Anda di halaman 1dari 200

STATENS GEOTEKNISKA INSTITUT

SWEDISH GEOTECHNICAL INSTITUTE

Strength of Stabilised Soils


A laboratory study on clays and
organic soils stabilised with different
types of binder

HELEN HNBERG
Report 72

LINKPING 2006
Report Swedish Geotechnical Institute
SE-581 93 Linkping

Order Information service, SGI


Tel: +46 13 20 18 04
Fax:+4613 20 19 09
E-mail: info@swedgeo.se
Internet: www.swedgeo.se

ISSN 0348-0755
ISRN SGI-R--06/72--SE
Department of Construction Sciences
Structural Mechanics
ISRN LUTVDG/TVSM--06/1020--SE (1-194)
ISBN 978-91-628-6790-4 ISSN 0281-6679

STRENGTH OF STABILISED SOILS


A Laboratory Study on Clays
and Organic Soils Stabilised
with Different Types of Binder

Doctoral Thesis by
HELEN HNBERG

Copyright Helen hnberg, 2006.


Printed by KFS i Lund AB, Lund, Sweden, April 2006.

For information, address:


Department of Construction Sciences, LTH, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
Preface

The work presented in this thesis deals with the strength properties of soft soils
stabilised with different binders. The study was initiated by the Swedish Deep
Stabilization Research Centre (SD). The work has been carried out partly within the
SD research programme and partly within other research projects at the Swedish
Geotechnical Institute (SGI). My supervisor was Professor Jan Hartln. I would like to
express my gratitude for his enthusiastic attitude and advice throughout my studies. Im
also grateful to my co-supervisor, Per-Evert Bengtsson, SGI, for early on appreciating
my intentions in the studies and for supporting me in carrying them out.

Financial support was provided by the SGI and the SD. Financial contributions have
also been provided by Cementa AB and Nordkalk AB. These sources of funding, as well
as permission of the participants within the EuroSoilStab project under the Brite
EuRam contract BRPR-CT97-0351, to present data from that project, are gratefully
acknowledged.

A number of people have supported me in various ways during the course of these
studies, and I would like to express my special thanks to them.
Ola Antehag, SGI, for keeping excellent track of, and performing tests on, numerous
samples of stabilised soils in the laboratory. I would also like to thank Inga-Maj
Kaller, SGI, Lovisa Moritz, the Swedish Road Administration (formerly SGI),
Christina Berglund, SGI, and Gunnar Westberg, SGI for carrying out parts of the
tests.
Rolf Larsson, SGI, Miriam Smith, SGI, Bo Berggren, SGI, Torbjrn Edstam, SGI,
Leif Eriksson, SGI, Martin Holmn, SGI, Bo Westerberg, SGI and Sven-Erik
Johansson, Cementa AB, for critically reviewing parts of or the whole of the
manuscript.
My superiors at SGI for their support and encouragement throughout this work.
My colleagues at SGI and LTH for friendly assistance and valuable discussions.

Finally, but not least, I would like to thank all the members of my family for their
endless support and encouragement, also in my studies.

Lund, March 2006

Helen hnberg
Abstract

Stabilisation of soft soils by deep mixing with binders is the most frequently
used method of ground improvement in Sweden today, and is increasingly
being used internationally. The most common binders employed are cement
and lime, but a variety of other binders may also be used for stabilisation of
soils. For further development of the deep mixing method, there is a need for
more extensive research on the undrained and drained strength properties and
behaviour of soils stabilised with various types of binders. The overall
objective of the study presented in this thesis was to improve the
understanding of some of the important aspects of the strength behaviour of
stabilised soils. For this purpose, a series of laboratory tests was performed on
four soils stabilised with different types of binders. The soils included two
types of clay and two types of organic soil. Cement, lime, blastfurnace slag and
fly ash in different combinations, alone and together with a number of
admixtures, were used as binders.

The laboratory testing was focused on the strength properties. However, a


number of other basic properties of importance for the understanding of the
strength behaviour of stabilised soils were also investigated, such as the
density, water content, degree of saturation, permeability and the compression
properties. Unconfined compression tests and triaxial tests were used to
investigate the strength of the various samples stabilised in the laboratory. The
unconfined compressive tests were performed mainly in order to study the
effects of different binders on the increase in strength with time after
stabilisation. The triaxial tests, conducted both as drained and undrained tests,
were performed mainly to study the strength behaviour under various drainage
and stress conditions. The influence of different testing procedures, such as
different back pressure and rate of strain, was also studied. Both active and
passive undrained triaxial tests were performed in order to investigate the
strength anisotropy of the stabilised soils.

The results provided illustrative examples of the effects of different binders on


the increase in strength of stabilised soils, which may be linked to the chemical

Strength of stabilised soft soil v


Abstract

reactions taking place after mixing. In addition to the composition of the soil
and the binder, a number of other factors also affect the strength of stabilised
soil. The results show that the drainage conditions and the stresses acting on
stabilised soil may have a considerable influence on the measured strength. A
stress dependence of the undrained strength as well as the drained strength is
evident from the test results. A quasi-preconsolidation pressure, which is
governed not only by the stresses applied to the stabilised soil, but also by the
cementation taking place during curing, is shown to influence the strength
behaviour. An improved strength model is proposed that describes the
strength behaviour in the same stress plane commonly used for natural
unstabilised soils.

It was concluded that although the type of binder may strongly affect the rate
of strength increase and the final strength, the general strength behaviour is
the same for soils stabilised by the most common binders. The strength and
deformation properties of stabilised soils are similar to those of cemented and
overconsolidated natural soils. The same set of parameters used to describe the
strength of natural soils can also be used for stabilised soils.

vi Strength of stabilised soft soil


Sammanfattning

Djupstabilisering av jord genom inblandning av bindemedel r den metod fr


jordfrstrkning som oftast anvnds vid byggande p och i lsa jordar i Sverige
idag, framfrallt i samband med vg- och jrnvgsbyggande men ven fr
frstrkning av t.ex. slnter och schakter och fr grundlggning av ledningar
och byggnader. Metoden, som utvecklades parallellt i Sverige och Japan under
70-talet, har under senare r kommit att tillmpas i kad omfattning i ett allt
strre antal lnder. De bindemedel som anvnds fr stabilisering r vanligtvis
kalk och cement, var fr sig eller blandade i olika proportioner, men ven
andra typer av bindemedel kan anvndas fr stabilisering av jord. Fr
vidareutveckling av metoden har det under senare r funnits ett behov av att
ka kunskapen om hllfastheten hos stabiliserad jord vid anvndning av fler
typer av bindemedel n de som idag vanligen anvnds. Den utfrda studien
har syftat till att ka kunskapen om stabiliserad jords egenskaper, med
inriktning p hur olika typer av bindemedel inverkar p hllfasthetstillvxten
efter inblandning och hur stabiliserade jord upptrder ur hllfasthetssynpunkt
vid olika spnnings- och drneringsfrhllanden. Serier av laboratoriefrsk
har utfrts p fyra jordar som stabiliserats med olika typer av bindemedel. De
studerade jordarna r tv oorganiska leror och tv organiska jordar, varav en
gyttja och en torv. De bindemedel som anvndes vid laboratoriefrsken var
frmst olika kombinationer av cement, kalk, masugnsslagg och flygaska. Fr
vissa kombinationer av bindemedel anvndes ocks tillsatsmedel i form av
aluminatcement, gips, silikastoft, kalciumklorid, rkgasstoft frn kalktillverk-
ning samt vattenglas.

Laboratorieunderskningarna har huvudsakligen fokuserat p underskning av


hllfasthetsegenskaper. Fr att ka frstelsen fr stabiliserad jords beteende
efter inblandning har ocks studerats ett antal andra egenskaper som har
inverkan p hllfastheten. Dessa r densitet, vattenkvot, vattenmttnadsgrad,
permeabilitet och kompressionsegenskaper. Underskning av de stabiliserade
jordarnas hllfasthet utfrdes genom enaxliga tryckfrsk och genom olika
typer av triaxialfrsk. De enaxliga tryckfrsken utnyttjades frmst fr att
mta hllfasthetstillvxten med tiden efter inblandning av olika typer av

Strength of stabilised soft soil vii


Sammanfattning

stabiliseringsmedel. Triaxialfrsken ger mjlighet till mer avancerad styrning


av plagda spnningar och mtning av respons hos provet under frsken.
Dessa frsk utnyttjades i frsta hand fr att studera hllfasthetsegenskaper
och beteende hos de stabiliserade jordarna vid olika spnnings- och
drneringsfrhllanden. Inverkan av metodik fr triaxialfrsk studerades
inledningsvis genom anvndning av olika mottryck, dvs. applicerat portryck,
fr att vattenmtta proverna i olika grad, och olika deformationshastighet
under frsken. Bde aktiva och passiva triaxialfrsk utfrdes fr att studera i
vilken utstrckning hllfasthetsegenskaperna hos stabiliserad jord r
anisotropa.

Resultaten av frsken visar hur olika typer av bindemedel inverkar p


hllfasthetstillvxten hos stabiliserad jord. Resultaten visar ven p hur
vattenkvot, vattenmttnadsgrad, densitet och permeabilitet hos jord frndras
efter inblandning av stabiliseringsmedel. kningen i hllfasthet med tiden kan
kopplas till mngd och typ av reaktionsprodukter som bildas efter inblandning
av bindemedel i jorden. Hllfastheten hos stabiliserad jord pverkas dock inte
bara av typ av jord och bindemedel utan ocks av ett antal andra faktorer.
Resultaten av studien visar att bl. a. rdande spnnings- och
drneringsfrhllanden fre och under belastning har inverkan p uppmtt
hllfasthet. Ett spnningsberoende kan pvisas fr hllfastheten hos
stabiliserad jord, under svl odrnerade som drnerade frhllanden. Vidare
visar resultaten p inverkan p hllfasthetsegenskaperna av ett kvasi-
frkonsolideringstryck, vilket r en funktion av bde tidigare rdande
effektivspnningar och den cementering som sker i den stabiliserade jorden.
Detta kvasi-frkonsolideringstryck kan vara olika stort i olika riktningar
beroende p vilka spnningsfrhllanden som rder under hrdning. En
materialmodell fresls vilken beskriver den stabiliserade jordens
hllfasthetsbeteende baserat p inverkan av kvasi-frkonsolideringstrycket,
vilket har likheter ocks med beteendet hos naturlig, ostabiliserad jord.

En vergripande slutsats r att typen av bindemedel kan ha stor inverkan p


den hllfasthetstillvxt som sker efter inblandning. Typen av bindemedel har
dremot normalt mindre betydelse fr den stabiliserade jordens allmnna
egenskaper. Spnnings-tjningssamband styrs frmst av den hllfasthetsniv
som uppntts snarare n av typen av medel som blandats in. Beteendet hos
stabiliserad jord liknar i mycket det hos cementerade och verkonsoliderade
naturliga jordar. Samma typ av parametrar som anvnds fr beskrivning av
hllfasthet hos naturlig jord kan drmed anvndas ocks fr stabiliserad jord.

viii Strength of stabilised soft soil


Papers

This thesis is based on the following papers, which will be referred to in the
text by their Roman numerals. The papers are appended at the end of the
thesis.

.
I. hnberg H. , Johansson S.-E., Pihl H. and Carlsson T., 2003.
Stabilising effects of different binders in some Swedish soils. Ground
Improvement, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 9-23.

II. hnberg H. and Johansson S.-E., 2005. Increase in strength with time
in soils stabilised with different types of binder in relation to the type and
amount of reaction products. Proceedings International Conference on
Deep Mixing, Stockholm 2005, Vol. 1.1, pp. 195-202.

III. hnberg H., Bengtsson P.-E. and Holm G., 2001. Effect of initial
loading on the strength of stabilised peat. Ground Improvement, Vol. 5,
No. 1, pp. 35-40.

IV. hnberg H., 2003. Measured permeabilities in stabilised Swedish soils.


rd
Proceedings 3 International Conference on Grouting and Ground
Treatment, New Orleans 2003, pp. 622-633.

V. hnberg H., 2004. Effects of back pressure and strain rate used in
triaxial testing of stabilised organic soils and clays. Geotechnical Testing
Journal, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 250-259.

VI. hnberg H., 2006. Consolidation stress effects on the strength of


stabilised Swedish soils. Ground Improvement, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1-13.

VII. hnberg H., 2006. On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses
on stress paths and strength measured in triaxial testing of stabilised
soils. Submitted for publication in the Canadian Geotechnical Journal.

Strength of stabilised soft soil ix


Papers

Division of work between authors

The author of this thesis performed the studies and wrote, in full, the papers I,
II and III with the valuable support of the co-authors.

x Strength of stabilised soft soil


Symbols and abbreviations

a constant, expressing undrained shear strength


aq constant, expressing undrained strength
a non-evaporable water content of hydration product
b exponent
Cq undrained strength intercept
c effective cohesion intercept
cu undrained shear strength
IL liquidity index
IP plasticity index
k permeability, hydraulic conductivity, coefficient of
permeability
ksoil permeability of natural soil
kstab permeability of stabilised soil
kstab i initial permeability of stabilised soil
K0 coefficient of earth pressure at rest
K0nc coefficient of earth pressure for normally consolidated soil
K0qp ratio of horizontal to vertical effective yield stresses of
stabilised soil
OCR overconsolidation ratio
q deviator stress
q28 unconfined compressive strength after 28 days
qdr drained compressive strength
qfailure deviator stress at failure
qmax maximum deviator stress
qt compressive strength after t days
qu undrained compressive strength
qu(3c=0) undrained compressive strength at zero effective cell pressure

Strength of stabilised soft soil xi


Symbols and abbreviations

quc unconfined compressive strength


qyield deviator stress at yield in drained tests
Sr degree of saturation
s mean effective stress in stress plane
t shear stress in stress plane
t time
u pore water pressure
w0 water content of unstabilised soil before mixing
wL liquid limit
wN natural water content
wstab water content of stabilised soil
wP plastic limit

undrained strength increase factor


1 major principal strain
effective friction angle
soil density of natural soil
1 major principal effective stress
1c major principal effective consolidation stress
3 minor principal effective stress
3c minor principal effective consolidation stress
c preconsolidation pressure; effective consolidation stress
qp quasi-preconsolidation pressure
qp 0 quasi-preconsolidation pressure with no external stress during
curing
v vertical effective stress
vc vertical effective consolidation stress
fu undrained shear strength
fd drained shear strength

A Al2O3 (notation used in cement chemistry)


ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
BET Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, method for determination of
specific surface areas

xii Strength of stabilised soft soil


Symbols and abbreviations

b.p. back pressure


C CaO (notation used in cement chemistry)
c cement
CAD Anisotropically Consolidated Drained test
CAU Anisotropically Consolidated Undrained test
CEM II/A-LL Portland-limestone cement, 6-20% limestone
CEN Comit Europen de Normalisation, European Committee
for Standardization
CL calcium lime
CRS constant rate of strain
EC European Commission
ETC European Technical Committee
F Fe2O3 (notation used in cement chemistry)
f fly ash
H H2O (notation used in cement chemistry)
H1-H10 degree of humification, von Post classification system
l lime
Q quicklime
R high early strength (rapid), cement strength class
S SiO2 (notation used in cement chemistry)
s slag
s.p. stress path
SD Swedish Deep Stabilization Research Centre
SGI Swedish Geotechnical Institute

Strength of stabilised soft soil xiii


Symbols and abbreviations

xiv Strength of stabilised soft soil


Contents

1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................
....................................................................
....................................1
.... 1
1.1 BACKGROUND...................................................................................................1
1.2 OBJECTIVES........................................................................................................3
1.3 OUTLINE OF THIS THESIS..............................................................................4

2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY ..........................................................


..........................................................5
.......................... 5
2.1 GENERAL APPROACH.......................................................................................5
2.2 EXTENT OF THE STUDIES ..............................................................................6
2.3 MATERIALS AND TESTING METHODS........................................................6
2.3.1 Types of soil .......................................................................................................6
2.3.2 Binders and other additions................................................................................9
2.3.3 Testing methods ...............................................................................................10

3 OUTLINE OF THE PAPERS


PAPERS ..................................................
..................................................13
.................. 13
3.1 GENERAL...........................................................................................................13
3.2 BRIEF SUMMARIES OF THE PAPERS ...........................................................13

4 EFFECTS OF BINDERS ON SOIL PROPERTIES - FIELD


OF RESEARCH ................................................................
.......................................................................
.......................................17
....... 17
4.1 GENERAL EFFECTS .........................................................................................17
4.1.1 Binder-soil reactions .........................................................................................17
4.1.2 Changes in basic geotechnical properties ..........................................................21
4.1.3 Changes in permeability ...................................................................................24
4.1.4 Changes in compressibility and strength ..........................................................26
4.2 INCREASE IN STRENGTH..............................................................................29
4.2.1 Effects of different binders on the strength increase..........................................30
4.2.2 Influence of initial loading................................................................................36
4.3 UNDRAINED AND DRAINED STRENGTH BEHAVIOUR ........................39

Strength of stabilised soft soil


Contents

4.3.1 Influence of testing methodology .....................................................................39


4.3.2 Stress dependency.............................................................................................44
4.3.3 Adaptation of a strength model stress paths and influence of stresses during
curing ...............................................................................................................51

5 C
COON C
CON CLLU SION
IO NS AND
ND FU RTHER
FURTH
FURTHEER
ER R
REESSEA
RESE EARR
ARC C H .................... 61
RCH
BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
5.1 CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................61
5.2 FURTHER RESEARCH .....................................................................................65

REFERENCES ................................................................
...................................................................................
...................................................67
................... 67
REFERENCES IN SUMMARY .......................................................................................67
REFERENCES EXCLUSIVELY IN THE PAPERS.........................................................76

PAPERS I-
I-VII

Strength
Strength of stabilised soft soil
1 Introduction

1.1 BACKGROUND
Improvement of soft soil by deep mixing, a method originally developed in
Sweden and Japan more than thirty years ago, is becoming well established in
an increasing number of countries. Today, it is the most commonly used
method for soil improvement in Sweden. To improve the strength and
stiffness of the soil, binders of various types are mixed into the soil forming
columns of stabilised soil down to depths of, typically in Sweden, ten to
twenty metres. In highly organic soils, whole blocks of soil may be stabilised
down to depths of typically three to five metres. In rare cases, such as in large
offshore applications in Japan, deep mixing has been performed down to
depths of about seventy metres (Kitazume & Terashi, 2002). About two
million metres of columns of stabilised soil are produced annually (2003) in
Sweden. The diameters of the columns typically range from 0.5 to 0.8 metres.

In the mid 1970s when deep mixing was first used in practice in Sweden,
only lime in the form of quicklime was used, whereas today, a mixture of lime
and cement is the clearly dominating binder. Figure 1.1 shows the different
types of binder used for deep mixing in Sweden. Other binders are also used,
although on a small scale. In Figure 1.1, other binders mainly includes slag
in combination with cement, primarily for the stabilisation of organic soils.
However, the use of other binders is likely to increase in the years to come.
Other types of binder are increasingly being used internationally, primarily for
shallow stabilisation of capping layers and sub-bases, but also for deep soil
stabilisation. Besides slag, other industrial by-products, such as different types
of ash, may be of interest. Apart from possible environmental benefits of using
industrial by-products, there may be economic as well as technical reasons for
incorporating a larger number of binders.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 1


CHAPTER 1

100%

80%
Percent of total use

60% Lime Lime-


cement
40%

Other
20%
binders

0%
Cement
1980 1990 2000
Year

Figure 1.1 Binders used for deep mixing in Sweden.

An understanding of the different properties and behaviour of stabilised soil is


of vital importance for the design of deep mixing in soft soils. The existing
design models for deep mixing used in Sweden (Carlsten, 2000) are largely the
same as those originally developed for the lime-column method (Broms &
Boman, 1977; Broms, 1984), the original designation still commonly used for
the method in the Nordic countries. These models are primarily based on the
assumption of undrained conditions in the columns and thus mainly
undrained strength parameters are employed during design. Furthermore,
assumptions regarding the properties of the stabilised soil have largely been
based on empirical knowledge gained from early experience with lime
stabilisation of soft clay.

In recent years, there has been a need to adapt the design methods to take into
account the effective stress state during loading, as well as the use of a larger
variety of binders in the stabilisation of different types of soil. To further
develop the design methods in these respects, more detailed investigations of
the properties of stabilised soil are needed.

2 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Introduction

The strength of the stabilised soil is an important property. Although a


number of investigations have been performed regarding different aspects of
the strength of stabilised soils (e.g. Terashi et al., 1979; Kawasaki et al., 1984;
Kivel, 1998; Porbaha et al., 2000; hnberg et al., 1995), there was a need for
further studies, particularly concerning the effects of different types of binder
on undrained as well as drained strength. However, not only the type of soil
and binder but also the mixing procedure (e.g. Larsson, 2003; Yoshizava et al.,
1996) and the curing conditions (e.g. stress conditions, moisture content and
temperature) affect the strength of stabilised soil (e.g. Babasaki et al., 1996;
hnberg, 1996). Furthermore, the strength properties of stabilised soil may
change considerably with time, mainly due to different chemical reactions
taking place, but also external influences, such as the effect of an embankment
or foundation loading, or changes in the surrounding soil and ground water
conditions. Studies of the influence of these factors are called for in order to
improve the models describing the strength behaviour of stabilised soil as a
basis for safer and more cost-effective designs of soil improvement by deep
mixing.

1.2 OBJECTIVES
The overall objective of the research presented in the thesis was to study the
strength properties of stabilised soil as a function of soil conditions and type of
binder.

The general strength behaviour and similarities/differences in strength


properties were to be investigated in the laboratory and further clarified for
soft soils stabilised with various binders used for deep mixing. The possible
influence of the stress conditions during curing was also addressed in this
respect.

The investigations were also intended to include the evaluation of other


properties of importance for an understanding of the strength behaviour,
such as water content, density, degree of saturation, compressibility and
permeability.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 3


CHAPTER 1

1.3 OUTLINE OF THIS THESIS


This thesis is presented in the form of seven previously published papers by
the author, with a synthesising summary. After the introductory chapter, the
scope of the research is presented in Chapter 2, giving a description of the
approach used for studying the strength behaviour of stabilised soils, the
extent of the study, and the materials and methods used in the research. In
Chapter 3, brief accounts of the seven papers are presented, giving an overview
and introduction to the discussions in the subsequent chapter on the subjects
focused on in each paper. The field of research is summarised and some of the
more important results obtained in the study are presented and discussed in
Chapter 4. This chapter is divided into two parts. The first, introductory, part
describes chemical reactions and changes in the properties of the soil after
stabilisation that are of relevance for the measured strength behaviour. The
second part focuses in more detail on the strength achieved in different soils,
and the strength behaviour of stabilised soils under different curing and
testing conditions. Conclusions and suggestions for further research are
presented in Chapter 5.

The information gathered during the literature survey that was performed as
part of this research is not presented in a separate section, but integrated with
related results and discussed where relevant.

Papers I-VII are presented, in full, in the last part of the thesis.

4 Strength of stabilised soft soil


2 Scope of the study

2.1 GENERAL APPROACH


Mixing various binders into a soil will bring about significant changes in most
of the soil properties. The strength properties of stabilised soil are affected by
several different factors. The factors regarded as being important in this
research were the type and quantity of binder, the type of soil and the curing
conditions, with focus on the stress conditions.

A hypothesis in studying the strength behaviour was that the stabilised soils
would exhibit strength and deformation properties similar to cemented and
overconsolidated natural soils, making it possible to describe the strength and
deformation properties with the same set of parameters as those normally used
for unstabilised, natural soils. A further hypothesis was that the general
behaviour of the stabilised soil would be related primarily to the attained
strength level, as opposed to the type of binder.

The investigations comprised laboratory testing of soft soils stabilised with a


number of binders and admixtures. Complementary data from other
investigations presented in the literature were also used in the analysis of
stabilised soil behaviour. Assessments of adequate methods of strength testing
were included in the research. The tests were mostly performed within a series
of projects entitled Stabilised soil properties organised by the Swedish Deep
Stabilization Research Centre (SD) (SGI, 1997). Tests performed in two other
projects at the Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) concerning the properties
of stabilised organic soil were also used to evaluate strength properties: the
EC-funded (Brite EuRam) project EuroSoilStab (e.g. hnberg & Holm,
1999; Hebib & Farrell, 1999; den Haan, 1998; Lahtinen et al., 1999;
Cortellazzo & Cola, 1999), and the internal SGI project, Triaxial testing
procedures for stabilised organic soils (SGI, 1999).

Strength of stabilised soft soil 5


CHAPTER 2

2.2 EXTENT OF THE STUDIES


The tests performed were all laboratory tests. Comparisons made with the
field behaviour of stabilised soils were based on experience gained by the
author in earlier projects, or on results published in the literature. The
laboratory tests performed on stabilised soil samples were all physical tests, i.e.
chemical testing of reaction products was not included.

The soils used in the tests were all soft Swedish soils, i.e. clays and organic
soils, gyttja and peat. Stabilised silt or coarser materials, such as sand, till or
gravel, were not included in the testing programme. Although stabilisation of
these soils may be of interest in other contexts, such as in the improvement of
sub-bases (e.g. Sherwood, 1993; Lindh, 2004), it is of less relevance for deep
mixing applications.

The binders and admixtures used in the tests were all readily available from
industry. The binders were used either separately or blended in various
combinations. No further chemical refinement of the materials or odd
laboratory brews were developed for the tests. In all, about 2000 samples of
stabilised soil were prepared for testing in the laboratory.

2.3 MATERIALS AND TESTING METHODS


The materials and testing methods employed in the different parts of the
research are described in detail in the individual papers. An overview of the
testing programme is presented here to facilitate comparisons of the tests
referred to in the separate papers, and to provide a background to the test
results presented in subsequent chapters.

2.3.1 Types of soil

Four types of soil were included in the laboratory tests. The soils were chosen
to be of different character and included two types of soft clay, one of gyttja,
and one of peat. The geographical origins of the clays and the organic soils are
shown in Figure 2.1. The clays have fairly similar geotechnical properties, but
are from different geological deposits. According to earlier experience from

6 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Scope of the study

these areas, it was expected that their strength increase would be affected
differently when mixed with various binders. One of the clays is a post-glacial
clay from an area near Linkping in the eastern part of Sweden. It was
deposited in alternating lake and brackish sea water. The other is a marine
post-glacial clay containing occasional shells, from a site near Lftabro on the
west coast of Sweden. Both clays are high-plastic, with liquid limits of
approximately 70%. The dominating clay mineral in both clays is illite, which
is also the most common clay mineral in Sweden. The gyttja used in the study
was from Holma Mosse, in the eastern part of Sweden, and the peat from
Dmle Mosse in the province of Vrmland, in the western part of Sweden.
The Holma gyttja is a clayey gyttja with an organic content of 10%. The peat
has a very high water content and is classified as H5-H7 according to the von
Post scale (von Post, 1924, e.g. Landva & Pheeney, 1980; Hartln & Wolski,
1996). Results from laboratory characterisation of the test soils are presented
in Table 2.1 and Table 2.2.

Dmle Holma
peat gyttja
Linkping
Lftabro clay
clay

100 km

Figure 2.1 Locations of the test soils.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 7


CHAPTER 2

Table 2.1 Properties of the four soils.

Linkping Lftabro Holma Dmle


clay clay gyttja peat
Depth (m(m) 3-6 2-5 3-5 2-5
3 1
density (t/m
Bulk densit (t/m ) 1.55 1.52 1.23 0.95
3
Specific gravity (t/m
(t/m ) 2.72 2.73 2.36 1.44
Water content (% (% ) 78 89 220 2000
Plastic limit (%
(% ) 24 23 64 480
2
Liquid limit (% (% ) 70 66 170 1300
2
Undrained sheshearar strength (kPa
(kPa)
kPa) 15 8 5
Sensitivity
Sensitivit 20 25 10
Organic content (% (%) 1.0 1.0 10.3 97
Clay
Cla content (% (% ) 63 72 80
Clay mineralogy Illitic Illitic Illitic
Chloride content (% (%) 0.01 0.38 <0.01 0.02
Sulphide content (% (%) 0.05 0.18 0.2
3 3 3
Carbonate content
co ntent (% ) 1.1/1.0 8.4/<0.5 0.6/
pH 7.7 8.7 8.5 4.3
1
The sample in the laboratory was not fully saturated.
2
Determined by the fall cone test (ETC5, 1998).
3
CaCO3/MgCO3

Table 2.2 Chemical composition and specific surface of the clays and the gyttja.

Linkping Lftabro Holma


clay clay gyttja
CaO (total) (% ) 1.75 4.62 1.47
SiO2 (%
(% ) 66.5 59.2 56.9
Al2O3 (% ) 16.1 16.2 14.1
Fe2O3 (% ) 7.23 7.27 6.56
MgO (% ) 2.48 2.79 2.59
K 2O (%) 4.34 4.54 3.68
Na 2O (%) 1.82 2.17 1.64
1
SO3 (% ) 0.23 1.17 1.80
2 2
Specific surface (m /kg)
/kg) 16 200 15 600 23 100
1
Total sulphur expressed as SO3.
2
Determined by the BET method in accordance with Brunauer et al. (1938) (e.g. Taylor 1997).

8 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Scope of the study

The two clays were used for tests performed in all seven parts of the research,
as described in the different papers. Tests performed on stabilised gyttja are
described in four papers, Papers I, II, IV and V, and tests on stabilised peat in
two papers, Papers III and V. References are also made to the organic soils in
the other papers, regarding results from similar tests in earlier studies.

2.3.2 Binders and other additions


The type and number of binders used for stabilising the selected soils were
varied in the studies. In total, five types of cement, five types of lime, three
types of ash and one type each of slag, silica fume, gypsum, kiln dust, water
glass and salt were used in the laboratory test series. Only dry binders were
used. A broad selection of binders and admixtures was used in screening tests,
described in Paper I. The effects of most of these binders were also studied
regarding the permeability of the stabilised samples, which is discussed in
Paper IV. The bulk of the research, however, focused on the fundamental
strength behaviour, and the effects of stress conditions on soil stabilised with
different combinations and quantities of mainly one type of cement, lime, slag
and fly ash. The types of cement and lime used were those most commonly
used for soil stabilisation in Sweden; a Portland-limestone cement, designated
CEM II/A-LL 42.5 R (CEN Standard, 2000) and a quicklime, CL90-Q
(CEN Standard, 2001). The slag was a ground, granulated blastfurnace slag
and the fly ash was a pozzolanic ash, Class F (ASTM, 1994), from pulverised
coal combustion residues. The composition of the four main binders used is
given in Table 2.3.

The quantities of binders used for stabilisation varied in the different parts of
the research and for the different soils. For the clays, the binder quantity used
3
corresponded to 50 to 200 kg/m of soil. For the gyttja and the peat, the
3 3
binder quantities ranged from 70 to 150 kg/m and from 100 to 300 kg/m ,
respectively. The binder quantity most frequently used in the clays and gyttja
3 3
was 100 kg/m and in the peat 200 kg/m .

Strength of stabilised soft soil 9


CHAPTER 2

Table 2.3 Composition and specific surface of the main binders.

CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO K 2O Na 2O SO32 Spec. surface3


2
(% ) (%
(% ) (% ) (% ) (% ) (% ) (% ) (% ) (m /kg
/kg))
1
Lime 93.0 1.4 0.6 0.3 1.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 660
Cement 61.4 19.9 3.6 2.6 2.8 1.0 0.2 3.3 470
Slag 32.1 35.2 13.6 0.2 16.8 0.6 0.6 1.8 480
Fly ash 5.9 54.4 30.5 5.5 1.8 1.2 0.5 0.5 470
1
Available CaO 92%.
2
Total sulphur expressed as SO3.
3
Determined by the Blaine method (CEN Standard, 1989).

2.3.3 Testing methods


Prior to stabilisation, the natural soils were characterised with respect to their
physical and chemical properties, see Table 2.1. In preparing the laboratory
samples, the soil was first thoroughly homogenised, and then the dry binders
were mixed into the soil for five minutes. In the standard procedure, the
stabilised soil mixtures were filled into plastic tubes, which were then sealed
and stored for various periods of time. The stabilised clay and gyttja samples
were stored in climate-controlled rooms at 7 C. The stabilised peat samples
were placed into plastic tubes and stored in water-filled storage boxes at room
temperature, enabling absorption of water during the curing process. A small
load, corresponding to that normally used in the field when stabilising peat,
was applied to the majority of the stabilised peat samples. The laboratory
samples were prepared according to common procedures for stabilising soil in
Sweden (Carlsten & Ekstrm 1995; Carlsten, 2000; EuroSoilStab, 2002). In
order to study the influence of curing stress on the strength, as described in
Paper VII, a number of stabilised clay samples were stored in special cells or in
storage boxes, with access to water, at room temperature.

The curing time varied from one day to slightly more than two years. The
majority of laboratory tests were performed on the samples 28 days after
mixing.

Laboratory testing was focused on the increase in strength and the strength
behaviour of stabilised soil. The strength of the stabilised samples was
measured by unconfined compression tests and/or triaxial tests. The

10 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Scope of the study

unconfined compression tests, which are simple and relatively quick tests
(Swedish Standard, 1992a), were used to compare the effects of different
binder compositions and other factors on the strength increase of the stabilised
soils. The triaxial tests, which are somewhat more complex and time
consuming, were used for more detailed studies of the strength behaviour by
measurements of changes in stresses and pore pressure, as well as strain, during
loading. To gain a better understanding of the effects of binders on the
behaviour of the stabilised soil, a number of other tests were also performed.
These included the determination of basic parameters such as the density
(Swedish Standards, 1989a; 1989b), water content and consistency limits
(Swedish Standards, 1989c; 1990a; 1990b) of the stabilised soils. A number of
permeability tests were performed in flexible-wall permeameters, mainly in
accordance with the Nordtest testing procedures (Sjgren et al., 1994).
Furthermore, the compressibility was investigated in a series of oedometer
tests performed both as CRS oedometer tests and as incrementally loaded tests
in accordance with Swedish Standards (1991 and 1992b, respectively). In the
CRS oedometer tests, also the permeability of the stabilised samples was
measured. To obtain comparable reference data and to illustrate the effect of
stabilisation on the strength and deformation behaviour, triaxial tests and
oedometer tests were also performed on unstabilised, natural soil.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 11


CHAPTER 2

12 Strength of stabilised soft soil


3 Outline of the papers

3.1 GENERAL
The papers in this thesis are based on the results of several investigations
performed by the author. The papers are not appended in strict chronological
order but rather in an order of related subjects, from more general effects of
binders on the strength increase and other basic properties of stabilised soil, as
described in Papers I-IV, to a more detailed description of the strength
behaviour in Papers V-VII.

3.2 BRIEF SUMMARIES OF THE PAPERS

Paper I: Stabilising effects of different binders in some Swedish soils


The first paper, Paper I, addresses the effects of a wide range of binders and
admixtures used in stabilising clay and gyttja. A series of common
geotechnical laboratory tests, mainly unconfined compression tests and
determinations of water content and density, were performed on samples of
stabilised soils at different time intervals up to one year after mixing. The aim
was not to identify the best binder, but to elucidate the differences and
similarities in strength increase between various combinations of binder and
soil. Whereas some binders were found to be robust, producing good results in
most types of soil, others produced very good results in certain soils but poor
results in others. Comparisons are also made with results from some previous
investigations using different binders.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 13


CHAPTER 3

Paper II: Increase in strength with time in soils stabilised with different
types of binder in relation to the type and amount of reaction products
In the first paper, the focus was on the change in strength and other physical
properties after stabilisation, whereas the chemical composition and typical
reactions of the binders were discussed more briefly. In Paper II the chemical
processes that take place after mixing the binders with the soils are discussed in
greater detail. Since different compounds produced by the reactions of
different binders in the soil are likely to influence the increase in strength to a
significant degree, rough estimates of the type and amount of the reaction
products were made for the most common binders, in order to gain a clearer
understanding of the processes involved. In Paper II, the long-term strength
increase measured in the main test series described in Paper I is discussed
further, and the relation between strength and chemical reaction products is
demonstrated.

Paper III: Effect of initial loading on the strength of stabilised peat


Paper III focuses on the stabilisation of peat, highlighting the effects on the
increase in strength resulting from preloading performed shortly after
stabilisation. When stabilising peat in the laboratory, the procedure of mixing
and preparing samples of stabilised soil is similar to that for the other types of
soil. However, the curing conditions as a rule are different, mainly in that a
load is applied on top of the stabilised peat samples shortly after mixing. This
is in accordance with the normal procedure for stabilisation in the field, where
a fill of half a metre to one metre is placed on top of the stabilised area as soon
as possible after mixing in order to obtain a denser and more homogeneous
stabilised mass. The strength increase was studied for a number of samples
stored with and without a load during curing. The results show that initial
loading greatly influences the strength of stabilised peat.

Paper IV: Measured permeabilities in stabilised Swedish soils


Paper IV presents work performed to evaluate another significant property
affecting the soil behaviour, namely the permeability of stabilised soil. The
permeability is of importance not only when evaluating the consolidation
processes, or for designing seepage barriers in stabilised soil, but it also affects
the changes in the effective stress and the strength increase that occur with
time after loading. A number of permeability tests were performed on
stabilised soil samples in order to study the effects of different types of binder
on the permeability and the extent to which the permeability in stabilised soils

14 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Outline of the papers

changes with time. Paper IV presents the results of the permeability tests
performed as part of this work, and compares them with results obtained from
investigations performed by others. Relations between measured permeability,
measured strength and change in water content are proposed and discussed.

Paper V: Effects of back pressure and strain rate used in triaxial testing of
stabilised organic soils and clays
Paper V is the first of the three papers that present results of the triaxial tests
on stabilised soils. In this paper, the influence of different methods of testing
is discussed. Triaxial tests, which are useful tools for investigating the strength
properties under undrained and drained conditions at different stress levels,
should normally be run under conditions resembling those in the field as
closely as possible. However, conditions in the field may change with time and
in widely varying ways, making simulation test series laborious and expensive.
In selecting a simpler test procedure, it is important to be aware of the effects
of factors that are not simulated in the tests. A number of tests were
performed on stabilised clay, gyttja and peat using low and high back
pressures and different strain rates in order to study how these factors affect
the results and the importance of these effects. The results showed that, in
particular, the back pressure can greatly affect the measured strength of
stabilised soils.

Paper VI: Consolidation stress effects on the strength of stabilised Swedish


soils
The effect of different confining stresses on the strength of stabilised soil is
discussed in Paper VI. A series of triaxial compression tests and also oedometer
tests was performed on samples of clay stabilised with the main binders. The
results showed that both the drained and the undrained strength were
dependent on the consolidation stresses during testing. However, both the
prevailing stress and strength levels affected the extent of this stress
dependence. Relationships for describing the variation in undrained strength
as well as drained strength with increasing consolidation stress are proposed in
Paper VI. The concept of quasi-preconsolidation pressure is proposed to
improve the modelling of the strength of stabilised soils.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 15


CHAPTER 3

Paper VII: On yield stresses and influence of curing stresses on the stress
paths and strength measured in triaxial testing of stabilised soils
In Paper VI, the results from the triaxial tests were presented solely in the
form of strengths and strains at failure. In Paper VII, the stress paths observed
during loading are discussed, and the role of the quasi-preconsolidation
pressure is further analysed. Series of triaxial tests and oedometer tests were
performed on the stabilised clays cured with and without the application of
external stresses. The results showed that both cementing processes and curing
stresses influence the quasi-preconsolidation pressures and, in turn, the stress
paths and strength of stabilised soil. The applicability of a strength model
commonly used for natural soils is demonstrated and the influence of the
degree of overconsolidation on the stress-strain behaviour is elucidated.

16 Strength of stabilised soft soil


4 Effects of binders on soil
properties - Field of research

4.1 GENERAL EFFECTS


Mixing binders into a soil will affect the fundamental properties of the
natural, unstabilised soil to varying extents. The strength and deformation
properties are typically those of main interest when designing the extent of
stabilisation required for ground improvement. However, in assessing strength
and deformation parameters from various tests, it is also important to consider
the changes in other properties and their possible influence on the behaviour
of the stabilised soil. Such additional considerations include effects of changes
in, for example, water content, degree of saturation and permeability.
Furthermore, a basic understanding of the types of chemical reaction that take
place and the compounds formed when using different binders is essential in
analysing the rate and type of changes in properties that may develop. This
also applies to the durability of stabilised soils. However, chemical durability
aspects have not been included in this work.

The field of research is summarised in this chapter, including some of the


more important results presented in the papers. A number of properties of the
stabilised soil are addressed with focus on the strength properties.

4.1.1 Binder-soil reactions

The chemical reactions involved in the hydration of different types of cement


or lime have been described and discussed thoroughly in many papers and

Strength of stabilised soft soil 17


CHAPTER 4

textbooks (e.g. Taylor, 1997; Boynton, 1980). The various chemical processes
involved in soil stabilisation using a variety of binders have also been described
in the literature, (e.g. Chew et al., 2004; Janz & Johansson, 2001; TRB, 1987;
Saitoh et al., 1985; Ingles & Metcalf, 1972; Ruff & Ho, 1966), although the
focus has mainly been on the two most common binders, cement and lime.

The reactions generated when mixing various binders with soil vary by
process, intensity and duration, but in general, exhibit many similar
characteristics. Figure 4.1 presents a rough outline of the chemical processes
taking place and the main reaction products formed when mixing common
binders such as quicklime, cement, slag and fly ash into a soil, as described in
Paper II. The abbreviations most often used for various compounds in the
hydration processes are given in the lower part of the figure. As the binder is
mixed into the soil, hydration takes place, although slag may need an activator
from another binder to start this process. Some reactions may involve
cementation starting up directly, while others may lead to further reactions
with the soil and its minerals.

The reaction products formed are of somewhat different types. When using
quicklime, which contains large amounts of calcium oxide (denoted C),
hydration will occur as the lime comes into contact with the pore water in the
soil, resulting in the formation of calcium hydroxide (denoted CH). Some of
this calcium hydroxide will be adsorbed onto the soil particles. Ion exchange
will take place and the soil will be modified into a somewhat drier and coarser
structure due to the slaking process and flocculation of the clay particles that
take place (e.g. Boardman et al., 2001; Saitoh et al., 1985). The calcium
hydroxide not consumed in this process is free to react with the silica (denoted
S) and alumina (denoted A) contained in minerals present in the soil. These
reactions, termed pozzolanic reactions, will result in the formation of calcium
1 1
aluminate silicate hydroxide (CASH ), calcium silicate hydroxide (CSH )
1
and/or calcium aluminate hydroxide (CAH ) (e.g. TRB, 1987). When using
cement, primarily CSH is produced, but also, although to a much lesser degree
than for lime, pozzolanic reaction products, containing silica and alumina
from the soil, are produced. Ground granulated blastfurnace slag, which is a
latent hydraulic cement, will react in much the same way as ordinary cement,
and lead to the formation of similar hydration products. The fly ash acts
mainly as a pozzolanic material, reacting with the calcium hydroxide added to
or generated by hydration.

1
The compounds CSH, CAH and CASH here denote compositions of C, S, A and H in non-specific
proportions.

18 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

C - CaO H - H 2O
A - Al2O3 S - SiO2 F - Fe 2O3
AFm/t - AF mono- and tri-phases (e.g.
(e.g. ettringite)

Figure 4.1 Rough outline of the principal chemical reactions and reaction
products formed by different types of binders in a soil. After Paper II.

In addition to the materials described above, there are a number of admixtures


or mineral additions that may be used for soil stabilisation, most of which are
commonly used for improving the hardening or setting properties of concrete.
However, these products do not normally substantially change the principal
types of reaction products and bonds formed (Taylor, 1997). An exception is
the addition of gypsum, which may result in a significant formation of
ettringite, which contributes to the strength by forming needle-shaped,
reinforcing, compounds.

The various binders can be characterised with respect to possible type and rate
of reactions by looking at their content of CaO, Al2O3 and SiO2. In general,
the reactivity increases with total content of CaO + Al2O3+ SiO2 of the binders
(Taylor, 1997). However, the effects of both major and minor components
are complex. For example, the reactivity of MgO in slag is quantitatively
equivalent to CaO up to a certain content (Taylor, 1997). In Figure 4.2,
typical relative proportions of CaO, Al2O3 and SiO2 of various binders and
other possible additions, often used with concrete, are shown in a three-phase

Strength of stabilised soft soil 19


CHAPTER 4

diagram, together with the compositions of the materials used in this study.
Lime, which contains a high proportion of CaO, has a high potential for
forming large amounts of reaction products when mixed with soil. However,
pozzolanic reactions with soil are normally relatively slow, due to the restricted
accessibility of the silica and alumina contained in the soil. In fly ash, the silica
and alumina are more easily accessible for reactions with binders that contain
calcium hydroxide. The reactions forming CSH upon hydration of cement
involve minerals contained in the binder itself and are thus, as a rule, more
rapid than pozzolanic reactions with the soil. In slag, the ratio of CaO to SiO2
is significantly lower than in cement and, as a result, the build-up of reaction
products is normally slower than for cement (Taylor, 1997). In calcium
aluminate cements, the high content of alumina will cause much faster
reactions than those of Portland cements.

Figure 4.2 Relative percentages of CaO, SiO2 and Al2O3 in the materials used in
this study (see legend) and typical ranges of similar materials of interest in concrete
production.

20 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

The reactions taking place during hydration generate heat. In general, the
slaking of quicklime will produce the largest amount of heat. The total
amount of heat generated by soil stabilisation with cement will normally be
less than half of that from stabilisation with equivalent quantities of quicklime
(e.g. hnberg et al., 1989). Composite binders of cement and lime can be
expected to generate amounts of heat between those of lime and cement, while
those of cement-slag and cement-fly ash may generate an amount of heat
closer to that of pure cement (Pihl & Kuusipuro, 2004). An increase in
temperature will generally increase the rate of the reactions that occur. In the
field there will be a significant increase in temperature in the deep-mixed
columns, which in turn will affect the rate of the chemical processes taking
place (e.g. hnberg & Holm, 1987). In normal laboratory testing, on the
other hand, the effects of heat generation are minor, since the samples are
small and are stored at a constant temperature.

Besides the effects of admixtures and temperature on the rates of chemical


reactions, these may also be affected by various substances in the soil having
retarding or accelerating effects, some of which, but not all, are well known
(e.g. Taylor, 1997; Kitazume & Terashi, 2002; hnberg & Pihl, 1998; Paper
II).

4.1.2 Changes in basic geotechnical properties

A certain increase in the bulk density and decrease in water content can be
expected when binders are mixed with soft soils. These changes normally lead
to an increase in strength, as well as a decrease in compressibility and
normally, with time, also a decrease in permeability. However, there is no
unique relation between the water content or density and the latter properties
in stabilised soils, as relationships vary with soil as well as with type of binder.

The slaking of quicklime will involve a certain degree of expansion upon


hydration (e.g. Boynton, 1980), whereas the hydration of other binders, as a
rule, only causes minor changes in volume (e.g. Taylor, 1997). In the field,
the slaking of quicklime may increase the total horizontal stress somewhat
and, depending on the soil conditions and geometry of the adjacent ground
surface, cause displacement or consolidation of the surrounding soil. In the
laboratory, when mixing binders with clay at normal quantities, the effects of
the hydration process on the density are limited. The density is as a rule
somewhat lower than the theoretical value, depending on the extent to which

Strength of stabilised soft soil 21


CHAPTER 4

inclusions of air pockets can be avoided in preparing the test samples. When
using dry binders, the density can be expected to be roughly the same or
slightly higher than that of the natural, unstabilised soil. However, density
changes in peat during stabilisation may be significant. The addition of binder
3
at quantities up to 300 kg/m in the highly organic soils studied here was
found to increase the density by up to about 20% (Paper III). The initial
loading normally applied on stabilised peat shortly after mixing will increase
the density even further.

The decrease in water content typically observed in soils after stabilisation is


caused by the introduction of dry solid particles into the soil, as well as by
some water being bound by chemical reaction products during the hydration
process. The water content is also affected to a small extent by the
drying/evaporation of water during mixing. Most of the decrease in water
content occurs during the first week after stabilisation, but a continued
decrease is normally observed up to at least one month after mixing. The
water content of the stabilised soil can roughly be calculated (Paper I) as

wN
soil ax
wN + 1
wstab = (4.1)
1
soil + (1 + a) x
wN + 1

where soil is the bulk density of unstabilised soil (t/m ); wN is the natural water
3

content of the unstabilised soil (in decimal number); x is the amount of dry
3
binder added to the soil (t/m ); and a is the content of non-evaporable water
of the hydration product with respect to dry binder weight (in decimal
number). For the main binders cement, slag and lime used in this work, a is of
the order of 0.2 to 0.3, whereas the fly ash has only marginal effects on the
total amount of non-evaporable water.

The behaviour of the stabilised soil is affected not only by its water content,
but also by its liquidity or consistency index. As in natural soils, a decrease in
water content and thus liquidity index, is accompanied by an increase in
strength (Paper I). Both the liquid limit and the plastic limit will also change
to varying degrees, largely depending on the type of soil (e.g. Dumbleton,
1962; Brandl, 1981; Sivapullaiah et al., 2000). The plastic limit normally
increases after stabilisation. The liquid limit of Swedish soft clays typically also

22 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

increases after stabilisation, but in some high-plastic and organic soils, it


decreases (Paper I). Examples of changes in water content, w, liquid limit, wL,
and plastic limit, wP measured in stabilised soils are shown in Figure 4.3.

Adding dry binders to a soil will result in a stabilised soil that is not fully
saturated. This is the case for laboratory prepared samples, which are normally
stored without access to water, and partly also for stabilised soil in the field.
The degree of saturation in the field will change to varying degrees with time
depending on the pore pressure conditions and the permeability and water
absorption ability of the stabilised soil. Since incomplete saturation affects the
pore pressure build-up, a decrease in the degree of saturation will lead to an
increase in the undrained strength. This effect is discussed further in Section
4.3.1. The degree of saturation of laboratory samples may be of the order of
approximately 96-98% in a peat of high water content when stabilised with a
3
binder quantity of 200 kg/m , and 93-95% in stabilised high-plastic clays
3
when using a binder quantity of 100 kg/m (Paper V).

Figure 4.3 Examples of range of measured w, wL and wP in a clay and a gyttja


3
before and after mixing with different binders. Binder quantity 100 kg/m . After
Paper I.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 23


CHAPTER 4

4.1.3 Changes in permeability


1
The permeability of the stabilised soil is often of interest for several reasons. It
may affect the pore pressure response at loading and, depending on the rate of
loading, influence the extent to which undrained or drained conditions govern
the strength behaviour. Furthermore, the permeability will affect possible
leakage of binder substances from the stabilised soil, as well as the risk of
changes in groundwater conditions, e.g. due to lowering of artesian
groundwater pressures. Other important effects, although not directly related
to strength, are the influence on the rate of consolidation after construction
and the potential impact from leaching of trace elements on the environment.

Earlier investigations have reported both increases (e.g. Bengtsson & hnberg,
1995; Baker, 2000) and decreases in permeability (e.g. Terashi & Tanaka,
1983; Kawasaki et al., 1984) or both depending on the type of binder used
(e.g. hnberg et al., 1995). However, these diverging results need not be
considered questionable. Depending on the effect of the binder and the time
of curing, the macro-structure of the stabilised soil mass and stress conditions,
the permeability may be higher or lower than that of the soil before
stabilisation (Paper IV). The permeability may thus be very different under
field conditions compared to that measured in the laboratory. In fairly
homogeneous stabilised soils, i.e. samples prepared in the laboratory, the
change in permeability can be described by an initial change, an increase or
decrease, followed by a decrease with time.

Initial flocculation and other structural changes will cause a change in the
permeability immediately after stabilisation. As a rule, a certain increase in the
permeability can be measured, but the addition of large amounts of binders to
highly organic soils, and any compaction performed, may cause an initial
decrease in permeability. There will then be a decrease in permeability with
time, influenced by the continuing formation of different reaction products in
the stabilised soil. The rate and extent of this growth will depend on the type
and amount of binder and the type of soil, and will also be influenced by any
retarding substances present in the soil.

The initial change in permeability is linked to a change in void ratio, and can
also be roughly related to the change in water content after mixing and

1
The term permeability is used here (denoted k, with the unit m/s), since it is the most commonly
used term for this property in the field of soil mechanics. Another, more precise, term is the
hydraulic conductivity or the coefficient of permeability.

24 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

possible compaction. After the initial change, the decrease in the permeability
can be related to the increase in strength, which is an indirect measure of the
growth of reaction products. The cementation process leads to about the same
relative decrease in permeability with increase in strength. Measured
differences in permeability when using different types of binders may thus be
largely related to differences in the strength of the stabilised soils. Figure 4.4
shows relationships between initial changes in water content and permeability
after mixing and further change in permeability with increasing strength as
measured in laboratory tests. The figure summarises data from soils ranging
from clay compacted at an optimum water content of only slightly higher than
20%, (Brandl, 1999) to stabilised peat having an initial water content around
2000%. Most of the peat samples were subjected to a vertical pressure of 18
kPa during curing, but some were cured with no load. The change in
permeability can be roughly estimated from the change in water content and
the strength (Paper IV) according to

w
k stab 6 0.004 quc
0.043 e w0 (4.2)
k soil

100.00 100.00

(a) Compacted clay


lime 1-7.5%
(b)
(Brandl 1999)

10.00 10.00
kstab, initial / ksoil

1.00 1.00
kstab./ksoil

27,65e - 0,0039x

kstabi 0.0017q uc
0.10 10
0.10
ksoil
6,0048x
0,043e

0.01 0.01

Stabilised peat
initial load 18 kPa
0,0502e - 0,0045x
0.001 0.001
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 500 1000 1500
w/w0 quc, kPa

Figure 4.4. Changes in permeability after stabilisation. a) Initial change in


permeability vs. change in water content. b) Change in permeability vs. strength.
The shaded area represents results from investigations on various stabilised soils.
After Paper IV.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 25


CHAPTER 4

where w and kstab are the water content and permeability of the stabilised soil
and w0 and ksoil are those of the unstabilised soil, respectively, and quc is the
unconfined compressive strength (kPa). If not measured, the change in water
content can be estimated based on the type and amount of binder used, see
Section 4.1.2. The results of the study indicate that the permeability decreases
roughly by a factor of ten for about every 600 kPa increase in strength.

Various types of testing performed in columns in the field have shown large
variations in the results (e.g. Nygren & Wellander, 1991; Bergwall &
Falksund, 1996; Baker, 2000), but as a rule higher permeability is found in
situ than in the laboratory. This is probably the effect of a more
inhomogeneous macro-structure in the columns with a more uneven
distribution of binder, and the occurrence of fissures or micro-cracks in the
material. The permeability measured in the laboratory may be regarded as a
lower limit for the stabilised soil.

4.1.4 Changes in compressibility and strength

Stabilisation of soil involves a decrease in compressibility and an increase in


strength. In general, the stiffness of the stabilised soil will increase more than
the strength. Figure 4.5 outlines the decrease in strain at failure with
increasing unconfined compressive strength (Paper I). The relatively distinct
change from large to limited, almost constant, failure strain, mirrors the
transition from contractive to dilative behaviour as the strength of the
stabilised soils increases. More ductile behaviour with larger strains at failure
can be observed for stabilised peat compared with other soft, stabilised soils.
This is believed to be caused by a reinforcing effect of the peat fibres.

The strain at failure may vary not only with the strength achieved, but also
with confining stress (Paper VI, VII). Figure 4.6 shows schematically the
variation in strain with normalised shear stress in undrained and drained
triaxial tests. The shaded areas represent data measured for samples tested at
about the same vc/qp ratio, where vc is the applied vertical consolidation
stress and qp is the quasi-preconsolidation pressure, i.e. the vertical yield
stress dependent not only on the previous consolidation stress but also on the
cementation of the material. Under drained conditions, there is a significant
increase in strain at failure with increasing confining stress. This behaviour
may be attributed to the materials being consolidated to a state closer to the

26 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

Figure 4.5. Changes in strain at failure with increase in unconfined compressive


strength. After Paper I.

quasi-preconsolidation pressure. Effects of this quasi-preconsolidation pressure


are discussed in more detail in Sections 4.3.2 and 4.3.3.

In undrained tests, there is no distinct increase in average failure strain with


increasing confining stress. After an initial rapid increase in shear stress up to
failure, the stress-strain curve levels off and only a limited change in shear
stress is normally observed at continued deformation after failure. This almost
ideal-plastic behaviour indicates that under undrained conditions, the full
strength of the stabilised soil and the unstabilised soil in the field may be
mobilised together. However, under drained conditions, highly
overconsolidated stabilised soils, i.e. stabilised soils of high strength
subjected to low confining stresses, will exhibit more brittle behaviour with a
significant reduction in strength after failure at small strains. The full strengths

Strength of stabilised soft soil 27


CHAPTER 4

(a) (b)

Figure 4.6. Variation in normalised shear stress with axial strain in (a) undrained
and (b) drained triaxial compression tests on stabilised Linkping and Lftabro clay.
Results for unstabilised Linkping clay are shown for comparison. After Paper VII.

of the unstabilised soil and the stabilised soil can then not be expected to be
mobilised at the same time.

In the oedometer case, where no horizontal displacement takes place, the


compression modulus, M, will increase together with the strength. The quasi-
preconsolidation pressure may be estimated roughly as a factor of about 1.3
times the unconfined compressive strength. The range for this factor has been
reported to be between 1.2 and 1.9 (Terashi et al., 1980 in Kitazume &
Terashi, 2002; Porbaha et al., 2000; Kwan & Buazza, 2002; Paper VI). This
relation is to some extent affected by the overconsolidation ratio of the
stabilised soil, i.e. the higher the overconsolidation the higher the factor.
Various ways of estimating different compression parameters of stabilised soils
have been suggested (e.g. Terashi et al., 1980 in Kitazume & Terashi, 2002;
Baker, 2000; Lorenzo & Bergado, 2002; Aln et al., 2005), including the
vertical yield stress as related to the void ratio (Tremblay et al., 2001; Rotta et
al., 2003). Figure 4.7 shows a schematic variation of the compression modulus
with increasing stress, expressed in accordance with the model normally used
for calculations of settlements of natural soft soils in Sweden (e.g. Larsson et
al., 1997). After passing a yield stress, the modulus reaches a minimum value.
Thereafter, it increases with further increase in stress and, as an effect of the
breakdown of the cementation forces with increasing stress level, is then

28 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

'i
hig h c e me ntatio n e ffe c t
Mi

1
Compression modulus

M'i

Mmin
M'
lo w 1
ce mentatio n
effe c t

uns tabilize d s o il

Effe c tive ve rtic al s tre s s

Figure 4.7 Schematic variation in compression modulus according to oedometer


tests. The compression modulus presented is the tangent modulus. From hnberg
(1996).

governed by a modulus number M of the same magnitude as that of the


unstabilised soil (hnberg, 1996).

4.2 INCREASE IN STRENGTH


The increase in strength with time after stabilisation is governed by a number
of factors. The type of binder will normally have a significant impact on the
results, although the effect may vary considerably depending on the type of
soil. Other factors affecting the increase in strength are the amount of binder,
the mixing effort, the temperature and the stresses during curing (e.g.
Babasaki et al., 1996; hnberg, 1996). Another factor of importance,
especially in stabilising peat, is the effect of an initial loading of the stabilised
soil.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 29


CHAPTER 4

4.2.1 Effects of different binders on the strength increase

The optimal binder to be used for stabilisation of a soil will vary depending on
the desired strength in the short-term as well as the long-term perspective, for
both drained and undrained conditions. Robustness and good durability are
also important factors in cases of varying soil conditions or risks of the
stabilised soil being subjected to aggressive ground water with high mobility.
The effects of different binders on the strength increase are in such cases more
appropriately described in terms of general strength levels and rate of strength
increase, without defining optimal binders and exact strengths for all possible
cases.

The effect of different types of binders on the strength increase of soft soils
varies considerably (Papers I & II). Figure 4.8 shows examples of the increase
in unconfined compressive strength, for the two clays stabilised with various
binders (Paper II). During the first three months after mixing, the most rapid
strength increase as a rule occurs in samples stabilised with binders containing
cement. In general, after about three months, the strength of these samples
levels off to a fairly constant value or shows clearly decreased rates of strength
gain.

3000 3000

(a) (b)
Unconfined compressive strength q uc , kPa

Unconfined compressive strength q uc , kPa

2500 sl 2500

2000 2000

cl
1500 1500
l
cs
cs c c
1000 1000
cl

cf cf
500 500
sl

l
0 0
0 200 400 600 800 0 200 400 600 800
Time, days
Time, days

Figure 4.8 Examples of measured strength with time after mixing for (a) Lftabro
clay and (b) Linkping clay with cement , lime and various composite binders
3
(50:50). c = cement, l = lime, s = slag, f = fly ash. Binder quantity 100 kg/m . After
Paper II.

30 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

Samples containing lime usually exhibit a pronounced long-term increase in


strength, although this may vary considerably with the type of soil, as
illustrated in Figure 4.8. Figure 4.9 shows the measured variation in
unconfined compressive strength, for different categories of binders arranged
in order of obtained 28-day strength. Cement alone or together with slag or
fly ash, with a cement percentage of 50% or higher, gave the highest short-
term strength and the lowest spread in measured strength between the soils.
Lime alone or in combination with cement, with a lime percentage of 50% or
higher, or with slag, gave the lowest short-term strength and the largest spread
in measured strength between the soils. It was also observed that after one
year, roughly the same strength was achieved with a large number of the
different types of binder combinations. This finding has been reported in also

Figure 4.9 Examples of approximate range of measured strength at different


times after mixing for clays and gyttja stabilised with various combinations of
3
binders. Binder quantity 100 kg/m . After Paper I.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 31


CHAPTER 4

previous investigations (e.g. hnberg et al., 1995). Lime alone or in


combination with slag or cement gave 7-day strengths of 0.1-1.0 times that at
28 days, and 1-year strengths of 1.3-13 times that at 28 days; cement, cement-
slag and cement-fly ash, gave corresponding ratios of 0.4-0.7 and 1.2-2.8,
respectively. With pure cement, the early strength ratio was the same, but the
range of 1-year strengths was narrower, at 1.4-1.8 times that at 28 days. The
increase in unconfined compressive strength for the cement-stabilised soils,
which were cured at 7 C from 7 to 800 days, can be approximately described
by the expression

qt
0 .3 ln t (4.3)
q 28

where t is the time (days), and qt and q28 are the unconfined compressive
strengths after t days and 28 days, respectively, see Figure 4.10. Equation (4.3)

3
Linkping clay
Lftabro clay
Holma gyttja y = 0.305ln(x) - 0.04
Nagaraj et al. (1996) R2 = 0,94
Trend

2
q t/q 28

Horpibulsuk et al. (2003)

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Time after mixing t , days

Figure 4.10 Relative increase in unconfined compressive strength with time for
cement-stabilised clays and gyttja.

32 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

is similar to relationships reported previously for cement-stabilised soils (e.g.


Nagaraj et al., 1996; Porbaha et al., 2000; Horpibulsuk et al., 2003).

The variation in strength increase with time is linked to differences in the


chemical reactions taking place, as described in Section 4.1.1 (Paper II). The
reaction products formed by the various binders (see Figure 4.1) are of
different types and take different times to form. Assuming complete hydration
and sufficient alumina and silica in the soil, it is possible to calculate the
approximate amount of reaction products that would ideally form bonds in
the soil when using different binders. In Figure 4.11, estimated variations in
the amount of reaction products that can be produced by common types of
binders are presented. In Figure 4.11, the blue, or pale shaded, bars represent
the more rapid cement reactions and the yellow, or unshaded, bars represent
the more long-term pozzolanic reactions with the soil. The red, or darker
shaded, bars, for combinations of cement and fly ash, represent the pozzolanic
reactions that may occur with the fly ash itself, since silica and alumina
normally are more readily available in the fly ash than in the soil.

The amount of reaction products that may be formed gives an approximate


indication of the effects of different binders on the rate and level of strength
increase that can be expected. For comparison, Figure 4.11 also shows the
strength measured in the three soils tested in the present study. The mean
strength values after 28 days are fairly proportional to the theoretical amount
of short-term reaction products formed. After one year, the strength is
considerably higher in several cases. However, the variation in strength for
different soils is large for binders that are intended to react mainly with
minerals in the soil.

Besides the main reaction products formed, other factors may influence the
rate of strength increase. The presence of retarding or accelerating chemical
ingredients in the soil may lead to deviating increases in strength. The water
content and the composition of the pore water may also affect the solubility of
the pozzolans in the soil (Buchwald et al., 2003), and thus the rate of
pozzolanic reactions with time. Additionally, although the different reaction
products may be of the same type, their density and thus the achieved strength
may vary. The use of combinations of binders may have an extra positive or
negative effect on the strength increase, with one binder altering the
conditions for the binding processes of the other component.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 33


CHAPTER 4

400 4000
Binder quantity 100 kg/m
3 Max. pozzolanic soil reactions, CASH
Max. pozz. binder reactions, CASH
Cement reactions, CSH

Unconfined compressive strength q uc , kPa


quc, mean, 28 days
300 3000
quc, min-max, 1 year
Reaction products, kg

200 2000

100 1000

0 0
Lime cl (50:50) sl (50:50) Cement cs (50:50) cf (75:25) cf (50:50)
Stabilising agent

Figure 4.11 Estimates of the amount of reaction products contributing to the


strength of stabilised soils (bars) together with measured strength in three soils
one month ( ) and the range one year ( ) after mixing. c = cement, l =
lime, s = slag, f = fly ash. (From Paper II.)

Admixtures or other additions at low proportions may be used to improve the


effects of the main binder. The effect of these additions will be expected to
vary depending on the type of soil and type of main binder used. In this study,
none of the different additions proved to have a generally positive effect on the
strength of stabilised soils (Paper I). When considering the use of admixtures
or mineral additions, trial tests on the soil of interest are thus important. Salt
in the form of CaCl2 is a well-known accelerator of cement in concrete,
although it may not lead to a higher final strength (Taylor, 1997). This
admixture may have positive effects in lacustrine clays like the Linkping clay
together with cement or lime, but has shown negative effects together with
other types of binders. The addition of alumina cements may have a positive
effect with time. However, the long-term stability must be clarified (Robson,
1962). Silica fume may have positive effects together with cement or
cement-lime, but has shown negative effects with other binders. Water glass,

34 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

i.e. sodium silicate, was found to have mostly negative effects in clays and
gyttja. Kiln dust from lime production gave about the same strength when
replacing lime. Gypsum may have a wide range of effects, both negative and
positive effects, and in all cases the effects may change direction with time.
When using gypsum, the formation of ettringite involves expansion of the
material. If early reactions are unhindered this need not create a problem.
However, if delayed there may be a breakdown of bonds already formed
(Taylor, 1997). Furthermore, for ettringite to remain stable, it is important
that the pH remains at a high value, not lower than about 10-11 (e.g. Kujala,
1983; Hgberg, 1983), and that the temperature does not become too high
(Esrig, 1999).

In the tests carried out in this study, as most often in laboratory tests, the
temperature during curing was kept constant. In deep mixing in the field, the
temperature of soils stabilised with binders containing quicklime can be
expected to be higher than those containing only cement, slag and fly ash in
any combination. A higher temperature will speed up the chemical processes
involved, resulting in a faster increase in strength with time (e.g. hnberg &
Holm, 1987; hnberg et al., 1989). A decrease in water content, which always
occurs when using dry binders, will in general cause an increase in strength. In
the laboratory the water content will remain low or decrease further, whereas
it may increase with time in the field due to saturation. An exception to the
increase in strength with decreasing water content may occur, primarily in the
field, when the initial water content is very low and adding large quantities of
dry binder affects mixing and hydration negatively (Axelsson et al., 1996;
Eriksson et al., 2005). Adding water, separately or in the form of a wet binder,
i.e. a binder slurry, may then lead to a higher strength. Varying the mixing
intensity (Larsson, 2003) or binder quantity may also influence the resulting
strength, to different degrees depending on the type of binder. Normally,
cement-containing binders are more sensitive to the mixing work and also to
the binder quantity than binders dominated by lime (e.g. hnberg et al.,
1995).

The strength increase in the field will normally not be quite the same as for
samples stabilised in the laboratory. However, the principal effects of different
binders can be expected to be fairly similar. Provided that sufficient binder
quantities are used, a significant long-term strength increase can also be
expected in the field. Continued increase in strength measured long after
installation has been reported for lime-cement columns at a number of sites
(e.g. Edstam et al., 2004; Lfroth, 2005), as well as for cement columns in a
number of investigations (e.g. Hayashi et al., 2003).

Strength of stabilised soft soil 35


CHAPTER 4

4.2.2 Influence of initial loading

The application of an initial load shortly after mixing will affect the strength
of the stabilised soil. Especially when stabilising peat, an initial surcharge, or
preloading, in the field has been regarded necessary in order to create a more
homogeneous stabilised mass of peat. In addition, the fill serves as a trafficable
bed for the continued stabilisation of adjacent areas. This initial loading may
also considerably improve the strength of the stabilised soil (Paper III). Figure
4.12 shows examples of increase in strength in samples stabilised with
different binders in the laboratory for initial loads up to 18 kPa, which
corresponds to about one metre of fill. A preload of 18 kPa may increase the
strength of stabilised samples up to several times.

It is not primarily the magnitude of the initial load itself that governs the
increase in strength, but the amount of compression resulting from loading.

Figure 4.12 Examples of measured unconfined compressive strength in stabilised


3
peat samples with preloads of 0, 9, and 18 kPa. Binder quantity 200 kg/m . After
Paper III.

36 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

The compression that occurs under preloading will reduce the distance
between the binder grains and the particles in the peat and facilitate the build-
up of bonds by the outer hydration products formed by the binders. The
compression caused by preloading will increase with the size of the load, with
decreasing initial density of the stabilised soil, and decreasing time lapse
between mixing and loading. Furthermore, the compression will increase in
the laboratory with decreasing sample height or similarly, with the distance to
permeable soil layers or the ground surface in the field (Hayashi et al., 2005;
Paper III).

Depending on the amount of binder added to the soil, the density of the soil
will increase, and the void ratio and the water content, which is more easily
1
and commonly determined than the void ratio , will decrease to various
extents after mixing. There will then be a further increase and decrease,
respectively, in these properties, with increasing compression caused by the
initial loading. The water content of the stabilised soil, which is affected by
both the initial compression and the binder quantity, may be correlated with
the strength. Figure 4.13 shows measured strength versus the water content of
various types of stabilised peat samples after 28 days. The relationship between
strength and water content is similar for various groups of stabilised samples.
However, the relationship between water content and strength can be
expected to change with time in different ways depending on the type of
binder.

In the field, for cases in which a preload is applied to stabilised soil (e.g. peat),
the drainage paths are much longer than in laboratory samples and the
consolidation rate becomes correspondingly slower. Furthermore, the curing
of the stabilised soil will, after a short time, increase the strength to such an
extent that further compression after loading is prevented and the total
compression will be reduced. To achieve a high strength it is therefore
important to apply the load as soon as possible after mixing. In this study,
loading delays of 4 and 24 hours reduced the strength of cement-slag stabilised
peat samples by about 30% and 75%, respectively, compared with a delay of
45 minutes.

If the stabilised soil is overstressed at loading, causing large shear strains to


occur, there will be a breakage of bonds (e.g. Hammond, 1981: hnberg et
al., 1996; Steensen-Bach et al., 1996). Recovery will take place to some extent
1
Since stabilised soils as a rule are not completely saturated, the water content is a not fully correct, but
still a practical measure of the void ratio.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 37


CHAPTER 4

1200
Stabilised peat cement
cement-slag
28 days cement-slag-silica fume
1000 cement-slag-gypsum

800
quc (kPa)

cement-lime
600 cement-fly ash
cement-peat ash

400

200
cement-gypsum
cement-fly ash-gypsum

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
w (%)

Figure 4.13 Measured unconfined compressive strength versus water content in


peat samples stabilised with different binders, initial load and loading delay. Binder
3
quantity 100-300 kg/m . Preload 9-18 kPa. Loading delay 0.75-24 hours. After
Paper III.

by autogenous healing. However, the recovery in strength will decrease with


increasing curing time before rupture occurs (e.g. Thompson & Dempsey,
1969; Hammond, 1981).

Apart from the effects of initial loading, the stress conditions in situ after
stabilisation and during continued loading of the stabilised soil also affect the
strength of the stabilised soil. This is discussed further in Section 4.3.3.

38 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

4.3 UNDRAINED AND DRAINED STRENGTH


BEHAVIOUR
The strength of the stabilised soil will vary depending on the stress conditions
and the drainage conditions. In the previous section, the effects of various
binders on strength levels and rates of strength increase were described.
Examples of measured strengths were presented in terms of the results of
unconfined compression tests, which are useful tests for investigating the
approximate strength levels achieved in stabilised soils and for comparing the
effects of various binder combinations on the strength increase. In order to
fully describe the strength behaviour of a stabilised soil, the influence of
stresses and pore pressure on the drained and undrained strengths should be
investigated by performing various triaxial tests.

4.3.1 Influence of testing methodology

Triaxial tests can be performed in different ways. Several factors, such as the
choice of back pressure, i.e. pore pressure applied during consolidation and
testing, and the rate of strain during testing will affect the results of the tests
(Paper V). Relatively low back pressures may be chosen to simulate conditions
resembling those prevailing in the field shortly after stabilisation. High back
pressures may be used in order to obtain strength parameters relevant to the
more long-term case, where water from the surrounding soil enters the
column and increases the degree of saturation. A high back pressure is needed
to saturate the samples as much as possible and thus ensure more accurate
measurements of pore pressures in the samples. A high back pressure is
normally also required in order to enable measurements of the decrease in
pore pressure generated in stabilised soils exhibiting dilatant behaviour. This is
often the case for stabilised soils of medium to high strength. To ensure that
any air trapped in the sample dissolves in the pore water, a back pressure of at
least 400 kPa is normally called for in stabilised soils, where the degree of
saturation after mixing is often as low as about 93-95% (Paper V). A back
pressure of this magnitude is also required for natural soils at initial degrees of
saturation down to about 92% (e.g. Lowe & Johnsson, 1960; Bishop &
Henkel, 1962).

During the consolidation stage, resaturation occurs as water is pressed into the
sample and air is dissolved in the pore water by the applied back pressure. The
calculated degree of saturation of the stabilised clays and organic soils in the

Strength of stabilised soft soil 39


CHAPTER 4

study was between 93 and 98% prior to consolidation. In the stabilised clays,
the degree of saturation increased to about 95-96% when using a back
pressure of 20 kPa and to 97-99% for a back pressure of 400 kPa. Figure 4.14
shows examples of the effects of different back pressures on the degree of
saturation of the different types of stabilised soil in the study. Complete
saturation of clays stabilised with dry binders is normally neither possible to
achieve with common triaxial equipment nor relevant, considering normal
pore pressure conditions in the field.

The choice of back pressure affects the results of undrained tests. A higher
failure strength is measured at low back pressures than at high back pressures
(Paper V). The unsaturated materials initially respond as in a partly drained

1.05
Stabilised peat, 200 kg/m3
Stabilised gyttja, 70 kg/m3
Stabilised clays, 100 kg/m3

50 kPa
Sr after consolidation

1.00
20 kPa

Back pressure

~400 kPa

0.95
~50 kPa
~20 kPa

0.90
0.90 0.95 1.00
Sr before consolidation

Figure 4.14 Calculated degrees of saturation, Sr, in stabilised Dmle peat, Holma
gyttja and Linkping and Lftabro clay samples before and after consolidation at
different back pressures. After Paper V.

40 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

test in the sense that excess pore water pressures are partly suppressed by
compression or expansion of the entrapped air. Different stress paths may also
be followed up to failure in samples that have approximately the same failure
strength but have different degrees of saturation. The less saturated specimens
initially follow a stress path closer to that in a drained test. As compression
continues, the pore pressure generation increases, causing the stress paths to
approach those measured in undrained tests on more fully saturated
specimens. Examples of this behaviour are shown in Figure 4.15, where stress
paths in tests on the stabilised peat are shown. The ratios between measured
strengths at lower back pressure levels of 20-50 kPa and those at a higher back
pressure level of 400 kPa varied between 1.0 and 1.6. The differences in
measured strength increase with stress level and the strength of the stabilised
soil. With increasing stiffness of the stabilised soil skeleton, the effect of small
quantities of gas in the pores becomes greater, resulting in larger differences
between unsaturated and almost completely saturated samples.

Stabilised peat fd (drained tests)


3
200 kg/m (c'=137 kPa
400 '=32 o )
( '1- '3)/2, kPa

200

Undrained test, b.p.=400 kPa


Undrained test, b.p.=50 kPa
Drained test, b.p.=400 kPa
Drained test, b.p.=50 kPa
0
0 200 400 600
'1+
( '3)/2, kPa

Figure 4.15 Examples of registered stress paths in stabilised peat when using a
high and a low back pressure (b.p.).

Strength of stabilised soft soil 41


CHAPTER 4

In drained triaxial tests, the specimens are sheared at a low enough rate of
strain to allow full pore pressure equalisation to take place. There may thus be
a limited difference in response when applying a low back pressure compared
to a high one. However, a smearing effect due to an increase in water content,
as well as possible wetting of drier clusters of stabilised soil, may lead to a
somewhat lower strength. In this study (Paper V), the results of the drained
tests showed no significant influence of different back pressures on the
measured strength, which indicates that an adequate rate of strain had been
chosen for these tests.

The rate of strain at which the tests are run may otherwise greatly affect the
results of drained triaxial tests. At too high a strain rate, pore pressure
equalisation may be too slow to prevent pore pressure build-up in the middle
of the samples, leading to partly undrained behaviour. As a result, in tests on
contractive stabilised soils, i.e. materials that decrease in volume during
testing, a considerably lower drained strength may be measured. Contractive
stabilised soils are commonly those with low strength that are tested at high
consolidation stresses. In dilative stabilised soils, i.e. materials that expand
during testing, negative pore pressures will instead build up in the middle of
the sample and a higher strength will be registered if too high a testing rate is
used. Dilation commonly occurs in stabilised soils of high or medium strength
tested at low consolidation stresses. In the present work this behaviour was
observed in the tests on the stabilised gyttja when using the higher strain rate
of 0.2%/min, compared with the normal rate of 0.02%/min (Paper V).
Similar behaviour has also been reported for unstabilised overconsolidated clay
(e.g. Bishop & Henkel, 1962) and compacted silt (Roy & Sarathi, 1976).

In undrained tests, an increased strain rate may yield somewhat higher values
of strength due to decreased pore pressure generation. A higher strength is also
normal in unstabilised soils (e.g. Sheahan et al., 1996; Bjerrum, 1972;
Torstensson, 1977; Karlsson, 1963). However, in this study, changes in the
rate of strain from 0.002 to 0.2%/min had a limited influence, about 10% or
less, on the measured strength in undrained tests on stabilised organic soils
(Paper V).

The strengths measured in undrained triaxial tests normally differ from those
of unconfined compression tests, particularly at high consolidation stresses.
Unconfined compression tests only register the strength at zero total confining
stress. There may also be a difference in measured strength at low
consolidation stresses in undrained triaxial tests (Paper VI), as well as a

42 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

difference in stress-strain behaviour (Paper VII), compared with that in


unconfined compression tests. In stabilised soils of relatively low strength, the
undrained triaxial strength at low effective cell pressures and the strength
measured in unconfined compression tests are usually of approximately the
same magnitude. However, as the strength of the materials increases, the
strength determined by unconfined compression tests as a rule becomes higher
than that determined by undrained triaxial tests at very low effective confining
stress. Figure 4.16 shows examples of differences in compressive strength
evaluated from unconfined compression tests and those from undrained
triaxial tests for effective confining stresses corresponding to zero. The latter
values were estimated by extrapolating the triaxial test results. The differences
were found to be small for strengths up to approximately 300 kPa. At higher
strengths, the unconfined compression tests yielded higher strength values
than those measured in the triaxial tests.

400
Linkping and Lftabro clay
Dmle peat (hnberg et al., 2000)
Holma gyttja (hnberg et al., 2000)
300
qunconf. compr. - qtriax('3c=0 kPa), kPa

= triaxial strength (unsaturated - saturated)

200

100

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000

-100
q triax('3c=0 kPa), kPa

Figure 4.16 Difference between compressive strength evaluated from unconfined


compression tests and undrained triaxial tests; and from triaxial tests at low and
high back pressure, i.e. unsaturated saturated. After Papers V and VI.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 43


CHAPTER 4

The differences in results at higher strength levels are related to several factors.
The triaxial and unconfined compression tests were performed on specimens
with different degrees of saturation at different rates of strain. The specimens
tested in the unconfined compression tests are not subjected to any back
pressure prior to testing. For comparison, the differences in measured strength
in the triaxial tests performed in this study with low and high back pressures,
i.e. in unsaturated and saturated specimens (Paper V), are also displayed in
Figure 4.16. For a lower degree of saturation, as in unconfined compression
tests or triaxial tests with low back pressures, a lower pore water pressure is
generated and a higher strength is measured. As the strength level increases,
the stiffness of the material also increases, increasing the influence of small
amounts of air in the pores. In this study, the differences in strength were
somewhat smaller for the stabilised organic soils having a higher initial degree
of saturation than the stabilised clays (Paper VI).

Besides different degrees of saturation, the results from the two types of tests
are normally affected by differences in the strain rates used. Unconfined
compression tests are typically performed considerably faster than triaxial tests.
However, according to the effects of strain rates measured in the triaxial tests
in this study, this may cause a limited difference in strength, of the order of
about 10% or less.

4.3.2 Stress dependency

Both the undrained and the drained strength of stabilised soils exhibit a stress
dependency (Paper VI). Approximations of the undrained strength, qu, as a
function of the consolidation stress can be made with simple linear
expressions. However, the mean increase in strength per unit increase in
consolidation stress varies with the magnitude of the stress interval considered
and also with the soil type. Another approach, similar to that often applied to
natural clays can also be used to describe the stress dependence of the
undrained strength in stabilised soils. A quasi-preconsolidation pressure, qp,
exists at which yield occurs, although the stabilised soil has not been subjected
to this pressure earlier. The quasi-preconsolidation pressure is governed both
by previous stresses and the cementation of the soil (Paper VII). The
occurrence of vertical yield stress has been demonstrated earlier in oedometer
tests and triaxial tests on stabilised soils (e.g. Tatsouka & Kabayashi, 1983;
Balasubramaniam & Buensuceso, 1989; hnberg et al., 1995; Lee et al.,
2004). In the present study, the undrained strength was shown to be

44 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

dependent on the quasi-preconsolidation pressure and the corresponding


overconsolidation ratio of the stabilised soils (Papers VI and VII). The
variation in undrained strength of overconsolidated samples can be
described by the following relationship


qp
b

q u = a q 1c (4.4)
1c

where 1c is the consolidation stress applied in the tests, and aq and b are
constants (Paper VI). At very low consolidation stresses, a minimum value of
qu of approximately 0.6qp may be applied. In this study, aq and b were
approximately 1.0 and 0.9, respectively for the stabilised clays. Figure 4.17
shows the variation in undrained strength of the stabilised clays normalised to

Stabilised clays
Lftabro clay
Linkping clay
1.5
q u / qp

0.5

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
1c/ qp

Figure 4.17 Measured undrained strength in stabilised Lftabro and Linkping


clay normalised to quasi-preconsolidation pressure at different degrees of
overconsolidation. After Paper VI.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 45


CHAPTER 4

the quasi-preconsolidation pressure with the degree of overconsolidation


expressed in terms of 1c/qp. There was no indication of any differences in
the general behaviour with the different types of binders used. For specimens
consolidated to vertical stresses higher than the quasi-preconsolidation
pressures, as measured in oedometer tests, the normalised strengths, qu/1c,
were approximately the same, with a mean value slightly lower than one.
These specimens may be regarded as being approximately normally
consolidated, having an overconsolidation ratio close to unity, and included
specimens with low strengths that were cured for very short periods of time,
specimens stabilised with mainly ineffective binders, or specimens of normal
strength tested at high stress levels. A general strength model and the influence
of different stress and strength boundaries on the strength behaviour are
discussed further in Section 4.3.3.

Fewer tests were performed on stabilised organic soils in this study but similar
patterns were observed. The stress dependence appeared to be about the same
for the stabilised peat as for the stabilised clays, while the results for the
stabilised gyttja indicated somewhat higher values of the factors aq and b, of
the order of 1.2 and 0.9, respectively.

The variation in undrained strength with the overconsolidation ratio of the


stabilised soils is similar to that of the undrained shear strength of natural
soils, cu, which in most general models is described by cu = avOCR or
b

similar expressions where OCR is the overconsolidation ratio of the soil, (e.g.
Ladd & Foott, 1974; Jamiolkowski et al., 1985). The value of b for the
stabilised clays was slightly higher than that of natural soils, approximately 0.9
compared with the common value of 0.8 for clays (e.g. Mayne, 1988; Larsson
& hnberg, 2005) and 0.85 for clay till (Steenfelt & Foged, 1992; Larsson,
2000). The value of the factor aq, used to express the compressive strength, in
analogy to a used for the shear strength, is generally higher than would be
expected for a corresponding compressive strength of natural soil, about 1.0-
1.2 compared with about 0.66 for clay (e.g. Larsson & hnberg, 2005), 0.8
for clay till (Christensen et al., 1992; Larsson, 2000) and 1.0 for highly
organic soils (Larsson, 1990). At very low strength levels, as in the case of the
lime-stabilised Linkping clay, the values of aq may be closer to those expected
for natural clay.

The magnitude of the stress dependence measured in the study is similar to


that reported in earlier investigations (e.g. Okumura, 1996; Balasubramaniam
& Buensuceso, 1989; hnberg et al., 1996). However, large variations in

46 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

results, with significantly lower, as well as slightly increased, strength with


decreasing confining stresses, have been reported in the literature. The
significant scatter in the results may reflect differences in the mode of sample
preparation as well as testing procedure.

The triaxial tests used to study the stress dependence of stabilised soils were all
performed on specimens that were saturated by high back pressures. A lower
degree of saturation in stabilised soils can be expected to result in a greater
stress dependence of the undrained strength (see previous section), as is also
the case for a partly saturated soil (e.g. Fredlund & Rahardjo, 1993). High
undrained friction angles, as this stress dependency somewhat misleadingly
is often denoted, have thus been reported from tests performed on unsaturated
samples of soils stabilised with dry binders (e.g. Kivel, 1998; Axelsson, 2000).

The drained strength of stabilised soils exhibits a clear stress dependency


(Papers VI and VII). This stress dependency is greater than that of the
undrained strength. Figure 4.18 shows the drained strength and the undrained
strength at varying degrees of overconsolidation for the stabilised clays in
this study. Contrary to natural soils, the drained strength is generally about
the same as or higher than the undrained strength also in highly
overconsolidated stabilised soils. At low confining stresses, the drained and
undrained shear strengths are often approximately equal. In this study, the
agreement was found to be fairly good at medium strength levels, whereas at
lower strength levels the extrapolated drained strength at zero effective
confining stress was, in most cases, lower than the undrained strength. In tests
performed at higher consolidation stresses than the quasi-preconsolidation
pressure evaluated from the oedometer tests, the samples were assumed to be
close to normally consolidated. The variation in normalised undrained and
drained strength with increasing 1c/qp ratio for these tests is indicated by
dashed lines in Figure 4.18. The drained tests referred to in the figure were
performed at K0= 0.8. Higher or lower values of K0 will give higher and lower
values, respectively, of the drained strength, see Section 4.3.3 and, e.g., Figure
4.25.

In this study, a fairly constant relationship between the drained strength and
the effective consolidation stress was obtained for the different materials at the
investigated strength levels. The mean effective friction angles evaluated
were about 33 in both of the stabilised clays, and 33 and 31 in the stabilised
peat and gyttja respectively. The values of for all the test series in the study
varied independently of the type of binder from 26 to 38. A tendency

Strength of stabilised soft soil 47


CHAPTER 4

Figure 4.18 Measured undrained and drained strength of stabilised Lftabro and
Linkping clay normalised to quasi-preconsolidation pressures at different degrees
of overconsolidation. The estimated influence of K0 is indicated by the shaded
area.

towards curvature in some of the strength envelopes indicates a certain


decrease in friction angle and increase in cohesion intercept with increasing
stress level. This curvature is probably caused by decreasing dilatancy with
increasing stress level.

The cohesion intercept, c, varies greatly with time and type of binder. It
increases with time in a way similar to the undrained strength. The variation
of c with qu(3c=0) observed in this study is shown in Figure 4.19. The value of
c was approximately 0.25 times the undrained compressive strength at zero
effective cell pressure, qu(3c=0), as estimated from extrapolation of the results
from the triaxial tests. The ratio of c to qu(3c=0) varied between 0.12 and 0.33
for all the test series. The lower ratios were measured in stabilised soils of
relatively low strength, whereas higher ratios were measured in stabilised soils

48 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

250

y = 0.2482x
2
200 R = 0.9209

150
c', kPa

100

Linkping clay
50 Lftabro clay
Dmle peat
Holma gyttja
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
'3c=0 kPa), kPa
qu(

Figure 4.19 Evaluated cohesion intercept, c, vs. undrained compressive strength.


After Paper VI

of medium and high strength. The higher ratios are probably affected by the
increase in c caused by dilatancy effects at higher strength levels.

Results from drained triaxial compression tests on stabilised soils are less
frequently reported in the literature than results from undrained tests. Figure
4.20 shows effective friction angles, , evaluated from the drained tests in the
present study together with data from earlier investigations. Results reported
from drained tests performed on samples of generally higher strength than
those in the present study (Tatsouka & Kobayashi, 1983; Kawasaki et al.,
1984; hnberg et al., 1996) indicate both slightly increasing and decreasing
effective friction angles with increasing strength. The strength ratios, c/qu(3=0),
evaluated from the drained tests in the present study, together with those
assessed from test results in earlier investigations, are shown in Figure 4.21.
The strength ratio levels off towards a value of the order of 0.15-0.2 for high-
strength samples. The stress dependence at high strength levels requires

Strength of stabilised soft soil 49


CHAPTER 4

0.5
Present study - clays and organic soils
Tatsouka & Kobayashi (1983) - Tokyo clay
Kawasaki et al. (1984) - Japanese clay
0.4 Balasubramaniam & Buensuceso (1989) - Bangkok clay
Present study hnberg et al. (1996) - Mellsa clay
hnberg et al. (1996) - Lvstad gyttja
hnberg et al. (1996) - Kil silt
c' / qu('3c=0 kPa)

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
qu('3c=0 kPa), kPa

Figure 4.20 Evaluated effective friction angle vs. strength of stabilised soil in this
study together with results from earlier investigations. Binder contents 5-300% (of
dry weight). After Paper VI.

60

50
Present study

40
o

30
',

20 Present study - clays and organic soils


Tatsouka & Kobayashi (1983) - Tokyo clay
Kawasaki et al. (1984) - Japanese clay
Balasubramaniam & Buensuceso (1989) - Bangkok clay
10
hnberg et al. (1996) - Mellsa clay
hnberg et al. (1996) - Lvstad gyttja
hnberg et al. (1996) - Kil silt
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
qu('3c=0 kPa), kPa

Figure 4.21 Strength ratio vs. strength of stabilised soil in this study together
with corresponding results from earlier investigations. Binder contents 5-300% (of
dry weight). After Paper VI.

50 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

further testing over a greater strength range. Results from earlier investigations
indicate a slightly increasing friction angle with decreasing water content
(Balasubramaniam & Buensuceso, 1989; hnberg et al., 1995). However, this
effect was not obvious from the results in the present study. A tendency
towards a slight increase in the friction angle with decreasing plasticity index
was, however, observed. This is in accordance with the effects of plasticity
index on effective friction angles reported for natural soils by, e.g., Kenney
(1959) and Terzaghi & Peck (1967).

4.3.3 Adaptation of a strength model stress paths and


influence of stresses during curing

In previous sections, it has been shown that the quasi-preconsolidation


pressure is strongly linked to the strength of the stabilised soil and has a
considerable influence on its deformation behaviour, see Sections 4.3.2 and
4.1.4, respectively. The effects of the quasi-preconsolidation pressure on the
strength behaviour of stabilised soils can be further illustrated by studying the
undrained stress paths and the stress-strain responses. Studies of yield stresses
and their effect on undrained stress paths (e.g. Kasama et al., 2000; Uddin &
Buesuceso, 2002; Balasubramaniam et al., 2005) and strength (e.g.
Horpibulsuk et al., 2004) in triaxial strength testing are few, and little has
been published concerning the effects of different binders. In the present
study, results from series of active and passive triaxial tests served to describe
the strength behaviour in this respect (Paper VII).

In Figure 4.22 examples are shown of measured effective stress paths in


undrained tests together with failure and yield stresses evaluated from drained
tests on stabilised clay, presented in a s:t effective stress plane, where s =
(1+3)/2 and t = (1-3)/2. The test results include different binders and
quantities, and times after mixing. No external stresses were applied to the
samples during curing. The measured strength varied considerably, reflecting
soft to stiff stabilised soils. Lines are drawn indicating the evaluated effective
strength parameters friction angle, , and cohesion intercept, c, for the
different mixtures. Lines representing quasi-preconsolidation pressures, qp,
evaluated from the oedometer tests, are also indicated in the diagrams.

At consolidation stresses in triaxial tests higher than, or of the same order as,
the quasi-preconsolidation pressure, relatively high positive pore pressures are
generated during undrained testing. This is seen in a more distinct turn in the

Strength of stabilised soft soil 51


CHAPTER 4

500
Linkping clay Lime 100 kg/m3
CAU CAD
s.p. q max q yield
400
1 day
28 days
1 year

'3)/2, kPa
300

'1- qmax (drained triaxial tests) c'=5-13 kPa


o
200 '=29-33
(

s.p. (undrained triaxial tests)


100
qyield (drained triaxial tests)

'qp (oedometer tests)


0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
'1+
( '3)/2, kPa
500
Linkping clay Cement 100 kg/m3
CAU CAD
s.p. q max q yield
400
1 day
28 days
1 year c'=63-140 kPa
( '1- '3)/2, kPa

300 o
'=31-35

200

100

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
'1+
( '3)/2, kPa
500
Linkping clay 28 days
CAU CAD
s.p. q max q yield
400
Slag-lime
Cement-lime
Cement-fly ash
'3)/2, kPa

Cement-slag
300 c'=12-125 kPa
o
'=35-37
'1-

200
(

100

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
'1+
( '3)/2, kPa

Figure 4.22 Examples of measured stress paths (s.p.) in the s:t stress plane for
stabilised clay. From Paper VII.

52 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

effective stress paths towards the effective stress failure line in the drained tests,
and failure in the undrained tests occurs close to the point where this line is
reached. In tests where the consolidation stresses are well below the quasi-
preconsolidation pressure, the undrained stress paths approach the drained
failure line more gradually, and failure occurs at a point below or around the
state where the effective vertical stress equals the quasi-preconsolidation
pressure. In the various test series in this study, most of the quasi-
preconsolidation pressures were evaluated from single oedometer tests and, as
an effect of the scatter in results, varying deviations from this behaviour can
also be observed.

When stress paths in drained tests pass a point at which the effective stress
corresponds approximately to the quasi-preconsolidation pressure, a distinct
break in the stress-strain curves can often be observed. The strains measured
up to this breakpoint are low, only a few tenths of a percent, whereas failure
in these cases often occurs at considerably larger strains. This yielding becomes
less distinct as the strength of the samples increases and occurs then, if at all, at
stresses and strains closer to failure. In the present study, the variation in stress
at which a first yielding was observed was quite large, indicating that these
breakpoints can only be taken as an indication of the approximate level of the
quasi-preconsolidation pressure.

There are several model used for describing the behaviour of natural soils. A
strength model developed for natural clays (Larsson, 1977) can be adapted to
describe the strength behaviour of stabilised soils. In this strength and yielding
model, limit state curves are schematically given as four segments, two of
which correspond to the failure strength lines in compression and extension,
and two that correspond to v= vc and h= K0ncvc. The model describes
the limit state of natural soils for the triaxial case, showing the effects of
anisotropy in a simple way linked directly to normally determined soil
parameters. The adaptation of this model to stabilised soils is demonstrated in
Figure 4.23, where results are shown from active and passive tests performed
on samples of one type of stabilised Linkping clay. For these samples,
prepared and stored in the normal way with no external stresses, an
approximately isotropic yield surface can be adopted, described by an apparent
K0nc value close to unity. For comparison, stress paths, effective stress failure
lines, and yield surfaces of the natural, unstabilised clay are also shown.

The effects of stabilisation are clearly demonstrated by the significant increase


in cohesion intercept and the much higher quasi-preconsolidation pressure

Strength of stabilised soft soil 53


CHAPTER 4

Figure 4.23 Measured stress paths (s.p.) in the s:t stress plane in active and
passive triaxial tests on stabilised and unstabilised Linkping clay. From Paper VII.

than that of the natural soil, whereas a change in effective friction angle is less
evident. For stabilised soils, variations in effective friction angles of the same
order as those observed in the study (see previous section), in general have
limited influence on the drained strength compared with the increase in
cohesion intercept, except at high effective confining stresses. The increase in
c is closely related to the simultaneous increase in undrained strength, as
shown in the previous section. An exception to the normal increase in c for
stabilised soils could be observed when using lime in the Linkping clay, see
Figure 4.22. In these samples practically no change in cohesion intercept or
effective friction angle with time was observed. This lack of any difference
between one day and one year was also observed in the unconfined
compression tests on this clay mixed with lime, see Figure 4.8b.

The strength behaviour may be further illustrated by normalising the stress


paths with respect to the quasi-preconsolidation pressure evaluated from the
oedometer test. This normalisation provides a congruent picture of the stress
paths for the different types of stabilised soils included in the study. Figure

54 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

4.24 shows the normalised results for the active tests on the two clays in this
study. In cases where the consolidation stress applied in the triaxial testing was
higher than the value of qp evaluated from the oedometer tests, the
specimens were treated as being normally consolidated. The stress paths of
these specimens are indicated by dotted lines, and failure by open circles in the
figure. The results of the tests on mixtures of lime and Linkping clay, which
barely showed any signs of having been stabilised and thus clearly deviated
from the rest of the materials with regard to the magnitude of the normalised
cohesion, are not included in the figure. Normalisation of the stress paths for
this material indicated behaviour closer to that of natural clay.

Based on the results of both active and passive tests in this study, Figure 4.25
shows generalised stress paths of stabilised clays that have been cured without
being subjected to external stresses. Considering the results of all the tests on
the different types of stabilised clays in the present study, the mean drained

1.5
CAU CAD
s.p q failure q max q yield

Stab. Linkping clay


Stab. Lftabro clay
Stab. Linkping clay
Stab. Lftabro clay
1
( '1- '3)/2/ 'qp

c'=(0.14-0.16)'qp
'=33-34o

0.5

"oc" ('vc < 'qp)


"nc" ('vc d 'qp)

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
'1+
( '3)/2/
'qp

Figure 4.24 Measured stress paths normalised to the quasi-preconsolidation


pressures in the s:t stress plane in triaxial tests on stabilised Lftabro and
Linkping clays. After Paper VII.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 55


CHAPTER 4

strength could be approximately described by a cohesion intercept of 0.15qp


and a friction angle of 33, giving qd 0.25qp+ 0.54(1 + 3). Under
undrained conditions, the strength is affected by the magnitude of the
consolidation stress in relation to the quasi-preconsolidation pressure. The
undrained strength of the stabilised clays in the study varied from
approximately 0.6qp for highly overconsolidated samples to 1.0qp for
normally consolidated samples.

The specimens that prior to testing had been consolidated at stresses close to
or higher than the quasi-preconsolidation pressure measured in the oedometer
tests, indicate a somewhat higher yield stress, of up to 1.1 to 1.2qp. These
results are probably affected to some degree by cementation effects during
consolidation. The evaluation of the quasi-preconsolidation pressure from the
oedometer tests on the stabilised soils also affects the results. The quasi-
preconsolidation pressures were evaluated in the standard way for natural,
unstabilised soils. No further analyses of measurements or evaluation of

Stabilised clays
Failure line c'=(0.14-0.16)'qp
'=33-34o
0.5
('v- 'h)/2/ 'qp

' h =0

Yield surface

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Undrained tests
' v =0
Drained tests

-0.5
( 'h)/2/
'v+ 'qp

Figure 4.25. Stress paths normalised to the quasi-preconsolidation pressure in the


s:t stress plane in triaxial tests on stabilised soils cured under isotropic stress
conditions.

56 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

preconsolidation pressure from oedometer tests were performed in the present


study.

When the specimens are consolidated at low confining stresses, the stress paths
in undrained tests may approach zero effective horizontal stress and come
close to the tension cut-off line. Here, the stabilised specimens may fracture
unless a tensile strength can be mobilised. In highly overconsolidated
specimens, negative pore pressures as a rule start to develop as the stress paths
approach the failure line. In the present study, the pore pressures generated in
the stabilised soils varied between approximately -0.1qp and 0.5-0.6qp for
highly overconsolidated and normally consolidated specimens,
respectively. In the drained tests, the volumetric strains for these specimens
also showed that dilation starts at points somewhat below the indicated failure
line. This gives a slightly rounded shape to the yield surface close to the origin,
in contrast to the straight lines given by the model.

For undrained conditions, the stabilised soils exhibit almost ideal-plastic


behaviour after failure, without significant reduction in strength, see Figure
4.6. For drained conditions in highly overconsolidated specimens, the
stabilised soils exhibit brittle behaviour with a significant reduction in strength
after failure, which occurs at a very small strain. No further studies of the
strength behaviour at large strains were made in this study.

In the passive tests, the specimens designated normally consolidated exhibited


a horizontal yield surface corresponding to a somewhat lower apparent K0nc
value than the others. However, the effect of cementation, which is of
isotropic nature, has a significant impact on the results and constrains the
change in apparent K0nc to a higher value than that used during consolidation
in the triaxial tests.

In this study, the same effects of a quasi-preconsolidation pressure were


observed in the stabilised organic soils as in stabilised clays. However, the
mean ratio of c/qp for the stabilised organic soils was slightly higher than
that for the stabilised clay. Whether an initial loading of the order of 18 kPa
(see Section 2.3.3), which corresponded to only about 10% of the quasi-
preconsolidation pressure, has any anisotropic effect on the yield stresses,
could not be interpreted from the results.

Subjecting the stabilised samples to stresses during curing results in an increase


in strength as well as an increase in quasi-preconsolidation pressure. Applying

Strength of stabilised soft soil 57


CHAPTER 4

the curing stresses shortly after mixing causes compression of the sample and
allows the cementation processes to proceed with the particles arranged closer
together. In the present study, a number of tests were performed on samples
subjected to external stresses during curing. It was clear that apart from the
quasi-preconsolidation pressure being affected to a large degree by
cementation effects, the stresses acting during curing also have an impact on
the strength behaviour of the stabilised soil. The increase in c was
approximately proportional to the increase in qp, whereas the effective
friction angle was about the same for samples cured with and without external
stresses. Since both the curing stress and cementation effects affect the yield
surface, the ratio between horizontal and vertical yield stresses, K0qp, will not be
the same as the K0 value used during curing. However, the K0 value used
during curing does have an influence. When a K0 of 0.5 was used, an increase
in horizontal yield stress was observed corresponding to half the increase in
vertical quasi-preconsolidation pressure. Figure 4.26 shows the general
effective stress paths followed in samples subjected to anisotropic external

Stabilised clays
c'=(0.14-0.16)'qp
'=33-34o

0.5
( 'v-'h)/2/'qp

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
K 0qp ' qp

Undrained tests
Drained tests

-0.5
( 'h)/2/
'v+ 'qp

Figure 4.26 Stress paths normalised to the quasi-preconsolidation pressure in the


s:t stress plane in triaxial tests on stabilised soils cured under anisotropic stress
conditions.

58 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Effects of binders on soil properties - Field of research
research

curing stress. The effect of the K0 value used during curing on the value of K0qp
for the yield stresses can be expressed approximately as

qp
1 + K 0 qp 0
K 0 qp = (4.5)
qp
1 + qp 0

is the quasi-preconsolidation pressure for a sample not subjected to


where qp 0

external stresses during curing.

Since the effects of increased stresses are related to the compression of the
stabilised material, increased stresses caused by a load, e.g. from an
embankment, should preferably be applied in a way that produces a certain
compression of the material shortly after stabilisation. This is in accordance
with results observed from initial loading of stabilised peat, see Section 4.2.2.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 59


CHAPTER 4

60 Strength of stabilised soft soil


5 Conclusions and further
research

5.1 CONCLUSIONS
A large number of binders can be used for the stabilisation of soils. In this
study, a variety of binders and binder combinations were used to stabilise, i.e.
increase the strength and stiffness of, four very soft soils, two clays and two
organic soils. These soils were stabilised with good results with most, but not
all, of the binders. The composition of the soil may have a considerable
influence on the results, and it was concluded that the optimum combination
of binders for a certain application will vary with the type of soil.

To interpret the results obtained from tests of stabilisation effects, it is


essential to understand the basic reactions normally taking place in soil after
mixing with binders. This study showed that the increase in strength with
time, both in short-term and long-term perspectives, can in general be linked
to the type and quantity of various reaction products that are generated by the
chemical processes taking place during stabilisation.

When stabilising soils with binders, the properties will change to different
extents depending on the type and amount of binder used and the type of soil.
However, the results presented in this thesis show that the ways in which the
soil reacts with a binder are largely similar, regardless of the type of binder
used. Effects of stabilisation with dry binders in the laboratory are that the
water content typically decreases, the density increases or remains about the
same, and the degree of saturation decreases. The permeability may initially
increase or decrease as a result of the introduction of binder particles into the

Strength of stabilised soft soil 61


CHAPTER 5

soil, flocculation of soil particles and any compaction applied to the stabilised
soil. The permeability thereafter decreases with time, i.e. with increased
cementation. A rough estimate of the change in permeability of homogeneous,
stabilised soils can be made on the basis of the change in water content and
the strength of the stabilised soil.

The strength obtained in a stabilised soil depends not only on the specific
combination of soil and binder, and the quantity of binder, but also on a
number of other factors, such as the degree of saturation, the stress conditions
and the drainage conditions. The effects of these factors will vary according to
the application, but must be taken into consideration in the design of deep
mixing. In the laboratory, tests should preferably be performed so as to
simulate the conditions expected in the field. However, the conditions in the
field may vary considerably, calling for rather laborious testing programmes if
all the expected conditions are to be covered. In designing more rational
testing programmes, it is therefore important to consider the influence of
factors that may vary in the field. In this study, several examples of typical
strength behaviour were shown in this respect.

The drainage conditions, the effective consolidation stresses, the back pressure
and strain rate may vary depending on the method used for strength testing.
The results of the present work show that triaxial tests on soft soils stabilised
with normal quantities of dry binders should preferably be performed at a
back pressure of at least about 400 kPa and a strain rate of the order of about
0.02%/min or slower, to yield results relevant under almost fully saturated
conditions. This recommended strain rate refers in particular to drained tests.
For soil stabilised by dry binders, a significant difference in the measured
undrained shear strength is observed when using different levels of back
pressure. Under unsaturated conditions, the stabilised soils behave as if partly
drained since excess pore water pressure can be partly equalised by
compression or expansion of the entrapped air. In the drained tests, on the
other hand, no significant differences were observed with different back
pressures. Different rates of strain in the undrained triaxial tests indicate a
limited influence on the measured strength, when the rate was varied from 0.2
to 0.002%/min. In the drained tests, varying the rate of strain resulted in
differences in measured strength in tests performed at 0.2%/min compared
with 0.02 and 0.002%/min. This was assumed to be caused by a build-up of
excess pore pressure (positive or negative) with the highest rate, thus entailing
not fully drained conditions.

62 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Conclusions and further research

For low or medium stabilised soil strengths, the results of unconfined


compression tests, performed without any further saturation, indicate about
the same undrained strength as triaxial compression tests at low confining
stresses on samples saturated by high back pressures. At higher strength levels,
however, the unconfined compression tests indicated higher strength values
than the triaxial tests. In cases when the degree of saturation can be expected
to increase with time, unconfined compression tests may thus yield
misleadingly high results.

The results showed that although the type of binder used in stabilising the
soils may strongly affect the rate of strength increase and final strength, the
general strength behaviour is the same for the most common binders.
Furthermore, the same set of parameters that is used to describe the strength
of natural soils can also be used for stabilised soils. However, it should be
observed that specific binders or soil types can have specific effects on the
behaviour, e.g. fibrous materials and needle-shaped reaction products may
render more ductile behaviour.

A quasi-preconsolidation pressure, qp, can be observed in the triaxial tests as


well as in the oedometer tests. It was shown that both the cementation process
involved and the stresses applied during curing determine this quasi-
preconsolidation pressure. The influence of the quasi-preconsolidation
pressure was observed in active as well as passive triaxial tests. It affects the
stress paths and is closely related to the strength of the stabilised soils. The
stabilised soils behave in an overconsolidated manner when the consolidation
stress is significantly lower than the quasi-preconsolidation pressure, and in a
normally consolidated manner when the consolidation stress is of the order of
0.8 to 1.0qp.

The undrained and drained strengths of stabilised materials are stress


dependent in a way similar to that of natural soils. The stress dependence of
the undrained strength can be described by taking into account a degree of
quasi-overconsolidation giving a curved strength-stress relation in the
overconsolidated range. For stabilised clays, the results indicated a curved
relation in accordance with approximately qu = 1.01c (qp/1c) . The
0.88

undrained compressive strength of the stabilised clays varied from


approximately 0.6qp for highly overconsolidated samples to 1.0qp for
normally consolidated samples. The measured drained strength parameters of
the four stabilised soils in the present study varied to a fairly large extent. The
mean cohesion intercept, c, could be expressed as approximately 0.23qu (or

Strength of stabilised soft soil 63


CHAPTER 5

0.46cu). The mean effective friction angle, , was 31-33 for the four
stabilised soils, independent of the type of binder. The variation in drained
strength of the different types of stabilised clays could approximately be
expressed by a mean cohesion intercept of 0.15qp and a mean friction angle
of 33.

A common yielding model for natural clays (Larsson, 1977) was also found
suitable for describing the behaviour observed in the tests on stabilised soils.
The yield surface can be described schematically by the failure lines in
compression and extension and by v= qp and h= 0qpqp. An isotropic
yield surface can be adopted for samples cured in the normal way, without
external stresses. Stress applied to a stabilised soil shortly after mixing will
compress the material, causing cementation to take place with particles
arranged closer together, resulting in increased strength and increased quasi-
preconsolidation pressure. The results of the study showed that an initial load
during curing can greatly improve the strength of stabilised soil. An even early
loading in the field is thus beneficial, especially in improving the homogeneity
and strength of stabilised peat. A K0 value lower than unity of the stresses
applied during curing results in a ratio of the horizontal-to-vertical yield
stresses, K0qpc, lower than 1.0, but higher than the applied stress ratio.

Consistent patterns linked to the degree of overconsolidation can also be


observed in the stress-strain relations. In undrained tests on a stabilised soil
subjected to a confining effective stress, there is only limited further change in
deviator stress with continued straining after failure. This is in contrast to the
stress-strain response most often measured in unconfined compression tests,
where a drastic reduction in strength normally occurs at large strains. Not
taking into account the effects of confining stresses in situ may thus lead to
miscalculation of stabilisedunstabilised soil interaction. In drained tests on
stabilised soils consolidated at stresses well below the quasi-preconsolidation
pressure, failure occurs at small strains, and a significant reduction in shear
stress with strain after failure can be observed. Stabilised soils that are close to
normally consolidated, on the other hand, may not exhibit failure until after
large strains.

64 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Conclusions and further research

5.2 FURTHER RESEARCH


Very large differences in stabilising effect were found between the two clays
studied in the investigations. Detailed studies of the influence of the chemical
composition of the soils on the strength increase were not included in this
study. Further studies of the impact of different soil parameters should be
performed to improve the estimates of the chemical reactivity of different soil
types.

In the present study, four types of soil were investigated. In order to expand
the applicability of the general behaviour of stabilised soil described in this
thesis, the strength behaviour of an increased number of stabilised soils, e.g.
silty soils, soils of different mineralogy and highly organic gyttja, should also
be investigated.

The stress dependence at high compressive strength levels, about 800 kPa and
above, requires additional testing in order to model the behaviour over a larger
strength range. Further studies of the influence of curing stresses on the
strength behaviour of samples cured at different strength levels should also be
performed in order to allow more general conclusions to be drawn.

The behaviour of partly saturated stabilised soils should be investigated


further. In the present study, differences in results between saturated and
unsaturated samples were investigated by a number of tests, but attention was
focused on the behaviour of saturated stabilised soils. This was considered to
be a necessary first step in studying stabilised strength behaviour. In the next
step, partly saturated stabilised soils should be studied further, regarding both
changes in degree of saturation to be expected in situ and the influence of this
on the strength behaviour.

The properties of stabilised soils using different types of binder should also be
studied in the field. Correlations between laboratory and field properties
should be studied. Comparative studies of field and laboratory strength
behaviour should be made in order to improve the basis for the prediction of
strength in situ. Further studies are also required concerning the permeability
of columns in the field, as the permeability measured in the laboratory can
only be regarded as a lower limit. Large-scale tests performed on columns in
the field have shown somewhat higher or even considerably higher values than
those measured in the probably more homogeneous samples in the laboratory.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 65


CHAPTER 5

Design models for deep mixing should be further developed to incorporate the
concepts of an effective stress state, a quasi-preconsolidation pressure and a
stress dependence of undrained as well as drained strength. Furthermore,
substantial long-term increases in strength as well as significant changes in
other important properties, such as permeability and compressibility, were
observed for many of the binder combinations. A time factor should thus be
incorporated into the design model in order to better account for the
construction and lifetime behaviour of a foundation on stabilised soil.

66 Strength of stabilised soft soil


References

REFERENCES IN SUMMARY
Aln, C., Baker, S., Bengtsson, P.-E. & Sllfors, G. (2005). Lime/cement
column stabilised soil A new model for settlement calculation. Proceedings
International Conference on Deep Mixing, Stockholm 2005. Vol. 1.2, pp.
205-212.
ASTM standard (2000). ASTM standard C 618 00. Standard specification
for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral
admixture in Portland cement concrete.
Axelsson, K., Johansson S-E. & Andersson R. (1996). Stabilisation of organic
soils. Feasibility study. Swedish Deep Stabilisation Research Centre, Report
No. 3. (In Swedish)
Axelsson, M. (2000). Deep stabilization with lime cement columns. Methods for
quality control in the field. Licentiate Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology.
Division of Soil and Rock Mechanics. Also in Swedish Deep Stabilization
Research Centre, Report No. 8, 163 p. (In Swedish)
Babasaki, R., Terashi, M., Suzuki, T., Maekawa, A., Kawamura, M. &
Fukazawa, E. (1996). JGS TC Report: Factors influencing the strength of
nd
improved soil. Proc. 2 Int. Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems
IS Tokyo96. Grouting and Deep Mixing, Tokyo, 1996. Vol. 2, pp. 913-
918.
Baker, S. (2000). Deformation behavior of lime/cement column stabilized clay.
Ph.D. Thesis, Department. of Geotechnical Engineering, Chalmers
University of Technology, Gothenburg.
Balasubramaniam, A.S. & Buensuceso, B.R. (1989). On the overconsolidated
behavior of lime treated soft clay. Proc. XII International Conference on Soil
Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Rio de Janeiro 1989, pp. 1335-
1338.
Balasubramaniam, A.S., Buensuceso, B., Oh, E.Y.N., Bolton, M., Bergado,
D.T. & Lorenzo, G. (2005). Strength degradation and critical state seeking

Strength of stabilised soft soil 67


References

behaviour of lime treated soft clay. Proc. International Conference on Deep


Mixing Best Practice and Recent Advances, Deep Mixing05, Stockholm
2005, pp. 35-40.
Bengtsson, P-E. & hnberg, H. (1995). Settlement calculations for lime
column stabilisations. Road E18 at Fiskvik kanal. SGI project 1-261/86.
(In Swedish)
Bergwall, M. & Falksund, M. (1996). Consolidation of lime cement columns
permeability and stiffness. Masters thesis 1996:1, Department of
Geotechnical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology,
Gothenburg.
Bishop, A.W. & Henkel, D.J., 1962, The measurements of soil properties in the
triaxial tests. Second edition, Edward Arnold Ltd, London.
Bjerrum, L. (1972). Embankments on soft ground. Proc. Specialty Conference
on Performance of Earth and Earth-Supported Structures, Lafayette 1972,
Vol. II, pp. 1-54.
Boardman, D. L, Glendinning, S. & Rogers, C. D. F. (2001). Development
of stabilisation and solidification in lime-clay mixes. Gotechnique Vol. 50,
No. 6, pp. 533-543.
Boynton, R. (1980). Chemistry and technology of lime and limestone. John
Wiley & Sons Inc., New York1980.
Brandl, H. (1981). Alteration of soil parameters by stabilization with lime.
Proc. Xth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Engineering. Stockholm 1981. Vol. 3, pp. 587-594.
Brandl, H. (1999). Long-term behaviour of soils stabilised with lime and with
cement. Proc. Geotechnics for Developing Africa, Durban 1999, pp. 219-232.
rd
Broms, B., 1984. Stabilization of soil with lime columns. Design Handbook, 3
Edition, Lime Column AB.
Broms, B. & Boman, P., 1977. Stabilization of soil with lime columns, Design
st
Handbook, 1 Edition, Division of Soil & Rock Mechanics, Royal Institute
of Technology, Stockholm.
Brunauer, S., Emmett, P.H. & Teller, E. (1938). Adsorption of gasses in
multimolecular layers. Journal of American Chemical Society 60:309-
319.
Buchwald, A., Kaps, C. & Hohmann, M. (2003). Alkali-activated binders and
pozzolan cement binders compete binder reactions or two sides of the
th
same story? Proc. 11 International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement.
Durban 2003, pp. 1238-1246.

68 Strength of stabilised soft soil


References

Carlsten, P. & Ekstrm, J. (1995). Lime and lime cement columns. Guide for
project planning, construction and inspection. Swedish Geotechnical Society
Report 4:95E.
Carlsten, P. (2000). Lime and lime cement columns. Guide for project planning,
construction and inspection. Swedish Geotechnical Society Report 2:2000.
(In Swedish)
CEN standard (1989). CEN standard EN196-6:1989. Methods of testing
cement Part 6: Determination of fineness. European Committee for
standardization (CEN), Brussels.
CEN standard (2000). CEN standard EN197-1:2000. Cement Part 1:
Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements.
European Committee for standardization (CEN), Brussels.
CEN standard (2001). CEN standard EN459-1:2001. Building lime Part I:
Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria. European Committee
for standardization (CEN), Brussels.
Chew, S.H., Kamruzzaman, A.H.M. & Lee, E.H. (2004). Physicochemical
and engineering behavior of cement treated clays Journal of Geotechnical
and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 7, July l, 2004. pp. 696-
706.
Christensen, J., Schjnning, E. & Foged, N. (1992). Comparison of clay till
strength parameters using British Standard and Danish test procedures.
Proc. Nordic Geotechnical Meeting, NGM-92, Aalborg, 1992, Vol. 1/3, pp.
69-74.
Cortellazzo, G. & Cola, S. (1999). Geotechnical characteristics of two Italian
peats stabilized with binders. Proc. of the International Conference on Dry
Mix Methods for Deep Soil Stabilization. Stockholm 1999.
den Haan, E. (1998). Cement based stabilizers for Dutch organic soils. Proc.
Problematic soils, Sendai 1998. pp. 53-56. Yanagisawa, Moroto & Mitachi
(eds). Balkema, Rotterdam.
Dumbleton, M.J. (1962). Investigations to assess the potentialities of lime
stabilization in the United Kingdom. Road Research Technical Paper No.
64.
Edstam, T., Ekstrm, J. Hallingberg, A. & Nilsson, L. (2004). Control of
lime-cement columns in the valley of the river Gta-lv. Proc. Nordic
Geotechnical Meeting, NGM 2004, Ystad, 2004, Vol. 1, pp. D-43-54. (In
Swedish)
Eriksson, H., Gunter, J. & Ruin, M. (2005). MDM combines the advantages
of dry and wet mixing. Proc. International Conference on Deep Mixing,
Stockholm 2005, Vol. 1.2, pp. 509-520.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 69


References

Esrig, M.I. (1999). Keynote lecture: Properties of binders and stabilized soils.
Proc. of the International Conference on Dry Mix Methods for Deep Soil
Stabilization, Stockholm 1999, pp. 67-72.
ETC5 (1998). Recommendations of the ISSMGE for geotechnical laboratory
testing. Beuth Verlag, Berlin.
EuroSoilStab (2002). Development of design and construction methods to stabilise
soft organic soils. Design guide soft soil stabilisation. CT97-0351. Project
No. BE-96-3177, Industrial & Materials Technologies Programme (Brite-
EuRam III), European Commission.
Fredlund, D. & Rahardjo, H. (1993). Soil mechanics for unsaturated soils. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York.
Hammond, A.A. (1981). Measurement of autogenous healing in stabilized
soils. Proc. Xth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Engineering. Stockholm 1981. Vol. 3, pp. 671-676.
Hartln, J. & Wolski, W. (1996). Embankments on organic soils. Eds: Hartln,
J., & Wolski, W.. Developments in geotechnical engineering, 80. Elsevier,
Amsterdam.
Hayashi, H., Nishikawa, J., Kanta Ohishi, K. & Terashi, M. (2003). Field
rd
observation of long-term strength of cement treated soil. Proc. 3
International Conference on Grouting and Ground Treatment, New Orleans
2003, pp. 598-609.
Hayashi, Y., Suszuki, A., Kitazono, Y. & Teraoka, K. (2005). Consolidation
characteristics of the cement-treated soil in a fresh state. Proc. International
Conference on Deep Mixing, Stockholm 2005. Vol. 1.1, pp. 63-67.
Hebib, S. & Farrell, E. (1999). Some experience of stabilising Irish organic
soils. Proc. International Conference on Dry Mix Methods for Deep Soil
Stabilization. Stockholm 1999.
Horpibulsuk, S., Miura, N. & Nagara, T. S. (2003). Assessment of strength
development in cement-admixed high water content clays with Abrams law
as a basis. Gotechnique, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 439-444.
Horpibulsuk S., Miura, N. & Bergado, D. T. (2004). Undrained shear
behavior of cement admixed clay at high water content . Journal of
Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 10, pp.
1096-1105.
Hgberg, E. (1983). Durability. Nordic Seminar on Deep Stabilisation.
Nordforsk, Dipoli 1983. (In Swedish)
Ingles, O.G. & Metcalf, J.B. (1972). Soil stabilization. Butterworths Pty. Ltd,
Australia.

70 Strength of stabilised soft soil


References

Jamiolkowski, M., Ladd, C.C., Germaine, J.T. and Lancelotta, R. (1985).


New developments in field and laboratory testing of soils. Theme Lecture.
Proc. 11th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Engineering, San Francisco 1985,Vol. 1, pp. 57153.
Janz, M. & Johansson, S.E. (2001). /English translation 2002./ The function
of different binding agents in deep stabilization. Swedish Deep Stabilisation
Research Centre, Report No. 9.
nd
Johansson, S.E. (1997). Cement. Concrete handbook, Materials. 2 Edition.
AB Svensk Byggtjnst, Stockholm 1997, pp. 33-67. (In Swedish)
Karlsson, R. (1963). On cohesive soils and their flow properties. Swedish
Geotechnical Institute, Reprints and preliminary reports, No. 5.
Kasama K., Ochiai, H. & Yasufuku, N. (2000). On the stress-strain behaviour
of lightly cemented clay based on an extended critical state concept. Soils
and Foundations, Vol. 40, No.5, pp. 37-47.
Kawasaki, T., Saitoh, S., Suzuki, Y.& Babasaki, R. (1984). Deep mixing
method using cement slurry as hardening agent. Seminar on Soil
Improvement and Construction Techniques in Soft Ground. Singapore 10-11
January 1984, pp. 17-38.
Kenney, C. (1959). Geotechnical properties of glacial lake clays. Discussion.
Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, Vol. 85, SM3.
pp. 67-79.
Kitazume, M. & Terashi, M. (2002). The Deep Mixing Method Principle,
design and construction. Ed. Coastal Development Institute of Technology
(CDIT), Japan. A.A. Balkema Publishers, Tokyo.
Kivel, M. (1998). Stabilization of embankments on soft soil with lime/cement
columns. Ph.D. Thesis, Deptartment of Civil and Environmental
Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
Kujala, K. (1983). The use of mineral additions together with lime deep
stabilisation of soils. Proc. Nordic Seminar on Deep Stabilisation. Nordforsk,
Dipoli 1983. (In Swedish)
Kwan, S. & Bouazza A. (2002). Deformation properties of a treated soft silty
th
clay. Proc. 4 International Conference on Ground Improvement Techniques:
Kuala Lumpur 2002, pp. 457-463.
Ladd, C.C. & Foott, R. (1974). New Design Procedure for Stability of Soft
Clays. ASCE, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, Vol. 100,
No. GT7, pp. 763-786.
Lahtinen, P., Jyrv, H. & Kuusipuro, K. (1999). Development of binders for
organic soils. Proc. of the International Conference on Dry Mix Methods for
Deep Soil Stabilization. Stockholm 1999.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 71


References

Landva , A.O. & Pheeney, P.E. (1980). Peat fabric and structure. Canadian
Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp.416-435.
Larsson, R. (1977). Basic behaviour of Scandinavian soft clays. Swedish
Geotechnical Institute, Report No. 4, Linkping.
Larsson, R. (1990). Behaviour of organic clay and gyttja. Swedish Geotechnical
Institute, Report No. 38, Linkping.
Larsson, R. (2000). Investigations and load tests in clay till. Swedish
Geotechnical Institute, Report No. 59.
Larsson, R., Bengtsson, P.-E. & Eriksson, L. (1997). Prediction of settlements of
embankments on soft, fine-grained soils calculation of settlements and their
course with time. Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Information No. 13E.
Larsson, R. & hnberg, H. (2005). On the evaluation of undrained shear
strength and preconsolidation pressure from common field tests in clay..
Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 1221-1231.
Larsson, S. (2003). Mixing processes for ground improvement by Deep Mixing.
Doctoral Thesis. Division of Soil and Rock Mechanics, Royal Institute of
Technology, Stockholm.
Lindh, P. (2004). Compaction- and strength properties of stabilised and
unstabilised fine-grained tills. Doctoral Thesis. Division of Soil Mechanics
and Foundation Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund
University.
Lee, K. Chan D. & Lam K. (2004). Constitutive model for cement treated
clay in a critical state frame work. Soils and Foundations, Vol. 44, No.3, pp.
69-77.
Lorenzo, G. & Bergado D. (2002). Fundamental parameters of cement-
admixed clayNew approach. Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 10, pp. 1042-1050.
Lowe, J. & Johnson, T.C. (1960). Use of back pressure to increase degree of
saturation of triaxial test specimens. Proc. Research Conference on Shear
Strength of Cohesive Soils. Boulder 1960. pp. 819-836.
Lfroth, H. (2005). Properties of 10-year-old lime-cement columns. Proc.
International Conference on Deep Mixing, Stockholm 2005, Vol. 1.1, pp
509-127.
Mayne, P. W. (1988). Determining OCR in clays from laboratory strength.
Proceedings ASCE, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 114, No.
GT1, pp. 7692.
Nagaraj, T.S., Miura, N., Yaligar P.P. & Yamadera A. (1996) Predicting
strength development by cement admixture based on water content. Proc.

72 Strength of stabilised soft soil


References

nd
2 International Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems IS
Tokyo96. Grouting and Deep Mixing, Tokyo, 1996. Vol. 1, pp. 431-436.
Nygren, M. & Welander, A.-S. (1991). Estimates of properties of lime-cement
columns. Masters thesis 91/5, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
(In Swedish)
nd
Okumura, T. (1996) Deep Mixing Method of Japan. Proc. 2 International
Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems IS Tokyo96. Grouting and
Deep Mixing, Tokyo, 1996, Vol. 2, pp. 879-887.
Pihl, H. & Kuusipuro, K. (2004). Temperature increase at hydration of binders.
Internal work report. Nordkalk AB
Porhaba, A., Shibuya, S. & Kishida, T. (2000). State of the art in deep mixing
technology. Part III geomaterial characterization. Ground Improvement,
Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 91-110.
Robson T.D. (1962). High-alumina cements and concretes. Contractors Record
Ltd, London 1962.
Rotta, G.V. Consoli, N.C., Prietto, P.D.M., Coop, M.R. & Graham. J.
(2003). Isotropic yielding in an artificially cemented soil cured under stress.
Gotechnique, Vol. 53, No. 5, pp. 493-501.
Roy, N. & Sarathi, P. (1976). Strain rate behavior of compacted silt. Journal
of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 102, No. GT4, pp.
347-360.
Ruff, C.G. & Ho, C. (1966). Time-temperature strength-reaction product
relationships in lime-bentonite-water mixtures. Highway Research Record
No. 139, Highway Research Board. pp. 42-60.
Saitoh, S., Suzuki, Y. & Shirai, K. (1985). Hardening of soil improved by the
th
deep mixing method. Proc. 11 International Conference on Soil Mechanics
and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 3. pp. 1745-1748.
SGI (1997). SD SJE 1.1 Influence of type of binder, SGI project 1-9710-504,
SD SJE 1.2 Quantity of type of binder, SGI project 1-9712-646, SD SJE
1.5 Influence of consolidation stresses, SGI project 1-9712-680, SD SJE 2
Long term properties, SGI project 1-9712-682. (In Swedish)
SGI (1999). Procedures for triaxial testing of stabilised organic soils, SGI
project 1-9906-382.
Sheahan, T.C., Ladd, C.C. & Germaine, J.T. (1996). Rate-dependent
undrained shear behavior of saturated clay. Journal of Geotechnical
Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 122, No. 2, pp. 99-108.
Sherwood, P.T. (1993). Soil stabilisation with cement and lime. State-of-the-art
review. Transportation Research Laboratory, HMSO London.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 73


References

Sivapullaiah, P.V., Sridharan A. & Bhaskar Raju K.V. (2000). Role of amount
and type of clay in the lime stabilization of soils. Ground Improvement, Vol.
4, pp. 37-45.
Sjgren, M., Carlsten, P. & Elander, P. (1994). Determination of the
permeability of residual products and soil, in situ and in the laboratory.
Nordtest Technical Report 254.
Steenfelt, J. & Foged, N. (1992). Clay till strength SHANSEP and CSSM.
11. Proc. Nordic Geotechnical Meeting, NGM-92, Aalborg, 1992, Vol. 1/3,
pp. 81-86.
Steensen-Bach, J. O., Bengtsson, P.-E. & Rogbeck, Y. (1996) Large scale
th
triaxial tests on samples from lime-cement columns. Proc. XII Nordic
Geotechnical Conference NGM-96, Reykjavik 1996, Vol. 1, pp. 135-146.
Swedish Standard (1989a). SS 02 71 14, Geotechnical tests Bulk density.
Swedish Standards Institute, SIS Frlag AB, Stockholm (In Swedish)
Swedish Standard (1989b). SS 02 71 15, Geotechnical tests Grain density and
specific gravity. Swedish Standards Institute, SIS Frlag AB, Stockholm (In
Swedish)
Swedish Standard (1989c). SS 02 71 16, Geotechnical tests Water content and
degree of saturation. Swedish Standards Institute, SIS Frlag AB, Stockholm
(In Swedish)
Swedish Standard (1990a). SS 02 71 20, Geotechnical tests Cone liquid limit.
Swedish Standards Institute, SIS Frlag AB, Stockholm (In Swedish)
Swedish Standard (1990a). SS 02 71 21, Geotechnical tests Plastic limit.
Swedish Standards Institute, SIS Frlag AB, Stockholm (In Swedish)
Swedish Standard (1991). SS 02 71 26, Geotechnical tests - Compression
properties - Oedometer test, CRS-test - Cohesive soil. Swedish Standards
Institute, SIS Frlag AB, Stockholm (In Swedish)
Swedish Standard (1992a). SS 02 71 28, Geotechnical tests Shear strength
Unconfined compression tests Cohesive soil. Swedish Standards Institute,
SIS Frlag AB, Stockholm (In Swedish)
Swedish Standard (1992b). SS 02 71 29, Geotechnical tests - Compression
characteristics - Oedometer test incremental loading - Cohesive soil. Swedish
Standards Institute, SIS Frlag AB, Stockholm (In Swedish)
Tatsuoka, F. & Kobayashi, A. (1983). Triaxial strength characteristics of
th
cement-treated soft clay. Proc. 8 European Conference on Soil Mechanics and
Foundation Engineering, Helsinki 1983, Vol. 1, pp. 421-426.
Taylor, H.F.W. (1997). Cement chemistry. Thomas Telford, London 1997.

74 Strength of stabilised soft soil


References

Terashi, M. & Tanaka, H. (1983). Settlement analysis for deep mixing


th
methods. Proc. 8 European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Engineering, Helsinki 1983, pp. 955-960.
Terashi, M., Tanaka, H. & Okumura, T. (1979). Engineering properties of
th
lime-treated marine soils and D. M. Method. Proc. 6 Regional Conference
on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Singapore 1979, Vol. 1, pp.
191-194.
Terashi, M., Tanaka, H., Mitsumoto, T., Niidome, Y. & Honma, S. (1980).
nd
Fundamental properties of lime and cement treated soils (2 report). Report
of the Port and Harbour Research Institute, 19(1), pp. 33-62. (In
Japanese/English summary).
nd
Terzaghi, K. & Peck, R.B. (1967). Soil mechanics in engineering practice, 2
Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
Thompson, M.R. and Dempsey, B.T. (1969). Autogenous healing of lime-soil
mixtures. Highway Research Board. Highway Research Record No.263., pp.
1-7.
Torstensson, B-A. (1977). Time-dependent effects in the field vane test. Proc.
International Symposium on Soft Clay. Bangkok 1977, pp. 387-397.
TRB (1987). Lime stabilisation. Reactions, properties, design, and construction.
State-of-the-Art Report 5. Transportation Research Board, National Research
Council, Washington, D.C.
Tremblay, H., Leroueil, S. & Locat, J. (2001). Mechanical improvement and
vertical yield stress prediction of clayey soils from eastern Canada treated
with lime or cement. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 38, pp. 567-579.
Uddin K. & Buensuceso B. R. (2002). Lime treated clay: Salient Engineering
Properties and a Conceptual Model. Soils and Foundations, Vol. 42, No.5,
pp. 79-89.
von Post, L., 1924, Das genitische system der organogenen bildungen
Schwedens. Mmoires Nomenclat. et Classific. Sols, Comit int. Pdologie, 4
Commission No. 22, pp. 287-304.
Yoshizawa, H., Okumura, R, Hosoya, Y., Sumi, M. & Yamada, T. (1996).
JGS TC Report: Factors affecting the quality of treated soil during
nd
execution of DMM . Proc. 2 International Conference on Ground
Improvement Geosystems IS Tokyo96. Grouting and Deep Mixing, Tokyo
1996, Vol. 2, pp. 931-937.
hnberg, H. (1996). Stress dependent parameters of cement and lime
nd
stabilised soils. Proc. 2 International Conference on Ground Improvement
Geosystems IS Tokyo96. Grouting and Deep Mixing, Tokyo 1996, Vol. 1,
pp. 387-392.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 75


References

hnberg, H. & Holm, G. (1987). On the influence of curing temperature on


the strength of lime and cement stabilised soils. Swedish Geotechnical
Institute, Report No. 30, pp. 93-146. (In Swedish)
hnberg, H. & Holm, G. (1999). Stabilisation of some Swedish organic soils
with different types of binder. Proc. International Conference on Dry Mix
Methods for Deep Soil Stabilization, Stockholm 1999, pp. 101-108.
hnberg, H. & Pihl, H. (1998). Effects of different quicklimes on clays a
nd
preliminary study. Proc. 2 International Conference on Ground
Improvement Techniques, Singapore 1998, pp. 47-54.
hnberg, H., Bengtsson, P-E. & Holm, G. (1989). Prediction of strength of
lime columns. Proc. XII International Conference on Soil Mechanics and
Foundation Engineering. Rio de Janeiro 1989.
hnberg, H., Johansson, S-E., Retelius, A., Ljungkrantz, C., Holmqvist, L. &
Holm, G. (1995). Cement and lime for deep stabilisation of soil. Swedish
Geotechnical Institute, Report No. 48. (In Swedish)

REFERENCES EXCLUSIVELY IN THE PAPERS


ASTM standard (1990). ASTM standard D 5084 90. Standard test method
for measurement of hydraulic conductivity of saturated porous materials
using flexible wall permeameter.
ASTM standard (1994). ASTM standard C 618 94a. Standard specification
for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral
admixture in Portland cement concrete.
ASTM standard (1995). ASTM standard C 989 94a. Standard specification
for ground granulated blast furnace slag for use in concrete and mortars.
Berre, T. (1997). Methods for consolidated triaxial compression tests on water
saturated soils. European Technical Committee, Document No. ETC5-F1.97,
pp. 7586.
Black, D.K. & Lee, K.L. (1973). Saturating laboratory samples by a back
pressure. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Div., ASCE, Vol. 99,
No. SM1, pp. 75-93.
Broms, B. (1999). Can lime/cement columns be used in Singapore and
rd
Southeast Asia? 3 GRC Lecture, Singapore, 19 Nov. 1999.
Broms, B. (2000). Lime and lime/cement columns. Summary and visions.
th
Keynote lectures. Proc. Nordic Geotechnical Meeting NGM-2000 and 4
GIGS, Helsinki 2000, pp. 43-93.

76 Strength of stabilised soft soil


References

Bruce, D., Bruce, M.E. & DiMillio, A.F. (1999). Dry mix methods: A brief
overview of international practice. Proc. International Conference on Dry
Deep mixing Methods for deep Soil Stabilization, Stockholm 1999, pp. 15-
25.
Casagrande, A. & Wilson, S.D. (1951). Effect of rate of loading on the
strength of clays and shales at constant water content. Gotechnique, Vol. 2,
No. 3, pp. 251-263.
Consoli, N.C., Rotta, G.V. & Prietto, P.D.M. (2000). Influence of curing
under stress on the triaxial response of cemented soils. Gotechnique, Vol.
50, No. 1, pp. 99-105.
DeGroot, D.J. & Sheahan, T.C. (1995). Laboratory methods for determining
engineering properties of overconsolidated clays. Engineering properties and
practice in overconsolidated clays,. Transportation Research Record, No.
1479, pp. 17-25.
Hartln J. (1974). Strength properties and bearing capacity of clay till in
southern Sweden. PhD Thesis, Department of Geotechnical Engineering,
Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg. (In Swedish)
Hebib, S. & Farrell, E. (2000). EuroSoilStab, Task 2: Laboratory and numerical
analyses for field tests. Trinity College, Dublin. Internal Report,
EuroSoilStab project.
Hoikkala S., Leppnen M. and Lahtinen P. (1996). Mass stabilization of peat
in road construction. Proc. Nordic Geotechnical Meeting NGM, Reykjavik
1996, pp. 391-395.
Holm, G. & hnberg, H. (1987). Use of lime-fly ash for deep stabilisation of
soil. Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Report No. 30. (In Swedish)
rd
Holm, G. (2003). State of practice in dry deep mixing methods. Proc. 3
International Conference on Grouting and Ground Treatment, New Orleans
2003, pp. 145-163.
Holmn, M. (2003). Advanced triaxial testing of clay till. Licentiate
Dissertation, Division of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.
Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University.
Hkansson K., Johansson S.-E., Bengtsson P.-E., Holm G. &. hnberg H.
(2000). Task 2.2 and 7. Results of chemical analysis of soils and stabilised soils
Test sites Dmle Mosse and Holma Mosse, Sweden. National Report, Part 2.
Internal Report, EuroSoilStab project, SGI 3-9705-239 and 3-9708-395.
Hgberg, E. (1979). The role of lime in the stabilisation process. Seminar on
the lime column method in practice. Soil and Rock Department, Royal
University of Technology, Stockholm.

Strength of stabilised soft soil 77


References

Ishihara K., Tatsuoka F. & Yasuda S. (1975). Undrained deformation and


liquefaction in sand under cyclic stress. Soils and Foundations, Vol. 15, No.
1, pp. 29-44.
Jelisic N. & Leppnen M. (1999). Mass stabilization of peat in road and
railway construction. Proc. International Conference on Dry Mix Methods for
Deep Soil Stabilization. Stockholm 1999, pp. 59-64.
Jelisic N. (1999). Mass stabilisation. Licentiate Thesis. Lund Institute of
Technology, Lund university, Lund. (In Swedish)
Karlsson, R. (1981). Consistency limits. Performance and interpretation of
laboratory investigations, part 6. Byggforskningsrdet D9:1981, Stockholm.
Kezdi, A. (1979). Stabilised earth roads. Elsevier 1979.
Klemm, W. & Adams, L. (1990). An investigation of the formation of
carboaluminates. Carbonate additions to cement. ASTM, Special Technical
Publications STP 1064, pp. 60-72.
Kohata, Y., Maekawa, H., Muramuto, K., Yajima, J. & Babasaki, R. (1996).
JGS-TC Report: Deformation and strength properties of DM cement-
nd
treated soils. Proc. 2 International Conference on Ground Improvement
Geosystems, Grouting and Deep Mixing, Tokyo 1996, Vol. 2, pp. 905-911.
Lacasse, S. & Berre, T. (1988). Triaxial testing methods for soils, Advanced
triaxial testing of soil and rock, ASTM Special Technical Publications STP
977, pp. 264-289.
Lade, P. & Hernandez, S. (1977). Membrane penetration effects in undrained
tests. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, Vol. 103, No. GT2,
pp. 109-125.
Lambe, W. (1951). Soil testing for engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New
York.
Landva, A.O. & La Rochelle, P. (1983). Compressibility and shear
characteristics of Radforth Peats. Testing of Peats and Organic Soils, ASTM
Special Technical Publications STP 820, pp. 157-191.
Larsson, R. (1980). Undrained shear strength in stability calculation of
embankments and foundations on soft clays. Canadian Geotechnical
Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 591602.
Lee, K.L., Morrison, R.A. & Haley, S.C. (1969). A note on the pore pressure
th
parameter B. Proc. 7 International. Conference on Soil Mechanics and
Foundation Engineering, Mexico City 1969, Vol. 1, pp. 231-238.
Leroueil, S. & Barbosa, P.S. de A. (2000). Combined effect of fabric, bonding
and partial saturation on yielding of soils. Proc. Asian Conference on
Unsaturated Soils, Singapore, pp. 527-532.

78 Strength of stabilised soft soil


References

Locat, J., Tremblay, H. & Leroueil, S. (1996). Mechanical and hydraulic


behaviour of a soft inorganic clay treated with lime. Canadian Geotechnical
Journal Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 654-669.
Mitchell, J.K. (1976). Fundamentals of soil behavior. John Wiley & Sons Inc.,
1976.
Poussette K., Mcsik J., Jacobsson A., Andersson R. and Lahtinen P. (1999).
Peat soil samples stabilised in laboratory Experiences from manufacturing
and testing. Proc. International Conference on Dry Mix Methods for Deep Soil
Stabilization, Stockholm 1999, pp. 85-92.
Richardson, A.M. & Whitman, R.V. (1963). Effect of strain-rate upon
undrained shear resistance of a saturated remoulded fat clay. Gotechnique,
Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 310-324.
Sivapullaiah P.V., Prashanth J.P. & Sridharan A. (1998a). Delay in
compaction and importance of the lime fixation point on the strength and
compaction characteristics of soil. Ground Improvement Vol. 2, No. 1, pp.
27-32.
Sivapullaiah P.V., Prashanth J.P. & Sridharan A. (1998b). Effect of delay
between mixing and compaction on strength and compaction parameters of
fly ash. Geotechnical Engineering Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 4., pp. 277-285.
Skempton, A.W. (1954). The pore-pressure coefficients A and B.
Gotechnique, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp.143-147.
Suzuki, Y. (1982). Deep chemical mixing using cement as hardening agent.
Symposium on Soil and Rock Improvement, Bangkok 1982, pp. B.1.1-1.24.
Sweeney D.A., Wong D.K.H. and Fredlund D.G. (1988). Effect of lime on
highly plastic clay with special emphasis on ageing. Transportation Research
Record No. 1190.
Taylor, D.W. (1948). Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons,
New York.
rd
Terashi, M. (2003). The state of practice in deep mixing methods. Proc. 3
International Conference on Grouting and Ground Treatment, New Orleans
2003, pp. 25-49.
Terashi, M., Tanaka, H., Mitsumoto, T., Honma, S. & Ohashi, T. (1983):
rd
Fundamentals of lime and cement treated soils (3 report). Report of the
Port and Harbour Research Institute. Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 69 96. (In
Japanese)
Wood, D. M. (1990). Soil behaviour and critical state soil mechanics.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1990.
Yamamoto, T., Suzuki, M., Okabayashi, S., Fujino, H., Taguchi, T. &
Fujimoto, T. (2002). Strength and deformation characteristics of cement-

Strength of stabilised soft soil 79


References

th
stabilised soil cured under an overburden pressure. Proc. 4 International
Conference on Ground Improvement Techniques, Kuala Lumpur 2002, pp.
761-766.
Yin, J.-H. (2001). Properties and behaviour of raw sludge mixed with PFA
and lime. Geotechnical Testing journal (ASTM), Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 299-
307.
Zhou, Cheng, Yin, J.-H. and Ming, J.-P. (2002) Bearing capacity and
settlement of weak fly ash ground improved using lime-fly sash or stone
columns. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 585-596.
Zhu, F., Clark, J.I. & Paulin, M.J. (1995). Factors affecting at-rest lateral
stress in artificially cemented sands. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 32,
No. 2, pp.195-203.
hnberg, H. (2003). Measured permeabilities in stabilised Swedish soils. Proc.
rd
3 International Conference on Grouting and Ground Treatment, New
Orleans 2003, pp. 622-633.
hnberg, H. (2004). Effects of back pressure and strain rate used in triaxial
testing of stabilised organic soils and clays. Geotechnical Testing Journal.
Vol. 27, No. 3, pp 250-259.
hnberg, H. (2006). Effects of consolidation stresses on the strength of some
stabilised Swedish soils. Ground Improvement, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1-13.
hnberg, H., Bengtsson, P.-E. & Holm, G. (2000). Task 2.2 and 7.
Laboratory tests of mixtures Test sites Dmle Mosse and Holma Mosse,
Sweden. National Report, Part 1. Internal Report, EuroSoilStab project,
SGI 3-9705-239 and 3-9708-395.
hnberg, H., Bengtsson, P-E. & Holm G. (2001). Effect of initial loading on
the strength of stabilised peat. Ground Improvement, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 35-
40.
hnberg, H., Johansson, S.-E., Pihl, H. & Carlsson, T. (2003). Stabilising
effects of different binders in some Swedish soils. Ground Improvement,
Vol. 7, No. 1, pp 9-23.

80 Strength of stabilised soft soil


Paper I
Reprinted with permission from Ground Improvement, Thomas Telford Ltd, 1
Heron Quay, London E14 4JD, UK. From Vol. 7, No.1.
250 Gyttia: Holma

wL

200
wP

w
150
w: %

Clay 1: Linkping
100
wL

w
50 wP

wP wL w
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time: days
quc /2: kPa

0
500
1000
1500
2000

c
2
c0
c

0 5
7 days

91 days
28 days

365 days

cs c3
50
/5
c 0
2s
50
/5
cs 0
cs

25
/7
cf 5
50
cp /50
f5
0/
5
cf 0
cf

75
Clay 2, 2891 days
Clay 1, 2891 days

/2
5
Gyttja 1, 2891 days

cp
f7
5/
25
cl
50
c /50
2 l5
0/
5
cl 0
Stabilising agent

75
cl

/2
c 5
2 l7
5/
25
sl
50
/5
sl 0
75
sl

sl
f3 /25
3/
33
/3
3

l
llb
l

l2

l4
100 kg/m3

llb
4
2000 Clay 1-7d
Clay 1-28d 100 kg/m3
Clay 1-91d
Clay 1-365d
Clay 2-7 days
Clay 2-28 days
Clay 2-91 days
1500 Clay 2-365 days
Gy-7 days
Gy-28 days
Gy-91 days
Gy-365 days
quc: kPa

1000
1 year

91 days

500
28 days

7 days

0
50

25

50
0

05

cp /25

3/ l4

l
llb
5

50

cl 5

cf 0

cs 0

sl 5
0

3
2
c
/5

/2

/2

/5

/5

/7

/5

/3
/

5/

5/

c0

0/
0/
50
50

75

75

75

50

50

25

50

33
2 l7

2 l5
f7

f5
2s
cs

cl

sl
cf
cp
c

f3
c

sl

Stabilising agent
1500
Present investigation 28 days
3
Dmle peat-200 kg/m - EuroSoilStab
3
Dmle peat-200 kg/m (series II)- EuroSoilStab
3
Dmle gyttja-200 kg/m - EuroSoilStab

1000

Clay 1, clay 2 and gyttja 1 - 100 kg/m2


quc: kPa

500

0
25
25
0

50

l
0

05

5
50

llb
0

l4

3
2
c
/5
/5

/2

/2

/2

/5

/5

/7

/5

/3
5/
5/

c0

0/
0/
50
50

75

75

75

50

50

25

50

33
2 /7
2 l7

2 l5
f5
2s
cs

cl

sl

cl

cs

sl

3/
cf

cf
cp
c

c
c

f3
c

sl
Stabilising agent
Paper II
Reprinted with permission from the Swedish Deep Stabilization Research
Centre. From Proceedings of the International Conference on Deep Mixing,
Stockholm 2005, Vol. 1.1.
Increase in strength with time in soils stabilised with different types of
binder in relation to the type and amount of reaction products

hnberg, H.
Swedish Geotechnical Institute, SE-581 93 Linkoping, Sweden
helen.ahnberg@swedgeo.se,

Johansson, S.-E.
Cementa AB, Box 30022, SE-200 61 Malm, Sweden
sven-erik.johansson@cementa.se

ABSTRACT: For design of deep mixing, the strength of different mixtures of soils and binders is normally investigated at
various time intervals after mixing. However, limited design time often leads to tests being performed on only one or two
occasions. The full strength development is thus not usually determined or taken into account. The variation in strength
increase when using different types of binder has been studied for three stabilised soils up to two years after mixing in the
laboratory. The study shows that there can be a considerable increase in strength also long after mixing. The results provide
increased insight into the effect of different binders on the increase in strength of stabilised soils.

1 INTRODUCTION have been made in this study, in order to gain a clearer


The deep mixing method has been used to improve the understanding of the processes involved. In this paper, data
strength and compression properties of soft soils for nearly on the increase in soil strength when using different types
thirty years. The method is well established in foremost of binders are presented and a relation between strength and
Japan and the Nordic countries and has recently been chemical reaction products is demonstrated.
introduced in an increasing number of countries (Bruce, The binders used in the present study were various
1999; Terashi, 2003; Holm, 2003). An increasing number combinations of cement, lime, slag and fly ash. The tests
of binders is also being employed, although the most were part of a series of investigations concerning the
common binders used are still lime and cement. For design, properties of soft soils stabilised with different types of
series of laboratory tests on stabilised samples of different binder (hnberg et al., 2003; hnberg, 2003, 2004).
composition are normally carried out to provide a basis for
the final choice of type and quantity of binder to be used.
However, the number of tests is normally limited due to 2 SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION
restraints on time and cost. Most often, the increase in
strength with time is not fully investigated and time effects 2.1 Types of soil
are not incorporated into the design calculations. This may Three types of soft soil were chosen for the investigation.
lead to uneconomic solutions for a construction and Two of the soils were soft clays of types that had previously
underestimation of its long-term behaviour. been shown to give diverse stabilising results in earlier
The increase in strength with time for various stabilised investigations. The clays have fairly similar geotechnical
soils has been investigated in a large number of projects, properties according to the routine investigations, but are
although most of these investigations are limited to a few from different geological deposits. One of them is a post-
types of binder. Rough relations between strength and time glacial clay from an area near Linkping in the eastern part
have been reported, mainly for the common binders lime of Sweden. It was deposited during periods of
and cement (e.g. Porbaha et al., 2000; Kitazume & Terashi, sedimentation in alternating lake and brackish sea water.
2002; Horpibulsuk et al., 2003). Questions still remain, The other clay is a marine post-glacial clay containing
however, regarding the stabilisation effect of the different occasional shells, from a site near Lftabro on the Swedish
types of binders commonly discussed today. Further studies west coast. The Lftabro clay has a somewhat higher water
of these are necessary in order to improve the basis for the content and lower undrained shear strength than the
assessment of strength increase with time in design. Linkping clay. Both clays are high-plastic with liquid
In order to study the stabilising effect of different limits of approximately 70% and organic contents of
binders, unconfined compression tests have been performed approximately 1%. The third soil used in the investigation
on samples of stabilised clay and organic soil up to 2 years was an organic soil, a gyttja from Holma Mosse in the
after mixing in the laboratory. Since the different eastern part of Sweden. The stabilisation effects of different
compounds produced by different binders in the soil are binders in this soil have been studied previously in the EC-
likely to influence the increase in strength to a large degree, funded project EuroSoilStab (hnberg et al., 2000). The
rough estimates of the type and amount of these bonding Holma gyttja is a clayey gyttja with a water content of

Deep Mixing '05 195


220% and a liquid limit of 170%. The organic content is Table 1. Properties of the test soils.
10%. Results from laboratory tests of the three soils are
presented in Table 1. Linkping Lftabro Holma
clay clay gyttja
2.2 Types of binder Depth (m) 3-6 2-5 3-5
In the present investigation, two single binders and four Density (t/m3) 1.55 1.52 1.23
composite binders were used. These were pure cement (c), Specific gravity (t/m3) 2.72 2.73 2.36
pure lime (l), cementlime (cl), cementslag (cs), cement Plastic limit (%) 24 23 64
fly ash (cf) and slaglime (sl). All the composite binders Water content (%) 78 89 220
were used in proportions of 50:50 (by weight), and cement Liquid limit1 (%) 70 66 170
fly ash was also studied at the proportions 75:25. All the Undr. shear strength1 (kPa) 15 8 5
binders were used in a total quantity corresponding to 100 Sensitivity1 20 25 10
kg per m3 soil. Organic content (%) 1.0 1.0 10
The cement used in the investigations was the currently Clay content (%) 63 72 80
dominating standard cement in Sweden, a Portland- Chloride content (%) 0.01 0.38 <0.01
limestone cement designated CEM II/A-LL 42.5 R (CEN, Sulphide content (%) 0.05 0.18 0.20
2000). The lime used was the quicklime normally used for pH 7.7 8.7 8.5
deep stabilisation, CL90-Q (CEN, 2001). The slag was a 1
Determined by the fall cone test (ETC5, 1998)
ground, granulated blast furnace slag with a glass content of
99%. This type of binder has so far been used only to a very
limited extent for deep stabilisation of soils in Sweden. The control test. Two and a half years after mixing, the
fly ash used was pure coal fly ash from pulverised coal remaining spare sample of several of the test series was also
combustion. It was of Class F (ASTM, 2000), having tested.
pozzolanic properties. Fly ash has not yet been used for The unconfined compression tests were performed at a
deep stabilisation in practice in Sweden, but a number of rate of strain of 1.5%/min on specimens with a height to
limefly ash test columns have been installed in a research diameter ratio of 2. Prior to strength testing, the specimens
project (Holm & hnberg, 1987). The composition of the were cut and smoothed to form parallel end surfaces. The
different binders is given in Table 2. end platens were lubricated with grease in order to
minimise friction at the end surfaces.
2.3 Preparation of samples
Samples were prepared by first mixing the binder with the
soil for five minutes. The mixtures were then placed in 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
layers in 50 mm plastic tubes using a momentary
compaction pressure of 100 kPa. The tubes were filled to a 3.1 Measured strength increase
height of approximately 150 mm. Six to seven samples, The results of the tests showed that the increase in strength
including one spare sample, were prepared from each batch with time of the different types of stabilised soils varied
of soil-binder mixture. The tubes were sealed with rubber considerably, both with type of binder and with type of soil.
lids and stored in a climate-controlled room at 8C. This This is illustrated in Figure 1, where the results are shown
mode of preparation and storage is common procedure in as the mean values obtained from all the unconfined
Sweden (Carlsten & Ekstrm, 1995). compression tests performed on samples stabilised with
cement, lime and composite binders in proportion 50:50.
2.4 Testing During first three months after mixing, the most rapid
To investigate the increase in strength of the samples, strength increase occurred in the samples stabilised with
unconfined compression tests were performed 7, 28, 91 and binders containing cement. In general, the strength of these
364 days after mixing. Duplicate tests were performed 28 samples thereafter levelled off to fairly constant values or
and 91 days after mixing, whereas only single tests were showed clearly reduced rates of long-term increase,
performed after one week and one year. However, in cases whereas those containing lime exhibited a pronounced
of clearly deviating results, a spare sample was used for a

Table 2. Chemical composition of the binders.


CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO K2O Na2O SO3
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
Lime 93.01 1.4 0.6 0.3 1.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
Cement 61.4 19.9 3.6 2.6 2.8 1.0 0.2 3.3
Slag 32.1 35.2 13.6 0.2 16.8 0.6 0.6 1.8
Fly ash 5.9 54.4 30.5 5.5 1.8 1.2 0.5 0.5
1
Available CaO, 92%

196 Deep Mixing '05


3000 3000

Lftabro clay Linkping clay


3
100 kg/m sl 100 kg/m
3
2500 2500
Unconfined compressive strength q uc , kPa

Unconfined compressive strength q uc , kPa


2000 2000

cl
1500 1500
l

cs cs
c
c
1000 1000

cl

cf cf
500 500
sl

0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Time, days Time, days
3000
Holma gyttja
100 kg/m 3 Lime
2500
Cement
Unconfined compressive strength q uc , kPa

Cementlime, 50/50
Cementfly ash, 50/50
2000
Cementslag, 50/50
cl Slaglime, 50/50
sl

1500

1000 c

cs

500
cf Figure 1. Measured compressive strength with
time after mixing with cement, lime and
0
composite binders 50:50.
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Time, days

13
Linkping clay-7days
long-term increase in strength. The strength increase at 12 92days
360days
different times after mixing is shown in Figure 2, where 11 Lftabro clay, 7days
92days
the 7-, 91- and 364-day strengths for the different binder 10 360days
Holma gyttja, 7days

combinations are normalised to the 28-day strength, a 9 92days


360days
Holma gyttja

testing time often used for the evaluation of suitable 8


quc/quc-28days

binders in design. In samples stabilised with cement, 7

cementslag and cementfly ash the strength after 7 days 6 Lftabro clay

was about 0.4 to 0.7 times that of 28 days. One year after 5

mixing with these binders, the strength had increased to 4

between 1.2 and 2.8 times that of 28 days. The measured 3


Linkping clay
strength in cementslag stabilised Lftabro clay and 2

Holma gyttja after one year was lower than that after 1

three months. However, partly jagged stress-strain curves 0


c cf50/50 cs50/50 cl50/50 sl50/50 l
were obtained in the tests on these samples, indicating Stabilising agent

the existence of cracks or other inhomogeneities in the Figure 2. Compressive strength measured at 7, 91
specimens. The increase in strength of the cement- and 364 days relative to the strength at 28-day vs
stabilised samples was of the same order as, or slightly type of binder.

Deep Mixing '05 197


higher than, that reported previously for cement Table 3. Abbreviations commonly used in binder
stabilised soils (Porbaha et al., 2000; Horpibulsuk et al., chemistry.
2003). With binders containing lime, the long-term
increase in strength was more pronounced, although it Abbreviation Chemical product
varied considerably with type of soil. Using lime alone or C CaO
together with slag or cement gave 7-day strengths of 0.1- H H2O
1.0 and 1-year strengths of 1.3-13 times that at 28 days. A Al2O3
Although in many cases there is a distinct break in the S SiO2
strength vs time curve at one to three months after F Fe2O3
mixing, it is clear from the results that there may be a AFm,t AF mono and tri phases (e.g. ettringite)
considerable increase in strength a long time after this.
From the variation in short-term and long-term strength
increase, it is evident that the various binders act in
alumina (A) contained in minerals present in the soil.
different ways. The bondings created by the binders are
These pozzolanic reactions, which are normally relatively
not simply of a different type or strength, they also take
slow, due to a restricted accessibility of silica and
different times to form.
alumina in the soil, may result in the formation of
calcium aluminate silicate hydroxide (CASH), calcium
3.2 Estimates of bondings formed by hydration
silicate hydroxide (CSH) and/or calcium aluminate
processes and pozzolanic reactions influencing hydroxide (CAH) (e.g. TRB, 1987).
strength Cement, on the other hand which, apart from C also
The chemical reactions involved in the hydration of contains a considerable amount of S, will primarily form
different types of cement or lime have been described the C-S-H gel at hydration. Besides CSH, a certain
and discussed thoroughly in many papers and textbooks amount of CH is also generated. As in the case of lime,
(e.g. Taylor, 1997; Boynton, 1980). The chemical this CH may react with minerals in the soil contributing
processes involved in soil stabilisation have also been to an increase in long-term strength by also forming
described (e.g. Chew et al., 2004; TRB, 1987; Saitoh et CASH, CSH and/or CAH. Other cement reaction
al., 1985; Ingles & Metcalf, 1972, Ruff & Ho, 1966), products which may contribute to the increase in
although descriptions of the effects of binders other than strength, although to a lesser degree, are various
lime and cement are more scarce in the literature. In aluminate ferrite tri phases, e.g. ettringite, and mono
order to improve the basis for the evaluation of the phases (AFt/AFm).
effects of different types of binders and possible strength Slag, which is a latent hydraulic cement, will react in
increase with time from strength tests performed on much the same way as ordinary cement and lead to the
stabilised soil, relations to chemical reactions and formation of similar hydration products. However, since
reaction products can be investigated. In analysing the slag as a rule has to be activated by adding some form of
test results, rough assessments of the reaction products alkali (Taylor, 1997) it is normally used in combination
were made with respect to type and quantity of binder. with other binders, e.g. cement, in order to be effectively
Figure 3 shows a rough outline of the principal activated by the CH generated by the latter. The build-up
chemical processes taking place and the resulting of reaction products is normally much slower with slag
reaction products when mixing common binders with the than with ordinary cement. However, the long-term
soil. In the figure, abbreviations are used for the reaction strength of hydrated slag in combination with cement is
products. In describing the chemical reactions taking normally higher than that of hydrated cement alone. In
place in the hydration processes of cementitious binders, slag, the ratio of C to S is lower than in cement. The
a number of abbreviations are normally used for various chemical composition of slag corresponds to that of a
compounds. The most common of these abbreviations are cement containing a higher amount of belite, C2S, and
shown in Table 3. When mixing binders such as those less alite, C3S, the two principal reactive components in
used in the present study with soil, similar types of ordinary cement, the former normally generating a higher
bonding are formed. However, the chemical processes long-term strength following hydration.
and the main type of reaction products differ somewhat The fly ash acts mainly as a pozzolanic material, i.e.
depending on the type of binder used. the silica and alumina react with any CH added to or
When mixing quicklime, which contains large formed in the soil after mixing. It is not treated as a
amounts of calcium oxide, (C), into the soil, hydration reactive material in itself. However, the silica and
will occur as this lime comes into contact with the pore alumina in fly ash are often more easily accessible for
water in the soil, resulting in the formation of calcium reactions with any CH added through the binders,
hydroxide (CH). As the CH is generated, some of it will compared with the same minerals in the soil. The
be adsorbed to the soil particles. Ion exchange with reaction products generated are much the same as those
primarily Na+ and K+ ions in the soil will take place, of soils containing silica and alumina, i.e. mainly CASH,
leading to modification of the soil into a somewhat drier, CSH and/or CAH.
coarser structure due to the slaking processes and a In order to further understand the way in which the
flocculation of the clay particles. The CH not consumed various reaction products generated from different types
in this process is free to react with the silica (S) and of binder affect the increase in strength with time after

198 Deep Mixing '05


Binders Soil Stabilised soil

Ground Clay Clay


Quicklime C CH particles CH minerals CASH,(CSH),(CAH)
water

Adsorption, Pozzolanic CSH,(AFm/t)


Cement C,S,A,F ion reactions
CH CH
exchange CASH,(CSH),(CAH)
OH-
OH-

Hydration
reactions

Slag S,C,A Alkaline


activa-
Hydration CSH,(CAH),(CASH)
CH
tion
CH
CH

Fly ash S,A,C Pozzolanic


CASH,(CSH),(CAH)
CH reactions

Figure 3. Rough outline of the principal chemical reactions and reaction products formed by different types of
binders. The abbreviations are explained in Table 3.

mixing, rough estimates were made of the amount of belite in the cement. Estimates of the quantities of
bondings being formed. The amount of reaction products hydration products formed, mainly in the form of CSH
generated when adding a quantity of binder and CH, were made according to:
corresponding to 100 kg/m3 to the soil was assessed
based mainly on the mole weights of the principal 100 kg cement + 30 kg H 98 kg CSH +32 kg CH (3)
chemical elements involved. When using quicklime, the
amount of CH generated by slaking can be calculated as The CH may react with the minerals in the soil.
follows: Assuming that principally strtlingite is formed, this
would result in about 90 kg CASH. The total amount of
100 kg CaO + 32.1 kg H2O 132.1 kg Ca(OH)2 (1) reaction products formed by the cement can thus be
estimated to be about 188 kg. The binder combination
The lime used in the study had an available C content of cementlime (50:50) can be estimated to result in a
92%. Adding 100 kg of this binder would thus generate quantity of reaction products between those of pure
about 122 kg CH. Assuming roughly that this CH in turn cement and pure lime.
reacts fully with the silica and alumina present in the soil Slag will typically generate about the same types of
and that then primarily CASH, expressed in the form of reaction product as cement. However, the water content
strtlingite, C2ASH8, is formed, the quantity of the latter is generally lower and the paste somewhat denser than
can be calculated according to:
that of hydrated Portland cement. The quantity of CH
formed by slag is low. When used together with cement,
100 kg CH + 109 kg (A+S) + 73 kg H 282 kg CASH (2)
the quantity of CH produced has been reported to be even
A quantity of 100 kg/m3 of the quicklime may thus lower than if slag had not taken part in the reactions
produce approximately 343 kg of reaction products per (Taylor, 1997). The composite binder cementslag
m3 of soil. (50:50) was roughly estimated to generate reaction
For hydrated cements, the chemically bound water products according to:
content is typically about 28% (Betonghandbok, 1997) to
32% (Taylor, 1997). Apart from the main constituent 100 kg cementslag + 25 kg H 110 kg CSH + 15 kg CH (4)
C3S2H3, hydrated cement typically contains about 25%
CH (e.g. Betonghandbok, 1997; Taylor, 1997). The A total quantity of 152 kg of reaction products was
quantity of CH formed varies with the ratio of alite to calculated assuming that the CH in turn reacts with the
soil minerals and forms CASH. Using slag together with

Deep Mixing '05 199


lime, was estimated to lead to about 230 kg of reaction example, the amount of contained, unreacted CH present
products. in the hydrated cement may affect the porosity of the
The last binder used was fly ash, which contains paste.
large amounts of S and A but only limited amounts of C,
in combination with cement. When fly ash and cement 3.3 Achieved strength in relation to estimated
are used in equal proportions, the CH formed following bondings formed by hydration and pozzolanic
hydration was calculated to lead to about 56 kg CASH reactions
resulting from the fly ash. Since the amount of CH In analysing the effect of the type of soil on the
available is limited, excess S and A will remain in the fly strength measured in the unconfined compression tests in
ash. A larger amount of cement in relation to fly ash
the present study, several similarities were observed. The
(75:25), which could utilise more of the S and A present
strength levels were approximately the same in the
in the fly ash, was also tested in a number of samples.
Lftabro clay and the Holma gyttja, and to some extent
The estimated quantity of reaction products resulting
from reaction with the fly ash and also minerals in the also in the Linkping clay for binders containing cement
soil was then about 69 kg CASH. A shortage of A in the alone or in combination with slag or fly ash. However,
fly ash may well lead to the formation of larger quantities the effect of lime in the Linkping clay was very limited.
of CSH instead of CASH. However, for comparison The test results clearly indicate that for stabilisation with
between the different binders, the calculations were cement or other binders not leading solely to pozzolanic
consistently performed based on formation of CASH. reactions with minerals contained in the soil itself, all
The rough estimates of amounts of reaction products three soils can be regarded as having normal, high
formed by the various binders are summarised in Table 4. potential for stabilisation, without any substantial
In comparing the principal reaction products generated retarding substances in the pore water. Lime and other
by the different binders, it can be seen that there are large binders involving a large degree of pozzolanic reaction
differences in total quantities as well as the mechanism of also showed high potential for stabilisation in two of the
formation, whether by the more short-term cement soils, but not for the Linkping clay. It can be noted that
reactions or by the long-term pozzolanic reactions. This although the Holma gyttja contained about 10% organic
is likely to affect the increase in strength with time in the material, its potential for stabilisation seems not to be
various stabilised samples. lower than that of the others. Although lime alone, in
In general, the formation of CSH following hydration of accordance with normal practice for organic soils, was
cement is a faster process than the pozzolanic reactions not used in this soil, the results when using the combined
resulting from adding lime or cement. However, it should binders cementlime and slaglime were similar to those
be kept in mind that in the stabilisation of soils, a number obtained by these binders in the Lftabro clay. Using
of factors may influence the rate of strength increase. lime alone in the Holma gyttja would have meant that the
Possible retarding or accelerating chemical elements in CH had not been able to react in full to form CASH,
the soil, as well as variations in temperature or stresses because of a shortage of alumina in this organic soil. This
may lead to widely deviating increases in strength. The in turn would have resulted in a larger proportion of CSH
amount of water and the type and concentration of alkalis instead of CASH or CAH being formed and thus a lower
in the pore water are factors that may affect the solubility total amount of reaction products.
of the potential pozzolanic elements of the soil Figure 4 shows the calculated quantities of reaction
(Buchwald et al., 2003), which in turn will affect the rate products formed by the different types of binders, drawn
of pozzolanic reactions with time. Furthermore, it should as bars with the scale on the left axis. The bars are
be observed that although the different reaction products divided indicating products formed by cement reactions,
may be of the same type, the denseness, and thus also the pozzolanic binder reactions and pozzolanic soil reactions.
strength, may vary depending on different factors. For For comparison, the strength measured 28 days and 1
year after mixing are plotted in the same diagram with
the scale on the right hand axis. The full line in the
Table 4. Estimated maximum quantities of the main diagram shows the mean strength for all three soils after
reaction products formed from 100 kg of each 28 days, i.e. relatively soon after stabilisation, while the
3
binders per m of soil. two dash-dotted lines show the relatively large variation
in long-term strength resulting from the different binders
Binder Cement Pozzolanic Total
after one year.
reactions reactions
(kg) (kg)
The diagram shows that the variation in short-term
(kg)
strength after 28 days for the different binders roughly
Lime - 345 345
100 90 190
mirrors the variation in the estimated quantities of the
Cement
Cementslag 110 40 150 cement hydration products in terms of CSH. An
Slaglime 60 170 230 exception is slaglime, for which the measured strength
Cementlime 50 215 265 was somewhat lower than that of the others in relation to
Cementfly ash (50:50) 50 55 105 the calculated amount of hydration products. This is in
Cementfly ash (75:25) 75 70 145 accordance with the slower strength increase commonly

200 Deep Mixing '05


strength increase with time (hnberg & Holm, 1987;
400 4000
3 max. pozzolanic soil reactions, CASH
hnberg et al., 1989). Other factors that must be taken
Binder quantity 100 kg/m
max. pozz. binder reactions, CASH into account are the stress level after mixing and whether
cement reactions, CSH
further loading is carried out. This may influence the

Unconfined compressive strength q uc , kPa


quc, mean, 28 days density and in turn the increase in strength of the
300 3000
quc, min-max, 1 year
stabilised soil. The use of combinations of binders may
Reaction products, kg

have an extra positive or negative effect on the strength


of the stabilised soil, by way of one binder altering the
200 2000 conditions for the bonding processes of the other, e.g.
through a change in density, water content, workability
or temperature. Furthermore, in estimating the strength
100 1000
increase, the possible influence of retarding substances or
other factors such as varying mixing work or binder
quantity should always be considered.
While the strength increase will not be the same in the
0 0 field as in samples stabilised in the laboratory, the
Lime cl (50:50) sl (50:50) Cement cs (50:50) cf (75:25) cf (50:50)
Stabilising agent
principal effects of different binders can be expected to
be fairly similar. Provided that sufficient binder
Figur 4. Estimates of the amount of reaction quantities are used, a significant long-term strength
products contributing to the strength of the increase can be expected also in the field, especially for
stabilised soils (bars) together with the strength binders containing some amount of lime. Continued
measured in the three soils one month and one year increases in strength measured also long after installation
after mixing (curves). have thus been reported for limecement columns at a
number of sites (e.g. Edstam et al., 2004) as well as for
cement columns in a number of investigations (e.g.
ordinary cement hydration, cf. comment in previous Hayashi et al., 2003).
section. After one year, the strength had continued to Although different types of chemical reactions are
increase in varying degrees for the different stabilised obviously involved when mixing soils with various
soils. The increase to a large extent reflects the possible common binders, this has been shown not to affect the
amount of pozzolanic reactions taking place. Slag is an fundamental behaviour of the stabilised soils to any
exception also after one year, foremost in combination significant extent (e.g. hnberg, 2003, 2004). The type
with lime, which exhibits a more pronounced long-term and amount of binder chosen can strongly affect the
strength increase compared to the other binders. For all strength achieved at a certain time after mixing, and the
binders except cement and cementfly ash (50:50), there increase in strength with time should be taken into
is a relatively large variation in strength depending on the account in design. However, the behaviour of the
type of soil, which to a large degree is related to the stabilised soil at a specific strength level will be
exceptionally slow progress of pozzolanic reactions in approximately the same independent of the type of binder
the Linkping clay. used.

3.3 Considerations when predicting strength in


design 4 CONCLUSIONS
The observed pattern of the increase in strength for the Strength tests have been performed on samples consisting
same type of soil when stabilised with different types of of different types of binder mixed into three types of soil,
binders, may serve as basis for assessments of strength giving increased insight into the effect of the different
increase with time. The approach used in the present binders on the increase in strength with time in stabilised
study, i.e. relating the increase in strength to possible soils.
reaction products, has provided an increased The use of cement, lime, slag and fly ash may give
understanding of the processes governing the varying increase in strength with time in stabilised
development of cementing bonds in soil. soils depending on the combination of binders chosen.
However, the results can only be used for rough The increase in strength was found to be roughly
estimates of differences in strength increase for different related to the type and quantity of possible reaction
binders in otherwise similar conditions. It should be products.
noted that in the tests, the temperature during curing was Substantial long-term increases in strength were
the same for all samples. In deep mixing in the field, the observed for several of the binder combinations.
temperature of soils stabilised with binders containing The results of this study highlight the importance of
quick lime can be expected to be higher than those taking into account a time factor in estimating the
containing only cement, slag or fly ash in any strength of stabilised soils in design. In order to better
combination. A higher temperature will speed up the account for the life-time behaviour of a foundation on
chemical processes involved, resulting in a faster rate of

Deep Mixing '05 201


stabilised soil, a time factor should be incorporated into Holm, G. & hnberg, H. (1987). Use of lime-fly ash for
the design models for soil improvement by deep mixing. deep stabilisation of soil. Swedish Geotechnical
Institute, Report No. 30. (In Swedish)
Horpibulsuk, S., Miura, N. & Nagara, T. S. (2003)
Assessment of strength development in cement-
5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
admixed high water content clays with Abrams law as
Financial support for this study was provided by the
a basis. Gotechnique, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 439-444.
Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) and the Swedish
Ingles, O.G. & Metcalf, J.B. (1972). Soil stabilization.
Deep Stabilization Research Centre (SD). The special
Butterworths Pty. Ltd.
contributions of the SD participants Cementa AB,
Kitazume, M. & Terashi, M. (2002). The Deep Mixing
Nordkalk AB and Merox AB are highly appreciated.
Method Principle, Design and Construction. Ed.
Coastal Developmnent Institute of Technology (CDIT),
Japan. A.A. Balkema Publishers Tokyo.
6 REFERENCES Ruff, C.G. & Ho, C. (1966). Time-temperature strength-
ASTM (2000). ASTM standard C 618 00. Standard reaction product relationships in lime-bentonite-water
specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined mixtures. Highway Research Record No. 139, Highway
natural pozzolan for use as a mineral admixture in Research Board. pp. 42-60
Portland cement concrete. Saitoh, S., Suzuki, Y. & Shirai, K. (1985). Hardening of
Betonghandbok (1997). Betonghandbok Material. Utgva soil improved by the deep mixing method. Proc. 11th
2. AB Svensk Byggtjnst, Stockholm. Int. Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Bruce, D., Bruce, M.E. & DiMillio, A.F. (1999). Dry mix Engineering, Vol. 3. pp. 1745-1748.
methods: A brief overview of international practice. Taylor, H.F.W. (1997). Cement chemistry. Thomas
Proc. Int. Conference on Dry Deep mixing Methods for Telford, London 1997.
deep Soil Stabilization, Stockholm 1999. pp15-25. Terashi, M. (2003). The state of practice in deep mixing
Boynton, R. (1980). Chemistry and technology of lime methods. 3rd Int. Conference on Grouting & Ground
and limestone. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Treatment, New Orleans 2003, pp 25-49.
Buchwald, A., Kaps,, C. & Hohmann, M. (2003). Alkali- TRB (1987). Lime stabilisation. Reactions, properties,
activated binders and pozzolan cement binders design, and construction. State-of-the-Art Report 5.
compete binder reactions or two sides of the same Transportation Research Board, National Research
story? Proc. 11th International Congress on the Council, Washington, D.C.
Chemistry of Cement. Durban 2003. pp 1238-1246 Porhaba, A., Shibuya, S. & Kishida, T. (2000). State of
Carlsten, P. & Ekstrm, J. (1995). Lime and lime cement the art in deep mixing technology. Part III Geomaterial
columns. Guide for project planning, construction and characterization. Ground Improvement (2000) Vol. 4,
inspection. Swedish Geotechnical Society, Report No. 3, pp. 91-110.
4:1995E. hnberg, H. (2003). Measured permeabilities in
CEN (2000). CEN standard EN197-1:2000. Cement stabilised Swedish soils. Proc. 3rd Int. Conference on
Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity Grouting & Ground Treatment, New Orleans 2003, pp
criteria for common cements. European Committee for 622-633.
standardization (CEN), Brussels. hnberg, H. (2004). Effects of back pressure and rate of
CEN (2001). CEN standard EN459-1:2001. Building strain in triaxial testing of some stabilised Swedish
lime Part I: Definitions, specifications and conformity soils. Geotechnical Testing Journal. Vol. 27, No. 3. pp
criteria. European Committee for standardization 250-259
(CEN), Brussels.
hnberg, H., Bengtsson, P-E. & Holm, G. (1989).
Chew, S.H., Kamruzzaman, A. H. M. & Lee, F. H.
Prediction of strength of lime columns. XII
(2004). Physicochemical and engineering behavior of
International Conference on Soil Mechanics and
cement treated clays. Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol. 130, No. 7, pp. Foundation Engineering. Rio de Janeiro 1989. pp.
696-706. 1327-1330
Edstam, T., Ekstrm, J., Hallingberg A. & Nilsson, L. hnberg, H., Bengtsson, P.-E. & Holm, G. (2000). Task
(2004). Provning av kalkcementpelare i Gta lvdalen. 2.2 and 7. Laboratory tests of mixtures Test sites
Proc. XIV Nordic Geotechnical Meeting, Ystad 2004, Dmle Mosse and Holma Mosse, Sweden. National
pp. D-43-54. report, part 1. Internal Report. EuroSoilStab project,
ETC5 (1998). Recommendations of the ISSMGE for SGI 3-9705-239 and 3-9708-395.
geotechnical laboratory testing. Beuth Verlag, Berlin. hnberg, H. & Holm, G. (1987). On the influence of
Hayashi, H., Nishikawa, J., Kanta Ohishi, K. & Terashi, curing temperature on the shear strength of lime and
M. (2003). Field observation of long-term strength of cement stabilised soil. Swedish Geotechnical Institute,
cement treated soil. Proc. 3rd Int. Conference on Report No. 30. pp. 93-146 (In Swedish)
Grouting & Ground Treatment, New Orleans 2003, pp hnberg, H., Johansson, S.-E., Pihl, H. & Carlsson, T.
598-609. (2003). Stabilising effects of different binders in some
Holm, G. (2003). State of practice in dry deep mixing Swedish soils. Ground Improvement, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp
methods. 3rd Int. Conference on Grouting & Ground 9-23.
Treatment, New Orleans 2003, pp 145-163.

202 Deep Mixing '05


Paper III
Reprinted, with permission from Ground Improvement, Thomas Telford Ltd, 1
Heron Quay, London E14 4JD. From Vol. 5, No. 1.
900
cl80/20, 7d Peat 1Dmle 1 year
800 cl80/20, 28d (200 kg/m3)
cl80/20, 91d 91
cl80/20, 360d days
700
cs50/50, 7d Cementslag
600 cs50/50, 28d
cs50/50, 91d 28
cs50/50, 360d days
quc: kPa

500
cf50/50, 28d
400
7
300
days
200
Cementlime
(7360 days)
100
Cementfly ash
0
0 5 10 15 20
Load: kPa
Paper IV
Reprinted with permission from the American Society of Civil Engineers,
ASCE. From Geotechnical Special Publication No. 120, Proceedings of the
3rd International Conference on Grouting and Ground Treatment, New
Orleans 2003, Vol. 1.
Measured permeabilities in stabilised Swedish soils

Helen hnberg1

Abstract
In connection with a large Swedish research programme concerning different aspects
of deep stabilisation of soft soils, a number of permeability tests have been performed
on certain soft soils stabilised with different type of binder in the laboratory. The
permeabilities of the stabilised samples were measured in permeameter tests and in
CRS oedometer tests. Although exhibiting a fairly large scatter in results, the tests
showed that the permeability changed with time and with the amount of binder. They
also showed that the permeability to some extent varied with the type of binder used.
Comparisons made with other permeability investigations on stabilised soils have
shown both agreement and deviations from the results in the present study. It was
found that changes in permeability in the stabilised material to a large extent could be
linked to the increase in strength and decrease in water content.

Introduction
In deep stabilisation of soft soils, the permeability of the stabilised soil may be
important from several aspects. The permeability is used in estimating the
consolidation rate with time after construction, as well as in evaluating the risks of
changes in groundwater conditions due to lowering of artesian groundwater pressures,
possible leakage of binder substances from columns or impact of trace elements on
the environment.
Earlier laboratory investigations of the change in permeability after stabilisation
of clays have been reported to show increases (e.g. Bengtsson and hnberg, 1995;
Baker, 2000) or decreases (e.g. Terashi and Tanaka, 1983; Kawasaki et al., 1984), or
both increases or decreases depending on the type of binder used (e.g. hnberg et al.,
1995). In all soils, permeability decreases with decreasing water content, or void ratio.
In stabilised soils, permeability has been reported to decrease with increasing amount
of binder and with decreasing water content of the stabilised soil, Figure 1.
Furthermore, permeability has been reported to decrease with time after stabilisation,
Figure 2. Studies have also been performed on the permeability of a stabilised soil
--------------
1
Swedish Geotechnical Institute, SE-581 93 Linkping, Sweden; helen.ahnberg@swedgeo.se

622
GROUTING AND GROUND TREATMENT 623

Figure 1. Change in permeability with cement content (aw) and water content (wa) of
a stabilised marine clay. From Terashi and Tanaka (1983).

Figure 2. Influence of amount and type of additive and time of curing on the
permeability of compacted stabilised clay. From Brandl (1999).

coupled to the void ratio (Locat et al., 1996), which showed that for a constant void
ratio, permeability increased after stabilisation with small amounts of lime, whereas
it decreased with larger amounts of lime.
A research project has been initiated and financed by the Swedish Deep
Stabilization Research Centre (SD) in which permeability tests have been performed
on soils stabilised with different types of binder. Results from series of unconfined
compression tests performed on these soils after stabilisation with the various types
624 GROUTING AND GROUND TREATMENT

of binder have been reported by hnberg et al. (2002). The main objectives of the
permeability tests have been to study the effects of different types of binder on
permeability and the extent to which permeability changes with time after
stabilisation.
Results from measurements on fairly homogeneous stabilised soil, i.e. samples
tested in the laboratory, have indicated that the change in permeability can be
described by an initial change followed by a decrease with time. Changes in
permeability with time are likely to be influenced by the continuing formation of
different hydration products in the stabilised soils. One measure of this growth is the
strength of the stabilised soils. In order to study the extent to which the change in
permeability is linked to the strength of a stabilised soil, the type of soil and the type
of binder, comparisons have also been made with earlier investigations in stabilised
Swedish soils performed in laboratory and in situ.
The paper presents results from the permeability measurements performed in the
project as well as from other investigations of the permeability of stabilised soil.
Observed relations between measured permeability, measured strength and change in
water content are also presented and discussed.

Scope of the tests


Type of soils. Two types of clay and one type of organic soil, gyttja, were used in the
tests. All three soils were taken from the test sites used in the programme of the
Swedish Deep Stabilization Research Centre.
The gyttja was taken from 3 5 m depth at the test site at Holma Mosse near the
east coast of southern Sweden. It is a clayey gyttja with an organic content of 10 %
and a water content of 220 %.
The two clays had fairly similar geotechnical properties according to the routine
investigations, but came from two different geological deposits. Clay 1 is a post-
glacial clay from Linkping in eastern Sweden. Clay 2 was taken at Lftabro on the
Swedish west coast. The latter is a marine post-glacial clay containing occasional
shells. The Lftabro clay has a somewhat higher water content and lower undrained
shear strength than the Linkping clay. Both clays are high-plastic with liquid limits
around 70 % and organic contents around 1 %.
Results from classification and routine tests of the properties of the three
different soils are shown in Table 1.
Type of binder. In the tests, the traditional binders cement and quicklime, which are
most commonly used in Sweden, and binders based on slag or fly ash were used.
Altogether, three different types of cement, six types of lime, one type of slag and
two types of ash were used in the project (hnberg et al., 2002).
The main type of cement was the commonly used cement in Sweden, a Portland-
limestone cement designated CEM II/A-LL 42.5 R (CEN standard, 2000). The main
type of lime was the quicklime normally used in deep stabilisation, CL90-Q (CEN
standard, 1998). The slag used in the tests was a ground granulated blast furnace
slag. The main ash used was a fly ash from pulverised coal combustion.
Several other materials were used in proportions of 2 - 33 % in different
combinations with the main binders. These materials were silica fume, alumina
GROUTING AND GROUND TREATMENT 625

Table 1. Properties of the test soils.


Holma Mosse Linkping Lftabro
Gyttja Clay1 Clay2
Depth (m) 3-5 3-6 2-5
Density (t/m3) 1.23 1.55 1.52
Specific gravity (t/m3) 2.36 2.72 2.73
Plastic limit (%) 64 24 23
Water content (%) 220 78 89
Liquid limit (%) 170 70 66
Organic content (%) 10.3 1.0 1.0
Clay content (%) 80 63 72
Permeability (m/s) 110-9 510-10 1.110-9
Undr. shear strength (kPa) 5 15 8
Sensitivity 10 20 25

cement, calcium chloride and gypsum. Certain tests were also performed with the
addition of a secondary product from lime production, kiln dust, with lime or water
glass as admixture.
A total binder quantity corresponding to 100 kg/m3 was used in most of the tests,
although some tests were also performed with 50 kg/m3 or 150 kg/m3.

Preparation of samples. Preparation and storage of the samples were performed in


accordance with the common procedure used in Sweden (Carlsten and Ekstrm,
1995). The binders were mixed with the soils for five minutes. The clay mixtures
were gradually filled into 50 mm plastic tubes using a compaction pressure of 100
kPa. The gyttja mixtures were placed by hand in 50 mm plastic tubes. The
mixtures in the tubes were given a height of about 150 mm.
The tubes were sealed with rubber lids and stored in a climate controlled room at
a temperature of 8 C.

Testing. Permeability tests were performed 28 days and one year after mixing. The
tests were performed in flexible-wall permeameters mainly in accordance with the
Nordtest test procedures (Sjgren et al., 1994). The permeameters are of common
triaxial cell type and in order to prevent waterflow along the rubber membranes the
tests are performed at effective confining stresses of at least 20 kPa.
The permeability tests were performed on 50 mm specimens with a height of
50 mm. The tests were performed without back pressure for saturation of the
specimens, since only a limited number of permeameter cells with this facility were
available for the test series.
Hydraulic gradients of up to 40 - 60 were used in the tests. This is slightly
higher than is normally recommended (ASTM Standard, 1990; Sjgren et al., 1994).
Previous experience in testing stabilised soils had shown difficulties in recording
stable measurements of permeability when using lower gradients. The main part of
the tests started with a gradient of 40. Measurements were made during a period of
one month, after which the gradient was increased to 60 before being lowered again
to 40, both conditions prevailing for one week each. This procedure was used in
626 GROUTING AND GROUND TREATMENT

order to check for possible clogging or piping phenomena in the samples during
testing.
The permeability of stabilised samples was also measured in a number of CRS
tests according to Swedish Standard (1991) 1 day, 28 days and one year after mixing.

Test results
Influence of type of binder. The majority of permeability tests were performed on
Linkping clay stabilised with different types of binder. Figure 3 shows
permeabilities measured 28 days after mixing the clay with the different types of
binder. As observed also in earlier investigations on stabilised soils (hnberg et al.,
1995), the permeability of lime stabilised samples was in general higher than that of
samples stabilised with cement-based binders.
When quicklime, CaO, is mixed into soil, hydration of the binder takes place as
the quicklime comes into contact with the pore water and calcium hydroxide.
Ca(OH)2 is then formed. This is followed by ion exchange with the soil particles,
resulting in flocculation of the clay and a coarser structure of the stabilised material
(e.g. Hgberg, 1979; Dumbleton, 1962) compared to the original soil. Also cement-
based binders produce a certain amount of calcium hydroxide and allow ion
exchange to take place, but to a lesser extent. This could partly explain the
differences in measured permeability between soils with lime-based binders and
those with cement-based binders. However, the amount of calcium hydroxide
consumed in these processes in the various types of stabilised soil is uncertain.

1.0E-07
Linkping clay

Cement-based binders
1.0E-08
Hydraulic conductivity, m/s

Lime-based binders

1.0E-09
unstab. soil

1.0E-10

28 days
3
100 kg/m
1.0E-11
ls lsb

c2 cl5 l

cs c3

cs c2
c
sl 10
0

33 50
33

47 5
cp ,5/5
50

cs 8/2

ca 10
cf /5
0
cg l4

0
/5

7, c00

/5

/5
/2
5
0/

lk 0/
3/

0/

0/
50

a9

l9
50

80

50
i9

f5

i9
/3

5/
a4
w
cl

Type of additive

Figure 3. Measured permeability vs type of binder in stabilised Linkping clay.


Abbr. l=lime, c,c2,c3=cement, s=slag, f=fly ash, pf=PFBC ash, si=silica fume, al=alumina
cement, sa=salt, g=gypsum, wa=water glass, k=kiln dust, lsb=soft-burned lime, l4=coarse
lime.
GROUTING AND GROUND TREATMENT 627

Measured permeability after stabilisation. The measured permeabilities were mainly


the same or slightly lower than those of the unstabilised soils. However, also
increases in permeability were measured, particularly in the lime stabilised
Linkping clay. Figure 4 shows the ranges of measured permeability in the stabilised
soils. The figure includes ranges of permeability measured in different types of
stabilised organic soil within the EC-funded (BriteEuRam) project EuroSoilStab
(e.g. hnberg and Holm, 1999). The organic soils in that study were a peat with high
water content, 2000 %, and three gyttjas with water contents of 220 - 370 % and
organic contents of 10 - 11 %. One of these was the same type of gyttja, Holma
gyttja, as that used in the present project. The types of binder used were generally of
the same type as those used in the present project.
It can be observed that the range of measured permeability in the stabilised soils
covered about a ten-fold difference, or more, between the highest and lowest
estimates. It could further be observed that, although the range of measured
permeability was larger in the lime stabilised samples, there was no indication of any
distinct difference in level between these samples and those stabilised with cement-
based binders.

Change in permeability versus strength. After the initial effects of ion exchange
leading to flocculation and changes in structure, the cementation processes will
dominate with hydration of hydraulic binders as well as pozzolanic reactions with the
soil or other pozzolanic constituents in the binders. These processes will involve a
continuous formation of different reaction products in free spaces between the
particles in the soil. The voids in the soil will thereby be filled to an increasing extent

1,0E-06
cement-based binders, 28 days
cement-based binders, 1 year
lime-based binders, 28 days
1,0E-07
Permeability stabilised soil, m/s

lime-based binders, 1 year


ESS
Peat

1,0E-08
ESS
Gyttja

1,0E-09

1,0E-10

1,0E-11
1,00E-10 1,00E-09 1,00E-08 1,00E-07 1,00E-06
Permeability unstabilised soil, m/s

Figure 4. Range of measured permeability in stabilised samples vs that of the natural


soils. Supplementary data from EuroSoilStab project (hnberg et al., 2000).
628 GROUTING AND GROUND TREATMENT

with time. The rate and extent of this growth will depend on the type and amount of
binder and the type of soil, and are also influenced by possible retarding substances
in the soil.
The strength of the stabilised material provides one measure of the growth of
cementing products. Figure 5 shows how the ratio between permeability before and
after stabilisation varied with the measured unconfined compressive strength of the
stabilised soils. The figure also includes results from CRS tests performed one day,
28 days and one year after stabilisation. These tests were performed on specimens
which had not been subjected to an initial saturation period corresponding to that in
the permeameter tests. They could therefore be expected to yield somewhat lower
permeability values. However, no significant difference in results was observed.
The measured permeability decreased in general with increasing strength of the
stabilised soils. There was a fairly large scatter in the results, particularly in the
samples tested after one year, where also indications of increases in permeability
were observed. The homogeneity of the samples was not altogether satisfactory at
this stage of the project and there was a certain amount of air pockets in the samples.
This would have affected the scatter in the results. The procedure for preparation
was subsequently modified to produce more homogeneous samples (hnberg et al.,
2002). As the samples gradually increased in strength, they also became more brittle
and the occurrence of microcracks may have increased, possibly being enhanced
during the cutting and preparation of samples.

Figure 5. Ratio of measured hydraulic conductivity before and after stabilisation vs


the strength of the stabilised soils.
GROUTING AND GROUND TREATMENT 629

Discussion
Change in permeability in the laboratory compared to field conditions. The results
of the tests in the present project can be compared to those from other tests
performed on stabilised soils in Sweden, both in the laboratory and in the field.
Figure 6 shows results from other investigations performed on lime, lime-cement and
cement stabilised soils in Sweden. The strength of the stabilised soils has been
determined in the laboratory by unconfined compression tests and in the field by lime
column penetrometer tests. The shear strengths determined in the field have been
converted to compressive strength through quc=2cu. Exceptions are the Mellsa
columns, where only permeability tests and no field tests of strength were performed.
Instead, the strength of the Mellsa columns has been estimated roughly from
empirical relations between laboratory and field strength in Sweden (hnberg et al.,
1995). No significant difference in measured permeability were observed between
laboratory prepared samples and columns in situ or between different types of binder.
The measured permeabilities are considerably lower than those indicated in
analyses of settlement processes (Bengtsson and Holm, 1984) and those normally
used in calculating consolidation rates in design (Carlsten, 2000). The permeability
tests in the field were performed as falling head tests in open piezometers at different
depths in the columns. The results thus indicate a high homogeneity of the column
material, or that the possible influence of a more permeable macrostructure cannot be
detected in this type of test. However, other investigations of permeability of
stabilised columns in the field by methods such as packer tests and pressure-
permeameter tests have been reported to yield permeabilities 10 to 100 times higher

100,00

10,00
kstab./ksoil

1,00

1-28 days

1 year

0,10
Present project Present project
Fiskvik clay, 90-180d (Bengtsson & hnberg, 1995)
field tests - Fiskvik clay, 90d
Mellsa clay, 14-200d (hnberg et al., 1995)
field tests- Mellsa clay, 14 - 77d
Lvstad gyttja clay, 14-200d (hnberg et al., 1995)
field tests- Lvstad gyttja 14 - 91d
0,01
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
quc, kPa

Figure 6. Changes in permeability after stabilisation measured in other investigations


vs the strength of the stabilised soils. Laboratory samples; Columns in
the field.
630 GROUTING AND GROUND TREATMENT

(Baker, 2000) and 100 - 1000 times higher (Nygren and Wellander, 1991)
respectively than that of the natural soil. These tests may reflect better the
permeability of the macrostructure, but the results may also be affected by factors
such as leakage along the probe. Permeability tests in the laboratory on samples from
columns taken at the field sites have been reported to yield values 1 - 90 times higher
than those of the natural soils (Baker, 2000).
Uneven distribution and mixing of the binders and development of micro-cracks
and fissures in the columns affect the permeability in the field. A more porous zone
or open voids left at the centre of the column after withdrawal of the installation bar
may also affect permeability. A 20-fold difference in permeability has been reported
between samples taken at the central zone and those taken halfway between the
centre and the periphery of lime-cement columns (Bergwall and Falksund, 1996).
The different types of investigations show large variations in results. However, it
should be noted that comparisons are made between results from different test
methods used for measuring permeability. Each of these has its merits and
drawbacks, and would normally exhibit large variations in results.
Further studies of the permeability of columns in the field are needed. These
should include different types of permeability measurements at a number of sites, as
well as measurements and back-analyses of consolidation processes in stabilised
soils subjected to loading e.g. from embankments of different heights. There are then
a number of factors affecting the consolidation rate that have to be taken into
account. Many of these are not easily measured, e.g. load distribution between
columns and soil in the stabilised area, load distribution to the surrounding soil,
generated pore pressures in columns and soil from installation and loading, suction of
water to the partly unsaturated columns, and continuing changes in strength and
modulus with time. Furthermore, the permeability of both natural and stabilised soil
is affected by changes in the stress situation and may change as the consolidation
proceeds. Continued compression of the stabilised soil will involve a reduction in
void ratio and thus a decrease in permeability with time. However, depending on the
type of loading, generation of large shear strains may lead to the development of
microcracks, involving an overall increase in permeability.

Change in permeability linked to strength and water content. The initial change in
permeability is linked to the change in void ratio and can roughly be related also to
the change in water content resulting from stabilisation. The permeability of the
stabilised soil then decreases with increasing strength. Changes in permeability as
measured in laboratory tests are shown in Figure 7b. The figure includes data from
soils ranging from clay compacted at an optimum water content of 23% (Brandl,
1999) to a gyttja and a peat in the EuroSoilStab project, having initial water contents
of 370% and 2000% respectively. Most of the peat samples were subjected to a
vertical pressure of 18 kPa while curing, but some were cured without such a load.
This pressure corresponds to the initial loading with about one metre of fill normally
applied to stabilised peat in the field. The general effects of this initial loading have
been described by hnberg et al., (2001).
GROUTING AND GROUND TREATMENT 631

The results in Figure 7b indicate that the decrease in permeability with increasing
strength is approximately the same in the different types of stabilised soil. The
change in the ratio between the permeability of homogeneous natural soils to that of
the unstabilised soils, with increasing strength can be expressed as
k stab k stabi
e 0.004 quc (1)
k soil k soil

where kstab is the permeability of the stabilised soil, ksoil is the permeability of the
natural soil, kstabi /ksoil is the initial change in permeability and quc is the unconfined
compressive strength in kPa. Alternatively, the change in permeability with
increasing strength can be expressed as

log k stab log k stabi 0.0017 q uc (2)

In Figure 7a, the initial change in permeability of the different types of material,
evaluated by extrapolation of the measured relation between change in permeability
and strength, is shown together with measured change in water content after
stabilisation. The results clearly indicate that the initial change in permeability can be
expressed as a function of the change in water content. The approximate relation
shown is
w
k stabi 6
w0
0.043 e (3)
k soil

100,00 100,00
Present proj Present project
Fiskvik clay, 90-180d (Bengtsson & hnberg, 1995)
Dmle Peat, 18kPa Mellsa clay, 14-200d (hnberg et al., 1995)
Dmle Peat, 0kPa Compacted clay, lime 1-7.5 % (Brandl (1999)
Dmle gyttja Compacted clay, cem. 2.5-7.5 % (Brandl (1999)
Lvstad gyttja Lvstad gyttja, 14-200d (hnberg et al., 1995)
10,00 Mellsa clay 10,00
Dmle gyttja, 200kg/m3
Fiskvik clay Dmle peat, 100-200kg/m3, load = 0 kPa
Compacted clay Dmle peat, 100-200kg/m3, load = 18 kPa
kstab, initial / ksoil

1,00 1,00
kstab./ksoil

-0,0039x
y = 27,65e

0,10 0,10

6,0048x
y = 0,043e

0,01 0,01

-0,0045x
y = 0,0502e
0,001 0,001
0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 0 500 1000 1500 2000
w/w0 quc, kPa

a) b)

Figure 7. Changes in permeability after stabilisation. a) initial change in permeability


vs change in water content. b) change in permeability vs strength.
632 GROUTING AND GROUND TREATMENT

After insertion in Eq. 1, the change in permeability can be expressed as


w
k stab 6 0.004 quc
0.043 e w0 (4)
k soil

where w is the water content of the stabilised soil and w0 is that of the natural soil.
The water content w can be estimated on the basis of the bulk density and water
content of the natural soil, the amount of binder and the non-evaporable water
content of the hydration product (hnberg et al., 2002).

Conclusions
There are several factors influencing the permeability of a stabilised soil. The tests
performed in the project and those reported previously in a number of other studies
show both agreement and differences in results.
Measured differences in permeability when using different types of binders may
largely be related to different strengths of the stabilised soils.
Stabilised clay most often exhibits an initial increase in permeability after
stabilisation, followed by a decrease in permeability with time. The initial change
is influenced by the introduction of binder particles into the soil, flocculation of
soil particles and any compaction applied to the stabilised soil. The change with
time is believed to be caused mainly by different cementation processes.
A rough estimate of the change in permeability of homogeneous stabilised soils can
be made on the basis of the change in water content and the strength of the
stabilised soil as shown in Figure 7 and Eq. 4.
The permeability measured in the laboratory can be regarded as a lower limit.
Large scale tests performed on columns in the field have shown somewhat higher
or even considerably higher values compared to the probably more homogeneous
samples in the laboratory. Further studies are needed concerning the permeability
of columns in the field and its change during the cementation and consolidation
processes.

Acknowledgements
Financial support for the tests has been provided by the Swedish Geotechnical
Institute (SGI) and the Swedish Deep Stabilization Research Centre (SD). The
financial contributions of the participants Cementa AB, Partek Nordkalk AB, Merox
AB, SGI and SD are gratefully acknowledged. The permission of the participants in
the European Community project EuroSoilStab under contract Brite EuRam BRPR-
CT97-0351 to present data from this project is also gratefully acknowledged.

References
hnberg H., Bengtsson P-E. and Holm G. (2000). Task 2.2 and 7. Laboratory tests of
mixtures Test sites Dmle Mosse and Holma Mosse, Sweden. National report, part
1. Internal Report. EuroSoilStab project, SGI 3-9705-239 and 3-9708-395.
GROUTING AND GROUND TREATMENT 633

hnberg H., Bengtsson P-E. and Holm G. (2001). Effect of initial loading on the
strength of stabilised peat. Ground Improvement. Vol 5, No 1, pp. 35 40.
hnberg H. and Holm G. (1999). Stabilisation of some Swedish organic soils with
different types of binder. Proc. of the International Conference on Dry Mix Methods
for Deep Soil Stabilization, Stockholm 1999, pp. 101-108.
hnberg H., Johansson S-E., Pihl H. and Carlsson T. (2002). Stabilising effects of
different binders in some Swedish soils. SGI project 1-9710-504 (to be published).
hnberg, H., Johansson, S-E., Retelius, A., Ljungkrantz, C., Holmqvist, L., Holm, G.
(1995). Cement and lime for deep stabilisation of soil. Swedish Geotechnical Institute,
Report No. 48. (In Swedish)
ASTM Standard (1990). ASTM Standard D 5084 90. Standard test method for
measurement of hydraulic conductivity of saturated porous materials using flexible
wall permeameter.
Baker, S. (2000). Deformation behavior of lime/cement column stabilized clay.
Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Geotechn. Eng., Chalmers Univ. of Techn., Gothenburg.
Bengtsson, P-E. and hnberg, H. (1995). Settlement calculations for lime column
stabilisations. Road E18 at Fiskvik kanal. SGI project 1-261/86. (In Swedish)
Bergwall, M. and Falksund, M. (1996). Consolidation of lime cement columns
permeability and stiffness. Masters thesis 1996:1, Dept. of Geotechn. Eng., Chalmers
Univ. of Techn., Gothenburg.
Brandl, H. (1999). Long-term behaviour of soils stabilised with lime and with
cement. Proc. Geotechnics for Developing Africa, Durban 1999, pp. 219-232.
Carlsten, P. (2000). Lime and lime cement columns. Guide for project planning,
construction and inspection. Swedish Geotechn. Soc. Report 2:2000. (In Swedish).
Carlsten, P. and Ekstrm, J. (1995). Lime and lime cement columns. Swedish
Geotechn. Soc. Report 4:1995E.
CEN Standard (1998). European Standard pr-EN459-1:1998. Building lime Part I:
Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria.
CEN Standard (2000). European Standard pr-EN197-1:2000. Cement Part 1:
Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements.
Dumbleton, M.J. (1962). Investigations to assess the potentialities of lime
stabilization in the United Kingdom. Road Research Technical Paper No. 64.
Hgberg, E. (1979). The role of lime in the stabilisation process. Sem. on The lime
column method in practice. Soil and Rock Dept., Royal Univ. of Techn., Stockholm.
Kawasaki, T., Saitoh, S., Suzuki, Y. and Babasaki, T. (1984). Deep mixing method
using cement slurry as hardening agent. Seminar on soil improvement and
construction techniques in soft ground, Singapore1984.
Locat, J., Tremblay, H. and Leroueil, S. (1996). Mechanical and hydraulic behaviour
of a soft inorganic clay treated with lime. Can. Geot. J. Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 654-669.
Nygren, M. and Welander, A.-S. (1991). Estimates of properties of lime-cement
columns. Masters thesis 91/5, Royal Univ. of Techn., Stockholm. (In Swedish)
Sjgren, M., Carlsten, P. and Elander, P. (1994). Determination of the permeability
of residual products and soil, in situ and in the laboratory. Nordtest Techn. Rep. 254.
Swedish Standard (1991). SS 02 71 26, Geotechnical Tests- Oedometer tests with
constant rate of deformation CRS-tests. SBSI, Stockholm. (In Swedish)
Terashi,th M. and Tanaka, H. (1983). Settlement analysis for deep mixing methods.
Proc. 8 Eur. Conf. on Soil Mech. and Found. Eng., Helsinki 1983, pp. 955-960.
Paper V
Reprinted, with permission from the Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 27,
No. 3, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West
Conshohocken, PA 19428, USA.
Paper VI
Reprinted with permission from Ground Improvement, Thomas Telford Ltd, 1
Heron Quay, London E14 4JD. From Vol. 10, No. 1.
50 50

40 40

30 30

: degrees
: degrees

20 20 cs for natural soft and stiff clays, shales,


clay minerals (Terzaghi and Peck, 1967)
Present project, Linkping clay
Present project, Lftabro clay
c50200, Linkping clay l100, 1 day1 year
10 Holma gyttja, hnberg et al. (2000) 10 cl100 cs100
Dmle peat, hnberg et al. (2000) cf100 sl100
l50200, Lftabro clay c100
hnberg et al. (1995) - Kil silt, Mellsa clay, Lvstad gyttja
cl70, Holma gyttja cs70100
Balasubramaniam and Buensuceso (1989) - Bangkok clay cp70
0 0
0 200 400 0 50 100
wstab: % IP, stab: %
(a) (b)

20 Linkping clay 20 Linkping clay


3c 5 20 kPa
3c 5 20 kPa
3c 5 80 kPa
3c 5 80 kPa
3c 5 160 kPa
3c 5 160 kPa
3c 5 240 kPa
3c 5 240 kPa
Linkping clay Linkping clay
15 15
3c 5 20 kPa 3c 5 20 kPa
3c 5 80 kPa 3c 5 80 kPa
3c 5 160 kPa 3c 5 160 kPa
quc, min-max 3c 5 240 kPa
failure: %

failure: %

quc, min-max
10 10
3c 5 160 kPa

3c 5 80 kPa
5 3c 5 240 kPa 5

3c 5 20 kPa

0 ( )
0
0 500 1000 0 500 1000 1500
q: kPa q: kPa
(a) (b)
Paper VII
Submitted for publication to the Canadian Geotechnical Journal, National
Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada.
On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses on stress
paths and strength measured in triaxial testing of stabilised soils

Helen hnberg

Abstract: Studies on the behaviour of stabilised soils under different loading conditions
are essential to identify which parameters are relevant in the design of deep mixing. An
investigation has been carried out in which a series of triaxial tests have been performed
on soils stabilised with different types of binders. The tests were performed with the
purpose of demonstrating the existence of quasi-preconsolidation pressures, i.e. vertical
yield stresses that are not primarily linked to previous consolidation pressures but to the
cementation taking place, and the effects of these on the strength behaviour of stabilised
soil. The effect of stresses applied during curing has also been studied. Drained triaxial
compression tests, as well as undrained triaxial compression and extension tests, were
performed on two stabilised clays. The binders used were cement, lime, slag and fly ash
in different combinations. Comparisons have also been made with results from previous
tests on two organic soils stabilised with much the same types of binder. The results
show that both the cementation processes involved and the stresses applied during curing
affect the quasi-preconsolidation pressure. This pressure is strongly linked to the
strength of the stabilised soil and has a considerable influence on its deformation
behaviour. A model is proposed which describes the strength behaviour in the same
effective stress plane that is commonly used for natural clays.

Introduction
Improvement in the strength and stiffness properties of soft soils by deep mixing is
becoming a common method in many parts of the world. A large number of
investigations have been performed to study the effect of foremost cement and lime
mixed into various soils, in the design stage, as well as for research purposes, (e.g.
Broms 2000; Kitazume and Terashi 2002). The test method commonly used in these
investigations is the unconfined compression test. This is a simple, economical test
useful for comparing the effects of different types of binder and other factors influencing
the strength of stabilised soil (e.g. Kawasaki et al. 1984; Babasaki et al. 1997; Yin 2001;
Zhou et al. 2002; hnberg et al. 2003). However, for detailed studies of stabilised soil
behaviour and the assessment of changes in effective stresses and strength, as well as in
stiffness, triaxial tests are more suitable. To improve the models used to describe
stabilised soil behaviour, more studies using triaxial tests are needed on soils stabilised
with various types of binder, under undrained as well as drained conditions.
The occurrence of vertical yield stresses has been demonstrated in oedometer tests
and in triaxial tests on stabilised soils, (e.g. Tatsouka and Kabayashi 1983;
Balasubramaniam and Buensuceso 1989; hnberg et al. 1995; Lee et al. 2004). Research
on yield stresses and their effect on the compressibility of stabilised soils has been
reported in several papers (e.g. Tremblay et al. 2001). In recent years, some studies have
been performed also concerning the effect of yield stresses on undrained stress paths
(e.g. Kasama et al. 2000; Uddin and Buesuceso 2002; Balasubramaniam et al. 2005) and

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 1


strength (e.g. Horpibulsuk et al. 2004; hnberg 2006;) in triaxial strength testing.
However, investigations on yield stresses on stabilised soils and their influence on
strength behaviour reported in the literature (in English) are still few, and very little has
been published concerning the effects of different binders.
Although these yield stresses, or quasi-preconsolidation pressures, are affected to a
large degree by cementation effects, the stresses acting during curing can also be
expected to play a role in the strength behaviour of stabilised soil. However, studies
performed on stabilised soils cured under different vertical stresses (e.g. Yamamoto et
al. 2002; hnberg et al. 2001) and on artificially cemented soils cured under various
confining stresses (e.g. Consoli et al. 2000; Rotta et al. 2003; Zhu et al. 1995) are
relatively few, and have mostly involved testing of compression properties. The latter
area of research has primarily involved testing of sands artificially cemented by
adding different types of cement.
To verify that cementing processes and curing stresses may influence the quasi-
preconsolidation pressure, and in turn the stress paths and strength of stabilised soil, and
to study the extent to which this occurs, a series of triaxial tests have been performed on
two stabilised clays cured with and without the application of external stresses. In
addition to the triaxial tests, a number of oedometer tests were performed on the same
types of material to enable comparisons of the strength behaviour with the quasi-
preconsolidation pressures evaluated from the latter tests. The tests were performed
within a series of projects (e.g. hnberg et al. 2003; hnberg 2006) organised by the
Swedish Deep Stabilisation Research Centre (SD) concerning the properties of stabilised
soils. To further confirm the role of cementation on the development of a quasi-
preconsolidation pressure and its effect on the strength behaviour, comparisons were
made with results from a previous series of triaxial tests on two organic soils (hnberg
et al. 2000) where similar types of binder were used. In this paper, the effect of quasi-
preconsolidation pressures and the influence of curing stresses on the stress paths and
strengths of soils stabilised with different types of binder are discussed and the
applicability of a strength model commonly used for natural soils is demonstrated.

Scope of the investigation


Types of soil
Two types of clay were included in the investigation. They were soft clays of types
that have been shown to give different stabilising results in previous investigations
(hnberg et al. 2003). The clays have fairly similar geotechnical properties according to
routine classification tests, but are from different geological deposits. The first is a post-
glacial clay from an area near Linkping in the eastern part of Sweden. It was deposited
in alternating lake and brackish sea water. The second is a marine post-glacial clay
containing occasional shells, from a site near Lftabro on the west coast of Sweden.
Both clays are high-plastic with liquid limits of approximately 70% and organic contents
of approximately 1%. Results from laboratory testing of the two clays are presented in
Table 1.

Types of binder
Two single binders and four composite binders were used for stabilisation of the
clays. Only dry binders were used. They were pure cement, pure lime, cementlime,

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 2


Table 1. Properties of the two clays.

Linkping Lftabro
clay clay
Depth (m) 3-6 2-5
Density (t/m3) 1.55 1.52
Specific gravity (t/m3) 2.72 2.73
Water content (%) 78 89
Plastic limit (%) 24 23
Liquid limit1 (%) 70 66
Undrained shear strength1 (kPa) 15 8
Sensitivity 20 25
Organic content (%) 1.0 1.0
Clay content (%) 63 72
Chloride content (%) 0.01 0.38
Sulphide content (%) 0.05 0.18
pH 7.7 8.7
1
Determined by the fall cone test (ETC5, 1998)

cementslag, cementfly ash and slaglime. All these binders were used in the
Linkping clay, while only pure cement and pure lime were used in the Lftabro clay.
All composite binders were used in proportions of 50%:50% (by weight). All binders
were added at quantities quantity corresponding to 100 kg per m3 of soil. In addition, a
number of tests were performed with 50 kg/m3 and 200 kg/m3 cement and 70 kg/m3
cement-lime in the Linkping clay. Pure lime, which in earlier tests has been shown to
be rather ineffective in this clay, was used only at a quantity of 100 kg/m3. In the
Lftabro clay, only 100 kg/m3 cement was used, whereas the lime was used in quantities
of 50, 100 and 200 kg/m3 (see Table 2).
The binders chosen are those commonly used for soil stabilisation. The lime used was
a quicklime, designated CL90-Q (CEN Standard 2001); the cement was a Portland-
limestone cement, CEM II/A-LL 42.5 R (CEN Standard 2000); the slag was a ground,
granulated blast furnace slag, and the fly ash came from pulverised coal combustion
residues.

Preparation and curing of stabilised samples


Samples were prepared by first mixing the binders with the soils for five minutes. The
mixtures were then filled in layers, of approximately 30 mm, into 50 mm plastic tubes
using a momentary vertical pressure of 100 kPa for each layer. This pressure is used not
for compaction but for producing homogeneous samples with a minimum of air pockets.
The tubes were filled to a height of approximately 150 mm. A number of the samples
prepared in this way were then sealed with rubber lids and stored in a climate-controlled
room at 8C. This mode of preparation and storage is in accordance with the common
procedure for testing of laboratory samples of stabilised soils in Sweden (Carlsten and
Ekstrm 1995; Carlsten 2000).

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 3


To study the effect of curing under various stresses, a number of samples stabilised
with cementlime were stored and cured in triaxial cells. Directly after preparation of the
samples, they were trimmed to lengths of 110 to 120 mm and mounted in the cells for
curing under different stresses. Figure 1 shows the set-up of the eight cells used for this
purpose. Four samples at a time were mounted, K0-consolidated and then cured, under
the same stresses, for 28 days. Different consolidation stresses could be used for any two
series run in parallel. The confining stress, the pore pressure and a vertical load
corresponding to a consolidation stress ratio K0 of 0.5 were applied in steps,
concurrently for the four samples. This procedure was finalised approximately 1.5 hours
after mixing. The effective confining stresses used were 20 kPa and 60 kPa, the vertical
effective stresses 40 kPa and 120 kPa respectively, and the pore pressure 20 kPa. The
samples were cured at room temperature (approximately 20C). For comparison, a
number of samples were stored for 28 days without being subjected to external stresses
but with access to water through filter stones placed at the bottom and on top of the
samples. These samples, contained in sample tubes perforated at the top end, were
placed in boxes filled with water to a level just above the top of the upper filter stones.
The boxes were kept in the same room as the curing triaxial cells.

Testing
A series of consolidated undrained (CAU) and drained (CAD) triaxial tests were
performed at different times after mixing. Stabilised clay specimens containing
composite binders and pure cement or lime in quantities corresponding to 50 and 200
kg/m3 were all tested in four weeks after mixing, while those containing 100 kg/m3 pure

Fig. 1. Set-up of triaxial cells for curing of stabilised clays subjected to different stresses.

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 4


cement or lime were tested in one day, four weeks and one year, or slightly later, after
mixing. An outline of the triaxial testing programme is presented in Table 2. The
specimens tested after four weeks or more were prepared from the same batch. A
maximum of five tests were performed in a week, giving a variation in specimen age of
2832 days for the tests after four weeks and the same span for those after about one
year. Since the strength shortly after mixing is normally highly dependent on time, the
specimens tested after one day were all prepared from different batches. Most of the
tests were performed as single tests, but a number of duplicate and triplicate tests were
also performed.
The triaxial tests were performed on specimens with a height-to-diameter ratio of 2.
Prior to testing, the specimens were cut and smoothed to provide flat, parallel end
surfaces. Polished stainless steel platens together with greased rubber membranes were
used to minimise friction at the end surfaces. Filter paper strips were mounted on the
sides of the specimens and extended to reach annular filters at the back side of the end
platens. This set-up approach has been recommended by other authors (Lacasse and
Berre 1988; deGroot and Sheahan 1995) and has been found to work well in tests
performed earlier at the Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) laboratory (Larsson 2000).
The back pressure used in the tests was 400 kPa. This back pressure level was chosen
with the intent of obtaining full saturation. The degree of saturation of the different
stabilised clay specimens before testing was approximately 9395%. In order to ensure
that all air enclosed in the specimen shall dissolve in the pore water, a back pressure of
at least 400 kPa is required for an initial degree of saturation down to approximately
92% (e.g. Lowe and Johnson 1960; Bishop and Henkel 1962). The specimens were
consolidated for 7.5 hours before the start of the shear test. This consolidation time was
somewhat longer than necessary according to estimates of the permeability of the
materials and earlier experience, but was chosen in order to account for possible
variation in composition and to fit into an effective testing schedule. A K0 value of 0.8

Table 2. Triaxial testing programme.


Soil Quantity Curing
Binder Curing Triaxial tests
time conditions
kg/m3 days
Linkping cement 50 28 no load, 8C CAU, CAD compression
clay 100 1, 28, 360
200 28
lime 100 1, 28, 360
cement-lime 70 28 ext. stress, 20C CAU, CAD compression
CAU extension
no load, 20C CAU, CAD compression
CAU extension
100 no load, 8C CAU, CAD compression
cement-slag
cement-fly ash
slag-lime
Lftabro cement 1, 28, 360
clay lime 50 28
100 1, 28, 360
200 28

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 5


was used for the majority of the tests; a stress ratio chosen from empirical experience of
in situ measurements. To investigate in greater detail the influence of curing stresses, a
number of tests were also performed with a K0 value of 0.5. The maximum rate of strain
suitable in drained triaxial tests on saturated soils (Berre, 1997) was estimated to be
0.030.08%/min in the different types of stabilised soil. A slightly lower rate of
0.02%/min was chosen in order to account for possible variation in composition. The
same rate of strain was used in the undrained triaxial compression tests. A number of
undrained passive tests were also performed using a constant rate of horizontal stress
increase.
In addition to the triaxial tests, a series of oedometer tests were performed on the
same types of material as those used in the triaxial tests. The oedometer tests were
performed to assess the yield stresses in the stabilised soils. They were performed both
as CRS oedometer tests and as incrementally loaded tests in accordance with Swedish
Standards (1991 and 1992, respectively).

Test results and discussion


Measured effective stress paths in the various types of stabilised soils
The strength of the stabilised soils varied considerably for the different types of
samples. Depending on the type of clay, the type and quantity of binder, the curing
stress, time after mixing and testing conditions, compressive strengths of approximately
50 kPa to 1500 kPa were measured. This variation in strength enabled studies of the
effective stress response under loading for specimens representing soft to stiff stabilised
soils. In Fig. 2a and b the measured effective stress paths of the stabilised Linkping
clay and Lftabro clay are shown respectively in the s:t effective stress plane, where s
= (1+3)/2 and t = (1-3)/2. The test results are shown in separate diagrams to
facilitate comparison of results representing different binders, quantities and time after
mixing. The results are shown as effective stress paths measured in the undrained triaxial
tests and as failure and yield stresses evaluated from the drained triaxial tests. Lines are
shown representing the evaluated effective strength parameters, friction angle, , and
cohesion intercept, c, for the different mixtures. Lines representing quasi-
preconsolidation pressures, qp, evaluated from the oedometer tests, i.e. vertical yield
stresses, are also indicated in the diagrams.
The results show that the stabilised soils behaved in general in an overconsolidated,
or normally consolidated, manner when the consolidation stresses, 1c, used in the
triaxial tests was lower or higher than the quasi-preconsolidation pressure, respectively.
At consolidation stresses higher than, or of the same order, as the quasi-preconsolidation
pressure, relatively high positive pore pressures are generated. This is seen in a distinct
turn in the undrained effective stress paths towards the failure envelope of the drained
tests, where failure occurs close to the point where this line is reached. In tests where the
consolidation stresses were well below the quasi-preconsolidation pressure, the stress
paths approached the failure envelop line more gradually and failure occurred at a point
below or around the state where the effective vertical stress equals the quasi-
preconsolidation pressure. This stress dependency of the undrained compressive
strength, as well as comparisons between results of unconfined compression tests and
the triaxial tests, has been described in a previous study (hnberg 2006). However, it
should be noted that most of the quasi-preconsolidation pressures were evaluated from
single oedometer tests and, as an effect of the scatter in results, varying deviations from

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 6


Fig. 2. Measured stress paths in the s:t stress plane for (a.) stabilised Linkping clay and (b.)
stabilised Lftabro clay. (s.p. =stress path)

(a)
500 800
Linkping clay Lime 100 kg/m3 Linkping clay Cement 28 days
CAU CAD CAU CAD
s.p. q max q yield s.p. q max q yield
400 3
1 day 50 kg/m
600 3
28 days 100 kg/m
3
1 year 200 kg/m

'3)/2, kPa
'3)/2, kPa

300 c'=54-230 kPa


o
'=28-38
400
qmax (drained triaxial tests) c'=5-13 kPa

'1-
'1-

o
200 '=29-33

(
(

200
s.p. (undrained triaxial tests)
100
qyield (drained triaxial tests)
( )
'qp (oedometer tests)
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 200 400 600 800 1000
'1+
( '3)/2, kPa '1+
( '3)/2, kPa
500 500
3
Linkping clay Cement 100 kg/m Linkping clay 28 days
CAU CAD CAU CAD
s.p. q max q yield s.p. q max q yield
400 400
1 day Slag-lime
28 days Cement-lime
1 year Cement-fly ash
c'=63-140 kPa
'3)/2, kPa
'3)/2, kPa

Cement-slag
300 '=31-35
o
300 c'=12-125 kPa
o
'=35-37
'1-

'1-

200 200
(

100 100

0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
'1+
( '3)/2, kPa '1+
( '3)/2, kPa

(b)
500 500
Lftabro clay Lime 28 days Lftabro clay Lime 100 kg/m3

CAU CAD CAU CAD


s.p. q max q yield c'=15-20 kPa s.p. q max q yield
400 400
50 kg/m3 '=34-36
o
1 day
100 kg/m3 28 days
200 kg/m3 1 year
'3)/2, kPa
( '1- '3)/2, kPa

300 300
c'=15-175 kPa
qmax (drained triaxial tests)
'=30-34o
'1-

200 200
(

s.p. (undrained triaxial tests)


100 qyield (drained triaxial tests) 100

'qp (oedometer tests)

0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
'1+
( '3)/2, kPa '1+
( '3)/2, kPa
500
Lftabro clay Cement 100 kg/m3
CAU CAD
s.p. q max q yield
400
1 day
28 days c'=85 kPa
1 year '=32
o
( '1- '3)/2, kPa

300

200

100

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
'1+
( '3)/2, kPa

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 7


this behaviour can be observed. Furthermore, assessment of preconsolidation pressures
was possible only for values lower than or about 600 kPa due to limitations in the
maximum applied stress.
No significant differences in evaluated effective friction angles were observed when
using different types of binder. The evaluated effective strength parameters, c and ,
varied from 5 to 175 kPa and from 30 to 36, respectively in the Linkping clay, and
from 15 to 230 kPa and 28 to 38 respectively, in the Lftabro clay. The evaluation of
effective strength parameters for each series is based on the measured strengths of a
limited number of specimens, two to four, with varying degree of scatter in the results.
However, the variation in effective friction angle can be regarded as minor in
comparison with that of the cohesion intercept. The cohesion intercept varied
considerably, displaying a clear increase with time and with binder quantity. This
increase in c is closely related to the simultaneous increase in undrained strength
(hnberg 2006). A significant exception is the lime-stabilised Linkping clay. The use
of lime as a binder had a very small stabilising effect in this clay. No further
improvement was measured between one day and one year. This lack of effect has been
observed in other investigations on this clay (hnberg et al. 2003). Another exception
from the general pattern of an increase in c with increasing time and binder quantity, is
the lime-stabilised Lftabro clay, which showed no difference in strength for binder
quantities corresponding to 50, 100 or 200 kg/m3. However, this is common when using
lime as binder. Effects of larger quantities of lime are, as a rule, observed mainly as a
more accentuated long-term strength increase.
As the stress paths in the drained tests approached or passed a point where the
effective stresses corresponded approximately to the quasi-preconsolidation pressures, a
distinct break in the stress-strain curves could be observed in several of the tests, see Fig.
3. This yielding should, however, not be confused with the yield point sometimes used

Fig. 3. Examples of specimens exhibiting distinct yielding (3c=80-240 kPa), and one that does
not (3c=20 kPa), in drained triaxial tests.

'3c = 20 kPa
Lftabro clay
3 '3c = 80 kPa
Lime 100kg/m
28 days '3c = 160 kPa
'3c = 240 kPa
'1- '3, kPa

500

0
0 5 10 15 20
1, %

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 8


to define failure. The measured strains at this breakpoint are low, only a few tenths of a
percent, whereas failure in these cases was observed at considerably greater strains. This
behaviour was observed in practically all drained tests conducted on samples of
relatively low strength. At the lowest effective confining stress, 20 kPa, this first yield
point occurred for strength levels up to about 100 kPa. In stronger specimens no distinct
yielding was observed at the lowest confining stresses. The yielding becomes less
distinct as the strength level increases and occurs, if at all, at stresses and strains closer
to failure. The stresses at which a first yielding occurred are indicated in the diagrams in
Fig. 2 by symbols of reduced size compared with those representing maximum stresses.
The variation in these yield stresses observed in the triaxial tests in relation to the quasi-
preconsolidation pressures determined by the oedometer tests was quite large, indicating
that the stresses at first yield evaluated in drained triaxial tests should only be taken as an
indication of the approximate level of the quasi-preconsolidation pressure.
When further analysing the stress paths, a phase transformation point (Ishihara et al.
1975), at which the stress path in overconsolidated samples changes its direction to more
or less follow that of the critical state line, could be observed in a number of undrained
tests. This point, could be alternatively determined as the point at which the change in
pore pressure is zero (e.g. Holmn 2003), which has been shown to be a useful way of
determining the critical state line in different natural soils. In the stabilised soils, the
points of zero change in pore pressure indicated a yield surface of a significantly
different shape. The method was thus found not to be useful for stabilised soils.
The yielding model proposed by Larsson (1977) for natural clays was found to be
applicable to the stabilised soils. In this model the limit state curves are schematically
given as four segments, two of which correspond to the failure strength envelopes in
compression and extension, and two of which correspond to v= vc and h= K0ncvc.
A similar yield model relevant for clays of varying microstructure and also unsaturated
clays was proposed by Leroueil and Barbosa (2000), in which the horizontal yield line
corresponds to h= K*p, where K* is a function of the effective friction angle, nc,
normally yielding a slightly higher value than K0nc in natural clays. However, the latter
function for natural soils was found not to be applicable to stabilised materials. The use
of the former model is demonstrated in Fig. 4, where results are shown from active and
passive tests performed on Linkping clay stabilised with lime-cement at a quantity of
70 kg/m3. The evaluated effective friction angle in the active tests is of the same order as
the values displayed in Fig. 2. For the passive tests, the effective stress parameters
indicated in the diagram are similar to those evaluated from the active tests. The
influence of a quasi-preconsolidation pressure can also be observed in the passive tests.
For these samples, which had been stored in sample tubes with no external stresses, an
approximately isotropic yield surface could be adopted, described by an apparent K0nc
close to unity. For comparison, stress paths and failure envelopes of the natural,
unstabilised, clay are also shown in the figure. The effects of lime-cement stabilisation
can be observed clearly in the formation of a significant cohesion intercept and a much
higher quasi-preconsolidation pressure than that of the natural soil, whereas a change in
effective friction angle is less evident.

Stress paths correlated to the quasi-preconsolidation pressure


From the results it is evident that the quasi-preconsolidation pressure affects the stress
paths to a high degree and is closely associated with the undrained strength of the
stabilised soils. To study this further, the stress paths can be normalised with respect to

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 9


Fig. 4. Measured stress paths in the s:t stress plane in active and passive triaxial tests on
stabilised and unstabilised Linkping clay. (s.p. = stress path)

the quasi-preconsolidation pressures evaluated from the oedometer tests. This


normalisation provided a congruent picture of the stress paths for the different types of
stabilised soils. Figure 5 shows the stress paths normalised to the evaluated quasi-
preconsolidation pressures for all the active tests and for the active and passive tests
performed on the mixtures of cement-lime stabilised Linkping clay using binder
quantities of 70 kg/m3. The results from lime stabilised Linkping clay are here omitted
as hardly any effect of the binder was observed, and this clearly deviated with regard to
the magnitude of the normalised cohesion intercept (cf. Fig. 2a). The normalisation of
the stress paths for this material indicated behaviour closer to that of natural clay. In
cases where the consolidation stresses applied in the triaxial testing were higher than the
value of qp evaluated from the oedometer tests, the specimens were considered as
being approximately normally consolidated. The stress paths of these specimens are
shown by dotted lines and failure by open circles in the figures.
The results shown in Fig. 5 for the different samples all fall into a common pattern,
with a c of approximately 0.12-0.16qp and a of approximately 33-34. The
undrained compressive strength, i.e. the deviator stress at failure, varies from
approximately 0.6qp to 1.0qp for highly overconsolidated samples to normally
consolidated samples, respectively. In Fig. 5b it can be seen that in the passive tests, the
normally consolidated specimens, i.e. those having been consolidated at stresses
higher than the quasi-preconsolidation pressure measured in the oedometer tests,
indicate a horizontal yield surface corresponding to a somewhat lower K0nc value than
the others. These specimens had been consolidated at a K0 of 0.5, which affects the
results. However, the effect of the cementation has a greater impact on the results and
being of isotropic nature constrains the change in apparent K0nc to about 0.85.

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 10


Fig. 5. Measured stress paths normalised to the quasi-preconsolidation pressures in the s:t stress
plane in (a.) triaxial compression tests on stabilised Linkping clay (lime stabilised samples
omitted) and Lftabro clay and (b.) triaxial compression and extension tests on cement-lime
stabilised Linkping clay.
(a)
1.5
CAU CAD
s.p q failure q max q yield
Stab. Linkping clay
Stab. Lftabro clay
Stab. Linkping clay
Stab. Lftabro clay
1
( '1- '3)/2/ 'qp

c'=(0.14-0.16)'qp
'=33-34o

0.5

' 3 =0

"oc" ('vc < 'qp)


"nc" ('vc d ' qp))
'
qp

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
'1+
( '3)/2/
'qp

(b) 1
Linkping clay Cement-lime
c'=0.12'qp
CAU CAD '=34o
s.p. q failure q failure q yield

0.5
( 'v- 'h)/2/ 'qp

"oc" ('vc < 'qp)


"nc" ('vc d 'qpqp))
'
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2

' v =0

-0.5
( 'h)/2/
'v+ 'qp

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 11


When the specimens had been consolidated at low confining stresses, the stress paths
approached and came close to the zero minor principal effective stress line. At this line,
the stabilised specimens may fracture unless a tensile strength can be mobilised. In these
highly overconsolidated specimens, negative pore pressures as a rule started to
develop as the stress paths approached the failure envelope. Also the volumetric strains
for these specimens showed that dilation started at points somewhat below the indicated
failure line. This behaviour results in a slightly rounded shape of the yield surface close
to origin, in contrast to the straight lines in the model.
The same effect of a quasi-preconsolidation pressure as in the stabilised clays could
also be observed in previously performed tests on stabilised organic soils. Figure 6
shows stress paths measured in triaxial tests on gyttja and peat stabilised with similar
types of binder as in the present project, although at a higher quantity. These soils had
been tested with respect to the stabilisation effects of different binders in connection
with the EC-funded project EuroSoilStab (hnberg et al. 2000). They were a gyttja from
Holma Mosse in stergtland, in the eastern part of Sweden, and a peat from Dmle
Mosse in Vrmland, in the western part of Sweden. The Holma gyttja is a clayey gyttja
with a water content of 220% and a liquid limit of 170%. The organic content is 10%.
The natural peat has a high water content of about 2000% and is classified as H5H7
according to the von Post scale (von Post 1924, e.g. Landva and Pheeney 1980). The
effective friction angles were, however, roughly about the same as those evaluated from
the tests on the stabilised clay. The stabilised peat samples had been stored in sample
tubes subjected to a load of 18 kPa applied on top of the samples shortly after mixing,
simulating preloading corresponding to about one metre of fill in the field. Two
extension triaxial tests were performed on stabilised peat samples. However, whether the

Fig. 6. Measured stress paths normalised to the quasi-preconsolidation pressures in the s:t stress
plane for the stabilised organic soils.

1
Dmle peat Cement-lime,Cement-slag Stab. peat
Holma gyttja 28 days-1 year Stab. gyttja

c'=(0.22-0.24)'qp
o
'=31-34

0.5
( 'v- 'h)/2/ 'qp

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2

CAU CAD
q failure q failure
Stab. peat
Stab. gyttja
-0.5
'v+
( 'h)/2/
'qp

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 12


initial loading, which was relatively small, corresponding to only about 10% of the
quasi-preconsolidation pressure, had any anisotropic effect on the yield stresses could
not be interpreted from the results.
Normalisation of the stresses in the different stress planes provided a useful tool for
studying the stress response of the different types of stabilised soils. In spite of some
scatter in the measurements of, foremost the quasi-preconsolidation pressures, but also
the strength for individual test series, a congruent picture of the strength behaviour can
be observed. Considering the results of all the tests, the drained strength of the different
types of stabilised clays could be approximately described by a mean cohesion intercept
of 0.15qp and a mean friction angle of 33, giving qd 0.25qp+ 0.54(1 + 3). It
may be possible to use this relation in preliminary estimates of drained strength in
stabilised clays of similar types. In undrained conditions, the strength is closely related
to the magnitude of the consolidation stresses and the quasi-preconsolidation pressures.
The variation in undrained compressive strength in stabilised soils has been described by
the approximate relation qu = 1.0vcOCR0.88 in previous studies (hnberg, 2006). The
overconsolidation ratio, OCR, is here the relation qp/vc.

Effects of curing stresses on the strength


Subjecting the stabilised samples to stresses during curing resulted in an increase in
strength and an increase in quasi-preconsolidation pressure. Figure 7a shows the
measured stress paths in undrained triaxial tests performed on the cement-lime-stabilised
samples cured for 28 days, with effective vertical curing stresses of 0, 40 and 120 kPa,
and corresponding effective horizontal curing stresses of 0, 20 and 60 kPa, respectively.
The consolidation stresses during curing were all below the quasi-preconsolidation
pressure of about 210 kPa measured on samples not subjected to any curing stresses.
However, since the curing stresses were applied shortly after mixing this caused
compression of the sample, in turn enabling the cementation processes to take place with
the soil and binder particles arranged closer together. This resulted in an increase in
quasi-preconsolidation pressure compared with those in samples cured with no external
stress applied, of about 38% and 90% after 28 days for the samples cured at effective
vertical stress of 40 and 120 kPa, respectively. The increase in c was approximately
proportional to the increase in qp, whereas the effective friction angle was about the
same for samples cured with and without external stresses. Since the curing stresses are
well below the isotropic yield locus of samples cured without stresses, the K0 of 0.5 used
during curing did not result in a corresponding ratio for vertical and horizontal yield
stresses. However, the K0 used during curing did have an influence, which was observed
in that the increase in horizontal yield stress due to curing stresses was only half the
increase in vertical quasi-preconsolidation pressure. The ratio between vertical and
horizontal yield stresses, K0qp, was approximately 0.86 and 0.76 for the samples cured at
effective vertical stresses of 40 kPa and 120 kPa, respectively. The reduced value of K0qp
could be expressed approximately as

qp
1 + K 0 qp 0
[1] K 0qp =
qp
1 + qp 0

where qp is the quasi-preconsolidation pressure when the sample is not subjected to


0

stresses during curing.

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 13


Fig. 7. Measured effective stress paths (a.) and stress paths normalised to the quasi-
preconsolidation pressure (b.) in the s:t stress plane for stabilised Linkping clay subjected to
different curing stresses after mixing.
(a)
300
Linkping clay
Cement-lime
c'=25-63 kPa
70 kg/m3
200 '=33-34o
( 'v- 'h)/2, kPa

100

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Curing stress (K0=0.5)


-100 '1c= 0 kPa
'1c= 40 kPa
'1c= 120 kPa

-200
'v+
( 'h)/2, kPa

(b)
1
Linkping clay
c'=0.14'qp
Cement-lime '=33o
70 kg/m3

0.5
( 'v- 'h)/2/ 'qp

"oc" ('vc < 'qp)


"nc" ('vc d 'qp)

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2

K 0qp = 0.76, 0.86, 1.0

-0.5
( 'h)/2/
'v+ 'qp

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 14


The results obtained from samples cured at different stresses provided useful
information on how stresses at certain depths in situ may affect the strength behaviour
compared with that of stabilised soils at shallow depths, or samples of stabilised soils
stored in the normal way without external stresses in the laboratory. Further tests of this
kind for different strength levels and for different types of soil are needed in order for
more general conclusions to be drawn regarding the influence of curing stresses on the
strength behaviour. However, the effects of increased stresses can be assumed to be
related mainly to compression of the stabilised material. This implies that increased
stresses caused by a load, e.g. from an embankment, should preferably be applied in a
way that produces a certain compression of the material shortly after stabilisation. If the
load is applied with a certain delay, the stabilised soil may have gained sufficient
strength to prevent significant compression for a limited load and any desired further
strength increase linked to this. This effect of delay in loading has been demonstrated for
stabilised peat in earlier investigations (hnberg et al. 2001). It is also recommended
practice in Sweden to apply a load increment as soon as possible to all types of
stabilisation under embankments (e.g. Carlsten 2000).

Changes in stress with strain


The stress-strain relation was studied with regard to changes in stresses at larger
strains and for assessment of the joint response of stabilised soils and surrounding
natural soils. To study the changes in stress with strain during loading for all the
different types of samples, normalisation of the stresses with respect to the quasi-
preconsolidation pressure was performed. Figure 8 shows examples of the measured
variation in normalised shear stress with strain in the undrained and drained tests. The
curves shown in Fig. 8 are from measurements performed with external strain gauges
and the strains presented are thus only approximate. However, the general pattern is
about the same as that obtained by internal measurements. In a large number of the tests,

Fig. 8. Examples of measured stress vs. strain in (a.) undrained and (b.) drained triaxial
compression tests on stabilised Linkping clay.
(a) (b)
1.5 1.5

Linkping clay '3c = 20 kPa Linkping clay '3c = 20 kPa


'3c = 80 kPa '3c = 80 kPa
100 kg/m3
'3c = 160 kPa 100 kg/m 3
'3c = 160 kPa
'3c = 240 kPa '3c = 240 kPa

1 1
'qp, kPa

Lime
'qp kPa

Cement
qu/2/

qd/2/

Cement Lime
0.5 0.5

Unstabilised clay Unstabilised clay

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20
1, % 1, %

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 15


local measurements of the axial strains were also performed. These measurements were,
however, limited to strains smaller than about 10%.
Although the results represent a large variation in strength depending on the type of
binder etc., similar patterns could be observed in the stress-strain response of the
different specimens. In the undrained triaxial tests, after an initial rapid increase in shear
stress up to failure, the shear stress levelled off and only a limited change was measured
at continued straining after failure. In the drained triaxial tests, on the other hand, a large
variation was observed in the stress-strain response. Failure occurred at various values of
strain. In cases where failure occurred at small strains, a significant reduction in shear
stress with increasing strain after failure was observed. In general, this applied to
specimens that in the tests had been consolidated at stresses well below the quasi-
preconsolidation pressure, whereas those exhibiting failure at large strains were closer to
normally consolidated.
The variation in normalised stress with strain measured internally is shown
schematically in Fig. 9, together with normalised pore pressures and volumetric strains
measured in the undrained and drained triaxial tests, respectively. For comparison,
results are also shown from triaxial tests performed on unstabilised clay. The shaded
ranges represent data measured for samples tested at about the same vc/qp ratio. The
influence of this degree of overconsolidation on the stress-strain relations, pore
pressures and volumetric changes can be clearly seen in the figure. At low vc/qp
ratios, the specimens behaved in a dilatant manner, involving increases in volume in the
drained tests and the development of negative pore pressures in the undrained tests, as
the stresses approached failure. The pore pressures generated in the stabilised soils
varied between approximately -0.1qp and 0.5-0.6qp for highly overconsolidated and
normally consolidated specimens, respectively. This corresponded to negative pore
pressures of 10-20% and to positive pore pressures of 50-60% of the compressive
strength, respectively.
The normalised shear stresses and pore pressures generated were significantly higher
in the stabilised soils than in the natural, unstabilised soil. The triaxial tests on the
Linkping clay were performed at a v/vc ratio of 0.5, which is only slightly lower
than the ratio in situ for the natural soil. In Fig. 9b results are also shown from a drained
triaxial test performed on the clay at an elevated consolidation stress representing
normally consolidated conditions. The strains in the natural clays were measured solely
with external gauges. The results indicated that under undrained conditions, the strength
of the stabilised soil and the unstabilised soil may be mobilised concurrently in the
materials. In addition to the failure strains of the stabilised soil and the unstabilised soil
being about the same in many cases, both materials exhibited near ideal-plastic
behaviour without a significant reduction in strength after failure. On the other hand,
under drained conditions in highly overconsolidated specimens, the stabilised soils
exhibited brittle behaviour with a significant reduction in strength after failure, which
occurred at a very small strain.
The normalisation of the results further elucidated the response of stabilised soils
when subjected to loading. A view often expressed in the design of deep mixing, is that
the stabilised soil and the natural soil respond in fundamentally different ways, and only
a very limited part of the soil strength, if any, can be activated when the composite
system of stabilised and unstabilised soil is subjected to loading in situ. This view is
probably based primarily on the results from unconfined compression tests, where a
distinct peak in the stress-strain curve followed by a considerable reduction in strength is

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 16


Fig. 9. Schematic variation in normalised shear stress, normalised pore pressure and relative
volumetric change vs. axial strain in (a) undrained and (b) drained triaxial compression tests on
stabilised Linkping and Lftabro clay. Results on unstabilised Linkping clay are shown for
comparison.
(a) (b)
1 1.5
Linkping clay Linkping clay 'qp
'1c/
Lftabro clay Lftabro clay

0.9-1.0
'qp
'1c/
1

0.9-1.0
'qp

qd/2/ 'qp
0.6-0.7
qu/2/

0.5 0.6-0.7
0.4-0.5
0.2-0.3 0.4-0.5

0.2-0.3
0.03-0.1 0.5
0.5 0.1-0.2
0.5

1.0 0.03-0.1
Unstabilised
Linkping clay
Unstabilised Linkping clay
0 0
0 5 10 0 5 10
1, % 1, %
1 -5
Linkping clay Linkping clay
Lftabro clay Lftabro clay '1c/
'qp

'1c/
'qp
0.03-0.1

0.9-1.0 0 5 10
0.5 0 0.1-0.2

0.7-0.8
v, %
u/ 'qp

0.3-0.4
0.4-0.5

0.3-0.4 0.5
0.6-0.7
0 0.2-0.3 0.1-0.2 5
0.03-0.1
0 5 10
0.9-1.0
1.0
Unstabilised
Linkping clay
Unstabilised
Linkping clay
-0.5 10
1, % 1, %

often observed. The unconfined compression test may be regarded as an undrained test.
However, at failure cracks start to develop and the lack of a confining support then
results in a major loss in strength. In deep mixing, the confining stresses prevailing in
the field are likely to bring about more tenacious behaviour with a more limited
reduction in the undrained strength with strain in the stabilised soil, as well as in the
natural soil. However, under drained conditions in stabilised soil of high strength and at
low confining stresses, the failure strains may be low, and the reduction in strength at
larger strains more pronounced, resulting in full strength not being mobilised
simultaneously in the stabilised and unstabilised soil.

Conclusions
The results of the investigation performed on the two clays stabilised with different
types of binder showed that triaxial tests and oedometer tests are useful tools for
studying the strength behaviour of the materials.

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 17


Quasi-preconsolidation pressures, qp, governed by cementation effects as well as
by previous curing stresses, were observed in the triaxial tests as well as in the
oedometer tests. The influence of this quasi-preconsolidation pressure was observed in
compression as well as extension triaxial tests. The quasi-preconsolidation pressure
affects the stress paths and is closely associated to the strength of the stabilised soils.
The results show that the stabilised soils behave in an overconsolidated manner when
the consolidation stresses are significantly lower than the quasi-preconsolidation
pressures, and in a normally consolidated manner when the consolidation stresses are
of the order of 0.8 to 1.0qp. No tendencies towards differences in the general
strength behaviour when using different types of binder were observed.
A common yielding model for natural clays (Larsson 1977) was also found suitable
for describing the behaviour observed in the tests on stabilised soils. The yield surface
is schematically described by the failure strength envelopes in compression and
extension and by v= qp and h= 0ncqp. An isotropic yield surface could be
adopted for the samples cured in the normal way, without being subjected to external
stresses.
Normalisation of the deviator stress with respect to the quasi-preconsolidation
pressure was effective for studying the behaviour of different types of stabilised soils.
The undrained compressive strength varied from approximately 0.6qp to 1.0qp for
highly overconsolidated samples and normally consolidated samples, respectively,
while the variation in drained strength of the different types of stabilised clays could
be expressed by a mean cohesion intercept of 0.15qp and a mean friction angle of
33.
Stresses applied shortly after mixing will compress the stabilised soil and result in
increased strength and increased quasi-preconsolidation pressure. A K0 value lower
than unity applied during curing results in a ratio of the horizontal-to-vertical yield
stresses, K0nc, lower than that of samples cured without stresses.
Although the results represent a large variation in strength depending on the types of
soil, binder, binder quantity and curing time, consistent patterns could be observed in
the stress-strain relations. The behaviour is linked to the degree of overconsolidation.
In undrained tests there is only limited further change in deviator stress at continued
loading after failure. In drained tests on specimens consolidated at stresses well below
the quasi-preconsolidation pressure, failure occurs at small strains and a significant
reduction in shear stress with strain after failure is observed. Stabilised samples that
are close to normally consolidated exhibit failure at large strains.

Acknowledgements
Financial support for this study was provided by the Swedish Geotechnical Institute
(SGI) and the Swedish Deep Stabilization Research Centre (SD). These contributions, as
well as permission of the participants within the European Community project
EuroSoilStab under the Brite EuRam contract BRPR-CT97-0351, to present data from
this project, are gratefully acknowledged.

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 18


References
hnberg, H. 2004. Effects of back pressure and strain rate used in triaxial testing of
stabilised organic soils and clays. Geotechnical Testing Journal. Vol. 27, No. 3. pp.
250-259.
hnberg, H. 2006. Effects of consolidation stresses on the strength of some stabilised
Swedish soils. Ground Improvement, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1-13.
hnberg, H., Johansson, S-E., Retelius, A., Ljungkrantz, C., Holmqvist, L., Holm, G.
1995. Cement and lime for deep stabilisation of soil. Swedish Geotechnical Institute,
Report No. 48. 213 p. (In Swedish).
hnberg H., Bengtsson P-E. and Holm G. 2000. Task 2.2 and 7. Laboratory tests of
mixtures Test sites Dmle Mosse and Holma Mosse, Sweden. National report, part
1. Internal Report. EuroSoilStab project, SGI 3-9705-239 and 3-9708-395. 35 p.
hnberg, H., Bengtsson, P-E. and Holm G. 2001. Effect of initial loading on the strength
of stabilised peat. Ground Improvement, Vol 5, No 1, pp. 35 40.
hnberg H., Johansson S-E., Pihl H. and Carlsson T. 2003. Stabilising effects of
different binders in some Swedish soils. Ground Improvement, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 9-
23.
Babasaki, R., Terashi, M., Suzuki, T., Maekawa, A., Kawamura, M. and Fukazawa, E.
1996. JGS TC Report: Factors influencing the strength of improved soil. In
Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems IS
Tokyo96. Grouting and Deep Mixing, Tokyo, 1996. Vol. 2, pp. 913-918.
Balasubramaniam, A.S. and Buensuceso, B.R. 1989. On the overconsolidated behavior
of lime treated soft clay. In Proceedings of the XII International Conference on Soil
Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Rio de Janeiro 1989. pp. 1335-1338.
Balasubramaniam, A.S., Buessucesco, B., Oh, E.Y.N., Bolton, M., Bergado, D.T. and
Lorenzo, G. Strength degradation and critical state seeking behaviour of lime treated
sofl clay. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Deep Mixing Best
Practice and Recent Advances, Deep Mixing05, Stockholm 2005, pp. 35-40.
Berre, T. 1997. Methods for consolidated triaxial compression tests on water saturated
soils. European Technical Committee, Document number ETC5-F1.97, pp.7586.
Bishop, A.W. and Henkel, D.J. 1962. The measurements of soil properties in the triaxial
tests. Second edition. Edward Arnold Ltd, London 1962.
Broms, B. 2000. Lime and lime/cement columns. Summary and visions. Keynote
lectures NGM-2000 and 4th GIGS, Helsinki 2000, pp. 43-93.
Carlsten, P. and Ekstrm, J. 1995. Lime and lime cement columns. Guide for project
planning, construction and inspection. Swedish Geotechnical Society Report 4:95E.
Carlsten, P. 2000. Lime and lime cement columns. Guide for project planning,
construction and inspection. Swedish Geotechnical Society Report 2:2000. (In
Swedish)
CEN standard 2000. CEN standard EN197-1:2000. Cement Part 1: Composition,
specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. European Committee for
standardization (CEN), Brussels.
CEN standard 2001. CEN standard EN459-1:2001. Building lime Part I: Definitions,
specifications and conformity criteria. European Committee for standardization
(CEN), Brussels.
Consoli, N.C., Rotta, G.V. and Prietto, P.D. M. 2000. Influence of curing under stress on
the triaxial response of cemented soils. Gotechnique, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 99-105.

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 19


deGroot, D.J. and Sheahan, T.C. 1995. Laboratory methods for determining engineering
properties of overconsolidated clays. Engineering properties and practice in
overconsolidated clays. Transportation Research Record, No. 1479, pp. 17-25.
ETC5, 1998, Recommendations of the ISSMGE for geotechnical laboratory testing.
Beuth Verlag, Berlin.
Holmn, M. 2003. Advanced triaxial testing of clay till. Licentiate Dissertation. Soil
Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Lunds Institute of Technology, Lund
University.
Horpibulsuk S., Miura, N. and Bergado, D. T. 2004. Undrained shear behavior of
cement admixed clay at high water content . Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 10, pp. 1096-1105.
Ishihara K. Tatsuoka F. And Yasuda S. 1975. Undrained deformation an liquefaction in
sand under cyclic stress. Soils and Foundations, Vol. 15, No. 1.
Kasama K., Ochiai, H. and Yasufuku, N. 2000. On the Stress-Strain Behaviour of
Lightly Cemented Clay Based on an Extended Critical State Concept. Soils and
Foundations, Vol. 40, No.5, pp. 37-47.
Kawasaki, T., Saitoh, S., Suzuki, Y. and Babasaki, R. 1984. Deep mixing method using
cement slurry as hardening agent. In Proceedings of the Seminar on Soil
Improvement and Construction Techniques in Soft Ground, Singapore 1984. pp. 17-
38.
Kitazume, M. and Terashi, M. 2002. The Deep Mixing Method Principle, Design and
Construction. Ed. Coastal Development Institute of Technology (CDIT), Japan. A.A.
Balkema Publishers, Tokyo. 123 pp.
Lacasse, S. and Berre, T. 1988. Triaxial testing methods for soils. Advanced triaxial
testing of soil and rock. ASTM Special Technical Publications STP 977, pp. 264-289.
Landva , A.O. and Pheeney, P.E., 1980, Peat fabric and structure. Canadian
Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp.416-435.
Larsson, R. 1977. Basic behaviour of Scandinavian soft clays. Swedish Geotechnical
Institute, Report No. 4, Linkping.
Larsson, R. 2000. Investigations and load tests in clay till. Swedish Geotechnical
Institute, Report No. 59, Linkping.
Lee, K. Chan D. and Lam K. 2004. Constitutive Model for Cement Treated Clay in a
Critical State Frame Work. Soils and Foundations, Vol. 44, No.3, pp. 69-77.
Leroueil, S. and Barbosa, P.S. de A. 2000. Combined effect of fabric, bonding and
partial saturation on yielding of soils. In Proceedings of the Asian Conference on
Unsaturated Soils, Singapore, pp. 527-532.
Lowe, J. and Johnson, T.C. 1960. Use of back pressure to increase degree of saturation
of triaxial test specimens. In Proceedings of the Research Conference on Shear
Strength of Cohesive Soils. Boulder 1960. pp. 819-836.
von Post, L., 1924, Das genitische system der organogenen bildungen Schwedens.
Mmoires Nomenclat. et Classific. Sols, Comit int. Pdologie, 4 Commission No
22. pp. 287-304.
Rotta, G.V. Consoli, N.C., Prietto, P.D.M., Coop, M.R. and Graham. J. 2003. Isotropic
yielding in an artificially cemented soil cured under stress. Gotechnique, Vol. 53,
No. 5, pp. 493-501.
Swedish Standard 1991. SS 02 71 26, Geotechnical tests - Compression properties -
Oedometer test, CRS-test - Cohesive soil. Swedish Standards Institute, SIS Frlag
AB, Stockholm. (In Swedish.)

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 20


Swedish Standard 1992. SS 02 71 29, Geotechnical tests - Compression characteristics -
Oedometer test incremental loading - Cohesive soil. Swedish Standards Institute, SIS
Frlag AB, Stockholm. (In Swedish).
Tatsuoka, F. and Kobayashi, A. 1983. Triaxial strength characteristics of cement-treated
soft clay. In Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and
Foundation Engineering, Helsinki 1983, Vol. 1, pp. 421-426.
Tremblay, H., Leroueil, S. and Locat, J. 2001. Mechanical improvement and vertical
yield stress prediction of clayey soils from eastern Canada treated with lime or
cement. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 38, pp. 567-579.
Uddin K. and Buensuceso B. R. 2002. Lime Treated Clay: Salient Engineering
Properties and a Conceptual Model. Soils and Foundations, Vol. 42, No.5, pp. 79-89.
Yamamoto, T., Suzuki, M., Okabayashi, S., Fujino, H., Taguchi, T. and Fujimoto, T.
2002. Strength and deformation characteristics of cement-stabilised soil cured under
an overburden pressure. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Ground
Improvement Techniques, Kuala Lumpur 2002. pp. 761-766.
Yin, J.-H. (2001). Properties and behaviour of raw sludge mixed with PFA and lime.
Geotechnical Testing journal (ASTM), Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 299-307.
Zhou, Cheng, Yin, J.-H. and Ming, J.-P. (2002) Bearing capacity and settlement of weak
fly ash ground improved using lime-fly sash or stone columns. Canadian
Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 585-596.
Zhu, F., Clark, J.I. and Paulin, M.J. 1995. Factors affecting at-rest lateral stress in
artificially cemented sands. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 195-
203.

hnberg, H., On yield stresses and the influence of curing stresses 21


Statens geotekniska institut
Swedish Geotechnical Institute
SE-581 93 Linkping, Sweden
Tel 01320 18 00, Int + 46 13 201800
Fax 01320 19 14, Int + 46 13 201914
E-mail: sgi@swedgeo.se Internet: www.swedgeo.se