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INTRODUCTION BIOTECHNOLOGY MIDTEST

NAME : RESKY DWI CAHYATI

NIM : 1706081624

DEPARTEMEN OF CHEMISTRY
FAKULTY OF MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
2017
Homo Sapiens (human) genome library project

Human Genome Project (HGP) was the international, collaborative research program
whose goal was the complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human beings.
Initiated in 1990. On April 14, 2003 the National Human Genome Research Institute
(NHGRI), the Department of Energy (DOE) and their partners in the International Human
Genome Sequencing Consortium announced the successful completion of the Human
Genome Project.
The goals of Human Genome Project are identify the approximate 100,000 genes in
human DNA, determine the sequences of the >3 billion bases that make up human DNA,
store this information in databases, develop tools for data analysis, address the ethical, legal,
and social issues that arise from genome research.
The HGP has revealed that there are probably about 20,500 human genes. The
completed human sequence can now identify their locations. This ultimate product of the
HGP has given the world a resource of detailed information about the structure, organization
and function of the complete set of human genes.
The human genome contains approximately 3 billion of these base pairs
(3,554,996,726 bp), which reside in the 23 pairs of chromosomes within the nucleus of all our
cells. Each chromosome contains hundreds to thousands of genes, which carry the
instructions for making proteins. Each of the estimated 30,000 genes in the human genome
makes an average of three proteins.

Benefits of HGP research (for medical benefit) are


improved diagnosis of disease
earlier detection of predispositions to disease
rational drug design
gene therapy and control systems for drugs
pharmacogenomics personal drugs
organ replacement

Aplication of HGP
Scientists estimate that chromosomes in the human population differ at about 0.1%.
Understanding these differences could lead to discovery of heritable diseases, as well as
diseases and other traits that are common to man. Information gained from the HGP has
already fueled many positive discoveries in health care. Well-publicized successes include
the cloning of genes responsible for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, retinoblastoma, cystic
fibrosis, and neurofibromatosis. Increasingly detailed genomic maps have also aided
researchers seeking genes associated with fragile X syndrome, types of inherited colon
cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and familial breast cancer. If other disease-related genes are
isolated, scientists can begin to understand the structure and pathology of other disorders such
as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. This knowledge would lead to better medical
management of these diseases and pharmaceutical discovery
Escherichia coli genome library project

The genome center at the University of Wisconsin was established to sequence the
genome of Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655, which has served for decades as a model
organism for basic studies of biochemistry, physiology, genetics and biotechnology.
The sequencing of this genome was completed in 1997, turned to a group of related
bacterial pathogens, making use of the E. coli K-12 sequence to accelerate analysis of the
new genomes. The pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae we have selected include members of E.
coli human diarrheagenic and extraintestinal strains, Yersinia pestis, Shigella flexneri, and
Salmonell Typhi.
Analysis of the enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 genome was the first of
these to be completed, and serves as a model for our comparative studies. The results of
genome sequencing support the widespread involvement of horizontal transfer in the
evolution of the Enterobacteriaceae, leading to the presence of distinct islands of DNA in
different lineages. Since virulence determinants, as well as "backbone" genes, are shared
among pathogens, we expect this multigenomic approach to lead to characterizing a gene
pool of virulence determinants - the "pathosphere."
About the Functional Genomics Project genome center is using the whole genome
sequence of E. coli K-12 strain MG1655 to address how the over 4000 genes of this organism
act together to enable its survival in a wide range of environments. At least something can
now be said about the function of ~80% of the genes, but their full biological role and the
regulatory pathways that control their expression is only beginning to be probed.

To aid in constructing a comprehensive biological framework for E. coli, we are


developing genome-wide resources and data sets for use by the community. Resources
include:
A set of archive clones with each ORF cloned in a standard vector.
Systematic mutagenesis: A strain collection consisting of a mutant in every gene.
DNA microarray experiments of wild type and mutants under different conditions.
Phenotypic analysis of each mutant strain.
Protocols and recipes used in each project.
Partial list of essential genes in E. coli

Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 is presented 4,639,221 base pair. Of 4288 protein-
coding genes annotated, 38 percent have no attributed function. Comparison with five other
sequenced microbes reveals ubiquitous as well as narrowly distributed gene families; many
families of similar genes within E. coli are also evident. The largest family of paralogous
proteins contains 80 ABC transporters. The genome as a whole is strikingly organized with
respect to the local direction of replication; guanines, oligonucleotides possibly related to
replication and recombination, and most genes are so oriented. The genome also contains
insertion sequence (IS) elements, phage remnants, and many other patches of unusual
composition indicating genome plasticity through horizontal transfer.