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CE114 - CE415

Dr. Venkata Dilip Kumar Pasupuleti


Assistant Professor
School of Engineering Sciences

Mahindra
Ecole Centrale
College of Engineering
Module 1
Introduction to building materials
Civil engineering background Role of civil engineers
in society
Functions of buildings role of materials in
construction
Classification of materials requirements selection of
materials
Properties of materials Physical, mechanical,
chemical, biological, aesthetical
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Module 2
Stones, Bricks and Cement
Building Stones types requirements tests
Bricks and tiles classification - manufacturing -
characteristics tests ceramic tiles paving blocks
Cement manufacturing processes properties types
- tests

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Module 3
Floor and Roofing material
Floors types floor finishes
Roofs types materials used steel, aluminum,
asbestos, GI sheets light weight roofing materials
Glass types and uses
Wood types and uses defects preservative
treatments wood composites

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Module 4
Modern building materials
Modern materials Neoprene, thermocole, decorative
panels and laminates, architectural glass and ceramics,
ferrocement, PVC, polymer base materials, fibre
reinforced plastics,
etc
..

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Module 5
Construction components
Principles of construction - Masonry brick, stone and
block masonry
Surface finishes pointing and plastering materials -
Paints and varnishes types and uses
Damp proof course (DPC) anti-termite measures and
treatments
Construction joints need and materials used
Scaffolding and centering
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Reference books
Engineering materials by S.C. Rangwala
Fundamental building materials by Ken Ward-Harvey
Materials of construction by Ghosh
Building Construction by Arora.S.P & Bindra.S.P.
Concrete Technology by Shetty, M.S
Building construction by B.C. Punmia

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MODULE 3
Floor and Roofing material

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General Function
To give a protective covering
to the building, so rain, wind,
snow or other natural forces
may not damage the building

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Functional Requirements
Weather Resistance
Structural Stability
Provide good appearance
Provide thermal insulation
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Functional Requirements Cont.
Weather Resistance
Required to protect a building from the damaging effects of rain and wind.
The ingress of rain: causes damage to decorations and structural damage
to timber due to attacks by fungus and insects.
The roof is covered by a layer of impermeable material which prevents the
passage of rain into a building
The deflection of building may be cause of wind: accordance of suction on
the windward of slope of roof.

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Functional Requirements Cont.
Structural Stability
Provide a means of support for the roof covering
In designing a roof structure, the designer must take into
consideration the span of structural members
If span at joist too great bend
To overcome: introducing a structural element which reduces the span

Concourse crescendo: Kings Cross station 14


Functional Requirements Cont.
Good Appearance
Might be a major visual element in the design of a building
The detailing of roof can significantly affect appearance of a building.

TFP Farrells competition-winning high speed station for Singapore 15


Functional Requirements Cont.
Provide Thermal Insulation
The roof constitutes a substantial proportion of the external surface
area of a building and consequently has considerable potential for
heat loss.
Pitched roofs are usually insulated between the ceiling joists.
Alternative insulation might be applied between rafters.
Flat roof insulation is usually laid above the decking, either below or
above the roof covering

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Genral Types of Roofs
Sloping
Flats
Shells
Domes

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Roof Types Cont.
Sloping / Pitched Roof Suitable for areas of heavy rain and snowfall
Sloping roof may be categorized into:
a. Medium to high slope 4:12 to 12:12
b. Low slope up to 3:12
Sloping roofs shed water easily to eave gutters
Roof height and area increase with its horizontal dimension

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Roof Types Cont.
Sloping / Pitched Roof cont.. Suitable for areas of heavy rain and snowfall
Sloping roof may have a structure of:
a. Rafters and sheathing
b. Beams, purlins and decking
c. Trusses

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Roof Types Cont.
Sloping / Pitched Roof cont.. Suitable for areas of heavy rain and snowfall
Medium and high slope roofs may be covered with shingles, tiles or
sheet materials.
Low slope roofs require roll or continuous membrane roofing; some
shingle and sheet materials may be used on 3:12 pitches
The roof slope also affects the design loads and the requirements for
underlayment and eave flashing.
Slope roof planes may be combined to form a variety of roof forms.

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Roof Types Cont.
Flat Roof Rainfall is moderate- slight slope (not more than 10) is given
Pitch from 0 to 10 degree
Slope may be achieved by sloping the structural members or by
tapering the deck or rigid insulation.
Slope usually leads to interior drains, perimeter scuppers can be used
as overflow drains.

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Roof Types Cont.
Flat Roof cont.. Rainfall is moderate- slight slope (not more than 10) is given
Roof structure may consist of:
Joist and sheathing
Beams and decking
Flat trusses
Concrete slabs

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Roof Types Cont.
Shell Roof preferred when large column free area is required
A thin shell is defined as a shell with a thickness which is small
compared to its other dimensions and in which deformations are not
large compared to thickness.
These elements are typically curved and are assembled to large
structures. Example: factories and roof structures in special buildings.
Advantage in construction: a lot of material is saved as the section
needed is very thin.

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Roof Types Cont.
Dome Roof preferred when large column free area is required
A roof of semi-spherical or semi elliptical shape.
Constructed of stone or brick or concrete and supported on circular or
regular polygon shaped walls.
The structure is such that within certain height and diameter ratios,
very small thickness is needed.

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Roof Types Cont.
Dome Roof preferred when large column free area is required

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Common terms used

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Common terms used Cont

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Common terms used Cont

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Common terms used Cont

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Roof Coverings

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Types of Roof coverings

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Types of Roof coverings
Thatch: Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw,
water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, heather, or palm fronds, layering the
vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof. Since the bulk of the
vegetation stays dry, and is densely packedtrapping airthatching also functions
as a quite significant insulation material. It is a very old roofing method and has
been used in both tropical and temperate climates.

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Types of Roof coverings
Wood Shingles: Wood shingles are thin, tapered pieces of wood primarily used to
cover roofs and walls of buildings to protect them from the weather. Historically
shingles were split from straight grained, knot free bolts of wood. Today shingles are
mostly made by being cut which distinguishes them from shakes which are made by
being split out of a bolt.

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Types of Roof coverings
Tiles: Roof tiles are designed mainly to
keep out rain, and are traditionally
made from locally available materials
such as terracotta or slate. Modern
materials such as concrete and plastic
are also used and some clay tiles have
a waterproof glaze.

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Types of Roof coverings
Slates: Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made
from locally available materials such as terracotta or slate. Modern materials such
as concrete and plastic are also used and some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze.

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Types of Roof coverings
Asphalt: Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made
from locally available materials such as terracotta or slate. Modern materials such
as concrete and plastic are also used and some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze.

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Types of Roof coverings
Asbestos cement sheets: The name fibro is short for "fibrous (or fibre) cement
sheet", more commonly called "asbestos cement sheet" or "AC sheet". It is a
building material in which asbestos fibres are used to reinforce thin rigid cement
sheets.

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Types of Roof coverings
Corrugated Iron sheets: The name fibro is short for "fibrous (or fibre) cement
sheet", more commonly called "asbestos cement sheet" or "AC sheet". It is a
building material in which asbestos fibres are used to reinforce thin rigid cement
sheets.

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Types of Roof coverings
Corrugated Iron sheets: Cont.

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Types of Roof coverings
Glass roofs: The name fibro is short for "fibrous (or fibre) cement sheet", more
commonly called "asbestos cement sheet" or "AC sheet". It is a building material in
which asbestos fibres are used to reinforce thin rigid cement sheets.

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Santiago Calatrava

Calatrava's Lige-Guillemins Railway Station

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Terminal T4 Barajas, Madrid HDR 45
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Heydar Aliyev International Airpor
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