect is considered for standard I sections and U sections, and for (=
cold formed sections) sections. The definition of I sections and U sections, and
sections are described in "Profile conditions for code check".

The other standard sections ( RHS, CHS, Angle section, T section and rectangular
sections) are considered as warping free. See also Ref.[2], Bild 7.4.40.

CALCULATION OF THE DIRECT STRESS DUE TO WARPING

The direct stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[2] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[3])

MwwM
w ,Ed =
Cm

with Mw the bimoment


wM the unit warping
Cm the warping constant

I sections

For I sections, the value of wM is given in the tables (Ref. [2], Tafel 7.87, 7.88). This
value is added to the profile library. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure:

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).
The value for wM can be calculated by (Ref.[5] pp.135) :

1
wM = b hm
4

with b the section width


hm the section height (see figure)

U sections

For I sections, the value of wM is given in the tables as wM1 and wM2 (Ref. [2], Tafel
7.89). This values are added to the profile library. The diagram of wM is given in the
following figure :

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).

sections

The values for wM are calculated for the critical points according to the general
approach given in Ref.[2] 7.4.3.2.3 and Ref.[8] Part 27.

The critical points for each part are shown as circles in the figure.

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CALCULATION OF THE SHEAR STRESS DUE TO WARPING

The shear stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[2] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[3])


s
M
w ,Ed
= xs w M tds
Cm t 0

with Mxs the warping torque (see "Standard


diagrams for warping torque, bimoment
and the St.Venant torsion")
wM the unit warping
Cm the warping constant
t the element thickness

I sections

The shear stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure)

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

For I sections, we have the following :


b/2
b t wM
w
0
M tds =
4
=A

U sections, sections

Starting from the wM diagram, we calculate the value

w
0
M tds

for the critical points.


The shear stress due to warping is calculated in these critical points (see circles in
figures)

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

PLASTIC CHECK

For doubly symmetric I sections of class 1 and class 2 (plastic check), the interaction
formula given in Ref.[10] is used.

b
tf z

tw
y y
h H

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Used variables

Section Properties
A sectional area
b width
H heigth of section
tf flange thickness
tw web thickness
h = H - tf
Aw = 1.05 (h+tf) tw for rolled section
Aw = h tw for welded sections
Af = 2 b tf
Af
f =
A
w = 1 f
Wz,pl plastic section modulus around z
axis
Wy,pl plastic section modulus around y
axis

Material Properties
fy,d yield strength
y,d shear strength

Internal forces
NSd normal force
My,Sd bending moment around y axis
Mz,Sd bending moment around z axis
Mw,Sd bimoment
Vy,Sd shear force in y direction
Vz,Sd shear force in z direction
Mxp,Sd torque due to St. Venant
Mxs,Sd warping torque

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Plastic capacities
Npl,Rd = A fy,d
Mz,pl,Rd = Wz,pl fy,d
Vz,pl,Rd = Aw y,d
t2
M xp,pl ,Rd = bt f2 + h w y ,d
2
My,pl,Rd = Wy,pl fy,d
h
M w ,pl ,Rd = M z ,pl ,Rd
2
Vy,pl,Rd = Af y,d
h
M xs,pl ,Rd = Vy ,pl ,Rd
2

N Sd
n=
N pl ,Rd
M y ,Sd
my =
M y ,pl ,Rd

M z ,Sd
mz =
M z ,pl ,Rd

M w ,Sd
mw =
M w ,pl ,Rd

Vy ,Sd
vy =
Vy ,pl ,Rd

Vz ,Sd
vz =
Vz ,pl ,Rd

M xp,Sd
m xp =
M xp,pl ,Rd

M xs,Sd
m xs =
M xs,pl ,Rd

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Shear force reduction


z = v 2z + m xp
w = (2 z 1)
2

for z > 0.5 s w = 1 w

y = (m xs + v y ) + m xp
2

f = (2 y 1)
2

for y > 0.5 s f = 1 f

Sign
p=sign ( Mz,Sd x Mw,Sd)

m mw s
s = 1 z (m z + m w ) f f
mz + mw 4 w s w

n
1 p
wsw

2

n
= 4 s w s w 1 s p
wsw

Unity checks :

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

if n ( w s w )
2
n
m y (1 + f ) w s w +
wsw mz mw
+ + 1
2 f s f sf sf

if n > ( w s w )

m y (1 + f ) 2( w s w m n )
2
mz m
+ + p w 1
2 f s f sf sf
and
m y (1 + f ) 2( w s w m n )
2
mz m
+ p w 1
2 f s f sf sf

Remark : the values between { } must be >0.

STANDARD DIAGRAMS FOR WARPING TORQUE, BIMOMENT AND THE


ST.VENANT TORSION

The following 6 standard situations are given in the literature (Ref.[2], Ref.[3]).
The value is defined as follows :

G It
=
E Cm

with Mx the total torque


= Mxp + Mxs
Mxp the torque due to St. Venant
Mxs the warping torque
Mw the bimoment
IT the torsional constant
CM the warping constant
E the modulus of elasticity

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

G the shear modulus

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Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, local torsional loading Mt

Mx
Mt b
M xa =
L
Mt a
M xb =
L

Mxp for a b sinh(b)


side M xp = M t cosh(x )
L sinh(L)
Mxp for b a sinh(a )
side M xp = M t + cosh(x ' )
L sinh(L)
Mxs for a sinh(b)
side M xs = M t cosh(x )
sinh( L )
Mxs for b sinh(a )
side M xs = M t cosh(x ' )
sinh(L)
Mw for a side M t sinh(b)
Mw = sinh(x )
sinh(L)
Mw for b side Mt sinh(a )
Mw = sinh(x ' )
sinh(L)

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Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, local torsional loading Mt

Mx
Mt b
M xa =
L
M a
M xb = t
L

Mxp for a b + k 2 k1
M xp = M t D3
side L
Mxp for b k 2 a k1
M xp = M t D4
side L
Mxs for a M xs = M t D3
side
Mxs for b M xs = M t D4
side
Mw for a side Mt
Mw = D1

Mw for b side Mt
Mw = D2

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

D1 =
(sinh( b ) + k 2 )sinh( x ) + k 1 sinh( x ' )
sinh( L )
k 2 sinh( x ) + (sinh( a ) + k 1 )sinh( x ' )
D2 =
sinh( L )

D3 =
(sinh( b ) + k 2 ) cosh( x ) k 1 cosh( x ' )
sinh( L )
k 2 cosh( x ) (sinh( a ) + k 1 )cosh( x ' )
D4 =
sinh( L )
sinh( a ) + sinh( b ) a b sinh( a ) sinh( b ) L L
1 tanh( )
sinh( L ) 2 sinh( L ) 2 2
k1 = + +
L 2 L
2 tanh( ) L tanh( )
2 2
sinh( a ) + sinh( b ) a b sinh( a ) sinh( b ) L L
1 tanh( )
sinh( L ) 2 sinh( L ) 2 2
k2 = +
L 2 L
2 tanh( ) L tanh( )
2 2

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Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, distributed torsional loading mt

Mx

mt L
M xa =
2
mt L
M xb =
2

Mxp mt L cosh(x ) cosh(x ' )


M xp = ( x ) +
2 sinh(L)
Mxs mt cosh(x ) cosh(x ' )
M xs =
sinh(L)
Mw mt sinh(x ) + sinh(x ' )
Mw = 1
2 sinh(L)

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, distributed torsional loading mt

Mx

mt L
M xa =
2
m L
M xb = t
2

Mxp mt L cosh(x ) cosh(x ' )


M xp = ( x ) + (1 k )
2 sinh(L)
Mxs mt cosh(x ) cosh(x ' )
M xs = (1 k )
sinh(L)
Mw mt sinh(x ) + sinh(x ' )
Mw = 1 (1 k )
2 sinh(L)

L
k = 1 2
L
tanh( )
2

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, local torsional loading Mt

Mx
M xa = M t

Mxp cosh(x ' )


M xp = M t 1
cosh(L)
Mxs cosh(x ' )
M xs = M t
cosh(L)
Mw Mt sinh(x ' )
Mw =
cosh(L)

One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, distributed torsional loading mt

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Mx M xa = m t L

Mxp mt (1 + L sinh(L)) sinh(x )


M xp = x 'L cosh(x ) +
cosh(L)
Mxs mt (1 + L sinh(L)) sinh(x )
M xs = L cosh(x )
cosh(L)
Mw mt (1 + L sinh(L)) cosh(x )
Mw = 1 + L sinh(x )
cosh(L)

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

DECOMPOSITION OF ARBITRARY TORSION LINE

There the EPW solver does not take into account the extra DOF for warping, the
determination of the warping torque and the related bimoment, is based on some
standard situations.

The following end conditions are considered :

warping free

warping fixed

This results in the following 3 beam situations :

situation 1 : warping free / warping free

situation 2 : warping free / warping fixed

situation 3 : warping fixed / warping fixed

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Decomposition for situation 1 and situation 3

The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations :

n number of torsion lines generated by a local torsional loading Mtn


one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt
one torsion line with constant torque Mt0

The values for Mxp, Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local
torsional loadings Mtn and the distributed loading mt. The value Mt0 is added to the Mxp
value.

Decomposition for situation 2

The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations :

one torsion line generated by a local torsional loading Mtn


one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt

The values for Mxp, Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local
torsional loading Mt and the distributed loading mt.

REFERENCES

[1] ENV 1993-1-3:1996


Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules Supplementary rules for cold formed thin
gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

[2] Stahl im Hochbau


14. Auglage Band I/ Teil 2
Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Dsseldorf 1986

[3] Kaltprofile
3. Auflage
Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Dsseldorf 1982

[4] Roik, Carl, Lindner


Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader dnnwandiger Stbe
Verlag von Wilhem ernst & Sohn, Berlin 1972

[5] Dietrich von Berg


Krane und Kranbahnen Berechnung Konstruktion Ausfhrung
B.G. Teubner, Stuttgart 1988

[6] DASt-Richtlinie 016


Bemessung und konstruktive Gestaltung von Tragwerken aus
dnnwandigen kaltgeformten Bauteilen
Stahlbau-Verlagsgesellschaft, Kln 1992

[7] Esa Prima Win


Steel Code Check Manual
SCIA
EPW 3.10

[8] C. Petersen
Stahlbau : Grundlagen der Berechnung und baulichen Ausbildung von
Stahlbauten
Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig 1988

[9] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

[10] I. Vayas,
Interaktion der plastischen Grenzschnittgrssen doppelsymmetrischer I-
Querschnitte
Stahlbau 69 (2000), Heft 9

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

CHECK OF NUMERICAL SECTIONS

STRESS CHECK

The stress calculation for a numerical section is as follows :

vm = 2tot + 3 2tot
tot = N + My + Mz
tot = Vy + Vz
N
N =
Ax
M yy
My =
Wy
M zz
Mz =
Wz
Vy
Vy =
Ay
Vz
Vz =
Az

with vm the VonMises stress, the composed stress


tot the total normal stress
tot the total shear stress
N the normal stress due to the normal force N
My the normal stress due to the bending
moment Myy around y axis
Mz the norma stress due to the bending
moment Mzz around z axis
Vy the shear stress due to shear force Vy in y
direction
Vz the shear stress due to shear force Vz in z
direction

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Ax the sectional area


Ay the shear area in y direction
Az the shear area in z direction
Wy the elastic section modulus around y axis
Wz the elastic section modulus around z axis

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

USE OF DIAPHRAGMS

ADAPTION OF TORSIONAL CONSTANT

See Ref.[1], Chapter 10.1.5., Ref.[2],3.5 and Ref.[3],3.3.4..

When diaphragms (steel sheeting) are used, the torsional contant It is adapted for
symmetric/asymmetric I sections, channel sections, Z sections, cold formed U, C , Z
sections.

The torsional constant It is adapted with the stiffness of the diaphragms :

l2
I t ,id = I t + vorhC
2G
1 1 1 1
= + +
vorhC C M ,k C A ,k C P ,k
EI eff
C M ,k = k
s
2
b
C A ,k = C100 a if b a 125
100
b
C A ,k = 1.25 C100 a if 125 < b a < 200
100
3 E Is
C P ,k
(h t)
s
Is =
12

with l the LTB length


G the shear modulus
vorhC the actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm
CM,k the rotational stiffness of the diaphragm
CA,k the rotational stiffness of the connection between the diaphragm
and the beam
CP,k the rotational stiffness due to the distortion of the beam
k numerical coefficient

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

= 2 for single or two spans of the diaphragm


= 4 for 3 or more spans of the diaphragm
EIeff bending stiffness of per unit width of the diaphragm
s spacing of the beam
ba the width of the beam flange (in mm)
C100 rotation coefficient - see table
h beam height
t thickness beam flange
s thickness beam web

REFERENCES

SCIA 239
SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

[1] ENV 1993-1-3:1996


Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

[2] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Dsseldorf

[3] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erluterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Kln 1993

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

SECTION CHECK FOR BUILT-IN BEAMS (IFB, SFB, THQ


SECTIONS)

INTRODUCTION

For the national codes EC3, NEN6770/6771, DIN18800 and SIA263, special checks are
performed for built-in beams, according to Ref.[1].

REDUCTION OF PLASTIC MOMENT CAPACITY DUE TO PLATE BENDING

bo

0.5 q 0.5 q

tu
e2=bo

e1

bu

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

bo

to

0.5 q 0.5 q

tu
e2=bo

e1

bu

bo

to

0.5 q 0.5 q

tu
e2=0

e1

bu

When the lower plate is loaded by q-load (uniform distributed load), the effective area
of the loaded plate (flange) for the calculation of the plastic capacity is reduced as
follows :

for THQ and IFB beams :

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

A u ,eff = A u
t u 3 3 + (2e1 + e 2 ) (e1 e 2 )
= 1
6b u
(e1 e 2 ) M q
=
t uf y t u
= 1 1

for SFB beam :

A eff = u A u + o A o

with e1, e2, tu, bu see the figures above


q load on flange, plate (as N/m)
fy yield strength
M partial safety factor
see formula
u =
o analog to u, but with
bu=bo
e1=bo
tu=to
e2=tw

PLASTIC INTERACTION FORMULA FOR SINGLE BENDING AND SHEAR


FORCE

The following plastic interaction formula can be used, when single bending around yy-
axis My,Sd, in combination with shear force Vz,Sd, is acting :

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background


M y ,Sd A v Vz ,Sd
+ 1. 0
M
pl ,y ,Rd A m Vpl ,z ,Rd
A h
= m f
2Wpl ,y

with My,Sd, Vz,Sd internal forces


Mpl,y,Rd plastic bending capacity around yy axis
Vpl,z,Rd plastic shear capacity in z direction
Av shear area (see figure)
Am = A - | Ao,x - Au,x | (see figure)
hf = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure)
Wpl,y plastic section modulus around yy axis - reduced if necessary

PLASTIC CHECK FOR PLATE IN BENDING

The following condition for the plate in bending must be verified :

2
3 M q (1 + ) M q (1 + ) e1 e 2
+ 1. 0
4 f y t u f y t u t u

with e1 , e2 , t u see figures


q load on flange, plate (as N/m)
= qmax+qmin

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

(Ksi) q max q min


=
q
fy yield strength
M partial safety factor

0.5 q (1-Ksi) 0.5 q (1+Ksi)

STRESS CHECK FOR SLIM FLOOR BEAMS

Normal stress check

At the edges of the bottom plate, the following composed stress check is performed :

SCIA 245
SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

fy
( 2
x x y + 2y )
M
Mx tu
y =
Ix 2
e1 e 2
M x = (q max , q min )
2
t 3u
Ix =
12

Shear stress check in plate

In the middle of the bottom plate, transverse shear stress is checked :

fy
2x + 3
M
3 (q max , q min )
=
2 tu

Torsion check due to unbalanced loading

for IFB and SFB beams :

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

fy
t ,max + w ,max
M 3
M t ,max t o
t ,max =
It
L
tanh
QeL Lk
M t ,max = 1
2 L

Lk

3 M w ,max
w ,max =
2 bo t o h f
QeL k L
M w ,max = tanh
2
Lk
EI o
L k = 2h f
GI t
Et o b 3o
EI o =
12

with to, bo see figures


hf = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure)
It torsional constant for complete section
E modulus of Young
G shear modulus
L system length for Lyz
Q,e see figure

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

for THQ beams :

qL e Vpl ,z ,Rd
1
4 bf 2

with e, bf see figure


hf = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure)
q load on flanges, plate (as N/m)
= qmax+qmin
(Ksi) q q min
= max
q

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

bf

q min q max

e e

REFERENCES

[1] Multi-Storey Buildings in Steel


Design Guide for Slim Floors with Built-in Beams
ECCS N 83 - 1995

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

EFFECTIVE CROSS-SECTION PROPERTIES FOR


LATTICE TOWER ANGLE MEMBERS

EFFECTIVE CROSS-SECTION PROPERTIES FOR COMPRESSED LATTICE


TOWER ANGLE MEMBERS

The effective cross-section properties shall be based on the effective width beff of the
leg. See Ref.[1], Chapter J.2.3.

The effective width shall be obtained from the nominal width of the leg, assuming
uniform stress distribution :

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

b
p =
t
p
p =
28.4 K c
K c = 0.43
235
=
fy
b eff = b
For rolled angle :

p 0.91 = 1.0
p
0.91 < p 1.213 = 2
0.91
0.98
p > 1.213 = 2
p

For cold formed angle :

p 0.809 = 1.0
p
5
0.404
0.809 < p 1.213 =
3
0.98
p > 1.213 = 2
p

with t the thickness


b the nominal width
fy the yield strength in Mpa

REFERENCES

SCIA 251
SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

[1] EN 50341-1:2001
Overhead electrical lines exceeding AC 45 kV Part 1: General
requirements

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SCIA.ESA PT Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

SCIA 253