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Heating and -

PART SEVEN
Ventilating CONDENSER AND
Contractors' COOLING WATER
Association
TR/20 Installation Acknowledgeme
...............................................................
and Testing of Members of the drafting panel w
Pipework Systems compiled this guide
The HVCA wishes to record its sincere thanks to
the following members of the TW20 drafting
Sub-Committee, without whose direct input of
knowledge, time and experience this publication
would not have been produced.

John StClair

TR/20 Eric Innes


Cliff Toft
Geoffrey Robinson

Part 7
Alan Keating - Secretary
Frank J Ferris - Consultant

The HVCA also wishes to acknowledge the input


from BSRIA, CIBSE, IoP, IGEM, OFTEC, plus
the remaining members of the Technical
Committee for their time, input and vetting.

ISBN 0-903783-46-0

First published 2003

02003 HVCA

1
...................................................................................................................................
W20 is published against a background of significant change within the building
services engineering sector over recent years. Of particular note has been the
industry wide campaign to raise standards and performance through the
Construction Best Practice Programme.
Much effort has been and continues to be made to raise the productivity, performance
and competence standards of our sector.
To support this programme HVCA has undertaken to provide a number of measures designed to demon-
strate and achieve positive differentiation of their members. One such measure has been to undertake a fun-
damental review of TW10, the previous HVCA standard for Installation work ‘Heating Hot and Cold Water
Supply’.
As a result of this review TW20 replaces TW10 and emerges as a new standard for ‘The Installation and
Testing of Pipework Services’ for the building services engineering sector. It embraces a comprehensive
range of pipework services and is structured as a set of 10 ‘stand alone’ sectionalised specifications.
The objective of TW20 is to provide a pipework installation specification that will ensure compliance with
accepted good practice. It is intended that this standard specification will be used generally as a means of mea-
surement and assessment of a contractor’s performance and, specifically, to demonstrate compliance and com-
petence under the HVCA Inspection and Assessment arrangements.
It is envisaged that TW20 be used either in the absence of a client specification or by specific reference as
an integral part of such a specification.
It is also proposed that TW20 be used as a quality benchmark whereby any shortfall identified within an
alternative specification is drawn to the client’s attention.
Unlike its forerunner, TW20 does not address design or commissioning requirements. These are consid-
ered to be very ably addressed by other industry documents already in place published by CIBSE, BSRIA,
OFTEC and others, for which appropriate references are provided.
TW20 also excludes equipment incorporated within or connected to the pipework installation. The speci-
fication and selection of equipment is considered to be a responsibility of the system designer who should
ensure that where appropriate the selection is compliant with the client’s brief.
, Additionally, it is not the policy of the HVCA to promote any particular product or manufacturer.
During the review and drafting process the drafting Sub-committee has consulted widely with individuals
and external organisations to ensure that the new standard fully reflects the industry’s current good practice.
The resulting publication will, I believe, serve as a recognised benchmark for our industry sector and
HVCA members in particular. I take this opportunity to thank all who have contributed to its production and
in particular the members of the TW20 Sub-committee for their tireless efforts and collective contribution of
invaluable knowledge and experience.

Previous page
John Hunt is blank
Chairman Technical Committee
TENTS
...................................................................................................................................
Page
iNTWODUCTlON
FOREWORD 7
OBJECTIVE 7
STANDARD OF QUALITY 7
QUALITY ASSURANCE 8
SCOPE 8
PUBLICATION AND REVIEW 8
OPERATING CONDITION 8
DESCRIPTION OF SERVICE 8
0 m7mB Open circuit systems 8
P m 7 m 2 Closed circuit systems 8
MATERIALS AND JOINTING METHODS
PIPING MATERIALS 9
SELECTION TABLE “A” 9
THREADING - Steel 9
WELDING - Steel 10
FLANGES 10
GROOVED JOINTS 11
PRESSED FIT 11
COMPRESSION, CAPILLARY, BRAZED JOINTS OR PUSH FIT 11
2.8.d Compression Joints 11
28.2 Capillary Joints 11
2.8.3 Brazed Joints 11
2.8.4 Push Fit 11
PROPRIETARY SYSTEMS 11
STEEL PIPEWORK CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY
PIPING MATERIALS 12
3.9 -1 Pipe Finish 12
THREADED ASSEMBLY 12
3.298 Threaded Joints 12
3.2.2 Bends and Fittings 12
WELDED ASSEMBLY 12
3.3.6 Welding Methods 12
3.3-2 Welding Fittings 13
FLANGED ASSEMBLY 13
GROOVED ASSEMBLY 13
3.504 Joints 13
3.5.2 Fittings 13
PRESS FIT ASSEMBLY 14
SUPPORT AND FIXINGS 14
EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION 14
3.8.1 Natural Flexibility 15
3.8.2 Expansion Devices 15
3.83 Anchors and Guides 15
3.8.4 Cold Draw 15
CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY 16
33.1 Cleanliness 16
3.92 Pipe Sleeves 16
3.9.3 Alignment 16
3.9-4 Spacing and Clearance 16
Section COPPER PIPEWORK CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY
m¶ PIPING MATERIALS 17
=fl Grades and Types 17
4=dm2 Finish 17
.2 JOINTING METHODS 17
Page

4.3 CAPILLARY JOINT AND FITTING ASSEMBLY 17


4.3.1 Capillary Method of Assembly 17
4.3.2 Capillary Fittings 17
4.4 COMPRESSION JOINT AND FITTING ASSEMBLY 18
4.4.1 Compression Method 18
4.4.2 Compression Fittings 18
4.5 FLANGED JOINTS 18
4.6 PUSH FIT ASSEMBLY 18
4.6.1 Push Fit Method 18
4.6.2 Push Fit Fittings 18
4.7 BRAZED ASSEMBLY 18
4.7.1 Brazing Method 18
4.7.2 Brazing Fittings 18
4.8 PRESS FIT ASSEMBLY 18
4.8.1 Method 18
4.8.2 Fitting 19
4.9 PULLED BENDS 19
4.1 0 SUPPORT AND FIXINGS 19
4.1 1 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION 19
4.1 1.l Pipework 19
4.1 1.2 Expansion Devices 20
4.1 1.3 Anchors and Guides 20
4.1 2 CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY 20
4.1 2.1 Cleanliness 20
4.1 2.2 Pipe Sleeves 20
4.1 2.3 Alignment 20
4.1 2.4 Spacing and Clearances 21
Section 5 STAINLESS STEEL PIPEWORK CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY 21
Section 6 PLASTIC PIPEWORK CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY
6.1 INTRODUCTION 22
6.2 APPLICATION SELECTION TABLE 22
6.2.1 Pressure and Temperature Relationship 22
6.3 JOINTING METHODS 23
6.3.1 Threaded 23
6.3.2 Solvent Welding 23
6.3.3 Flanges 24
6.3.4 Thermal Fusion 24
6.3.5 Butt Welding 24
6.3.6 Socket Welding 24
6.3.7 Electrofusion 24 -
6.3.8 Compression Fittings 24
6.3.9 Push-Fit 25
6.4 ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY 25
6.5 EXPANSION RATES 25
6.6 SUPPORTS 25
6.7 ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT 25
6.8 MIXING OF PIPES AND FITTINGS 25
6.9 PRESSURE FLUCTUATION 26
6.1 0 HANDLING 26
6.1 1 THERMAL INSULATION AND TRACE HEATING 26
6.1 2 LOCATION OF PIPEWORK 26
6.13 CHEMICAL CLEANING 26
6.14 EXTERNAL INSULATION AND HIDDEN PIPEWORK 26
6.15 PLASTIC PIPEWORK AND COOLING SYSTEMS 26
6.1 6 IDENTIFICATION 26
6.17 CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY 27
6.17.1 Cleanliness 27
6.17.2 Pipe Sleeves 27
6.17.3 Alignment 28
6.17.4 Spacing and Clearances 28

5
Page

Section 7 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


7.1 MAIN EQUIPOTENTIAL BONDING 28
7.2 VENTING 28
ir.3 DRAINING 28
7.4 EXPANSION 28
7.5 PROTECTION 28
7.5.1 Physical 28
7.5.2 Corrosion 28
7.6 CONNECTIONS TO EQUIPMENT 29
7.6.1 Connections to Existing 29
7.6.2 Connections for Future Use 29
7.7 EXTERNAL FABRIC PENETRATIONS 29

Section 8 ACCESSORIES AND PIPELINE ANCILLARIES


8.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 29
8.2 VALVE LOCATIONS AND FUNCTION 29
8.2.1 Isolating Valves 29
8.2.2 Regulating Valves 29
8.3 PIPELINE ANCILLARIES 30
8.3.1 Safety Valves 30
8.3.2 Ball Float Valves 30
8.3.3 Non-return Valves 30
8.3.4 Strainers 30
8.3.5 Instrumentation and Test Points 30
8.3.6 . Pressure Gauges 30
8.3.7 Thermometers 30
8.3.8 .Flow switches and indicators 30
8.4 IDENTIFICATION 31
8.4.1 Pipeline 31
8.4.2 Valves and Plant 31

Section 9 TESTING 31

Section 10 THERMAL INSULATION


10.1 APPLICATION 32
10.1.l Installation Considerations 32
10.1.2 Workmanship 32
10.2 TRACE HEATING 33
10.2.1 Pre-installation Guidelines 33
10.2.2 Installation 33
10.2.3 Heating Cable Connection 33
10.2.4 Heating Cable Testing 34

Section 11 FLUSHING, CLEANING AND WATER TREATMIENT


11.1 APPLICATION 34
11.2 SYSTEM CLEANLINESS 34
11.2.1 Introduction 34
11.2.2 Delivery and Storage 34
11.2.3 During Installation 34
11.2.4 During Testing 35
11.2.5 Dynamic Flushing 35
11.3 FILLING SYSTEM 35
11.4 CHEMICAL CLEANING 35
11.5 WATER TREATMENT 36

Section 12 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SOURCES


I2m1 REFERENCES 36
12.2 ABBREVIATIONS 37
12.3 MISCELLANEOUS 38

6
Section 1 or specification that is understood by all con-
cerned. This specification defines the important
INTRODUCTION
........................................................ elements of a system, which will provide the fol-
lowing benefits:
1.0 FOREWORD 0 For the customer, that he has the assurance
This is the seventh section in a suite of publica- of competency to a stated standard and
tions, intended to set the standards for the instal- that he can expect value for money.
lation and testing of pipework systems in non- 0 For the contractor, that he is tendering on
domestic buildings. It forms the basis for an a common footing with his competitors
assessment regime introduced by the Heating and that he is clear as to the standards of
and Ventilating Contractors’ Association, by workmanship required of him.
which new and existing members’ competence 0 For them both, that they have a definition
can be evaluated. of common intent.
This suite of standards replaces the earlier The HVCA believes that the interests of the
Standard for installation work - heating, hot and industry’s customers and of its member contrac-
cold water supply (TW10). The full suite of stan- tors can be enhanced and brought together by the
dards covers a wider range of common mechan- publication of a straight-forward technical spec-
ical services than its predecessor. ification, (complementary to Statutory Require-
Clients will be able to expect systems falling ments, European and/or British Standards)
within the scope of this standard to comply with bringing a clear focus to practical and functional
its requirements when installed by HVCA mem- matters.
bers. This publication is therefore primarily intend-
This standard is not intended to override any ed to:
other specification as required by the client. Any 0 Provide information for customers who
contractor asked to carry out works below this are appointing (by competition or negotia-
standard should advise the client. tion) a contractor.
Where new products or technologies are used, 0 Provide a workmanship standard, (if not
full supporting manufacturers’ information shall specified by others) for pipework installa-
be available if required, i.e. by the client or tion.
assessor. 0 Provide a standard of workmanship that
may be verified by independent assess-
1 .l OBJECTIVE ment.
The purpose of the cooling water pipework sys- This publication (or extracts from it) is suit-
tem is to efficiently and safely transport cooling able for embodiment into contract documents by
from the condenser or other cooling source to a both customers and contractors as appropriate.
cooling tower or dry cooler in a controlled man-
ner and to fulfil the expectations of the 1.2 STANDARD OF WORKMANSHIP
desigdinstallation team and the client. This may The standard of workmanship set by this publi-
be to remove heat from watedwater chiller or cation is intended to be appropriate to most nor-
other process. mal commercial and industrial installations and,
A satisfactory installation depends on the relates to good practice in installation and ener-
competence of the designers and installers of the gy use without unnecessary elaboration. The
system, to meet the needs of the client, in rela- HVCA intends this to be a significant aid in
tion to what he is prepared to pay. In short, the producing installations that will, given correct
level of quality offered and provided by the con- operation and with proper maintenance, provide
tractor must correspond to the agreed workman- satisfactory ‘service over many years.
ship expected and paid for by the customer. Where clients have their own special require-
The installation will normally follow a set of ments, the particular requirements should be
installation drawings; the installer should main- agreed between customer, designer and
tain a record of the actual installed pipework sys- installing contractor.
tem for record purposes.
A key factor in achieving this satisfaction is
the existence/availability of a common statement
1.3 QUALITY ASSURANCE al buildings. Condenser and cooling water sys-
This publication can be used as one criterion that tems are classified as open circuit or closed cir-
will assist customers, in performing their impor- cuit.
tant role of defining the standard of installation 1.7.1 Open circuit systems
they require. Open circuit systems are open to atmos-
The HVCA anticipates that this publication phere; e.g. as in an open cooling tower.
will be complementary to quality assurance 1.7.2 Closed circuit systems
schemes and quality assessment schedules. Closed circuit systems are closed to
Where forming the basis of an independent cer- atmosphere and may be pressurised by a
tification scheme, it represents Best Practice in diaphragm type expansion vessel. These
standards of installation. systems are used with dry coolers and
indirect cooling towers.
1.4 SCOPE
This publication covers pipework usually found
in non-residential premises, for cooling water
systems.
This publication relates to projects in the U.K.
It is not intended for overseas work. However,
some of its provisions will be appropriate or may
form a basis for overseas work.
The publication does not cover matters relat-
ing to design or commissioning for which refer-
ence should be made to the appropriate CIBSE
or BSRIA documents.
This publication makes use of terms “should”,
“shall” and “must” when prescribing proce-
dures:
The term “must” identifies a requirement
by law at the time of publication.
The term “shall” prescribes, a procedure
which, it is intended to be complied with,
in full and without deviation.
The term “should” prescribes, a procedure
which, it is intended to be complied with
unless, after prior consideration, deviation
is considered to be acceptable.

1.5 PUBLICATION AND REVIEW


User feedback of the document will be wel-
comed to assist in continued updating.

1.6 OPERATING CONDITIONS


This document is for condenser and cooling
water pipework operating up to 10 bar (gauge).
Maximum and minimum temperatures will be
specified by the designer according to the appli-
cation. Most HVAC applications would fall
within the range -5°C to 60°C.

1.7 DESCRIPTION OF SERVICE


This document covers pipework used in the fol-
lowing types of condenser and cooling water
systems, as installed in commercial and industri-

8
Section 2 2.2 SELECTION TABLE
This table gives guidance for different materials
MATERIAL AND used, jointing methods and locations.
JOlNTlNG METHODS
........................................................ THREADING - STEEL PIPEWORK
PIPING MATERIAL Threaded joints may be used on steel pipework
The most common material for open condenser for sizes 65mm and below for pressures not
cooling water systems is galvanised steel or plas- exceeding 7 bar (gauge) with site made joints.
tic tube. Black mild steel tube with standard Where closely controlled workshop machine
works finish of anti-corrosive lacquer, recoated threading is used, pressures up to 10 bar (gauge)
where necessary on site, is commonly used for are permissible. Threaded joints into valves, heat
closed condenser cooling water systems. exchangers pumps and similar equipment are
Overflows, vents above the water line and permissible up to 10 bar, provided threads are
drains, shall be galvanised mild steel or copper strictly of the correct form and length.
tube, stainless steel or other propriety non rust- Joints shall be to BS 21, made using jointing
ing materials, see Table A material compounds and hemp, to BS 6956 as
The designer should have given consideration, appropriate or PTFE tape to BS 7686, BS EN
to ensure that any mixing of materials does not 751-3. Jointing compound shall not be used with
have any adverse effects. Galvanised fittings PTFE tape.
should be used with galvanised pipe.

Table A: STEEL - Condenser and Cooling Water


STEEL Accessible Without Direct Access or
Permanentlv Concealed
u p to u p to
65-150mm >150mm >150mm
50mm 150mm
Galvanised or Mild Steel Tube
J1 J1
BS 1387 Med. Weight.
Galvanised or Mild Steel Tube
J J J
BS 1387 Heavy Weight
Mild/Steel "ube
J J
BS EN 10216 or 7/API 5L
Threaded J1
Welded J6 J6 J6 J6 J6
F1anged J J J
Grooved I
J3 I
J I I I

Mech. Press Fit I J4 I J4 I 1 I


Pulled Bends J6 J6
Malleable Cast Iron Fittings J1
Weldable Fittings J6 J6 J6 J6 J6

Plastic Pipework And Fittings


J J J
See Section 6
Table A: COPPER
COPPER Accessible Without Direct Access or

Table B: STAINLESS STEEL


STAINLESS STEEL Accessible Without Direct Access or
Permanentlv Concealed
up to u p to
65-150mm >150mm >150mm
50mm 150mm
Stainless Steel J J J J J
Welded J J J J J
Press Fit J4 J4

for open circuit systems, shall be galvanised Flanges shall be to BS 10, 1560 or 4504, as
malleable iron, with BSPT taper external and appropriate. Particular attention should be given
preferably parallel internal threads. to the selection of the correct PN designation for
Alternatively, taper internal threads to BS 143 the application. On steel pipework, flanges shall
and BS 1256 may be used. be forged steel bossed slip-on pattern to PN6
Code 112 (up to 6 bar) or PN16 Code 112 (up to
2.4 WELDING - STEEL PIPEWORK 16 bar), or mild steel plate flanges to PN6 Code
Steel tube jointed by welding is mandatory for 101 or PN16 Code 101. Bored to suit OD of
pipework which is to be buried, embedded or tube, for welding neck and bore and drilled to
that may be difficult for access after installation. the appropriate Table.
No pipework shall be installed in permanently Steel flanges shall be jointed with inside-bolt-
inaccessible positions, unless agreed beforehand circle flat ring composition gaskets, with metric
by the Client. If required, a leak detection system hexagonal head black bolts and nuts with wash-
may be fitted. ers.
Galvanised steel tube should not be welded. In Flanges on copper work should be bi-metal,
certain cases it may be appropriate to form parts bronze, or gunmetal as appropriate.
of the system out of welded plain steel tube Suitable jointing materials shall be employed.
which is subsequently galvanised eg flow headers. Asbestos material mdst not be used.

10
2.6 GROOVED JOINTS 2.8.1 Compression Joints
As an alternative to flanged or threaded joints, Compression joints shall also comply with
mechanical grooved joints may be used in acces- BS 864 Part 2 or BS 2051 Part 1, but their
sible positions for sizes 50 to 300mm. It is nec- use should be restricted to readily accessi-
essary to check the temperature and pressure rat- ble locations
ings, as these can vary with manufacturer. They Copper tubes, dimensions can vary with
can be used where small axial or lateral move- grade and type and the fittings for pipes
ment is required, to compensate for vibration or also vary. These are between 6mm to
expansion. Care is required to ensure that the 54mm OD.
appropriate type of joint is used. Where mechan- Non-manipulative types of compression
ical grooved joints are used, they shall be applied fittings are not normally considered appro-
and installed in accordance with the manufactur- priate for system pressures above 2 bar.
er’s instructions and fitting procedures. 2.8.2 Capillary Joints
It is important that the correct size of grooved Lengths of pipework and fittings for pipe
coupling is used to suit the outside diameter of sizes up to 67mm shall be assembled with
the pipe. capillary joints, using fittings complying
As a general rule there are special support with BS EN 1254 (BS 864 Part 2). They shall
requirements compared to that of a threaded, be of copper with either integral solder ring,
welded or flanged system, due to the flexibility or end feed type joined with soft solder.
of these fittings. The support is usually mounted Sizes 67mm and above, shall be assem-
adjacent to the joint and not mid-length. (See bled with gunmetal fittings of the wedge
manufacturer’s recommendations). ring type.
2.8.3 Brazed Joints
2.7 PRESSED FIT Preparation for brazing shall be in accor-
It is essential that pipework and fittings are com- dance with BS 1723. Only manufactured
patible for the application intended. They may be fittings not subject to de-zincification and
used on: stainless steel, steel and copper. The suitable for application, shall be used.
pipe sizes vary with the material and manufac- Making and sealing the joint using
turer. It is necessary to check the temperature flame heat shall be in accordance with BS
and pressure ratings, as these can vary with man- 723, Part 2, Section 1. Use silver brazing
ufacturer. filler alloy suitable for application.
Fittings are available for the following materi- 2.8.4 Push Fit
als and nominal pipe sizes: - Copper tube (also certain types of plastic
Copper 12 to 108mm OD tube) can be joined with push fit type fittings.
Stee1 12 to 108mm OD The working pressure and temperature
Stainless 12 to 108mm OD limitations should be checked as they vary
A proprietary electro-mechanical tool is between different manufacturers. Push fit
applied to the fitting which is permanently assemblies generally have lower operating
deformed to grip the tube; with water tightness pressures than that of other types of joint-
achieved by a factory fitted seal ring in the end ing at the same temperatures. Push fit fit-
bead. tings are generally only available for
Care should be taken to ensure that due space smaller sizes of pipework. Push fit fittings
allowance is made for use of the tool head. normally comprise of guide ringkollar,
Consideration should also be given to the weight grab ring and “ 0 ’ ring seal, contact with
of such tools when working overhead with the mineral oils should be avoided as these
larger sizes. may affect the “ 0 ’ ring.

2.8 COMPRESSION, CAPILLARY, BRAZED 2.9 PROPRIETARY SYSTEMS


JOINTS or PUSH FIT It is important to check both the temperature and
Copper pipe systems shall be installed using pressure ranges of these systems. Proprietary
compression, capillary joints, brazed joints or pipework systems shall be assembled and sup-
push fit. The standard delivered lengths of cop- ported in accordance with manufacturer’s
per tube are random and can vary with bore size. instructions.

11
Section 3 condenser and cooling water systems.
Welded assembly black mild steel
pipework can also be used, but galvanised,
after manufacture.

........................................................ 3.2 THREADED ASSEMBLY


3.1 PIPING MATERIALS 3.2.1 Threaded Joints
It is important that the correct type and grade of Tube ends shall be threaded BSPT.
pipework is used to suit the operating pressure, Threading shall be to BS 21 with taper
temperature, pipe size, jointing method and type external and either parallel, or preferably,
of service. This section covers the construction taper internal threads mated with appropri-
and assembly of steel pipework, for the follow- ate jointing material. If taper internal
ing types and grades: threads are used, special care shall be
0 Steel tube to BS 1387 - Heavy weight taken to ensure that permitted tolerances
grade. in threading are not exceeded.
BS 1387 is a materials and dimensional 3.2.2 Bends and Fittings
specification, up to 150mm diameter. Pulled bends shall not be used for gal-
0 Steel tube to BS 1387 - Medium weight vanised piping. Deviations in galvanised pipe
grade. shall be formed from standard fittings.
BS 1387 is a materials and dimensional Elbows, branches and reducers shall be
specification, up to 150mm diameter. malleable cast iron with BSPT taper inter-
Seamless carbon steel tube to BS EN nal and preferably taper or alternatively
10216 or 7, (a manufacturing specifica- parallel, external threads to BS 143 and
tion), steel grade S360 or S430. BS 1256. Standard radius (1'hD) elbow
Electric resistance welded (ERW) carbon and branch fittings shall be used. Square
steel tube to BS EN 10216 or 7. The grade elbows shall not be used. Swept tees and
of steel needs to be specified at the time of long radius bends are generally not essen-
procurement, i.e. ERW320, ERW360 or tial. Galvanised fittings shall be used with
ERW430. galvanised pipe.
API 5L Line Pipe Three-piece malleable iron unions with
Carbon steel tube, grades A and B. conical seating, shall be used for threaded
The grade and type of steel tube used with joints to equipment required to be removable.
mechanically press fitted types of proprietary Connectors with long threads and back
joints, shall be in accordance with the fitting nuts shall be avoided.
manufactures specified requirements. Depend- Bushes should be used, where reducing
ing on the manufacturer selected the tube will fittings are-not available as standard and
vary. However, it is not uncommon to have unal- space prohibits the use of reducers.
loyed carbon steel tube to DIN 2394. Threaded reducing fittings should be
3.1.1 Pipe Finish
concentric vertical or eccentric horizontal,
Steel pipework is available in the follow- to facilitate venting or draining require-
ing standard finishes:- ments.
@ Black steel with manufacturer's stan-
dard works varnish finish.
0 Black steel self-coloured, untreated
with plain works finish.
0 Galvanised finish.
Mild steel pipework with plastic coating.
Pre-insulated steel pipework.
For pipework installations of open con- lbbe grade and size (nominal)
denser and cooling water systems gal- End preparation Medium Heavy
vanised finish is normally employed.
Black steel tube with standard anti corro-
' Cut square
35" Bevel
I40mm 5 20mm
sion lacquer finish is used for closed 2 50mm 2 25mm

12
Welding shall be by oxy-acetylene pipe sizes, the larger tube may be swaged
method or electric arc method, in accor- down. Bores shall be matched as for
dance with the current HVCA Code of elbows. Reducers shall be either concen-
Practice TW5, "Welding of carbon steel tric or eccentric, to suit venting or draining
pipework". Welding standards shall be requirements.
subject to Appendix 1 of TW5, relating to Blank Ends
physical tests. Non-destructive testing Sizes 15mm and below may be closed by
(NDT), shall not be applied to condenser welding over.
and cooling water pipework, unless agreed Sizes 20mm to 50mm, blank ends may
by the Client and Installer. be made by welding a 6mm thick disc in
All welders shall hold a current place For 65mm and above use of a weld-
Engineering Services SKILLcard, applica- ing cap or flanged. For working pressures
ble to the conditions issued by the HVCA, in excess of 3.5 bar (gauge) a disc should
having passed the tests laid down in the not be used.
HVCA Code of Practice TW5, or equiva-
lent recognised Class 1 (BS 1821 and BS 3.4 FLANGED ASSEMBLY
2633) or Class 2 (BS 2640 and BS 2971). The correct type of flange and joint rings shall be
3.3.2 Welding Fittings used for the test pressure and operating tempera-
Pulled Bends ture of the system. Particular attention should be
For sizes 50mm and below, pulled bends paid to the diameter and length of bolts and asso-
may be used, where space and appearance ciated type of nuts and washers, used to assem-
permit. These may be pulled cold if stan- ble flanged joints.
dard formers and bending machines are Flanges may be screwed pattern or bored for
used. Centre line radii shall be approxi- welding as appropriate. Screwed flanges shall
mately 3 x OD. not be used for welding. Flanges for galvanised
Elbows pipe shall be galvanised screwed pattern.
For sizes 65mm and above and for 15mm Composition joint rings inside the bolt circle,
to 50mm where pulled bends cannot be shall be provided between flanges and shall be
accommodated, long radius elbows, centre suitable for the particular application. The joint
line radius l'hD, shall be used. Short radius ring shall not obscure the pipe bore. Asbestos
elbows, (radius lD), shall not be used, joint rings must not be used.
unless previously agreed with the client. The bolts and nuts of flanged joints when
Fittings shall be of the same quality and drawn up tightly with a washer under the nut,
weight of steel as the tube. The wall thick- shall not expose less than two threads or 3mm of
ness of fittings may be slightly greater thread projecting beyond the nut.
than that of the tube, provided it is within Flanges shall be installed where a section of
the tolerances laid down in the HVCA piping needs to be removable for access, or for
Code of Practice TIU5. If otherwise, the sectional testing purposes.
bore of the fitting shall be increased to Flanges shall be to BS 4504 and shall be of the
match the tube by machining. same type of material, as the pipeline to which it
Cut and shut or segmented bends shall is welded.
not be used except for unavoidable cases, Asbestos material must not be used.
where the fittings specified above are not
applicable. 3.5 GROOVED ASSEMBLY
Branches 3.5.1 Joints
Branches may be welded in square. No fit- There are two methods of forming grooves
tings are required, although welded shoes in pipe: Roll grooving and Cut grooving.
are permitted. Attention is drawn to the The method chosen will depend on the
HVCA Code of Practice TW5, in regard to pipe wall thickness and application. Depth
the spacing and reinforcement. and width of groove will depend on fit-
Reducers tings used.
Reducer fittings shall be used. Alter- Roll grooved is the most widely used,
natively for reductions not exceeding two the groove is machine cold formed and no

13
metal is removed. This method presses the ductile iron, stainless steel and steel etc.,
groove into the pipe, leaving a non-smooth the correct type should be selected for the
bore. As the groove configuration has application.
rounded edges, this reduces the available
pipe movement. Standard roll grooved PRESS FIT ASSEMBLY
pipe will provide lower expansiodcon- It is essential that pipework and fittings are com-
traction or deflection, of the same size patible, both with each other and for the applica-
standard cut grooved pipe. The usual max- tion intended. They can be used on; stainless
imum pipe thickness is up to 9.5mm. steel and steel. The pipe sizes vary, as do the
Check the machine manufacturer’s operat- temperature and pressure ratings, with the mate-
ing details prior to use. rial and manufacturer.
As cut grooving takes longer, it is gen- Stee1 12 to 108mm OD
erally only chosen because of the greater Stainless 12 to 1OOmm OD
pipe thickness, or that a smooth bore is The press-fitting and pipe are pressed, with
required. The groove cut into the pipe is the appropriate tool, to form a strong and perma-
almost the same depth as a thread cut on nent joint. This operation also deforms the facto-
the pipe. The machine ensures that an even ry fitted seal ring in the end bead, ensuring the
and concentric cut is produced. It is again connection remains watertight.
important to ensure that the machine is
correctly set and used for the pipe being SUPPORT AND FIXINGS
cut. When cutting both aluminium and Supports and anchors must only be fitted to
plastic pipe, a radii is required at the bot- structural members or substrate fixings which
tom of the groove. are capable of carrying the design loads includ-
Particular attention needs to be given ing the influence of expansion. If there is any
where galvanised pipe is used. This con- doubt then a structural engineer should be con-
cerns any local repair to the galvanising sulted. Guidance on the use of concrete fixings is
after cutting, plus manufacturer’s dimen- provided in leaflets published by the
sional requirements when galvanising Construction Fixings Association.
after groove cutting. Supports and fixings, whether standard pat-
There are some special requirements terns or purpose - made, shall be appropriate in
compared to that of a threaded, welded or style and material to the pipe and to the structure
flanged system. Due to the flexibility of to which fixed, with due regard to application.
these fittings, the support is usually Pipe supports shall be arranged as near as pos-
mounted adjacent to the joint and not mid- sible to joints and changes in direction. They
length. (See manufacturer’s requirements). shall support the piping neatly, without excessive
3.5.2 Fittings deflection between supports and so that it is free
Particular attention should be paid to the to move.
selection of the gasket for the mechanical- Where swinging pipe hangers are used, they
ly grooved fitting, ensuring that the correct shall be able to move freely for the full distance
type and grade of material is used to suit necessary. The support rod shall be not less than
the system temperature and service. Most 300mm long and shall be clear of the full thick-
manufacturers mark gaskets with the ness of any insulation. Hemispherical washers
grade code and some use colour coding. shall be used on swinging hangers. Pipes of sim-
When making the joint, it is important to ilar operating temperature and material may be
lubricate the gasket prior to assembly over double hung from the same support rod.
the pipe ends, otherwise there is the possi- Sliding supports, to accommodate linear
bility of pinching. Care should be taken to movements, shall be faced with PTFE perma-
limit any lubricant entering the pipework. nently attached. Rollers shall be avoided.
Electrical continuity clips shall be used Vertical steel pipework shall be supported at
when earth continuity of the steel the base of the riser and guided at intervals, not
pipework is required. Fittings are available exceeding those in Table C. Branches from a
in various types and materials, such as riser pipe shall not be used as a means of support
heavy duty, rigid joints, malleable iron, for the riser pipe.

14
The Designer shall supply full information to 3.8.1 Natural Flexibility
enable provision to be made in the structure for Pipeline flexibility to control expansion
the fitting of supports and fixings during con- stresses shall preferably be provided by
struction. The installer shall be responsible for the changes in direction or fabricated pipe
any necessary marking out. offsets.
Steel pipework shall normally be supported at Wherever possible, expansion loops
intervals not exceeding those in Table C. should be in one piece. If the total length
Additional supports may be required to carry the of the tube in the bends is such as to pre-
load of in-line fittings and accessories. vent this, then joints shall be made in the
Additional pipe supports to half the spacing long arms as near the centre as possible.
tabled shall be provided on horizontal low-level No joint shall be made in the crown of the
pipe runs, where these might be used as bend or in the short arms.
footrests. 3.8.2 Expansion Devices
Additional pipe supports may be required on Only where inherent pipeline flexibility is
larger sizes to limit the point load imposed on not practicable shall proprietary expansion
the structure. devices be used, installed in strict compli-
When suspending pipework with grooved or ance with the supplier’s instructions.
press-fit types of fittings, particular attention These instructions should cover the design
should be given to the rigidity of the assembly and installation of the necessary guides
and the influence of thermal forces. and anchors, including information on the
resulting loads that will be imposed on the
Table C: Steel Pipework Supports building structure by the expansion
devices and anchors. Where practicable,
Pine size mm I Horizontal m I Vertical m hinged and articulated bellows should be
15 2.0 2.5 used instead of axial bellows.
20 2.5 3.0 If the use of axial bellows cannot be
25 3.0 3.3 avoided, the following points shall be
observed:
32 3.3 4.3 0 They must be used only on straight sec-
40 4.0 4.6 tions of pipework between anchors.
50 4.5 5.8 0 Movement at bellows must be guided

65 5.2 7.3 axially with no lateral movement.


0 Axial bellows shall not be used on
80 5.8 8.2
freely suspended pipelines.
100 6.7 11.0
0 Axial bellows demand that the struc-
125 7.0 12.0 ture is capable of withstanding the high
150 8.0 12.0 loads imposed by guides and anchors.
200 9.5 14.0 e The effect of the bellows operating
250 10.5 18.0 forces on press-fit, mechanically
grooved and proprietary joints should
Note: The forgoing table gives the maximum be verified with the manufacturer.
intervals for supports. Additional supports may 3.8.3 Anchors and Guides
be required to suit specific application. Rigid mild steel pipe anchors capable of
carrying the maximum loads resulting
EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION from ,the expansion arrangements shall be
Due allowance for the expansion of pipework provided. Agreement with the client shall
shall be made to limit pipeline stresses, to pro- be obtained for the location of the loadings
vide the controlled movement of pipes and to imposed by the attachment of anchors and
ensure that forces applied to equipment and to guides to the structure or other base.
the building are not excessive. 3.8.4 Cold Draw
The expansion rate for steel is: Cold draw of steel piping or cold stretch of
1.14mm per metre, per lOOK rise in tempera- bellows shall be made during pipework
ture. erection, as required by the design of the

15
expansion arrangements, employing suit- Plastic coated pipework should have the
able temporary spacer pieces during erec- coating removed where a fire barrier is
tion. penetrated
Pipes passing through external walls,
3.9 CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY floors and roofs shall be installed with
3.9.1 Cleanliness puddle flanges or sleeves as appropriate,
Tubes shall be free from burrs, rust, scale, sealed against water, gas, vermin, dust and
dirt and obstructions before erection. the spread of fire.
Open ends left during site progress, shall No sleeving shall be used that will
be closed with tight fitting metal, plastic impair the fire resistance of any structure.
plugs or caps. Where pipe sleeves pass through fire bar-
All joints shall be cleaned and trimmed. riers, the annular space between pipe and
Precautions shall be taken to avoid dirt sleeve, or insulation and sleeve shall be
and debris finding its way into the system packed with non-flammable and fire resis-
water, in particular: - tant material to form a firehmoke stop of
a) Attached to internal surfaces of pipe- required rating. Apply 12mm deep cold
line and components, e.g. scale or oil. mastic seal to both ends within sleeve. In
b) Introduced during installation process, areas where floors are washed down
e.g. soil, hemp, paste, swarf or building sleeves shall be installed with 1OOmm pro-
materials. trusion above the floor finish.
c) Generated within the pipeline by corro- 3.9.3 Alignment
sive or chemical action, e.g. involving Pipelines shall follow the lines of the
fluxes, corrosion inhibitors or anti- building both horizontally, vertically,
freeze. around projections such as columns,
It is essential to minimise the amount of except where pipes are not visible but sat-
foreign material introduced to the system isfactorily routed across e.g. roof spaces
during assembly. All tubes and fittings where out of sight. Pipelines shall be run
shall be clean and rust free. No open ends in appropriate positions in relation to the
should be left prior to final closure. building, other services and appliances.
3.9.2 Pipe Sleeves Due allowance for draining and venting,
There shall be no pipeline joints within the shall be made.
thickness of walls or floors. Pipework 3.9.4 Spacing and Clearance
shall not be embedded in the structure Pipework, inclusive of any insulation,
unless specifically identified as part of the shall be not less than 25mm clear of walls
design. and any other fixture. Low level horizontal
Where pipes pass through walls or pipework shall be fixed not less than
floors a pipe sleeve shall be built in, com- lOOmm clear above floors.
prising a length of tube, of the same mate-
rial as the pipeline, or other equivalent
proprietary purpose made sleeve. The
sleeve shall be sufficient in length for the
sleeve to finish not less than 3mm, nor
more than 12mm clear of the finished wall
or floor. The sleeve should be of internal
diameter at least 25mm greater than the
OD of the pipe passing through. A greater
clearance may be necessary to accommo-
date expansion movement and insulation.
Where necessary to effect a noise or fire
barrier, the space between the pipeline and
the sleeve shall be packed with appropriate
material.

16
Section 4 Compression ‘fittings will not seal on
pipework with deep longitudinal scratches.
COPPER PIPEWORK
CONSTRUCTION AND 4.2 JOINTING METHODS
ASSEMBLY Copper piping shall normally be assembled with
........................................................ capillary, compression, flanged, push fit, brazed
4.1 PIPING MATERIALS joints or press fit joints. Proprietary jointing
4.1.1 Grades and ‘Qpes methods may be used and should only be carried
Copper pipe is made in various Hardness out in accordance with the manufacturer’s rec-
Grades and Standards. It is important that ommendations.
the correct type of copper tube is used for
the specific type of service, operating tem- 4.3 CAPILLARY JOINT AND FITTING
perature, pressure and jointing method. ASSEMBLY
4.3.1 Capillary Method of Assembly
0 Half-hard copper tube to BS EN 1057
R250 (BS 2871 Part 1 Table X), sup- Pressure limitations imposed by the
plied in straight lengths, is the most British Standard on the use of soft solder
common type used in condenser cool- for capillary fittings and of compression
ing system pipework. fittings (where acceptable), shall be
0 Half-hard copper tube to BS EN 1057
observed and when necessary, silver braz-
R220/R250 (BS 2871 Part 1 Tables W ing shall be used. Joints in inaccessible
& Y), supplied in straight lengths, is positions shall be avoided, but when there
used for pipework which is buried, is no alternative, they shall preferably be
embedded or difficult to access. silver brazed. Where suitably skilled
0 Half drawn copper tube to BS EN 1057
craftsman are not available for silver braz-
R290 (BS 2871 Part 1 Table Z), has a ing, integral solder ring fittings for sizes
lower maximum working pressure than up to 54mm may be used, provided special
the foregoing grades. It is not suitable care is taken and close supervision is
for bending and should not be formed given.
or annealed and shall be used with sil- Forming techniques may be used, only
ver brazed joints. for straight couplings on BS EN 1057 (BS
The maximum working pressure for 2871 Table X and Table Y) tube and for
each type of copper tube will vary, with branches on Table Y tube.
the size of tube and temperature condi- 4.3.2 Capillary Fittings
tions. The relevant British Standard should Capillary fittings for sizes up to 67mm,
be consulted, to establish the maximum shall comply to BS EN 1254 (BS 864 Part
pressure for which a particular size is suit- 2). They shall be of copper and either inte-
able. Larger sizes have lower maximum gral solder ring or end feed jointed with
working pressures, at the same tempera- soft solder. Sizes 67mm and above shall be
ture condition for the same type of tube. gunmetal and of the wedge ring type.
4.1.2 Finish
All fittings shall be installed in accor-
Copper tube is available with the follow- dance with the manufacturer’s instruc-
ing finishes: tions. Flux and solder shall be used
Manufacturer’s works self-coloured. according to the fitting manufacturer’s
Chromium plated. recommendations, being chosen to avoid
Plastic coated. any corrosion of the piping before flushing
For pipework condenser and cooling and filling.
water installations, the copper tube finish Fittings made of duplex brass (having a
will normally be the manufacturer’s stan- Zinc kontent above 30%), shall NOT be
dard self-coloured works finish. Where an used.
alternative finish is required by the client,
this should be specified separately.
Copper tube must be carefully handled
and stored to avoid scratching.
4.4 COMPRESSION JOINT AND FITTING products in relation to their operating tem-
ASSEMBLY perature and pressure ranges. Refer to the
4.4.9 Compression Method manufacturer’s details.
Compression joints are designed to be 4.6.2 Push Fit Fittings
used without jointing compound. Thread Most fittings are suitable and approved,
lubricants are recommended for sizes for use in small-bore and micro-bore cen-
above 22mm OD, to reduce assembly tral heating systems. Confirmation should
forces and provide a more reliable joint. be obtained from the manufacturer for
4.4.2 Compression Fittings their suitability, temperature and pressure
Compression fittings for sizes up to 35mm range.
shall comply with BS EN 1254 (BS 864:
Part 2). All fittings shall be installed in 4.7 BRAZED ASSEMBLY
accordance with the manufacturer’s 4.7.0 Brazing Method
instructions. Particular care shall be taken, Joints in inaccessible locations after instal-
to ensure the level of tightness of the com- lation shall preferably be silver brazed.
pleted joint complies with their recom- Care should be taken in the brazing
mendations. operation. As there is a health risk due to
The use of internal reducers should be the cadmium content of some silver braz-
avoided wherever possible. ing alloys. When overheated, the cadmium
The use of compression fittings to con- vaporises and these vapours are highly
nect to other than BS EN 1057 (BS 2871 toxic if inhaled. A similar reaction can
Part 1 Table X) copper tube, may necessi- occur under these conditions with some of
tate the use of an appropriate tube liner. the flux constituents.
Care also needs to be taken with fluxes
FLANGED JOINTS used for brazing. These can, if swallowed
On pipelines 67mm and above, flanges shall be or rubbed into the eyes, cause irritation in
installed where a section of piping needs to be varying degrees. They may also affect the
readily removable for access, demounting or for skin if not removed.
testing. 4.7.2 Brazing Fittings
Flanges for BS EN 1057 (BS 2871 Table X Brazing fittings are manufactured using
and Table Y) tube, shall be two part metal type, copper, DZR Brass and Gunmetal to BS
with gunmetal or low zinc brass inserts for braz- EN 1254 (BS 864 Part 2). Fittings are
ing to the tube. specifically manufactured for brazing and
The steel backing rings of two part metal are not suitable for soft solder jointing.
flanges, shall be drilled to BS 4504 PN6 code In all cases, the manufacturer’s recom-
307 (up to 6 bar) or PN16 code 307 (up to 16 mendations should be observed.
bar) to match the equipment. Two part metal
flanges shall be jointed with corrugated metal or PRESS FIT ASSEMBLY
inside-bolt circle flat ring composition gaskets Method
4.8.4
with hexagonal head bolts, nuts and washers. Press-fitting and pipe are pressed to form a
Where gunmetal or bronze flanges are used, the permanent joint. The pressfitting operation
bolts, nuts and washers, shall be of the same also deforms the factory-fitted seal ring in
material as the flanges. the end bead, ensuring the connection
remains watertight.
PUSH FIT ASSEMBLY The copper pipework grade and type
4.6.u Push Fit Method must comply with the manufacturer’s rec-
Push fits do not require the use of solder, ommendations for the type of propriety
pastes, or threading. Joints can be made pressed-on fitting employed to join
without the need for tools and no heat is straight lengths of pipework and compo-
required to assemble. They also have the nents. Attention is drawn to the limitations
advantage of being easily disconnected. A of temperature and pressure advised by the
tool is required for disconnection. fitting manufacturers for their products.
Care should be taken in the use of these

18
Press-fittings can be used on 12mm to The installer shall supply full information to
108mm OD. The temperature and pressure enable provision to be made in the structure for
ratings should be check, as these can vary the fitting of supports and fixings during con-
with manufacturer. struction. The installer shall also be responsible
4.8.2 Fitting for any necessary marking out.
It is essential that pipework and fittings are Copper pipework shall normally be supported
mutually compatible and suitable for the at intervals not exceeding those in Table D.
application intended and that they are suit- Intermediate supports may be required to carry
able for use on copper pipework. The pipe the load of in-line accessories.
sizes vary, as do the temperature and pres- Additional pipe supports to half the spacing
sure ratings, with the material and manu- tabled shall be provided on horizontal low-level
facturer. pipe runs, where these might be used as
Copper 12 to 108mm OD footrests.
The press-fitting and pipe must be Additional pipe supports may be required on
pressed, with the appropriate tool, to form larger sizes to limit the point load imposed on
a strong and permanent joint. the structure.
When suspending pipework with press-fit
423 PULLED BENDS types of fittings, particular attention should be
For sizes up to 54mm pulled bends may be used given to the rigidity of the assembly and the
for BS EN 1057 (BS 2871 Table X and Table Y) influence of thermal forces.
tube where space and appearance permit.
Standard formers and bending machines shall be Table D - Copper Pipework Supports
used. Copper pipes shall be suported at intervals not
exceeding the following:
4, P Q SUPPORT AND FIXINGS
Supports and fixings, whether standard patterns
or purpose - made, shall be appropriate in style PiDe size mm I
I
Horizontal m I
I
Vertical m
I '
and material to the pipe and to the structure to 15 1.5 2.0
which fixed, with due regard to application.
122-28 2.0 2.5
Supports in contact with the tube shall be non- I I

ferrous. 35-42 2.5 3.0


Pipe supports shall be arranged as near as pos- I54
I
2.7 3.0
sible to joints and changes in direction. They 67-108 3.0 3.7
shall carry piping neatly, without excessive
deflection between supports and so that it is free Care needs to be made in the supporting of
to move. copper pipework, to ensure that dissimilar met-
Where swinging pipe hangers are used, they als are not in contact with each other.
shall be able to move freely for the full distance
necessary. The support rod shall be not less than 4.8 ¶ EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION
300mm long and shall be clear of the full thick- .I
4 . 0 0 Pipework
ness of any insulation. Hemispherical washers Provision for expansion shall be as defined
shall be used on swinging hangers. Pipes of sim- in Section 3.8.
ilar operating temperature and material, may be Expansion of Copper Pipework
double hung from a single support rod. The expansion rate for copper tube is: -
Sliding supports, to accommodate linear 1.7mm per metre per lOOK rise in tem-
movements, shall be faced with PTFE perma- perature
nently attached. Rollers shall be avoided. For any unavoidable cases involving
Vertical copper pipework shall be supported at constrained movement, bellows shall be
the base of the riser and guided at intervals not used with properly designed guides and
exceeding those in Table D. Branches from a anchors.
riser shall not be used as a means of support for Nominal expansion movement of cop-
the riser. per pipework shall be accommodated by
the free support of piping.

19
4.11.2 Expansion Devices a) Attached to internal surfaces of pipe-
Only where inherent pipeline flexibility is line and components (e.g. scale or oil).
not practicable shall proprietary expansion b) Introduced during the installation
devices be used, installed in strict compli- process (e.g. soil and building materi-
ance with the supplier’s instructions. als).
These instructions shall cover the design c) Generated within the pipeline by corro-
and installation of the necessary guides sive or chemical action, (e.g. involving
and anchors, including a statement of the fluxes, corrosion inhibitors or anti-
resulting loads that will be imposed by the freeze).
guides and anchors on the building struc- 4.1 2.2 Pipe Sleeves
ture. Where practicable, hinged and artic- There shall be no pipeline joints within the
ulated bellows may be used, instead of thickness of walls or floors. Pipework
axial bellows. shall not be embedded in the structure,
If the use of axial bellows cannot be unless specifically identified as part of the
avoided, the following points shall be design.
observed: Where pipes pass through walls or
They must be used only on straight sec- floors a pipe sleeve shall be built in, com-
tions of pipework between anchors. prising a length of tube, of the same mate-
Movement at bellows must be guided rial as the pipeline, or other equivalent
axially with no lateral movement. proprietary purpose made sleeve. The
Axial bellows shall not be used on sleeve shall be sufficient in length for the
freely suspended pipelines. sleeve to finish not less than 3mm nor
Axial bellows demand that the struc- more than 12mm clear of the finished wall
ture is capable of withstanding the high or floor. The sleeve shall be of internal
loads imposed by guides and anchors. diameter at least 25mm greater than the
The effect of the bellows operating OD of the pipe passing through. A greater
forces on press-fit, mechanically clearance may be necessary to accommo-
grooved and proprietary joints should date expansion movement and insulation.
be verified with the manufacturer. Where necessary to effect a noise or. fire
4.1i.3 Anchors and Guides barrier, the space between the pipeline and
Rigid mild steel pipe anchors capable of the sleeve shall be packed with appropriate
carrying the maximum loads resulting material.
from the expansion arrangements shall be Plastic coated pipework should have the
provided. Agreement with the client or his coating removed where a fire barrier is
representative shall be obtained for the penetrated.
location of the loadings imposed by the Pipes passing through external walls,
attachment of anchors and guides, to the floors and roofs shall be installed with
structure or other base. Care is required to puddle flanges or sleeves as appropriate,
ensure that dissimilar metals are not in sealed against water, vermin, dust and the
direct contact with each other, at the spread of fire.
anchor point of the copper pipeline. No sleeving shall be used that will
impair the fire resistance of any structure.
4.1 2 CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY Where pipe sleeves do pass through fire
4.12.1 Cleanliness barriers, particular attention needs to be
Tubes shall be free from burrs, corrosion, made to the Building.Regulations for plas-
scale, dirt and obstructions before erec- tic pipes passing through fire compart-
tion. Open ends left during progress shall ments. The use of propriety intumescent
be closed with tight fitting metal, plastic sleeves may be required. In areas where
plugs or caps. All joints shall be cleaned floors are washed down, sleeves shall be
and trimmed. installed with 1 0 0 protrusion
~ above
Precautions shall be taken to avoid the the floor finish.
quantity of solid material finding its way 4.1 2.3 Alignment
into the system water, in particular: Pipelines shall follow the lines of the

20
Section 5
-
building both horizontally, vertically,
around projections such as columns,
except where pipes may be satisfactorily STAINLESS STEEL
run across e.g. roof spaces where out of PIPEWORK
sight. Pipelines shall be run in appropriate
positions in relation to the building, other
CONSTRUCTION AND
ASSEMBLY
services and appliances. Due allowance
for draining and venting, shall be made.
........................................................
4.1 2.4 Spacing and Clearance
Whilst stainless steel can be used for cooling
Pipework, inclusive of any insulation, water systems, the extent of its use it not consid-
shall be not less than 25mm clear of walls ered to w q a n t a full section in this specifica-
and any other fixture. Low level horizontal tion. Mention is made within other sections were
pipework shall be fixed not less than stainless steel can be used, however it does not
lOOmm clear above floors. provide a full listing.
Note: Stainless pipework should not be
installed in chlorine rich atmospheres (such as
swimming pools) due to the risk of stress corro-
sion
tisn 6 Multi-Layer - PE or PEX layers with aluminium
interlayer.
PLASTIC PIPEWORK PE 100 - High Performance Polyethylene (was
CONSTRUCTION AND known as HDPE)
ASSEMBLY PP - Polypropylene
........................................................ PVDF - Polyvinylidene Fluoride
6.8 INTRODUCTION Note: Consult manufacturer’s information
This section of the document provides an prior to selection for ranges.
overview of the application range of plastic Both wall thickness and reinforcement vary
pipework. Plastic products are now widely used with materials.
in commercial building applications and devel- The common materials used for sizes above
oping rapidly. The inherent corrosion resistance 50 mm for condenser and cooling water systems
of plastic pipe is particularly useful in open con- are PVC-U and ABS, both of which are relative-
denser and cooling systems. Most products are ly rigid. PVC-U is not used for operating tem-
suitable for the temperatures and pressures nor- peratures below 0°C. PVC-C is predominantly
mally associated with condenser and cooling used for mains water services.
6.2.1 Pressure and Temperature Relationship
water for air conditioning and similar systems
but consideration should be given to the potential Maximum safe working pressure is usual-
impact of increases in temperature and pressure ly quoted at 20”C, but the pressure rating
under fault conditions. reduces very quickly as temperature
See HVCA Publication TR/l 1 for more detail increases, e.g. PEX 12bar 0 20°C or 3bar
m nnnn
v&J Y U - L .
and manufacturer’s data, for this reason, the fol-
lowing information is for guidance only.

Application PVDF

Condenser J
and
Cooling
J
Water
Systems
J

Expansion Rate ABS PB PEX PVC-C Multi- PE100 PP PVDF


layer (HDPE)
Indexed to that of Copper: CU=1 5.7 7.3 9.5 4.5 3 6.7 6.2 6

6.2 PLASTIC PIPEWORK APPLICATION Manufacturer’s literature must be con-


SELECTION sulted and recommendations closely fol-
Note: Consult manufacturer’s information prior lowed with due regard to the potential for
to selection for ranges. elevated temperatures and pressures to be
Both wall thickness and reinforcement vary experienced under fault conditions.
with materials.
ABS - Acrylonitrile - Butadiene - Styrene
PB - Polybutylene
PE-X - Cross Linked Polyethylene
PVC-C - Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride
PVC-U - Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride

22
6 3 JOINTING METHODS
-
Jointing Methods Guidance Selection

ABS PB PEX PVC-C PP PVDF


PVC-U
Threaded I J I I I
Solvent J J
F1anged J J J J
Thermal Fusion J
Butt-Weld
Socket Weld
Electrofusion J J
Compression
Push-fit

Note: Multi-layer pipes and PE pipes with


J J JNote I
t
or at most supplemented by an extra quar-
oxygen barrier layers may be designed for use ter turn via strap wrench. Over tightening
with proprietary fittings, the tail of which is causes damage and is unnecessary.
inserted into the pipe. The use of standard com- Anaerobic adhesive thread sealants can
pression fittings may not provide continuity of chemically attack ABS and PVC and
the oxygen barrier. should not be used.
Always refer to manufacturer's instructions 6.3.2 Solvent Welding
for jointing techniques and use the appropriate This technique offers stronger jointing
method for the pressure and temperature. than mechanical jointing and is cheaper. It
The main jointing methods are: is also used for reducing bushes when
6.3.11 Threaded adapting fittings to different pipe sizes.
Threads or threaded fittings may be used The approved solvent cements will
to connect some plastic systems to ancil- withstand the same conditions as the pipe
lary equipment, pumps, filters etc. being jointed. Only use cements recom-
Not all plastic pipework is suitable for mended by the manufacturer and obtain
threads to be cut. It depends on the mater- specialist advice if solvent welding differ-
ial and physical characteristics of the pipe ent materials together, e.g. ABS to PVC.
and the anticipated operating conditions. Not all types of plastic pipework are suit-
Check with manufacturer. able for solvent welding.
The use of thread cutting equipment The manufacturer's instructions should
shall be restricted to thick-walled 25mm be followed for the preparation of
pipe and above to limited operating pres- pipework and application of solvent
sures. Metric pipes are not normally pro- cement to ensure satisfactory joints.
duced with an outside diameter compati- Solvent cements can have a limited
ble with BSP thread requirements. shelf life, whether opened or not. Check
Threads are normally BS 21 taper form, prior to use.
using dies reserved for plastic pipes with Joints should not be made:
full depth threads cut in one operation o in wet conditions, rain etc
without lubricant. PTFE jointing material o using dirty brushes
should be used on ABS and PVC pipes, o using dirty or oily cleaning rags
see manufacturers information for other o using inappropriate cements or cleaners
materials. Vapours are flammable, smoking and
Pre-threaded adapter fittings are avail- naked flames shall be avoided.
able which can be solvent welded to ABS Always ensure adequate ventilation,
and PVC pipes. since vapours are narcotic and potentially
Tightening should only be done by hand, lethal, as well as being flammable. Solvent
welding should not be used in confined The heated platen is withdrawn quickly
spaces without adequate ventilation. and the pipe and fitting are forced togeth-
Solvent cement jointing of one type of er under pressure to achieve a weld. Butt-
plastic to another is not recommended, welding requires specialised equipment
although it may be possible if the limita- and a high degree of skill. Training is vital
tions involved are accepted (check with to achieving the desired weld strength.
manufacturers). Weld strength is such that performance
Note: Solvent cements and cleaners are under pressure exceeds the strength of the
hazardous and inflammable. Precautions pipes or fittings being jointed.
must be taken in their use to protect the Note: Butt-welding creates a weld
health and safety of those affected. Refer bead, both internally and externally. These
to manufacturers’ information, and any are often left in place, but can be removed
assessments made under COSHH (Control using special tooling if necessary.
of Substances Hazardous to Health) and 6.3.6 Socket Welding
CHIP Chemicals (Hazard Information & Employs a similar technique to that of butt
Packaging for Supply) Regulations. fusion in heating the surfaces to be joined,
Cement should be locked within a in this case involving the application of
secure place when not in use. Old cement heat to the inside surface of the socket, as
containers must be properly disposed of well as the outside of the pipe. Training
with due regard to the Waste Regulations and the correct equipment are essential.
and possible solvent abuse. Never place 6.3.7 Electro-fusion
old solvent cement containers in an open Electro-fu’sion is commonly used for
skip. HDPE and PB. Not all types of plastic
Test pressure should not be applied until pipework are suitable for electro-fusion.
a minimum of 24 hours has elapsed fol- Note: There are many types of electro-
lowing jointing. fusion fitting now, not simply couplers,
6.3.3 Flanges see manufacturers’ information.
As with all types of jointing, the relevant Any contamination of the surfaces to be
manufacturer’s information should be con- joined will affect the integrity of the joint,
sulted. Particular care is required with so it is important that they be cleaned and
respect to bolt tightening sequence and prepared according to the manufacturer’s
torque applied to bolts to avoid distortion. recommendations.
To ensure an effective seal the gasket 6.3.8 Compression Fittings
and flange faces should be clean and free Manufacturer’s instructions should always
from dirt or other obstructions. be followed, with respect to preparation of
Full face flange fittings (for plastic to pipework to ensure satisfactory joints.
plastic) to BS 4504;generally require pur- Some plastic pipe can be used with
pose designed backing rings to spread the standard brass compression fittings, but
bolt load and full-face gaskets. Use of the most manufacturers provide alternative
correct backing ring and gasket is essen- plastic fittings, which offer easy and quick
tial. installation.
6.3.4 Thermal Fusion Internal support sleeves (typically cop-
Thermal fusion requires considerable skill per, brass or stainless steel) are used for
to prevent heat damage and to obtain satis- polythene and polybutylene pipes. This is
factory joints. Manufacturers’ advice to prevent progressive deformation of pipe
should be sought concerning maximum (creep) and eventual leakage. It is vital to
permissible temperatures and the suitabili- check that the support sleeves will not be
ty of any given pipe for such welding. adversely affected by, or adversely affect,
Only trained operatives should be used. the liquids being carried in the pipe.
6.3.5 Butt-Welding Support sleeves are not interchangeable
Butt-welding is thermal welding in which between different manufacturers.
the actual ends of the pipe andor fitting Some manufacturers recommend the
are welded using a heated platen. use of an appropriate lubricant to avoid

24
damage to the pipes and fittings, through support intervals. In certain cases, continuous
the use of excessive mechanical force dur- supporting (e.g. tray) may be required to prevent
ing assembly. The choice and application sagging.
of lubricants, should be in accordance Support for plastic pipework generally should
with the manufacturer’s recommendations provide lateral restraint, whilst permitting axial
for the particular material. movement (due to thermal expansion). Pipe clips
6.3.9 Push-fit should be chosen to allow axial movement at all
Manufacturer’s instructions should always temperatures.
be followed, with respect to preparation of Proprietary plastic pipe clips should be used
pipework to ensure satisfactory joints. as a first choice. Metal clips should be sized not
Push fit fittings normally consist of a to compress the pipe. Ensure that screws in sin-
guide ring, grab ring, 0-ring seal within a gle screw fixings do not protrude the counter-
plastic housing. Some fittings provide sink.
non-dismantleable permanent fixing, while Hanger type supports do not provide good lat-
others can be dismantled or enable the pipe eral restraint and this can lead to snaking. They
to be removed by depressing the collet. are not generally suitable, unless braced in two
Some, but not all, plastic pipe fittings directions.
can accept copper pipe of the same exter- Heavy pipeline components should not be
nal diameter. supported by plastic pipework.
To allow the pipe’s flexibility to be fully
6.4 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY utilised, it is best not to place clips too close to
Plastic cannot be used for earthing purposes. changes in direction. When using pipe clips to
No plastic is sufficiently conductive to func- constrain a bend, account should be taken of the
tion as part of an earthing system. Therefore potential loads on the clip.
when replacing a section of metal pipework Manufacturers’ recommendations on mini-
(used for earthing purposes) with a plastic sys- mum radius bends must be respected. For tight
tem, it is necessary to maintain electrical conti- bends in soft pipe materials, propriety formers
nuity using a bonding lead spanning the plastic may be available.
section and firmly attached with conductive
clipsklamps to the metal pipework. 6.7 ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT (UV)
Static electricity can build up when handling Plastics are vulnerable to UV, however their
pipes leading to minor shocks andor sparking. degree of vulnerability varies with the material
This may pose a risk when used in certain envi- and the level of stabilisation. Most condenser
ronments. and cooling water systems will have at least
some of the pipework installed outside.
6.5 EXPANSION RATES Should the installation be considered vulnera-
The route chosen for the pipework and the ble to sunlight, including where pipes in build-
design of brackets and clips should allow for the ings pass windows, covering is recommended.
thermal expansion of plastics, which is far high- Storage of exposed pipes for prolonged peri-
er than for metals. See details in section 6.2. ods of time is also best avoided. A simple cover-
Manufacturer’s recommendations should be ing solves the problem.
obtained and applied to all desigdinstallation PE-X generally needs to be covered, as few
practice. protective pigments are available.
Expansion loops or suitable compensators
may be required, but ideally the design of the 6.8 MIXING OF PIPE AND FITTINGS
system should make use of the pipe’s natural In order to ensure security of performance, it is
flexibility. advisable to use pipe and fittings from the same
manufacturer, or the recommended fittings or
6.6 SUPPORTS where this is not possible, to pressure test the
Supports should be of sufficient width to provide proposed combination.
low point load on the underside of the pipe. PVC and ABS pipework and fittings, are fre-
Manufacturers normally give advice on mini- quently available in both metric and inch sys-
mum recommended support-areas, in addition to tems. Adapters exist to facilitate change from
one to the other, but the two are not otherwise Note also that heat transmission from pumps,
interchangeable. compressors etc, can damage pipework and
Where mixing metal and plastic systems, it is joints immediately adjacent. Plastic pipe should
generally recommended that no soldered joints not be connected to safety pressure relief valves
be made closer than 0.5m to an installed plastic- or combined temperature/pressure relief valves.
to-metal adapter in the same pipeline.
6L.0 3 CHEMICAL CLEANING
629 PRESSURE FLUCTUATION If chemical cleaning is to be undertaken either
The flexibility of some forms of plastic pipe internally or externally, refer to the chemical
means that they are unlikely to suffer minor compatibility charts available from the supplier
damage from vibration, but pressure pulsation’s or manufacturer before applying chemicals. See
and water hammer, can lead to excessive move- Section 11 for more information.
ment. More rigid forms could suffer from
mechanical fatigue cracking if exposed to exces- &tl4 EXTERNAL INSULATION AND HIDDEN
sive vibrations. These issues should be consid- PIPEWORK
ered at the design stage. All insulation should be assessed for the com-
patibility with the plastic pipework used, as
6.00 HANDLING should the intended adhesive, to avoid chemical
Plastic pipework is a less robust material and reaction with each other, causing the pipework to
special care should be taken in the handling and fail. Care needs to be exercised when replacing
storage to avoid damage, particularly scratching any part of the insulation at a late stage. This is a
and abrasions, which could prevent subsequent common cause of pipework failure.
satisfactory jointing. The location of pipework buried in the ground
or structures should be identified.
&¶I
THERMAL INSULATION AND TRACE Where electronic pipe detection is essential,
HEATING then multi-layer pipe (which has an aluminium
Plastics’ lower thermal conductivity adds to the interlayer) should be considered, or the use of a
insulation value. However insulation thickness’s metallic telltale installed adjacent.
should not be reduced compared to metal pipe
without careful consideration. 5 PLASTIC PIPEWORK AND COOLING
When using trace heating be particularly care- SYSTEMS
ful to ensure the heating tape and its adhesive are One question over the suitability of plastics is
compatible with the plastic being used. The high their permeability to oxygen diffusion. This per-
surface temperature of the tape may necessitate meability, which is not shared by metallic
the pre-wrapping of the pipework with a con- pipework, can lead to corrosion problems with
ductor to prevent localised overheating. See steel components.
Section 10 for more information. Where PEX pipes are used on closed con-
denser and cooling systems they should have an
6.8 2 LOCATION OF PIPEWORK oxygen permeation barrier to minimise corro-
Plastic pipework in elevated ambient tempera- sion problems elsewhere in the system. This is
tures will behave in the same way as if it were not a requirement for open condenser and cool-
carrying liquids at those temperatures. The use ing systems as the water may already have high
of pipework in hot environments should be care- dissolved oxygen levels. Care should be taken in
fully evaluated before use, for instance in identifying the appropriate pipe, where both may
unvented ceiling voids. be present on site. Depending on the construc-
Plastic pipework using mechanical joints and tion of the pipe, the use of non-manufacture
attached to sources of vibration or movement: approved fittings may produce a discontinuity in
pumps etc. may be subject to joint failure. the barrier.
Although flexible in itself the mechanical secu-
rity (tightness) of joints to plastics is not as great 6.0 6 IDENTIFICATION
as for all-metal joints. Thus, vibration or move- Plastics come in many colours and without iden-
ment may degrade mechanical joints. This is not tification markings. It is easy to incorrectly iden-
a problem for fusion (cement or heat) type joints. tify pipe and the installer should take measures

26
to segregate and mark when receiving and stor- Where pipe sleeves do pass through fire
ing. See Section 8 for more information. barriers, the annular space between pipe
and sleeve, or insulation and sleeve shall
6.1 7 CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY be packed with non-flammable and fire
6.07.1 Cleanliness resistant material to form a firehmoke stop
Tubes shall be free from burrs, dirt and of required rating. Apply 12mm deep cold
obstructions before erection. mastic seal to both ends within sleeve. In
Open ends left during progress shall be areas where floors are washed down,
closed with tight fitting metal, plastic sleeves shall be installed with 1OOmm pro-
plugs or caps. All joints shall be cleaned trusion above the floor finish.
and trimmed. 6.17.3 Alignment
Precautions shall be taken to avoid the Pipelines shall follow the lines of the
quantity of solid material finding its way building both horizontally, vertically,
into the system water, in particular: around projections such as columns,
a) Attached to internal surfaces of pipe- except where pipes may be satisfactorily
line and components. run across e.g. roof spaces where out of
b) Introduced during the installation sight. Pipelines shall be run in appropriate
process (e.g. soil and building materi- positions in relation to the building, other
als). services and appliances. Due allowance
c) Generated within the pipeline by corro- for draining and venting, shall be made.
sive or chemical action, (e.g. involving 6.1 7.4 Spacing and Clearance
solvents, corrosion inhibitors or Pipework, inclusive of any insulation,
antifreeze). shall be not less than 25mm clear of walls
6.1 7.2 Pipe Sleeves and any other fixture. Low level horizontal
There shall be no pipeline joints within the pipework shall be fixed not less than
thickness of walls or floors. Pipework lOOmm clear above floors.
shall not be embedded in the structure,
unless specifically identified as part of the
design.
Where pipes pass through walls or
floors a pipe sleeve shall be built in, com-
prising a length of tube, of the same mate-
rial as the pipeline, or other equivalent
proprietary purpose made sleeve. The
sleeve shall be sufficient in length for the
sleeve to finish not less than 3mm nor
more than 12mm clear of the finished wall
or floor. The sleeve should be of internal
diameter at least 25mm greater than the
OD of the pipe passing through. A greater
clearance may be necessary to accommo-
date expansion movement and insulation.
Where necessary to effect a noise or fire
barrier, the space between the pipeline and
the sleeve shall be packed with appropriate
material.
Pipes passing through external walls,
floors and roofs shall be installed with
puddle flanges or sleeves as appropriate,
sealed against water, vermin, dust and the
spread of fire.
No sleeving shall be used that will
impair the fire resistance of any structure.

27
Section 7 systems, at a point of highest temperature and
lowest pressure, to assist in removal of air.
GENERAL
REQUIREMENTS 7.3 DRAINING
........................................................ Drain points and dirt pockets, shall be provided
7.1 MAIN EQUIPOTENTIAL BONDING at the bottom of risers and where necessary at
(Cross Bonding) other low points.
All incoming metallic services i.e. gas, water, oil Draining low points on condenser, cooling
etc., at point of entry to the building, MUST have water mains and risers, shall be by main size dirt
main equipotential bonding conforming to BS pockets (at foot of risers, pockets not less than
767 1 (IEE Wiring Regulations) and the Statutory 25mm diameter). Positioned at the point of rise
Electricity Supply undertakers requirements. or drop; terminating with a tail pipe and a bronze
With respect to metallic condenser and cool- gland cock with hose union in an accessible
ing water systems, if there are any simultaneous- position. Drain cocks shall be 15mm, 20mm or
ly accessible - extraneous - conductive parts, 2 5 m , whichever is closest to the main size.
equipotential bonding may be necessary in
accordance with BS 767 1. 7.4 EXPANSION
Particular attention needs to be paid to metal- Allowance for the expansion of pipework shall
lic condenser cooling water systems, to ensure be made adequately to limit pipeline stresses, to
that the pipework is assembled to maintain a provide the controlled movement of pipes and to
sound metal to metal contact for electrical earth ensure that forces applied to equipment and to
continuity back to the main bond. the building are consistent with their construc-
During any work that requires connection or tion and characteristics.
disconnection of any installation pipework or fit- Where possible expansion movement shall be
ting, a temporary continuity bond must be accommodated by natural flexibility and the free
attached. This must be fitted prior to starting support of piping, care being taken in the loca-
work and removed only after the system metallic tion of fixings to avoid local stress concentrations.
continuity has been re-established. See Sections 3.8 and 4.1 1 also for expansion.
For copper up to 35mm nominal bore, high
7.2 VENTING expansion stresses cannot be accommodated by
Air venting and collecting points shall be pro- allowing copper pipe to bend as that may result
vided at the top of risers and where necessary, at in work hardening and fracture. For any
other high points. unavoidable cases involving constrained move-
To minimise trapped air pockets during filling, ment, bellows shall be used with guides and
consideration should be given, where space anchors properly designed.
allows, to stagger the positions of flow and
return connections off vertical risers. 7.5 PROTECTION
Venting high points on mains larger than 7.5.1 Physical
15mm shall be by main size air bottles, (on ris- Consideration should be given to protec-
ers, bottles not less than 25mm diameter) at the tion of the vulnerable pipework where
point of rise or drop. They should be formed by likely to suffer damage.
a square branch weld or tee extension pipe, ter- Protection to buried pipework or
minating in a reducer or cap with 1Omm tail pipe pipework in ground ducts subject to flood-
to a lOmm needle valve in an accessible posi- ing, needs to be specified separately to suit
tion. Air bottles shall be not less than 2 pipe the actual job and circumstances.
diameters long or 150mm whichever is the 7.5.2 Corrosion
greater. Where mild steel pipework is exposed to
.Automatic air eliminators may be fitted at weather or located in damp conditions,
high points difficult for regular access, as identi- then a protective coat of suitable paint
fied 'on the drawings. Drain pipes from these, should normally be applied to avoid rust-
shall be run to a clearly visible position. ing. A suitable primer coat will also be
Consideration shall be given to the installation required, this being applied prior to any
of mechanical air separator devices for closed decorative painting.

28
7.6 CONNECTIONS TO EQUIPMENT
All equipment that needs to be removed for
Section 8
repair, maintenance or replacement should have
a method with suitable fittings to allow discon-
nection of pipework. The type of fitting will ANCILLARIES
depend on the size and material type: - .........................................................
i.e. Unions for threaded joints or counter 8.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
flanges to match the flange on the equipment, Threaded accessories and pipeline ancillaries
grooved couplings etc. may be supplied with either BS 21 internal taper
The source of disconnection must be suitably threads or BS 2779 internal parallel threads, both
positioned to ensure after disconnection, there is shall be mated with BS 21 taper external pipe
space for removal of the isolated item of plant. thread.
7.6.1 Connections to Existing Ends for accessories and pipeline ancillaries
The installer shall draw the client’s atten- (whether threaded, flanged, wafer, capillary,
tion to difficulties that may arise when grooved etc,) shall be chosen to match the pipe-
connecting to existing systems, e.g. the work. Flanges shall be to BS 4504.
presence of imperial dimensioned equip- Valves shall be installed so as to permit the
ment or the possibility of contamination full movement of the operating handle or gear.
from unsuitable water in the existing sys-
tems. 8.2 VALVE LOCATIONS AND FUNCTION
7.6.2 Connections for Future Extensions
8.2.1 Isolating Valves
Any branches to serve future extensions Valves shall be fitted to isolate individual
shall be terminated with a valve plugged plant items or groups of adjacent plant;
or blanked as appropriate. Branches shall main distribution circuits and risers. Where
be kept to a minimum length, to avoid tight shut off is not necessary, gate valves
dead legs. may be used for isolation. Gate valves shall
not be used for regulation.
7.7 BUILDING FABRIC PENETRATIONS A union shall follow threaded valves,
Pipes passing through external walls, floors and for the isolating of items of equipment,
roofs shall be installed with puddle flanges or where disconnection is required.
sleeves as appropriate, sealed against water, ver- Where valves with wafer ends are used
min, dust to isolate a flanged item of equipment for
removal, a flanged stoolpiece shall be fit-
ted between the valve and the equipment.
Wafer valves shall be lugged pattern.
Where butterfly valves are used and
there is any risk of excessive shock pres-
sure caused, on opening or closing, by
high differential pressure, or by static head
against a possible open end, they shall
have gearedwheel operation.
8.2.2 Regulating Valves
Regulating valves shall be fitted to return
connections of plant as specified by the
system designer.
Where it is necessary to carry out flow
measurement to regulate and balance, the
regulating valve shall form part of a com-
missioning set, with a close coupled or
separate flow measurement metering
device.
To obtain adequate valve authority for
flow control, regulating valves shall be

29
sized for the correct pressure drop and 8.3.4 Strainers
should be normally at least one size below Strainers should be fitted at main plant
that of the pipeline. when necessary to protect equipment e.g.
The accuracy of flow measurement automatic control valves, pumps, meters
readings may be affected if the manufac- etc. Strainers must be provided with a
turer’s recommended up stream and down means of isolation to facilitate cleaning.
stream straight length of pipework is not 8.3.5 Instrumentation and Test Points
provided. Connections for permanent instrumenta-
Regulating valves shall be lockshield tion, or for temperature and pressure test
pattern or have tamper resistant devices to points, shall be provided as required for
protect the settings. the testing and monitoring of the system.
Suitable self-sealing test plugs should
8.3 PIPELINE ANCILLARIES be fitted either side of connections to the
8.3.1 Safety Valves main plant, plus either side of every pri-
Safety pressure relief valves shall be mary heat exchanger and automatic con-
fitted to pressurised closed condenser and trol valve.
cooling systems as specified by the Permanent instrumentation shall be pro-
designer. vided as follows and where indicated on
Discharge piping shall be properly sup- the drawings.
ported and impose no significant load on 8.3.6 Pressure Gauges
the safety valve and have an unrestricted Pressure gauges with a scale reading of
drain pipe with a visible discharge point, twice the working pressure shall be fitted,
positioned where injury to persons cannot to give a mid-range reading, to indicate
occur. Discharge piping shall be of a bore pump suction and delivery pressure.
not less than that of the outlet of the safe- Pressure gauges should be dial type, with
ty valve, being as short as possible to pre- a minimum dial size of 75mm, for easy
sent the least resistance to flow. reading. Gauges shall be fitted with gauge
Safety valve set pressure shall be 10% cocks.
(or minimum of 0.7 bar) above maximum 8.3.7 Thermometers
working pressure, with a minimum setting Thermometers should be selected to be
of 1.3 bar (to prevent unnecessary lifting easily readable, mounted in a visible loca-
of the safety valve). In no case should it tion and selected for the system operating
exceed the pressure rating of any part of temperature. They should be provided to
the system. indicate the flow temperature of any sepa-
8.3.2 Ball Float Valves rately pumped circuit. A thermometer
An isolating valve is required on the inlet should be provided with a separate pocket.
to the ball valve supplying an open system Steel pockets shall not be used on cop-
or the service tank of a pressurised closed per pipelines.
system. Ball float valves for makeup tanks 8.3.8 Flow Switches and Indicators
shall be Type AF (Fluid category 4), or, Flow switches and indicators shall be
Type ANAB (Fluid category 5), air gap installed where specified by the system
Valves up to 50 mm shall have bronze designer.
body and copper or plastic float. Over Flow indicators shall be installed
50mm, valves shall have cast iron body according to the manufacturers’ guidance
and copper or plastic float. and in the appropriate orientation. Tapered
8.3.3 Non-return Valves tube, paddle wheel and turbine flow indi-
Valves shall be to BS 5154 or BS 6282 cators shall be preceded by a strainer.
Part 1. For sizes 15-50mm valves shall be Isolation valves shall be provided so that
threaded to BS 21. For sizes 65mm and the strainer and flow indicator can be
above, valves shall have wafer type body cleaned when required.
or with flanged end connections to BS Paddle switches are not usually sensi-
4504. Constructional details shall be suit- tive to orientation but must be appropriate-
able for the service conditions. ly sized according to pipe size and flow rate.

30
8.4 IDENTIFICATION Section 9
Identification requirements should be agree1
TESTING
between purchaser and installer. The following i
recommended:
........................................................
8.4.1 Pipeline Pipework shall be tested hydraulically to 1.5 X
a) All insulated pipework should be iden working pressure with a minimum of 5 bar
tified at intervals not greater than 3rr (gauge). Pressure testing shall be carried out in
at valve or expansion joint positions, a accordance with the HVCA Publication TlU6.
inlet and exit positions to ducts o Any components not designed to carry the full
buildings and at either side of walls o test pressure, shall be disconnected and the
floors. pipework capped or plugged off for the test.
b) Identification should be by a colour After reconnecting, the reconnected joints
coded band applied neatly at right should be checked for soundness.
angles to the pipe axis. Band detail Concealed or buried pipework shall be tested
and colours shall comply with BS 171( before any permanent covering is applied.
with colours to BS 4800. Appropriate personnel should be advised with
In addition the name of the servicc due notice given in advance, of any pressure tests
should be indicated on an identifyinj that need to be witnessed.
worded band located in a visible position Care should be taken when testing plastic
together with an arrow indicating directioi pipework, to observe the manufacturer’s require-
of flow. Flow and return mains shoulc ments. This may stipulate testing at significantly
have the letter F or R added to the identi higher pressure and different techniques to take
fying name. into account the elasticity of the pipe material
8.4.2 Valves and Plant
and jointing method.
Suppliers shall be requested to label al When pneumatic testing, using compressed
equipment and packages with identifica air or nitrogen is carried out, caution should be
tion numbers, to ensure items can be cor observed. The advice of HVCA Publication
rectly identified. TlU6 and guidance given by HSE, shall be fol-
Labels shall be provided for all valves lowed.
except those on room terminals. Label: Chemically treated water may be hazardous
shall be of a durable nature, showing thc and care should be taken to avoid any contact,
valve number and service. A valve char which may occur for example due to leaks dur-
suitably protected, with a permanent fin. ing testing.
ish, showing the positions and numbering If there is a delay of more than 48 hours
of the valves should be fixed in an agreed between pressure testing and the start of the
position. cleaning process, systems are best left full of
biocide dosed water. This will control bacteria
levels and result in less contamination than if the
system is drained.
Test results shall be recorded and certified by
the installer.
10.1.2 Workmanship
Section 10 Incorrectly fitted or finished material can
THERMAL INSULATION
........................................................ lead to increased running costs and main-
tenance.
10.1 APPLICATION Good workmanship requires adherence
The insulation of condenser and cooling system to the following: -
pipework is mainly for the purposes of frost pro- a) Surfaces shall be clean, dry and grease-
tection though prevention of condensation may free before application.
be a factor in some cases. Pipework shall be b) Rigid sections shall have ‘staggered’
insulated as specified by the system designer. joints where more than one layer is
The standard of workmanship and guidance involved. Sections shall be securely
given in this document is intended to be appro- fixed by means of adhesive, wire,
priate to most normal commercial and industrial bands or other mechanical fixings.
applications, in that it relates to good practice, c) Mattresses shall butt firmly together
without unnecessary elaboration in installation and be properly secured with wire net-
and energy conservation. ting or expanded metal, with mechani-
No distinction is made between systems oper- cal fixings.
ating continuously or intermittently. d) Where cement or composition finishes
Asbestos materials must not be used. are to be applied to the outer face of the
10.1.1 Installation Considerations insulation this shall be suitably
The designer should specify the choice of “keyed”.
materials and thickness and finish, which e) When applying several layers of wet
will be determined by the following con- plasticized insulation, each layer shall
siderations : be allowed to dry out thoroughly,
a) Location of Piping before the next layer is applied and
Determine whether indoors concealed before any protective covering is fitted.
or exposed in a boilerhouse or plant- f) All thermal insulation shall have prop-
rooms; installed in ducts or buried; er provision to allow for thermal expan-
whether outdoors or exposed or weather- sion, particularly on pipes and at pipe
protected. connections, where movement may
b) Surrounding Ambient Conditions produce cracking or other damage in
Consider suitability of materials for the insulation.
abnormally high or low temperatures, g) Insulation thickness on flanges and
high humidity, flammable conditions, valves, where specified, shall be at least
potentially corrosive atmosphere, pro- equal to that on connecting pipes.
tection against rain, wind, condensation h) In designated hazardous areas, consid-
and freezing. eration may have to given to the need to
c) Special Conditions have electrically earthed bonding, for
Establish the need for resistance to the example, where metal cladding is
following (as appropriate); fire, vibra- applied and a risk of a static potential
tion, mechanical damage (including developing exists.
crushing); attack by vermin or insects, i) Particular care shall be taken in the
presence of corrosive fluids; resistance insulation of pipework, if electrically
of surface to ingress of oils or flamma- traced, (see sub-section 10.2).
ble liquids: specified maximum tem- j) Where insulated pipes are installed out-
perature on the outer surface of the doors and exposed to the weather (i.e.
insulation (for the protection and safety to rain and snow or to solar radiation),
of persons). then the outer covering shall be weather-
d) Type of Insulating Material proof and applied to all of the pipework
Wet processes should be avoided, system. The finish should be reason-
unless application requirements or ably resistant to mechanical damage
good appearance are not otherwise and not degrade when exposed to sun
achievable.
light. Fire resistance shall be appropri- installed and that any paint or coating is
ate to location. dry.
At pipework supports, both insula- Check for and remove any sharp edges
tion and outer covering shall be contin- or burrs that could cause damage to the
uous and not punctured by the sup- cable.
ports. The insulation at supports shall Examine the pipe system and plan the
be material of sufficient density to take routing of the heating-cable on the pipe.
the loads transmitted to the supports. Mark the location of power connections,
The covering shall be continuous at splices and tees on the pipe.
fittings and lapped and sealed at joints, i0.2.2 Installation
flanges and elsewhere as necessary, to To comply with BS 635 1, Manufacturers’
prevent ingress of water. requirements, Health and Safety at Work
k) Sufficient space shall be allowed Act, COSHH and IEE wiring regulations
between adjacent pipes and between (BS 7671). To protect against the risk of
pipe and wall, for application. fire, residual current protection (RCD)
In the interests of maintenance and must be used on each trace heating circuit.
identification, pipes shall be insulated sep- When using trace heating on plastic
arately, not in groups. pipework, be particularly careful to ensure
Insulation shall normally be carried the heating tape and its adhesive are com-
over fittings, pipe fixings, other than patible with the type of pipework material
rollers and chairs. If hard setting is used, being used. The high surface temperature
the insulation may be carried over of the tape may necessitate the pre-wrap-
pipework fittings, but shall not be carried ping of the pipework with a conductor to
over fixings of any kind. prevent localised overheating.
On external work, particular care shall The heating-cable may be installed
be taken at supports to prevent water straight, spiralled, or in multiple runs as
entering the insulation. Where mains are required by the design. For straight runs
external or in external ducts; insulation the cable should be fitted at the lowest
over saddles shall be used. (This may level.
require temporary support of the pipe- Vinyl electrical tape should not be used
work, until the insulation is completed). to install the trace heating cable.
Manufacturer’s recommended installation
10.2 TRACE HEATING fixing tapes should be used.
CAUTION. Potential fire and electrical shock Cable ties are recommended in applica-
hazard. tions where the pipe surface prevents
Trace heating systems must be installed cor- proper tape adhesion. Ties must be plastic
rectly, to ensure proper operation and to prevent and must be hand-tightened only, to pre-
shock and fire. vent damage to the heating-cable.
10.2.1 Pre-Installation Guidelines Entry glands must be used on heating
Check that the length of trace heating cable insulation where a metal cladding
cable is sufficient for the proposed method finish is applied to pipework or surface.
of installation including any additional When installing cables on non-metallic
length required for valves, fittings and pipe/surface, they shall be sandwiched
supports. Manufacturer’s recommenda- between two layers of Aluminium self
tions should be used to establish the length adhesive tape.
of cable required. Only fire resistant insulation should be
Check the heating cable and compo- used, such as fibreglass or flame-retardant
nents for in-transit damage. Each reel foams.
should have the cable insulation resistance 10.2.3 Heating Cable Connections
measured. General requirements for heating cable
Check that the pipe has been pressure- connections include:-
tested and is satisfactory. Connection kits should be positioned on
Check all supports and equipment are the top of the pipework.
Electrical conduit leading to the power
connection kit must have low-point drains
Section 11
to avoid condensation entering the electri-
cal connection.
Labels that are fitted externally, shall be TREATMENT
suitably weather proofed. ........................................................
The trace heating system shall have a 1 1.1 APPLICATION
method of temperature control. This is This section of the specification draws attention
generally provided by a thermostat to the need for cleanliness during construction,
although more sophisticated methods of flushing and cleaning after construction and suit-
control are available. able treatment of the system prior to setting to
10.2.4Heating Cable Testing '
work. It identifies BSRIA AG 1/2001, to which
Insulation resistance testing is a reliable reference may be made to ensure that suitable
indicator of the electrical integrity of the provisions are incorporated in the Works to
system, when all the installation instruc- enable cleaning, flushing and subsequent treat-
tions are properly followed. ment to be undertaken satisfactorily.
Electrical insulation resistance testing is
recommended prior to the application of 1 1 . 2 SYSTEM CLEANLINESS
any covering material, such as insulation. 1 i .2.1 Introduction
The test instrument should have a valid Care should be taken to limit the quantity
calibration certificate. of foreign material, which may enter the
system during installation and any item
required to be removed during subsequent
flushing and cleaning procedures.
The usual sources of foreign material
are: -
a) Attached to internal surfaces of pipe-
work, fittings, valves etc., when deliv-
ered.
b) Introduced to internal surfaces of pipe-
work, fittings, valves etc., whilst
stored.
c) Introduced during construction.
1 i .2.2 Delivery and Storage
The following are examples of care
requirements:
a) All pipework should be inspected on
delivery to ascertain cleanliness and be
stored in a clean dry environment, with
ends covered.
b) All pipework components should be
delivered in suitable protective packag-
ing and stored in clean covered bins, or
bags, prior to use.
c) Particular care should be taken, when
materials are delivered to the work-
place to avoid accidental ingress of
material prior to construction.
1 i.2.3During Installation
The following are examples of care
requirements:
a) All pipework and components should
be inspected immediately prior to

34
incorporation into the works and advisable to delay filling the system for as long
cleaned where necessary. Millscale, as possible. Once filled, the system clean should
rust, casting sand, swarf etc., should be ideally be commenced within 48 hours.
removed prior to assembly. The rate at which the system fills will be
b) Open ends should be temporarily dependent on the available pressure, in relation
capped as the work proceeds. Open to the system height and size.
ends should always be inspected prior The system will normally be filled via: -
to continuation. 1 a temporary connection from the water
c) Good practise should be adopted to mains, in compliance with the current
limit the amount of excess material Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regu-
introduced by jointing methods emp- lations. An acceptable connection would
loyed, (i.e. welding flash, cutting swarf, incorporate a double check valve assem-
solder, jointing compounds etc.) and all bly, comprising two check valves to BS
excess removed where practicable dur- 6282: Part 1
ing installation. Alternatively
11.2.4 During Testing 2 the installation of a temporary tank and
Detailed advice is given within Section 2.4 pump arrangement.
of BSRIA AG 1/2001, the following out- 3 the permanent installation
lines the general considerations. The sys- To avoid problems associated with the ade-
tem will require filling and static flushing quacy or cleanliness of the supply, a temporary
as part of the testing procedure. main for the sole use of the Contractor is prefer-
Care should be taken to ensure that no able.
foreign materials are introduced into the To help minimise the possibility of a bacterial
system when filling for hydraulic test pur- problem, fill water can be treated with a biocide
poses. to minimise the risk of biofilm development. All
For closed systems the water source Health and Safety requirements must be taken
should be confirmed clean by sampling into account regarding the choice of chemical,
prior to filling. Where doubt exists, an since there is a possible risk of contact with site
alternative source may be required, or the personnel should the system leak or fail during
installation of an in-line filter. It may also pressure testing.
be necessary to take steps to prevent the
introduction of a biological burden. For 1 1 . 4 CHEMICAL CLEANING
this purpose, an in-line steriliser or biocide There may be a requirement for the chemical
injector may be used or biocide intro- cleaning of the system to supplement the flush-
duced. This is particularly important if the ing process. This will normally be the subject of
system is to be left full for more than 48 an agreement between the Installer and
hours prior to dynamic flushing and chem- Designer. The BSRIA Application Guide AG
ical cleaning. 1/2001, provides guidance on suitable methods
i1.2.5 Dynamic Flushing which may be employed. The following draws
All systems will require flushed out to attention to specific issues associated with the
remove any vagrant material, which may cleaning process, which the installer should take
be lodged in the system, regardless of the account of -
precautions taken. The BSRIA a) All components, which may be detrimen-
Application Guide Ref: - AG U2001 tally affected by the cleaning chemical,
Section 3.1 provides guidance on suitable should be removed or isolated.
methods to be employed. Care should be b) A competent person should undertake the
taken to ensure that the process does not work, which involves the use of hazardous
introduce a biological burden to closed agents.
systems (see clause 11.2.4). c) The chemical cleaning process will gener-
ate and dislodge a considerable amount of
1 1.3 FILLING THE SYSTEM material. This should be removed by sub-
To limit the risk of biofilm development and sequent rinsing, flushing and neutralisa-
consequent bacteria-induced problems, it is tion, followed by passivation.
d) The system should be drained as quickly Section 12
as possible after cleaning, with particular
attention to dead legs, to ensure complete
removal of chemicals. SOURCES
e) Closed systems system should be refilled ........................................................
immediately following the cleaning 12.1 REFERENCES
process with treated de-aerated water, to
prevent rusting. Care should be taken to HVCA PUBLICATIONS
avoid the introduction of a biological bur- HVCA TR/5, Welding of Carbon Steel
den (see clause 11.2.4). Pipework
f) Care should be taken with the disposal of HVCA TR/6, Guide to Good Practice for Site
all water used in the cleaning and flushing Pressure Testing of Pipework
process, which must follow procedures HVCA TR/l 1, Guide to the use of Plastic
acceptable to the Local Water Under- Pipework.
taking.
For Further Reading,
11.5 WATER TREATMENT Copies available for purchase or via the Public
It will generally be necessary to protect the Library
pipework installation against corrosion during its
operating life by the introduction of .a suitable CIBSE PUBLICATIONS
inhibitor chemical into the water. This will be CIBSE Guides
dependent upon the quality of the fill water and CIBSE Commissioning Codes
the mixture of metals employed in the works.
Where chemical treatment is considered neces- BRITISH STANDARDS
sary, a suitable means of introduction needs to be BS 10: Circular flanges for pipes, valves and
provided. For closed system this may be in the fittings
form of a dosing pot. For open systems, where BS 21:Specification for pipe threads for tubes
chemical dose rates are likely to be much higher, and fittings where pressure-tight joints are made
an automated chemical injection system is likely on the threads.
to be fitted. BS 143 & BS 1256: Specification for mal-
leable cast iron and cast copper alloy threaded
pipe fittings.
BS 417: Specification for galvanised mild
steel cisterns and covers, tanks and cylinders.
BS 499: Welding terms and symbols. Glossary
for welding, brazing and thermal cutting
BS 864: Capillary and compression tube fit-
tings of copper and copper alloy.
Part 2: Specification for capillary and compres-
sion fittings for copper tubes.
BS 1212: Specification for float operated
valves (excluding floats).
BS 1387: Specification for screwed, socketed
steel tubes, tubulars and for plain and steel tubes
suitable for welding or for screwing to BS 21
pipe threads.
BS 1394: Specification for power driven cir-
culators.
BS 1414: Specification for steel wedge gate
valves (flanged and butt-welding ends) for the
petroleum, petrochemical and allied industries
BS 1560: Circular flanges for pipes, valves
and fittings (Class designated). Steel, cast iron
and copper alloy flanges. Specification for steel BS 7671:IEE wiring Regulations.
flanges
BS 1710: Specification for identification of BS EN
pipelines and services. BS EN 287: Approval testing for welders -
BS 1723: Brazing, specification, guide and fusion, for austenitic stainless steel
testing. BS EN 287: Part 1 Approval testing for
BS 1740: Specification for wrought steel pipe welders for fusion welding. - Steels
fittings. BS EN 545: Specification for ductile iron
BS 1873: Specification for steel globe and pipes and fittings.
globe stop and check valves (flanged and butt- BS EN 598: Specification for ductile iron
welding ends) for the petroleum, petrochemical pipes and fittings.
and allied industries BS EN 751: Sealing materials for metallic
BS 1965: Specification for butt-welding pipe threaded joints.
fittings for pressure purposes. BS EN 969: Specification for ductile iron
BS 2633: Specification for Class I arc welding pipes and fittings.
of ferritic steel pipework for carrying fluids BS EN 1057: Specification for copper and
BS 2779: Specification for pipe threads for alloys for sanitary and heating.
tubes and fittings where pressure-tight joints are BS EN 1092: Flanges and their joints.
not made on the threads (metric dimensions). BS EN 1254: Copper and copper alloys,
BS 2879: Specification for draining taps compression plumbing fittings.
(screw-down pattern). BS EN 10216: Seamless steel tubes for pres-
BS 2971:Specification for class I1 arc weld- sure purposes. Technical delivery conditions.
ing of carbon steel pipework for carrying fluids Non-alloy steel tubes
BS 3505: Specification for unplasticised BS EN 10217: Welded steel tubes for pres-
polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) pressure pipes for sure purposes.
cold water services. BS EN 10242: Threaded pipe fittings in mal-
BS 3974: Specification for pipe supports, pipe leable cast iron.
hangers, slide and roller type supports. BS EN 10253: Butt-welding pipe fittings.
BS 4504: Specification for Flanges and bolt- Wrought carbon steel for general use and with-
ing for pipes, valves and fittings. Metric series. out specific inspection requirements
BS 4677: Specification for arc welding of BS EN 29453: Soft solder alloys.
austenitic stainless steel pipework BS EN 60073: Basic and safety principles
BS 4991:Specification for propylene copoly- for man-machine interface, marking and identifi-
mer pressure pipe. cation, coding principles for indication devices
BS 5154: Specification for copper alloy and actuators.
globe, globe stop and check, check and gate
valves. BS EN IS0
BS 5422: Specification for the use of thermal BS EN I S 0 15609: Specification & qualifi-
insulating materials. cation of welding procedures, metallic materials
BS 5970: Code of practice for thermal insula- - Gas
tion of pipework and equipment.
BS 6282: Partl. Specification for check 12.2 ABBREVIATIONS
valves of nominal size, up to and including BS British Standard
DN54. BS EN British publication of European
BS 6351: Part3. Code of practice for the Standard
installation, testing and maintenance of electric BS EN I S 0 British publication of International
surface heating systems. Standard
BS 6700: Specification for design installation, BSPT British Standard Pipe Thread
testing and maintenance of services supplying BSRIA Building Services Research and
water for domestic use within buildings and their Information Association
curtilages. CIBSE Chartered Institution of Building
BS 6956: Jointing materials and compounds. Services Engineers
BS 7531:Specification for compressed non- HVCA Heating and Ventilating
asbestos fibre jointing Contractors’ Association

37
12.3 MISCELLANEOUS
Pressure Equipment Regulations (1999, SI 2001)
Pressure System Safety Regulations
Water Fittings and Materials Directory, the
Water Research Centre.
BSRIA - Balancing Application Guide 1/79 -
Manual for regulating water systems
BSRIA - Pre-commissioning Cleaning
Application Guide AG U200 1
Institute of Gas Engineers - IGE Utilisation
Procedure UP1 and 2
HSE Guidance Note PMS, Automatically con-
trolled steam and hot water boilers.
HSE Legionnaire’s Disease ref. L8, Approved
Code of Practice
IEC 144 refer to BS 5420
IEE Wiring Regulations - Regulations for
Electrical Installations, sixteenth edition, by the
Institution of Electrical Engineers, refer to BS
767 1.
IP 54,refer to BS 4999.
IP 21 S , refer to BS 4999.

NOTE: The numbers of British Standards and


other documents are those available at the date
of this publication. It should also be noted that in
a number of cases hybrid references are used for
clarity, most are where standards are in a state of
transitional change. Users should ensure that
they consult the latest version. The full titles
have not always been used.

38
ISBN NUMBER: 0-903783-46-0

WsaUilrng a n d Ms~uiOeuing
ConUrracUorrs' AssociaUioon
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London W2 4JG I'
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website: www.hvca.org.uk