Anda di halaman 1dari 36


Bureau of Jail Management and Penology is an attached

agency of the Department of the Interior and Local Government
mandated to direct, supervise and control the administration and
operation of all district, city and municipal jails in
the Philippines with pronged tasks of safekeeping and
development of its inmates.

A place of confinement for persons held in lawful
custody; specifically : such a place under the
jurisdiction of a local government (as a county) for
the confinement of persons awaiting trial or those
convicted of minor crimes.
An essential first step in planning of administrative functions for a correctional facilities is to
determine the generalization pattern of authority. The agency having jurisdiction over the
facility establishes the pattern, generally without the participation of the planners, although it
will form the basis for spaces planning.

Program functions include all areas of activity which involve the professional treatment of
inmates to influence change in attitude and behavior.

Clinical services
Vocational training
Work-releases or study releases

Library services function as the information and library materials center supporting the
institutional program. Larger the facilities need libraries with no fewer than 6,000 volumes, or
at least 10 books per inmate.

This is where inmates purchase personal items, such as cigarettes, combs, candy, juice, and
as many minor items as the administration wants to stock. A central commissary needs
sufficient space and display to see the items available, so they can order without delay.
Barber facilities may be located centrally or in individual housing units. If they are
decentralized, the chairs should be removable for storage while not in use. Generally inmates
shave themselves, and barber services only apply to haircuts.


The reception and discharge units is the point of institutional entry or departure for all
prisoners. the entry process can be important in determining the inmates later attitude and
behavior since it is his initial institutional impression. Due to the high percentage of drug
addicts received by detention facilities, a major segment of newly receive prisoners will
undergo withdrawal, which is no longer a problem if methadone is administrated. From 3 to
days, and medical observation must be maintained during this time.

The correctional institution has an explicit responsibility to protect and maintain the health

of inmates and to prevent the spread of disease among the prisoner population. Those inmates

who are found to be ill upon admission should be placed in the infirmary for treatment. The

centralized medical facilities of a prison consist of an inpatient and outpatient department. In

additional to general medical treatment, a program of dental care requires a dental suite

consisting of one more treatment rooms and laboratory.

One of the most important and difficult operation in any correctional facilities is the

preparation and serving of three meals a day to the inmates population and to the staff. The

food preparation is accomplished in a central kitchen facility having major areas for receiving,
storage and preparation of food, cooking dishwashing, and garbage disposal. Central dining

room adjacent to kitchen local dining rooms in housing units feeding in inmates cell's.

Central kitchen adjacent to the kitchen facilitates delivery of prepared food and return of

spoiled dishes to dishwashing area, generally located in the kitchen. Dining may takes place in a

single room or be sectioned off to reduce an excessive large group of inmates congregating in a

single space.


Localized dining in housing units eliminates the problem of large number of inmates

congregating together is more ideally suited to the type of facility that promotes a correctional

program based on a group interaction.


Cell dining is the least desirable method and should be restricted only to the small minority

of inmate who pose disciplinary problems.


Staff dining is generally treated as separate function from inmate dining.
A well-rounded recreation program should embrace active, competitive sports and strenuous

activities for all inmates who are physically fit and interested. Indoor facilities naturally are

essential for a full year-round recreation program. Lockers and showers need to be supplied for

inmates and visiting teams. to meet requirements for basketball and volleyball activities, a

gymnasium floor has at least 60ft. wide and 100ft. long, with a clear height of 20ft. for

competitive play. The athletic field need to be adequate for football, baseball, soccer, softball,

basketball, and volleyball.

There are two basic types of visiting done in a correctional facility, visits with family and visits

with attorneys and caseworker.


Close or secure visiting room consists of a booth with complete physical barrier separating

the inmate and the visitor.


Open visiting allows contact and normal conversation between inmates and visitors, it is

desirable to provide an outdoor area adjacent to the visiting room for use of warm weather.
Conjugal visiting deserves serious consideration for any sentence institution that hopes to

encourage normal sexual adjustment among inmates. These facilities should be totally removed

from the prisoner population and offer complete privacy to the couples, with quarters that do

not reflect the institutional characters of the prison.

The actual service that take place in a chapel are only a small part of a complete religious

program, which includes religious education, counseling, and contact with inmates families and

visitors. Separate chapels for each faith group are preferable, but an interfaith chapel can be

equipped with revolving alter to serve the three major faiths.


Security control in a correctional institution is effected by every component of the

institution, including layout and design of building elements, details of operation and

construction , and the skilled and intelligent supervision of prisoners by a competent staff.


Central control is monitored by a control room that functions as the nerve center of the

institution. The control room operates a series of electrically interlocked doors to fully

supervise entrance and exit from the custody zone of the institution. All institution keys should

be stored in the key cabinet of the control room and furnished to officer at the beginning of
their tour duty and returned upon to completion. It is wise to locate a system of traffic control

in or adjacent to the central control room to indicate at any given time the housing located of

each inmate.

Firearms should be stored in a secure depository at the main entrance of the institution.

Many officials visitors to a detention or sentence institution will be in possession of their

firearms, but these must never be permitted inside the custody potion of the facility.


Vehicular access to an institution with a perimeter security enclosure should be through an

entrance vestibule with doors and gates at each end, both of which ought never to be unlocked

at the same time. Frequently, large vehicle gates are motor-operated from nearby tower or

other control point.


Locks and locking devices in correctional institutions ought to be fabricated and installed by

manufacturers who specialize in these devices and have a proven record of satisfactory

installation. Prisoner locks should be of the deadbolts type, requiring the officer to turn the key

in lock for positive proof security. Basic sliding cell door locking devices fall into four categories.
All doors can be deadlocked or unlocked as a group by moving levers in a control cabinet.

Individual doors are locked or unlocked by a key at the door. Doors are moved manually by the



All doors are locked or unlocked and operated individually or in groups from switches in a

control cabinet. Any door can be manually unlocked or locked by a key at the door without

interfering with the electrical operation.


All doors are locked or unlocked and operated individually or in groups by moving levers in a

control cabinet.


All doors are locked or unlocked and operated individually or in groups from switches in a

control cabinet. There are means of locking and unlocking doors individually or groups in the

event of an electrical power failure.




Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in

Congress assembled:

Section 1. Short Title. This Act shall be known as "The Bureau of Corrections Act

of 2013.

Section 2. Declaration of Policy. It is the policy of the State to promote the general welfare
and safeguard the basic rights of every prisoner incarcerated in our national penitentiary. It also
recognizes the responsibility of the State to strengthen government capability aimed towards
the institutionalization of highly efficient and competent correctional services.

Towards this end, the State shall provide for the modernization, professionalization and
restructuring of the Bureau of Corrections (BuCor) by upgrading its facilities, increasing the
number of its personnel, upgrading the level of qualifications of their personnel and
standardizing their base pay, retirement and other benefits, making it at par with that of the
Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP).

Section 3. Definition of Terms. (a) Safekeeping, which is the custodial component of the
BuCors present corrections system, shall refer to the act that ensures the public (including
families of inmates and their victims) that national inmates are provided with their basic needs,
completely incapacitated from further committing criminal acts, and have been totally cut off
from their criminal networks (or contacts in the free society) while serving sentence inside the
premises of the national penitentiary. This act also includes protection against illegal organized
armed groups which have the capacity of launching an attack on any prison camp of the
national penitentiary to rescue their convicted comrade or to forcibly amass firearms issued to
prison guards.

(b) Reformation, which is the rehabilitation component of the BuCors present corrections
system, shall refer to the acts which ensure the public (including families of inmates and their
victims) that released national inmates are no longer harmful to the community by becoming
reformed individuals prepared to live a normal and productive life upon reintegration to the
mainstream society.
Section 4. The Mandates of the Bureau of Corrections. The BuCor shall be in charge of
safekeeping and instituting reformation programs to national inmates sentenced to more than
three (3) years.

(a) Safekeeping of National Inmates The safekeeping of inmates shall include decent provision
of quarters, food, water and clothing in compliance with established United Nations standards.
The security of the inmates shall be undertaken by the Custodial Force consisting of Corrections
Officers with a ranking system and salary grades similar to its counterpart in the BJMP.

(b) Reformation of National Inmates The reformation programs, which will be instituted by
the BuCor for the inmates, shall be the following:

(1) Moral and Spiritual Program;

(2) Education and Training Program;

(3) Work and Livelihood Program;

(4) Sports and Recreation Program;

(5) Health and Welfare Program; and

(6) Behavior Modification Program, to include Therapeutic Community.

Section 5. Operations of the Bureau of Corrections. (a) The BuCor shall operate with a
directorial structure. It shall undertake reception of inmates through its Directorate for
Reception and Diagnostics (DRD), formerly Reception and Diagnostic Center (RDC), provide
basic needs and security through its Security and Operations Directorates, administer
reformation programs through its Reformation Directorates, and prepare inmates for
reintegration to mainstream society through its Directorate for External Relations (DER),
formerly External Relations Division (ERD).

Section 7. Facilities of the Bureau of Corrections. The BuCor shall operate with standard and
uniform design of prison facilities, reformation facilities and administrative facilities, through all
the operating prison and penal farms, such as the following:

(a) Dormitory;

(b) Administration building;

(c) Perimeter/Security fences;

(d) Hospital/Infirmary;

(e) Recreation/Multipurpose hall;

(f) Training/Lecture center;

(g) Workshop facility;

(h) Mess hall/kitchen;

(i) Visiting area;

(j) Water tank and pump;

(k) Reception and diagnostic center; and

(l) Service personnel facilities.

Section 8. Supervision of the Bureau of Corrections. The Department of Justice (DOJ), having
the BuCor as a line bureau and a constituent unit, shall maintain a relationship of administrative
supervision with the latter as defined under Section 38(2), Chapter 7, Book IV of Executive
Order No. 292 (Administrative Code of 1987), except that the DOJ shall retain authority over
the power to review, reverse, revise or modify the decisions of the BuCor in the exercise of its
regulatory or quasi-judicial functions

Section 9. Organization and Key Positions of the Bureau of Corrections. (a) The BuCor shall be
headed by a Director who shall be assisted by three (3) Deputy Directors: one (1) for
administration, one (1) for security and operations and one (1) for reformation, all of whom
shall be appointed by the President upon the recommendation of the Secretary of the DOJ:
Provided, That the Director and the Deputy Directors of the BuCor shall serve a tour of duty not
to exceed six (6) years from the date of appointment: Provided, further, That in times of war or
other national emergency declared by Congress, the President may extend such tour of duty.

Section 10. Increase of Personnel. The BuCor shall maintain the custodial personnel-to-inmate
ratio of 1:7 and reformation personnel-to-inmate ratio of 1:24. Hence, it is authorized to
increase its manpower to meet such ratio and may continue to increase personnel per
percentage rate increase of committed inmates annually or as the need arises.
Federal courts have made it clear that those who fund and operate jails have a duty to
protect inmates from violence and to provide for their safe and secure detention. In essence,
key court decisions indicate that staff must:

protect inmates, from themselves and from other inmates;

regularly visit inmate-occupied areas and maintain communication with inmates (the
timing of these visits may vary with the type of inmate in specific housing areas and
agency policy);
respond to inmate calls for assistance;
classify and separate inmates for their own protection;
ensure the safety of inmates;
maintain security systems and implement procedures;
process and supervise female inmates;
monitor electronic surveillance;
ensure that all required inmate activities, services, and programs are delivered (medical,
exercise, visits, etc.); and initiate contingency plans in emergency situations.

Court decisions and contemporary standards have also defined important parameters for jail
operations that affect staffing through establishing:

minimum levels of service, such as requirements for visitation, exercise, etc.;

performance objectives;
prohibited practices; and
specific required operational actions, including such functions as inmate counts,
security rounds, cell searches, etc

Perhaps most important of all, courts have repeatedly ruled that a lack of resources is
insufficient reason for failure to meet constitutional minima. Judging from past rulings, then,
arguments that proper staffing cannot be provided at the small and medium-sized jail because
of expense will receive little support from the courts.

Staff costs in a properly operated jail are high because jails are so unlike other county
operations. For example, although a county's administrative offices might only be open from
8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, jails never close. They require 24-hour-a-day, 7-
day-a-week cover- age and, in many states, "same sex" staffing (that is, female staff for female
inmates and male staff for male inmates).
A 24-how post, such as Central Control, requires approximately 5 persons to operate 365
days a year. Ordinarily, three 8-hour shifts are staffed at jails and prisons. Staff on each shift are
typically available to work approximately 219 days a year; the remaining 146 days are "relief'
days for regular days off, vacation, sick leave, training, etc. Following is a graphic representation
of how one 24-hour post requires 5 persons for adequate coverage. The example "relief factor"
of 1.67 is calculated by dividing the number of days the post must be covered (365) by the
number of days an




individual staff person is available to operate the post (219). Example: 365 days per year i 219
days available = 1.67 relief factor. Each jurisdiction must calculate its own relief factor when
determining its particular staffing needs.


"Escape" and "contraband are deeply troubling words to sheriffs and jail administrators. They
represent the manifestation of basic security defects within the jail physical plant or problems
with its operation. New jail design approaches, hardware technology, and improved training for
jail staff over the recent past have reduced but not eliminated problems of escape, contraband
passage, and related breaches in jail security.

Many breaches in jail security result from human error in recruitment, selection, and
supervision of jail staff or a lack of adequate training and written policies and procedures. Some
escapes early in a new jail's life occur because staff were inadequately trained in the new
building's control equipment, which is frequently more complex than that found in the old jail.
However, even the most elite correctional staff cannot be expected to make an inadequately
designed and equipped jail consistently secure through staff effort alone. They must rely, to
some extent, on the integrity of the materials, hardware, and design to complement effective
security procedures.

The failure to define and establish, through planning and design, a clearly identifiable and
reliable security perimeter (envelope) is a primary contributor to problems in small and
medium-sized jails. Architecture, operational procedures, and technology are elements of jail
security. Equipment, materials, and design decisions are influenced by the nature of the inmate
population and are oriented toward basic security objectives. This section describes an overall
approach to security and recommends measures to enhance jail security.

Security systems engineers and analysts have identified four major ingredients involved in
providing building security: denial, detection, assessment, and response.

Denial. In practical terms, denial for a jail means restricting inmates' access to
unauthorized internal areas or the outside, separating different groups of
inmates, controlling inmate movement, and eliminating the presence and
passage of contraband in the jail.

Detection. If the denial element fails or is compromised (e.g., a lock malfunctions

or security glass is penetrated), then detection is necessary. Historically,
detection in jails often came about through regular inmate counts or random cell
checks and searches that revealed an escape or contraband. Detection might
also mean that an officer observes an inmate scaling a fence or bolting through a
door to an unsecured area. In modem jails, detection can involve sophisticated
technology such as perimeter sensing devices to detect attempts at escape or

Assessment. Assessment is simply an evaluation of the problem that has been

detected. It is largely a matter of determining the nature and degree of a
situation (e.g., escape attempt, window tampering, unauthorized movement in a
secure zone). Assessment may or may not be made with the assistance of
sophisticated technology.

Response. After detection and assessment, the response is the action taken by
staff to counteract the problem. This may include triggering alarms, lighting
selected areas, closing gates, and initiating evacuation procedures, as well as
sending staff to the affected area.

The basic function of Master Control is the monitoring and control of all communications,
life safety and security systems, and aU general building movement patterns, including entries
and exits through the main security envelope of the jail. In small jails, Master Control (also
referred to as "Central" Control) may serve as the only secure, fixed staff post within the
facility and is truly the "nerve center" of the operation. Master Control may also function as a
point from which some inmate housing units (cellblocks) or other inmate or public areas are
monitored. It might also be combined with the law enforcement dispatch function and handle
public reception during some or all shifts. Small jails have traditionally had some sort of control
center even if it only consisted of an unprotected control panel in a relatively insecure room.
Often the only reason the control post was staffed 24 hours a day was because it also doubled
as the dispatch center for the law enforcement agency affiliated with the jail.
The minimum acceptable staffing in any jail is two people. This permits one staff person to
handle Master Control post duties while the other serves as a rover or floor officer. Staff often
take turns in Master Control. The concept of having at least two staff on duty is essential when
a Master Control area is maintained since the person at that post cannot leave, thus
necessitating the presence of an additional person. However, two staff should be viewed as
the minimum necessary on each shift to staff Master Control and canny out basic minimal
supervision of a small jail population only if other issues such as adequate back-up in
emergencies and gender-related requirements are adequately addressed. Medium-sized
facilities in the range of 50 or more beds clearly need more than two staff.
Once the pre-design planning is complete, it is time for the architect and the client to
undertake the design process. This process starts with preliminary "schematic" designs of a
very basic nature. These initial designs explore a series of major considerations that will
fundamentally influence the direction of the design, well before individual spaces are drawn.
Each of these major considerations involves fundamental operational and security decisions
that should have been made during the pre-design planning process. They are, in essence, the
"big ideas" that make the design "work" in the way intended by local officials, operators, and
The purpose of this chapter is to identify and elaborate on major considerations relevant to
the small and medium-sized jail. Specific information about various jail components and
spaces -- the detail that completes a design -- is given in Chapter 4.
The considerations addressed in this chapter are:
Site selection and design, Jail image and appearance, Classification and separation,
Surveillance and supervision, Staffing impact, Security perimeter (envelope), Criminal justice
interface, Functional components and relationships, Planning and designing to standards, and
Although it is not the purpose of the Jail Design Guide to instruct on the pre-design planning
process, considerable planning and operational content is included in each discussion.

The number of beds needed, by year and by category, based on decisions made
on the use of alternatives to incarceration.
The types of housing (single cells, two-person cells, or dormitories) appropriate
for each category of inmate.
Approximately how much space is needed (using rules of thumb at this point).
The extent to which the existing facility, if there is one, is capable of meeting
the needs.
Whether the existing facility should be expanded or renovated, used as a
supplementary facility, or closed.
Where the existing facility should be expanded or a new facility built.
The initial estimates of the costs of renovation and construction, plus other
initial costs (site acquisition, site development, utilities, fees, furnishings).

The early phases focused on operational and design requirements that are best described in
words. Until this point, the design review team will have seen many written documents and few
drawings. The usual exceptions are the bubble diagrams developed during architectural
programming to depict relationships among spaces and, perhaps, site diagrams intended to
help define site requirements and facilitate site selection.

Conceptual design is the first phase in which drawings are the dominant tool and product.
Sometimes conceptual design is considered not a separate phase but part of the schematic
design phase.

Sometimes the same consultant team that produces the planning documents will produce
conceptual designs as well. Keep this in mind, however:

If your architects have not been actively involved in previous tasks, they should thoroughly
review the planning and programming documents and be briefed by the major participants in
the previous tasks. It is vital for the designers to understand your inmate populations, mission
and objectives, philosophies, operational requirements, and architectural requirements for
them to produce a conceptual design that best suits your jurisdiction.

To get the optimal design for your jurisdiction, it is far preferable for your consultants to
produce several different concepts, each of which should be based on all previous phases (e.g.,
architectural programming). Each design should be carefully reviewed and compared with other
designs and with the documents produced during the previous phases. Positive and negative
aspects of each concept option should be noted. Initial cost estimates for each option should be
produced and compared.

Conceptual designs are the initial graphic ideas for the building and typically consist of freehand
or hard-lined drawings that include the following:

Floor planslayout of components in relation to each other (e.g., intake and

health services) and layout of spaces within each component (e.g., booking
counter, holding cells).

Building sections (especially significant in multistory buildings)slices through

the building in key areas to show the stacking of various components and spaces.

Elevationstwo-dimensional images of what the building may look like from

various views.
Site planslayouts of the buildings and areas for staff and public parking;
recreation; service and deliveries; and access for inmates, staff, and visitors.

Conceptual designs may also contain

Activity flow diagrams, if these were not done during architectural

programming, (e.g., intake process).

Estimates of construction costs compared with the budget.

Key items for your jurisdictions input and review during this stage include

Is the design consistent with your jurisdictions mission, philosophy, and


Does the design fully meet operational requirements (as detailed in the
functional/operational program)? Is the design completely consistent with the
architectural program? Have any spaces been left out or added inadvertently? Is
the design capacity correct? Does the flow work well? How is the security

What are the relationships among components (e.g., the relation of food
services to staff dining, warehouse, and housing units) and within components
(e.g., food preparation, storage, and cleaning areas? This is needed only if
adjacency relationships have not been fully resolved during architectural

What are the site constraints (such as buildable areas for this project, areas
that need to be reserved for other functions, setbacks, wetlands, utilities that
should not be moved)? This cannot be known until a site is selected.

How much land should be reserved for expansion of the facility?

Are two-level (including mezzanine) or three-level housing units acceptable?

How many recreation areas are needed and what sizes should they be (if not
identified in the architectural program)?

How many parking spaces are needed? Must staff parking be separate from
visitor parking? Is secure parking needed, and if so, for whom (if not identified in
the architectural program)?
What size trucks will deliver and pick up food, garbage, and other items? How
many trucks should the loading dock and staging area accommodate?

Is a vehicular sally port or secure vehicular yard needed? If so, for how many
vehicles of what sizes (if not identified in the architectural program)?

Are there adjoining buildings into which inmates in cells and other areas should
not be able to see?

Are there any building materials that your jurisdiction wants to use or avoid?

What would it cost to build each option?

How many staff would each option require?


After the conceptual design options are evaluated and your architect has received considerable
input from your jurisdiction, the schematic design phase begins. The architect attempts to take
the positives from the favored concept or concepts and minimize the negatives. Although there
usually are two to four conceptual designs, only one schematic design will be produced.

The schematic design will consist of the same types of drawings as the conceptual designs, but
in this phase, the drawings will be to scale and more detailed. Schematic drawings will include
floor plans, building sections, elevations, and site plans.

Additionally, schematic designs almost always include

Code review.

Estimate of construction and other initial costs (based on the schematic documents).

Staffing estimate based on operational requirements and the floor plan.

Refined project budgets for initial costs and annual operational costs.

Schematics may also include

Outline specifications (also referred to as preliminary engineering and architectural concepts),

which indicate the types of engineering systems, glazing (glass), doors, locks, and so forth.
Outline specifications are often produced during the next phase, design development.
Three-dimensional perspectives.

Models of the entire building or portions of the building, such as housing units. (Perspectives
and models are generally considered to be nonstandard architectural services. If your
jurisdiction requests these items, your architect may charge extra fees for them.)

Key items for your jurisdictions input and review during this stage include any of the issues
listed under conceptual design that have not been resolved. Additional questions that should
be raised and resolved include

Which types of plumbing fixtures will be used in each area (commercial vitreous china,
institutional vitreous, or stainless steel; combination or separate sinks and toilets)? This
question and some of the others that follow may not come up until the next phase, design

Which types of glazing, locks, and doors will be used in each area? Like plumbing fixtures,
these usually vary from place to place within a detention and correctional facility and are based
on the number and types of users.

Which types of heating and ventilation systems will be used? Which areas will be air-

Which wall and floor finishes will be used in each area (e.g., vinyl tile, industrial carpet, or
exposed concrete floors in dayrooms)?

What types of lighting fixtures will be installed (again, with variations based on occupancy and
security issues)?

What types of electronic security, control, and communication systems will be used?

Which items will need to be activated by emergency generators in the event of power

What type of cell construction will be used: remanufactured concrete or steel, precast
concrete, cast-in-place concrete, concrete block, or (only in low-security or staff-secure
facilities) drywall?

What other interior and exterior building materials will be used?

How will the building be expanded? How will more housing be added? How will intake, staff
support, health services, food services, laundry, lobby and visiting, warehouse, and other areas
be able to accommodate the expanded population? Which areas are oversized now, and which
ones are designed for expansion?

Are the staffing plan and schematic design fully compatible? If not, have adjustments to either
or both been made?

Do estimates indicate that the project is within the construction budget? If the project is over
budget and if additional funding is not feasible, see Value Analysis.

View conflicts can result, especially in downtown

areas, from the use of windows to provide required

or desired natural light in inmate-occupied

areas. This is most acutely the case with cell

windows at ground level, although view conflicts

from program areas (e.g., multipurpose rooms)

can also occur. Some solutions to the problem


Creating a heavily landscaped visual buffer (recognizing that trees and shrubs take time to


Creating window sill heights well above floor levels (exhibit 3-4).

Using tinted or reflective glass in windows in conjunction with night lighting on the exterior

of the building, to limit exterior-to-interior visibility while preserving inmate views and
discouraging outside approaches to the building.

Using translucent glazing in windows to provide natural light only (if allowed by local
standards and codes).

Using inaccessible skylights or clerestory windows to provide natural light and, possibly, a
view of the sky. Clerestory lighting, in particular, has to be studied because views may
unintentionally be created between the inmate areas and the upper portions of an adjacent
midrise building.

Placing windows where they look out onto controlled exterior spaces, such as courtyards or
walled-in areas (exhibit 3-5).
Another concern is view conflicts between different inmate-occupied areas where total visual
separation is required (see chapter 5, Classification/ Separation). Care must be taken, for
example, not to create view conflicts between male and female cell areas through exterior or
interior windows.



Physical contact with windows in inmate-occupied

areas, especially housing areas at ground level, is

a major concern in terms of escape and


passage. Responses include:

Building secondary perimeters (fences, walls).

Keeping sill heights as far above grade as possible.

Planting tough, thorny bushes around the perimeter to discourage spontaneous, random
contact (although such plantings can provide a hiding place as well).

Using security glass in a secure window design (framing, anchoring, glazing, opening size),

possibly also including alarm systems built into the window.

Eliminating exterior windows (where allowed and acceptable) and introducing natural light
indirectly through better protected sources within the perimeter.

Using perimeter security systems (e.g., closed systems, pressure sensitive systems), although
careful consideration must be given to costs for the systems, staffing requirements to monitor
such systems, and the aesthetic impact on site surroundings circuit television (CCTV), lighting,



Issue: The number of separate exercise

areas needed depends on scheduling,
staffing, and the number of different
exercise groups.

Response: While larger jails have multiple

exercise areas, smaller jails may need only
one indoor and one outdoor exercise area or
one combination area. However, the
number of exercise areas that will be
needed in a given facility cannot be known
with certainty until a variety of factors are
considered. Additionally, space-sharing
options with other functions cannot be
ascertained until all factors about exercise
area use are considered.

Scheduling is a major determinant regarding the number of areas:

Frequency: how often inmates will exercise outside the housing areaonce a week? 3 days
Exhibit 19-1. Sample Exercise Space Needs Activity Minimum Dimensions (square feet)
Maximum Number of Users Basketball (half-court; high school) 48 x 56 (15 feet high) 10
Volleyball 72 x 42 (20 feet high) 12 Weightlifting (weight machine) 12 x 16 (8 feet high) 46
Sitting 15/person Not applicable a week? 5 days a week? Every day? This is often dependent on
the organizations philosophy regarding inmate management and standards requirements
regarding exercise.

Duration: the length of time per exercise period, including movement time between housing
and exercise areas, if the exercise area is not attached to the housing unit30 minutes? 1
hour? 2 hours?

Hours of operation: the number of hours per day the exercise area is available for use. This is
frequently limited by other basic activities, such as food service and visiting, that absorb staff
and inmate time during the day.
Weather conditions: the number of days per year that weather would typically prohibit use of
an outdoor exercise area might influence the size and type of space for the indoor area. Staffing
is a major consideration, particularly when staff must be retained to supervise the exercise
activity. The need or desire to minimize staffing can limit the hours available for exercise.






An issue that frequently sparks debate within a community is whether to design inmate cells
(sleeping rooms) with one bed (single occupancy) or with two or more beds (multiple
occupancy). Local decisions in this regard have a considerable impact on the design of a jail, on
project costs, and on the security and management of the jail.


Multiple-occupancy sleeping rooms generally come in two types: cell style and dormitory
style. The cell style multiple-occupancy room has historically included beds, a toilet, a sink, and
perhaps a desk, stool, and shelf. It does not include such things as a shower or dining table,
which are normally provided in adjacent or nearby dayroom spaces. Cell type multiple-
occupancy spaces usually hold two to four inmates.

The dormitory style multiple-occupancy inmate space tends to be more self- contained.
Everything needed to serve minimal inmate personal needs is within the single space: beds,
toilet, sink, shower, dining table, and bench. Consequently, dayrooms are not typically
associated with dormitory style cells. As many as 8 beds are frequently found in multiple-
occupancy dormitories of smaller jails, and as many as 50 beds in those of large jails.

A single-occupancy cell normally has a bed, desk, stool, toilet, sink, and shelf at a minimum
and shares an adjacent dayroom with other single- occupancy cells.


Two frequently cited operational concerns about the use of single occupancy are suicide and
isolation. The isolation issue is easily resolved, however, with the provision of an adjacent
dayroom serving a number of single-occupancy cells. such a dayroom provides ample
opportunity for contact between inmates. Dayrooms are required by the ACA standards and
many state jail standards.
Section 34. HANDLING INMATES WITH SPECIAL NEEDS - The following guidelines shall be
observed in handling inmates with special needs:

1. Female

a. The female dorm should be completely separated from the male dorm;

b. A female personnel shall be designated to keep the keys of the female


c. Only work suitable to their age and physical condition should be assigned to female inmates;

d. No male inmate shall be allowed to enter the female dorm;

e. Male personnel must provide female inmate with utmost privacy and respect for personal

f. No male jail personnel should be allowed to enter the female dorm except in emergency
cases or when necessary;

g. Searches shall be performed by a female personnel trained in the conduct of appropriate

searching methods, shall be made in accordance with established rules, and shall be provided
with privacy during the procedure;

h. Medical/physical examination shall be performed by female health personnel. In the absence

of a female health staff, the examination shall be performed by a male health personnel in the
presence of a female staff; and

i. Female inmates shall be provided with the opportunity to avail themselves of all programs
and activities male inmates are provided with.

2. Drug Users/Dependents/Alcoholics

a. Inmates found to be drug users/dependents/alcoholics should be segregated from other

inmates, especially during the withdrawal period;
b. Inmates undergoing drug/alcohol withdrawal must be referred to the jail psychiatrist,
physician or nurse for evaluation and management;

c. Appropriate measures should be taken to enable inmates to follow strictly the jail physicians
advice regarding diet and other medical interventions/treatments during the withdrawal

d. Maintain close supervision over inmates to prevent attempts to commit suicide or self-
mutilation by designating a jail personnel trained to manage such cases; and

e. Conducts a regular search of the inmates dorm and maintain constant alertness to prevent
the smuggling of narcotics, liquors and other dangerous drugs.

3. Mentally-ill

a. Inmates manifesting signs and symptoms of mental illness must be referred to the jail
psychiatrist for evaluation and treatment;

b. Disturbed inmates (mentally-ill inmates) should be transferred to mental institutions for

proper psychiatric treatment upon the issuance of a court order;

c. Close supervision and medical management of mentally-ill inmates should be maintained by

a jail medical personnel;

d. Place the mentally-ill inmates in separate dorms or in a special restraint room provided for
violent cases; and

e. Maintain close supervision over inmates to guard against suicidal attempts or violent attacks
on others.

4. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT)

a. Segregate LGBTs to prevent their maltreatment and abuse by other inmates and to prevent
them from maltreating and abusing other inmates.
5. Sex Offenders

a. Inmates charged with sexually-related crimes should be segregated to prevent them from
taking advantage of other inmates; and

b. Maintain close supervision and control.

6. Suicidal Inmates

a. Inmates manifesting signs and symptoms of depression/suicidal tendency must be referred

to the jail psychiatrist for evaluation and management;

b. Inmate who attempts to commit or has attempted to commit suicide must be transferred to
a government psychiatric hospital immediately upon issuance of court order;

c. Maintain close supervision over suicidal inmates at all times and designate personnel trained
to handle such cases; and

d. Subject them to frequent strip/frisk searches, and greyhound operation for tools/materials
that can be used for suicide.

7. Sex Deviates

a. Homosexuals should be segregated immediately to prevent them from influencing other

inmates or being maltreated or abused by other inmates; and

b. Likewise, other sex deviates should be separated from other inmates for closer supervision
and control.

8. Escape-Prone Inmates

a. Escape-prone inmates should be held in the most secure quarters, preferably in single-
inmate cells, to minimize their contact with one another;

b. Their conduct/behavior should be closely watched/observed during and after visiting hours
and their activities, closely monitored;
c. They should be frequently strip searched and their quarters frequently inspected;

d. Special attention should be given to the examination of items recovered from strip searches;

e. Telephone calls must be restricted and only calls that can be monitored through an extension
line shall be allowed.

9. Inmates with Disability

a. Inmates with disability should be segregated and closely supervised to protect them from
maltreatment and any form of abuse by other inmates, personnel and visitors;

b. Individual case management and special activities should be developed and conducted to
address distinct of the inmates;

c. Collaboration with other government agencies should be done to ensure that disabled
inmates are provided with the services and benefits contemplated under the Magna Carta for
disabled persons; and

d. Tasks related to self-care of inmates with disability shall be supervised and assisted to avoid
potential self-harm or accidents.

10. Children in Conflict with the Law (CICL)

Pursuant to the RA 9344, CICL shall not be confined in jails. Hence, serious efforts shall be
exerted by Wardens to immediately transfer the custody of any CICL to a Youth Detention
Home or Youth Rehabilitation Center.

a. Upon admission, CICL shall be subjected to a thorough physical examination. The results of
such examination shall form part of the records of the case of the CICL;

b. Provide a separate detention cell for CICL;

c. Continuously coordinate with the Public Attorneys Office (PAO) for the provision of paralegal
assistance to expedite CICL cases;
d. Continuous coordination and follow-up of CICL cases should be made facilitate the provision
of appropriate intervention programs by the DSWD;

e. The Law on Proportionality" in the implementation of rehabilitation programs should be

observed making said rehabilitation programs distinct and different from those given to adult

f. Unless absolutely necessary, a child in conflict with law should not be handcuffed nor other
instruments of restraint applied on him/her, when he or she attends hearings or when he or
she is brought to the hospital or is transferred to other institutions;

g. The use of vulgar or profane words should be avoided in dealing CICL;

h. CICL should not be required to wear prison uniforms; and

i. Upon release from confinement, the records of the CICL shall be sealed, and at an appropriate
time, expunged.

11. Senior Citizen Inmates

a. Senior citizen inmates should be segregated and close supervised to protect them from
maltreatment and other forms of abuse by other inmates;

b. Individual case management strategies should be developed and adopted to respond to the
special needs of elderly inmates;

c. Collaboration with other government agencies and community-based senior citizen

organizations should be done to ensure that the services due the senior citizen inmates are
provided; and

d. Senior citizen inmates should be made to do tasks deemed fit and appropriate, their age,
capability, and physical condition considered.

12. Infirm Inmates

a. Inmates with contagious diseases must be segregated to prevent the spread of said
contagious diseases;
b. Infirm inmates should be referred to the jail physician or nurse for evaluation and
management; and

c. Infirm inmates must be closely monitored and provide with appropriate medication and
utmost care.

13. Pregnant Inmates/Female Inmates with Infants

a. Pregnant inmates must be referred to jail physician or nurse for pre-natal examination;

b. They should be given tasks that are deemed fit and proper, their physical limitations,

c. During active labor, pregnant inmates should be transferred nearest government hospital;

d. Treatment of mother and her infant/s shall be in accordance with the BJMP Policy (Refer to
DIWD Manual); and

e. Female inmates with infants shall be provided with ample privacy during breastfeeding

14. Inmates of Other Nationalities

a. The Warden shall report in writing to the Bureau of Immigration and the respective
embassies of the detained foreigners the following:

1) Name of Jail;

2) Name of Foreigner;

3) Nationality and the number of his/her Alien Certificate of Registration, if any;

4) Age/Sex;

5) Offense Charged;

6) Case Number;
7) Court/Branch;

8) Status of Case; and

9) Additional data information.