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ALL ABOUT SALAT

A Simple Step By Step Guide to Washing and Praying


Verily all praise is for Allaah, we praise Him and seek His aid and ask for His forgiveness, and we seek refuge
with Allaah from the evils of ourselves and our evil actions. Whomever Allaah guides there is none who can
misguide him, and whomever Allaah misguides there is none who can guide him, and I bear witness that none has
the right to be worshipped except Allaah Alone, having no partner, and I
bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.

The Salat (the ritual prayer) is the second pillar of Islam. It is an


act to be performed five times a day at set times. The lengths of
each prayer may vary but all of the rituals of the prayer are
identical for each prayer and are very easy to learn.

You have learnt in All About Islam that the salat is the greatest
single act of worship in existence. It requires a standard of
cleanliness in body and clothing that is also explained in this book.

It is hoped that the following guide will be a useful resource for


muslims who wish to find out how to perfect this great act.

Contents
Subject page

1. You Cannot Leave Praying 2


2. Evidences / Rulings for the Above 3
3. Purity After Toilet: Istinja 6
4. Purity: Bathing (Ghusl) 8
5. Purity: Wudhu 10
6. Wiping Over Socks / Shoes 12
7. Clothing and Pictures 13
8. The Five Prayer Times 16
9. The Five Prayer Lengths 18
10. The First Rakah 20
11. The Second Rakah 24
12. The Last Rakah 25
13. Two Short Verses 27
14. Opening and Closing your Salat 29
15. Final Words 30

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O $E : Y OU C A$$OT L EAVE P RAYI$G
_________________________

QUESTION:

Many workers delay Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers until night-time, giving the
excuse that they are too busy at work or that their clothes are najis (impure)
or not clean. What advice can you give them?

ANSWER:

Praise be to Allaah.

It is not permissible for a Muslim man or woman to delay an obligatory


prayer beyond the proper time, rather every accountable Muslim man and
woman is obliged to perform the prayers on time as much as they can.

Work is not an excuse for delaying prayer, neither is impurity on


clothes or clothes being dirty. $one of these are acceptable excuses.

People should be excused from work at prayer times; at the time of prayer a
worker has to wash the impurity from his clothes, or change into clean
clothes.

As for regular dirt (as opposed to impurities), this does not prevent one from
praying in those clothes, so long as that dirt is not impure and does not have
an offensive smell that would bother other worshippers.

But if the dirt or its smell will bother others, then he has to wash it before
praying, or change into clean clothes so that he can pray in congregation.

It is permissible for those who have legitimate shar’i excuses, such as those
who are sick or are travelling, to combine Zuhr and ‘Asr at the time of either
of them, and to combine Maghrib and ‘Isha’ at the time of either of them.

This was narrated in the saheeh Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him). It is also permissible to join prayers when there is
heavy rain or mud, which cause difficulty for people.

Fataawa Muhimmah tata’allaq bil-Salaah by Shaykh Ibn Baaz, p. 19


Source: Islam-qa.com

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T WO : E VIDE$CES F OR T HE A BOVE

Indeed the prayer has been enjoined upon the Believers at stated times.
Surah Nisa 4:103

Al-Bukhari said about this verse: "He has set time limits for them"
The Messenger of Allaah said:

“Between a person and kufr and shirk stands the abandonment of prayer.”

!arrated by al-Tirmidhi, 2766. Classed as saheeh by Ibn Maajah, 1078, and by al-Albaani).

Kufr means disbelief. Shirk is joining others in worship with Allah.

It is called the unforgivable sin.

Verily! Allâh forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners in


worship with Him, but He forgives whom he pleases sins
other than that, and whoever sets up partners in worship
with Allâh, has indeed strayed far away. (An-Nisa 4:116)

Do you need Allah's help?

O you who believe! seek help in patience and As-Salât (the


prayer). Truly! Allâh is with the patient ones. (Al-Baqarah 2:153)

TAYAMMUM; PURITY FROM THE EARTH

Many people say they cannot pray because there is no water to wash with. There is
also guidance on what to do when this happens:

Two companions of the Prophet could not find water for washing and the Prophet
informed them:

'It would have been sufficient for you to do like this.' The Prophet then
stroked lightly the earth with his hands and then blew off the dust and
passed his hands over his face and hands."
Hadeeth No. 335 - Narrated by 'Abdur Rahman bin Abza: in Sahih Bukhari – The Book of Dry Ablution

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R U L I $ G S:
Leaving, Forgetting and Abandoning Prayer

1. Leaving off a single prayer

Question:

Is the one who leaves off a single (obligatory) prayer without a


(Islaamically acceptable) reason taken out of the fold of Islaam?

Response: (Summarised)

According to the majority opinion (of the scholars), whoever leaves off a single
(obligatory) prayer, then he does not become a disbeliever unless he
abandoned it completely, in accordance with the Prophet’s saying:

((Between a person and kufr and shirk is the abandonment of the


prayer)), [ Saheeh Muslim]. (He said: ((the prayer)) - implying abandoning
the obligatory prayer completely)

...and he did not say ((leaving off a prayer)) (which would imply leaving off a
single obligatory prayer);

Likewise, the (Prophet’s) saying:

((The covenant dividing us and them (disbelievers) is the prayer.


Whoever abandons it has committed disbelief)),

[recorded in at-Tirmidhee, an-Nasaa.ee, Ahmad, al-Haakim]

...and you are not required to make up that prayer, since you had left it
without a (Islaamically acceptable) reason. Rather, you are required to
repent to Allaah (, and if you sincerely repented, then Allaah (says:

{And He it is Who accepts repentance from His servants, and forgives


sins, and He knows what you do}, [Soorah ash-Shooraa, Aayah 25]

Shaykh Ibn 'Uthaymeen

Fataawa Manaar al-Islaam - Volume 1, Page 131, Question No.99

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2. Forgetting a Prayer

The Prophet ssallallahu 'alaihi wassalaam said,

"A person who forgets a prayer should pray it when he remembers.

Allah the Blessed and Exalted says in His book, 'Establish the prayer to remember
Me.' "

[Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurayra]

Meaning do not delay in doing the prayer - joining it with the next, etc.

3. The ruling concerning one who does not


pray (at all)

Question: What is the ruling concerning a person who died and he did not pray, although his
parents were Muslims? How should he be dealt with concerning the washing of his body,
shrouding, prayer, burial, supplications and asking for mercy upon him?

Response:

Any sane adult person who dies and does not pray, given that he
knows the Islaamic ruling about prayer, is a disbeliever.

He is not to be washed nor should he be prayed over.

He is not to be buried in the Muslim cemetery.

His Muslim relatives do not inherit from him.

This is concerning the one who does not pray out of laziness. The one who
refuses to accept it as being obligatory is an apostatising disbeliever
according to all of the scholars of Islaam.

We ask Allaah to make the affairs of the Muslims good and lead them to
follow the Straight Path. He is the All-Hearing, the Responder.

Shaykh Ibn Baaz


Fataawa al-Mar.ah

(for this the Shaykh referred to the same hadeeth mentioned above)

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T HREE : P URITY A FTER T OILET (I STI$JA )

One of the mushrikeen (polytheists) said to Salmaan al-Farsi:


“Your Prophet has taught you everything, even how to defecate!”
Salmaan said: “Yes, he forbade us to face the qiblah when urinating or
defecating…”
(Reported by al-Tirmidhi, no. 16; also in Saheeh Muslim)

1. ENTERING / LEAVING THE TOILET

Our Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught us that
when entering the toilet, we should say:

“Allaahumma innee a’oodhi bika min al-khubthi wa’l-khabaa’ith


(O Allah, I seek refuge with You from male and female devils).

” When leaving the toilet, he should say: “Ghufraanak (I seek Your


forgiveness).”

2. SITTING ON THE TOILET

The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“When any one of you sits down to answer the call of nature, he should not
face the qiblah or turn his back towards it.” (Reported by Muslim, 389).

Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) reported:

“When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) wanted to
answer the call of nature, he would not lift his garment until he had squatted
close to the ground.” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi)

3. CLEANING YOURSELF

a) Use Left Hand

Abu Hurayrah reported that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) said:

“When any one of you cleans himself, he should not use his right hand, he
should use his left hand.” (Reported by Ibn Maajah, 308; see also Saheeh al-Jaami’, 322).

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b) Use Water Whenever Possible

Narrated Anas bin Malik: Whenever Allah's Apostle went to answer the call
of nature, I along with another boy used to accompany him with a tumbler
full of water. (Hisham commented, "So that he might wash his private parts
with it.)"
Sahih Bukhari:Book of Ablution 153

c) Wash Three Times

‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) reported that the Prophet used
to wash his posterior three times.

Ibn ‘Umar said: “We did this too and found it to be healing and cleansing.”
(Reported by Ibn Maajah, 350; see also Saheeh al-Jaami’, 4993)

WATER IS ENOUGH TO PURIFY SOMETHING

Hadith reported by Imam Abu Da’ud and Baihaqi that a woman came to the Prophet
( (sal-lal-lahu alai hi wa sallam)) and said

“O Messenger of Allah, I don’t have but one outfit and I have my monthly period
when I am wearing it, and sometimes I see blood on it. What should I do?”

The Prophet ( (sal-lal-lahu alai hi wa sallam)) replied:

“After the menstrual cycle is over, wash the blood stained area and then you can pray
with it.”

The woman said “O Messenger of Allah, what if the blood traces don’t come out?”

He replied: “It suffices for you to clean it with water, and the traces of blood will not
harm you.” If the impurity is not visible, such as urine, it is sufficient to wash it once."

NOTE: TAKE CARE TO CLEAN ALL NAJAS (IMPURITY) FROM YOURSELF


BUT KNOW THAT THE APPLYING OF WATER TO IT IS ENOUGH

IF YOU CANNOT FIND WATER YOU CAN USE TISSUES OR ODD NUMBER
OF STONES (Sahih Bukhari)

NOTE: GOING TO TOILET DOES NOT MEAN YOU NEED TO TAKE A BATH
FOR PRAYER OR WASH ALL YOUR CLOTHES

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F OUR : P URITY : B ATHI$G (G HUSL )

Truly, Allâh loves those who turn unto Him in repentance

and loves those who purify themselves (by taking a bath).

(Al-Baqarah 2:222)

If you are in a state of Janâba (i.e. had a sexual discharge), purify yourself
(bathe). (Al-Ma'idah 5:6)

So bathing (Ghusl) is not for after the toilet but for Sexual Discharge and also is when
someone enters Islam or going to Jumuah (Friday) Prayers and if someone has taken
part in washing the corpse of a fellow Muslim.

HOW THE PROPHET HAD A BATH (GHUSL)

A'isha (wife of the Prophet) reported:

‘When Allaah's Messenger bathed because of sexual


intercourse,

he first washed his hands: (starting with the right hand)

he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand
and washed his private parts.

He then performed ablution (WUDHU) as is done for


prayer'.

(Wudhu Description:)

'Uthman bin 'Affan poured water... over his hands

and washed them three times (starting with right hand)

and then put his right hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth

and washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out.

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Then he washed his face thrice

and (then) forearms up to the elbows thrice,

then passed his wet hands over his head

and then washed each foot (up to ankle/heel) thrice. (starting with right foot)

After that 'Uthman said, "I saw the Prophet performing ablution like this of
mine,"
Sahih Bukhari - The Book of Ablution:166

NOTE: IN GHUSL THE FEET ARE NOT WASHED UNTIL THE END

Also in Wudhu you should wipe between fingers / toes:


Laqeet ibn Sabarah said: Rasoolullah
(sallallaahu 'alaihi wa salam) said
Complete the wudoo and wipe between the Asaabi'
(fingers and/or toes).

He then took some water and put his fingers and moved
them through the roots of his hair.

And when he found that these had been properly


moistened, then poured three handfuls on his head

and then poured water over his body

and subsequently washed his feet.(starting with right and


up to ankle / heel)’
(remember to wipe between fingers and toes - Sunnah is to use little
finger of left hand moving left to right for toes)

(Hadeeth 616 Sahih Muslim)

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F IVE : P URITY (W UDHU )

WHE$ TO MAKE WUDHU

1. AFTER WATERY DISCHARGE (PRE-CUM), BEFORE EJACULATIO$

Narrat Ali: I used to get emotional urethral discharge frequently. Being the son-in-
law of the Prophet I requested a man to ask him about it. So the man asked the
Prophet about it.

The Prophet replied, "Perform ablution after washing your organ (penis)."

Sahih Bukhari The Book of Bathing Hadeeth 270

SO HERE YOU WASH YOUR PRIVATE PARTS THEN MAKE WUDHU - NOT GHUSL

2. AFTER USI$G THE TOILET OR PASSI$G WI$D

Narrated 'Abbad bin Tamim "My uncle said: The Prophet said, "One should not leave
his prayer unless he hears sound or smells something."" Sahih Bukhari The Book of
Ablution : 178

Allah's Apostle said, "The prayer of a person who does, Hadath (passes, urine, stool
or wind) is not accepted till he performs (repeats) the ablution."

A person from Hadaramout asked Abu Huraira, "What is 'Hadath'?"

Abu Huraira replied, " 'Hadath' means the passing of wind from the anus."
Hadeeth No. 138 - Narrated by Abu Huraira Sahih Bukhari – The Book of Ablution

3. AFTER DEEP SLEEP

Bukhari Volume 1, Book 4, !umber 163: Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Apostle said, "whoever wakes up from his sleep should wash his hands before
putting them in the water for ablution, because nobody knows where his hands were
during sleep."

The Prophet performed ablution by washing the body parts only once.
Hadeeth no: 160 Reported by Ibn Abbas Sahih Bukhari – The Book of Ablution

The Prophet performed ablution by washing the body parts twice.


Hadeeth No. 161 - Narrated 'Abdullah bin Zaid Sahih Bukhari – Book of Ablution

This means hands, face, mouth, nose, arms and feet can be washed once or twice for
wudhu but not a combination of each.

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HOW TO MAKE WUDHU

WE LEARNT THE PARTS OF WUDHU IN PART FOUR.


THEY ARE REPEATED HERE WITH MORE:

'Uthman bin 'Affan poured water... over his hands

and washed them three times (starting with right hand)

and then put his right hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth

and washed his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out.

Then he washed his face thrice

and (then) forearms up to the elbows thrice,

then passed his wet hands over his head


(FRONT TO BACK THEN BACK OVER TO FRONT)

(Note: This is done to roots in Ghusl but just a passing over for Wudhu)

CLEA$I$G THE EARS:

Ibn Abbas described the wudhu of the Prophet saying:

“He wiped the outside of his ears with his thumbs, and the insides of his ear with his
index fingers.” (Abu Dawud #123)

and then washed each foot (up to ankle/heel) thrice. (starting with right foot)

After that 'Uthman said,


"I saw the Prophet performing ablution like this of mine,"
Sahih Bukhari - The Book of Ablution:166

Also in Wudhu you should wipe between fingers / toes:

Laqeet ibn Sabarah said: Rasoolullah


(sallallaahu 'alaihi wa salam) said

Complete the wudoo and wipe between the Asaabi'


(fingers and/or toes).

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S IX : W IPI$G O VER S OCKS / S HOES

If you make perfect wudhu (washing each part three times) and put on a
pair of socks you can wipe over them instead of taking them off to wash
your feet.

This lasts for 24 hours. If you are travelling it lasts for three days. (from
Hadeeth no: 537 Sahih Muslim)

Urwa b. Mughira reported his father having said: I was one


night with the Prophet of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa
sallam) on a journey.

I poured water for him from the jar. He washed his face, He
had a woollen gown on him and he could not bring out his
forearms from it (i. e. from its sleeves) and consequently he
brought them out from under his gown. He washed his
forearms, wiped over his head. I then bent down to take off
his socks. But he said: Leave them, for my feet were clean
(meaning he had made wudoo) when I put them in, and he
only wiped over them.

Hadeeth no: 529 Sahih Muslim – The Book of Purification

Hadeeth also confirm the Prophet prayed in shoes and that socks for
wiping do not have to be leather (Khuffayn).

It was narrated that al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah said: “The Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did wudoo’ and wiped over his
socks and shoes.” (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 92)

Abu Bakr ibn al-‘Arabi said: jawrab means a thin cover for the feet made
of wool, worn to keep the feet warm.

It was narrated that Yahyaa al-Bakka’ said: I heard Ibn ‘Umar saying,

“Wiping over the socks (jawrabayn) is like wiping over the leather
slippers (khuffayn).” Al-Musannaf by Ibn Abi Shaybah, 1/173

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S EVE$ : C LOTHI$G A$D P ICTURES

O Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover


yourselves (screen your private parts, etc.) and as an adornment,
and the raiment of righteousness, that is better. Such are among the
revelations of Allâh, that they may remember. (Al-A'raf 7:26)

And your garments purify! (Al-Muddaththir 74:4)

For Both Men and Women

The AWRAH SHOULD BE COVERED.

The Awrah of a man is navel to knees.

‘Ali narrated from the Prophet: “Do not show your thigh, and do not look at the thigh
of anyone, living or dead.” Abu Dawood (3140)

The Awrah of a woman is entire body and hair.

The Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said “All of a woman is ‘awrah.”(Sahih from At Tirmidhi)

Better to cover entire body for both. Especially that a man should not reveal lower
back in sujood - shirt should be long.

Narrated Abu Huraira: the Prophet said, "None of you should offer prayer in a single
garment that does not cover the shoulders." (Sahih Bukhari Book #8, Hadith #355)

For Women: COMPLETE COVERI(G

O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the
believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. head to toe
except to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free
respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allâh is Ever OftForgiving,
Most Merciful. (Al-Ahzab 33:59)

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For Men: TROUSERS ABOVE THE A(KLE

"There are three people that Allaah will not speak to on the Day of Judgement, will
not look at them, will not purify them; and for them is a painful punishment: one who
lets his garment hang below his ankles, the Mannan and the Munffiq who does his
business with false oaths." (Muslim no. 106)

And because he (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said,

"Whoever drags his garment out of arrogance, Allaah will not look at him on the Day
of Judgement." (Al-Bukhari no. 5784 and Muslim no. 2085)

"Whatever is below the ankles is in the fire." (Al-Bukhari no. 5787)

(O IMAGES

Hadith - Bukhari 4:448, Narrated Abu Talha : I heard Allah's Apostle


saying;

"Angels (of Mercy) do not enter a house wherein there is a dog or a picture of
a living creature (a human being or an animal)."

"On the Day of Resurrection a neck will stretch forth from Hell;

it will have two eyes to see, two ears to hear, and a tongue to speak.

It will say, "I have been appointed to take care of three types of people:

every arrogant tyrant,

every person who called on some deity other than Allaah

and those who made pictures"

[at-Tirmidhi stated that this hadith was saheeh - at-Takhweef min an-Naar, p.179, See also
Jaami' al-Usool, 10/518, the editor said its isnaad is hasan]

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GENERAL RULING ON PRAYING IN CLOTHES WITH PICTURES

The Scholars of the Standing Committee were asked: Is it permissible to pray in a


garment on which there is an image of a person or images of animals? Is it
permissible to enter the toilet in a garment on which there is the name of Allaah?

They replied:

It is not permissible to pray in clothes on which there are images of animate beings,
whether people, birds, camels, cattle, sheep, or other animate beings, and it is not
permissible for a Muslim to wear them when he is not praying either.

The prayer of one who prays wearing clothes on which there are images is valid, but
he is sinning if he knows the shar’i ruling. It is not permissible to write the name of
Allaah on clothing, and it is makrooh to enter the toilet wearing it, because that is
showing disrespect to His name, may He be exalted. End quote.

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (6/179)

SILK A$D GOLD

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) also said: "Wearing silk and
gold is permitted for the women of my ummah and prohibited for the males."
(Reported by Imaam Ahmad)

The Prophet allowed 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf and Az-Zubair to wear silken shirts
because they had a skin disease causing itching. Hadeeth No. 2726 – Sahih Bukhari

GROOMI$G

A'isha reported the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: Ten are
the acts according to fitra: clipping the moustache, letting the beard grow (FOR
MEN), using the tooth-stick (MISWAK), snuffing water in the nose, cutting the nails,
washing the finger joints, plucking the hair under the armpits, shaving the pubic hair
and cleaning one's private parts with water. The narrator said: I have forgotten the
tenth, but it may have been rinsing the mouth.

Hadeeth no: 502 – Sahih Muslim - The Book of Purification

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E IGHT : T HE F IVE P RAYER T IMES

There are FIVE Daily Prayers


EVIDE$CE I$ THE QUR'A$

So glorify Allah, when you come up to the evening


(offer the (Maghrib) sunset and ('Ishâ') night prayers],

and when you enter the morning


[i.e offer the (Fajr) morning prayer].

and in the afternoon


(i.e. offer 'Asr prayer)

when the day begins to decline


(i.e offer Zuhr prayer). (Ar-Rum 30:17-18)

(Abdullah Ibn 'Abbâs said: "These are the five compulsory congregational prayers
mentioned in the Qur'ân)."

EVIDE$CE I$ HADEETH

Narrated by Jarir ibn 'Abdullah:

ZUHR: $OO$

The angel Gabriel came to the Messenger of Allah and said to him,
"Stand and pray," and they prayed the noon prayer when the sun had
passed its meridian.

ASR: AFTER$OO$

He then came to him for the afternoon prayer and said, "Stand and
pray," and they prayed the afternoon prayer while the length of a
shadow of something was similar to the length of the object.

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MAGHRIB: SU$SET

Then he came at sunset and said, "Stand and pray," and they prayed
the sunset prayer when the sun had just disappeared.

ISHA: EVE$I$G

Then he came at night and said, "Stand and pray," and they prayed
the night prayer when the twilight had disappeared.

FAJR: DAW$

He came again when dawn broke (and they prayed the morning
prayer).

Then Gabriel came on the next day at noon and said (to the
Messenger of Allah), "Stand and pray," and they prayed the noon
prayer when the length of the shadow of something was close to the
length of the object. Then he came for the afternoon prayer and said,
"Stand and pray," and they prayed when the shadow of something
was twice as long as the length of the object. Then he came at the
same time (as the previous day) for the sunset prayer, without any
change. Then he came for the night prayer after half of the night had
passed ("or," he said, "one-third of the night"). Then he came when
the sky was very yellow and said, "Stand and pray," and they prayed
the morning prayer. Then Gabriel said,

"Between these times are the times for the prayers."

JUMMAH; THE FRIDAY PRAYER:

The Prophet (SallAllaahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) said, "Whoever takes a bath on Friday,
purifies himself as much as he can, then uses his (hair) oil or perfumes himself with
the scent of his house, then proceeds (for the Jumua prayer) and does not separate two
persons sitting together (in the mosque), then prays as much as (Allah has) written for
him and then remains silent while the Imam is delivering the Khutba (sermon), his
sins in-between the present and the last Friday would be forgiven."
Hadeeth No. 841 - Narrated by Salman-Al-Farsi in Sahih Bukhari – The Book of the Friday Prayer

PRAYI$G FOUR
OR THREE OR TWO
OR JUST GOI$G TO JUMMAH
IS $OT E$OUGH FOR ADULTS
DO$'T WORRY: Prayers are not as long or difficult as you may think.

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$ I$E : T HE F IVE P RAYER L E$GTHS

Introduction
The prayers (Salat) are made up of reciting Arabic and of actions such as
standing right arm over left across the chest, bowing and prostrating.

standing (Qiyam), bowing (Ruku) , prostrating (Sujood).


Front angle shown side angle shown side angle shown

One set of actions: Qiyam then Ruku then two Sujoods is called a Rakah
(plural Rakat)

In the second and last rakats of a prayer you stay kneeling. This is the
Tashahud.

A rakat can be completed in a minute. A prayer can be completed in five minutes.

Evidence for the


the Rakah Actions
Narrated by 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: I saw that whenever Allah's Apostle stood
for the prayer, he used to raise both his hands up to the shoulders, and used
to do the same on saying the Takbir (saying “Allahu Akbar – Allah is Great”)
for bowing and on raising his head from it and used to say, "Sami a-l-lahu
Liman hamida" (Allah hears the one who praises Him) . But he did not do
that (i.e. raising his hands) in prostrations.

Bukhari Hadeeth No. 704

We also learn to say ‘Ameen’ when the imam finishes Fatiha (Bukhari
H.748), saying it is a chance for all sins to be forgiven.

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Length of the Prayers
Sa'd said, "I used to pray with them a prayer similar to that of Allah's Apostle (the
prayer of Zuhr and 'Asr) reducing nothing from them. I used to prolong the first two
Rakat and shorten the last two Rak'at." Hadeeth No. 726

Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada: My father said,

"The Prophet in Zuhr prayers used to recite Al-Fatiha along with two other
Suras in the first two Rakat: a long one in the first Rakah and a shorter (Sura)
in the second, and at times the verses were audible. In the 'Asr prayer the
Prophet used to recite Al-Fatiha and two more Suras in the first two Rakat
and used to prolong the first Rak'a. And he used to prolong the first Rakah
of the Fajr prayer and shorten the second. Hadeeth No. 727

So we learn this you recite loudly or quietly and the number of rakats for
each prayer:

PRAYER LE$GTH RECITI$G


Fajr 2 Rakat Aloud in both rakat
Zuhr 4 Rakat Silent throughout
'Asr 4 Rakat Silent throughout
Maghrib 3 Rakat Aloud in first two rakat
‘Isha 4 Rakat Aloud in first two rakat

These are the lengths of the Obligatory prayers (Fardh). You HAVE to do
these to have completed your prayer.

Non Obligatory Prayers (Sunnah / Nawafil) are prayed exactly the same.
They are recommended but NOT compulsory.

Next is description of the Prophet's Prayer RAKAH BY RAKAH so you


know what to recite and when to do each action inshallah.

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T E$ : T HE F IRST R AKAH

The Prophet said, "When you stand for Prayer say Takbir and then recite from the
Holy Qur'an (of what you know by heart)

and then bow till you feel at ease. Then raise your head and stand up straight,

then prostrate till you feel at ease during your prostration, then sit with calmness till
you feel at ease (do not hurry)

and do the same in all your prayers.

Bukhari Hadeeth !o. 725 - !arrated by Abu Huraira

(The following description is all based on sound Hadeeth.


I did not include the references for ease for new practising muslims.)

Description of Prayer

1. Have the intention to offer your prayer in your heart (niyyah)

2. And be focused upon it (khushoo)

3. Face Qibla standing up straight, arms at side, feet shoulder width..

4. Raise hands to above shoulders

5. Say ‘Allahu Akbar’ (Takbir)

6. Place hands across the chest, right over left. (Qiyam)

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7. Seek refuge from Satan the Rejected by reciting quietly:

‘A-oo tho billahi min ash shay taa nirRajeem

I seek refuge in Allah from Satan the Accursed/Rejected

8. Recite the verse: al-Fatiha (silently in silent prayers, loud in first two
of loud prayers.)

Al-Fatiha – ‘The Opening'


The English translation is just for information, it is not recited.

Quietly read:

Bismilla hirrahhmaa nirraHheem

In the name of Allah All Merciful All Beneficent

Then quiet or loud depending on prayer and rakat:

Al Hamdo lillahi Rabbil ‘Aa lameen (the 'Aa means a swallowing sound)

All praise be to Allah, Lord of the Creation

Ar RahmaaniRaheem

All Merciful, all Beneficient

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Maaliki Yomideen

Lord of the Day of Judgement

Eeyyaaka na’bodo wa eeyyaaka nasta’een

You alone we worship and you alone we ask for help

Ehh de nasse raatal moosta qeem

Guide us to the straight path

Sse raatalla ztheena an ‘am ta ‘alaihim

The path of those are blessed

Ghairil magh dhoo bei ‘alaihim wa la dhaaaleeen

Not of those who earned your anger or those gone astray

You can pray any surah you know after this in your first two rakats
- see part thirteen

10. Say ‘Allahu Akbar’ (Takbir) and Bow (Ruku) – placing hands on
knees

11. Say ‘Subana rabi al aztheem’ – (Glory be to Allah the Mighty) – 3


times

12. Straighten up, raising hands to above shoulders and say :

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13. ‘Sami allaahu Liman hamida’ (Allah hears the one who praises
Him)

14. Lower hands to sides and say:

15. ‘Rabbana wa lakal Hamd’ (Our Lord and to Him belongs all praise)

16. Say ‘Allahu Akbar’ (Takbir) and go down into prostration with
toes, knees, hands and forehead to nose.

17. Say: ‘Subhana Rabi al ‘a-la’ (Glory be to Allah the Most High)
– 3 times

18. Say ‘Allahu Akbar’ (Takbir) and lift head to kneel – left foot
under and right foot upright to side, hands on thighs. Pause

19. Return to prostration and repeat ‘Subhana Rabi al-a’la’ – 3 times

20. Return to kneeling.

21. Say ‘Allahu Akbar’ (Takbir) Press knuckles to ground and push
yourself back to standing.

These are the basic requirements for the first rakat

and most of your prayer is based on this.

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E LEVE$ : T HE S ECO$D R AKAH
Once you stand after the first rakat you go back to the Qiyam (standing right
arm over left forearm)

You recite Al Fatiha again.

You do Ruku (bowing and reciting as before)

You straighten up again.

You make prostration (sujood) twice, as before.

Now you stay kneeling:

Say ‘Allahu Akbar’ (Takbir)

Remain kneeling and silently recite Tashahud, pointing with index


finger of right hand or moving the finger. The other fingers of the
right hand are closed.

Description of Tashahud
Atta heiyyaa to lillahi wassalla waato wattoiyya baato

The best compliments are for Allah and the prayers and the good things.

Assalaamo ‘alaika eyyo hunnabeeyo

Peace be upon you, oh Prophet

Wa Rahhmatullahi wa baraakaatohoo

And the Mercy of Allah and His blessings

Assalaamo ‘alaina wa ‘ala ‘ebaa dillah hissaaliheen

Peace be upon us and upon slaves of Allah, the pious ones

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Ash hado an laa ilaa he illallah

I bear witness there is none worthy of worship except Allah

Wa ash hado anna Muhammadun ‘abdahoo wa rasoolo

And I bear witness Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger

If this is your second (not last) rakat, you stand - pushing the ground with your
knuckles to stand.

T WELVE : T HE L AST R AKAH

NOTE: In Zuhr, Asr and Isha the third rakah


is prayed exactly like the first rakah.

If you are praying your last rakat you pray it as the second and after reciting
Tashahud you remain kneeling and recite the Darood (Sending Prayers on
the Prophet):

Description of Sending Prayers

Allahoomma ssalle ‘ala Muhammadin

O, Allah, send your Mercy upon Muhammad

wa ‘ala aali Muhammadin

and upon the family of Muhammad

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Ka ma ssallay ta ‘ala Ibraheema

As you sent your Mercy upon Abraham

wa ‘ala aali Ibraheema

and upon the family of Abraham

Innaka Hameedun Majeed

Verily you are worth of praise, Most Glorious

Allahoomma baarik ‘ala Muhammadin

O, Allah, send your blessing upon Muhammad

wa ‘ala aali Muhammadin

and upon the family of Muhammad

Ka ma baarak ta ‘ala Ibraheema

As you sent your Mercy upon Abraham

wa ‘ala aali Ibraheema

and upon the family of Abraham

Innaka Hameedun Majeed

Verily you are worthy of praise, Most Glorious

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22. Turn face to right and say: Assalamau ‘alaikum wa Rahmatullah

23. Turn face to left and say: Assalamau ‘alaikum wa Rahmatullah

This turning of the face right and left is called taslim and it is the end of the PILLARS
OF YOUR SALAT.

T HIRTEE$ : T WO S HORT V ERSES


After Al Fatiha in the first two rakats it is good to pray whatever of
the Qur'an is easy for you.

Here are two short verses. You can recite one after al Fatiha.

‘Al Ikhlaas – The Sincerity’

Qul ho wallah ho aHhad

Say: Allah! He is the One

Allâh-hoos-Samad

The Self-Sufficient Master

Lamya lid wa lam yoo lud

He begets not, nor was He begotten;

Wa lum ya koollahoo kofowun aHhad

And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.

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Al ‘Asr – ‘The Time’

Wal ‘Asr

By Time.

Innal insaana la fee khoosr

Verily! Mankind is in loss,

Illalla theena ‘aamanoo

Except those who believe

Wa ‘amiloossaa lehaati

and do righteous good deeds,

wa ta waa so bill Haqqi

and recommend one another to the truth

wa ta waa so biss Sabr

and recommend one another to patience.

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F OURTEE$ : O PE$I$G A$D C LOSI$G YOUR S ALAT
At The Beginning After Takbir

Sub hana kalla humma


wa be humdika
Wa ta bara kas mo ka
wa ta ‘ala jadd doka
Wa laa ilaa ha ghai ro ka

Glory be to you oh Allah


and all praise to you.
Blessed is your name
and exalted is your majesty
and there is none worthy of worship except you.
(Recorded by Nasa’i, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah)

You don't read this again in your prayer, only at the start.

After sending prayers at the end,


recite before the taslim:

Allah humma innee a-oo tho bika


min athaabil qabr
wa min athaabi jahannama

Oh Allah, verily I seek refuge in you


from the punishment of the grave
and the punishment of the hellfire

Wa min fitnaa til mahh yaa wal ma maati


Wa min sharri fitnatil maseeha dajjaal

And from the trials of living and dying


and from the evil trials of the dajjaal (false messiah)

(Hadeeth 1/412 Muslim)

Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allaah said:

If one of you finishes from the final tashahhud then let him seek
refuge from four things. (Those listed above)

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FINAL WORDS

O you who believe!

Save yourselves and your families from a Fire (Hell)

whose fuel is men and stones

(At-Tahrim 66:6)

And enjoin As-Salât (the prayer) on your family,

and be patient in offering them.

We do not ask provision from you;

We provide for you.

(Ta-Ha 20:132)

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