Anda di halaman 1dari 46

Nasal Bones

Rectangular bones
forming the bridge
of the nose

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Vomer
Single bone in
the median line
of the nasal
cavity
Nasal septum

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Inferior Nasal
Conchae
Thin curved bones
projecting from the
lateral walls of
nasal cavity

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Mandible
Largest and strongest
bone of the face
Forms the only
movable joint in the
face with temporal
bone
Horizontal part forms
chin
Upright bars called
rami connect with
temporal bone

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Hyoid Bone

Only bone not directly


articulated with another bone
Suspended in the midneck
region
Anchored by ligaments to the
styloid process of temporal
bone
1.Movable base of the tongue
2.Attachment point for neck
muscles
Horseshoe-shaped
Body
Horns or cornua
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Auditory Ossicles
Malleus or hammer
Incus or anvil

Stapes or stirrup

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


The Vertebral Column or Spine
Vertebrae separated
by intervertebral discs
The spine has a
normal curvature
Each vertebrae is
given a name
according to its
location

Figure 5.14
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Vertebral Column
Axial support
Extends from skull to pelvis

Vertebrae 26
Cervical vertebrae 7
Thoracic vertebrae 12
Lumbar vertebrae 5
Sacrum (5 fused bones) 1
Coccyx (4 fused bones) 1

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Primary curvatures
Thoracic
Sacral
Secondary curvatures
Cervical
Lumbar

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Thoracic and Sacral curves
- termed Primary Curvatures
- present during fetal life
Cervical and Lumbar curves
- termed Compensatory or Secondary
Curvatures
- developed after birth
Cervical curve
- formed when the child is able to hold up its head
(at 3 or 4 months) and to sit upright (at 9 mos.)
Lumbar Curve
- formed at 12 or 18 mos. when the child begins
to walk
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Common Features of Vertebrae
1. Body or centrum
- disc like, weight
bearing part
2. Vertebral foramen
- canal through which
the spinal cord passes
3. Transverse processes
- two lateral projections

Figure 5.16
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
4. Spinous process
- single projection
- arises from posterior aspect of vertebral arch
5. Superior and inferior articular processes
- paired projections
- allow vertebra to form joints with adjacent vertebrae

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Cervical Vertebrae C7
C1-Atlas
- superior surface of
transverse processes with
depression
- no body , no spinous process
C2-Axis
- Odontoid process/dens
- Joint formed bet. C1 and C2
allows head to rotate

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


C3 C7
- Branched spinous
process
- Transverse processes
contain opening
(transverse foramen)

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Thoracic Vertebrae T12

- with 2 demifacets (articulating surfaces) on each side


- spinous process - long and hooks sharply
downward

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Lumbar Vertebrae L5

L1 L5
Massive block-like body
Hatchet-shaped spinous process
Sturdiest of the vertebrae

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Sacrum S1
formed by fusion of
5 vertebrae
Wing-like alae
Posterior wall of
pelvis
Sacroiliac joint
Sacrum meets
the iliac bone
of the pelvis

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Median sacral
crest
Fused spinous
processes
Sacral canal
Continuous
with vertebral
canal

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Coccyx C1

Human
tailbone
Fusion of 4
bones

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


The Bony Thorax
Made-up of
three parts
Sternum
Ribs
Thoracic
vertebrae

Figure 5.19a
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bony Thorax/Thoracic Cavity
Sternum (breastbone) 1
Manubrium
Body of the sternum
Xiphoid process
Attached to the first 7 pairs of ribs
Ribs 24
True ribs first 7 pairs
attached to the sternum by costal cartilage
False ribs next 5 pairs
Attached indirectly to the sternum
Last two are floating ribs (lack sternal attachments)

Thoracic vertebrae

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


The Appendicular Skeleton
Limbs (appendages)
Pectoral girdle
Pelvic girdle

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
Composed of two bones
Clavicle collarbone
Scapula shoulder blade
These bones allow the upper limb to have
exceptionally free movement

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


PECTORAL GIRDLE
Clavicle or collarbone
Slender, doubly
curved bone
Articulates with
manubrium of
sternum medially
o Sternoclavicular
joint
Articulates with
acromion of
scapula laterally
o Acromioclavicular
joint
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Scapula/ Shoulder Blades
Triangular, wing-like bone
Spine
Acromion articulates with clavicle laterally
Coracoid process anchors muscles
Borders
Superior, vertebral (medial), and axillary
(lateral)
Fossae
Supraspinous ,Infraspinous and Subscapular

Glenoid cavity or fossa receives head of


humerus

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bones of the Upper Limb
The upper arm is
formed by a single
bone
Humerus
Head received by
glenoid cavity
Greater and lesser
tubercle muscle
attachment
Deltoid tuberosity
midpoint of shaft
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bones of the Upper Limb
Trochlea distal,
medial end
Capitulum distal,
lateral end (round)
Coronoid fossa
anterior
Olecranon fossa
posterior
Medial and lateral
epicondyle

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Bones of the Upper Limb
Upper
The forearm has two bones Limb
Ulna
Radius

Radius
Lateral bone
Head disk-shaped
Radial tuberosity
attachment of tendon
of biceps brachii
Styloid process

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Bones of the Upper Limb
Ulna
Medial bone
Coronoid process
anterior
Olecranon process
posterior
Trochlear notch
separates coronoid
and olecranon
processes
Articulates with
trochlea pliers-like
manner
Figure 5.21ab
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bones of the Upper Limb
The hand
Carpals wrist
Metacarpals
palm
Phalanges
fingers

Figure 5.22
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Carpals wrist
Scaphoid or
navicular
Lunate
Triquetrum
Pisiform
Trapezium or
Greater multiangular
Trapezoid or Lesser
multiangular
Capitate
Hamate

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Metacarpals
Bones of the palm
Phalanges
Proximal
Middle absent in
thumb
Distal

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Hip bones (Coxal Bones/
Ossa Coxae)
Composed of three bones
fused bones
Ilium
Ischium
Pubic bone
The total weight of the
upper body rests on the pelvis
Protects several organs
Reproductive organs
Urinary bladder
Part of the large intestine
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Pelvis: Right Coxal Bone
Ilium
Large flaring
bones
Connects with
sacrum
sacroiliac joint
Iliac crest
Anterior superior
spine
Posterior superior
spine
Figure 5.23b
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Ischium
Sitdown bone
Ischial tuberosity
Ischial spine
Superior to ischial
tuberosity
Narrows the outlet
of pelvis thru
which the baby
must pass
Greater sciatic
notch
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Pubis

Most anterior
Obturator
foramen
- serves as
passageway of b.v
and nerves
Pubic symphysis
Acetabulum

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Differences of Male and Female Pelvis
Female
Larger and more circular
Shallower, lighter and thinner
Flares more laterally
Sacrum is shorter and less curved
Ischial spines are shorter and farther
apart

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Bones of the Lower Limbs

Femur thigh bone


Tibia
Fibula
Tarsals
Metatarsals
Phalanges

Figure 5.24ab
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Femur or thigh bone
Head
Greater and lesser
trochanter
Intertrochanteric
crest
Gluteal tuberosity
Lateral and medial
condyles
Articulate with tibia
and patellar surface

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Bones of the Lower Limbs
The leg has two bones
Tibia
Fibula

Figure 5.24c
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Tibia
Larger and more medial
shinbone
Medial and
Lateral Condlyles
Tibial Tuberosity
Articulates with distal end of femur
Kneejoint
Medial Malleolus
Process forming inner bulge
of the ankle

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Fibula
Thin and sticklike
no part in forming the
kneejoint
Lateral Malleolus
Process forming outer
bulge of the ankle

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Bones of the Lower Limbs
The foot
Tarsus ankle
Metatarsals sole
Phalanges toes

Figure 5.25
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bones of the Lower Limbs

Tarsal bones
Composed of 7
bones
Talus and calcaneus
are the largest tarsals

Figure 5.25
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bones of the Lower Limbs

Metatarsals
Bones of the sole of the foot
Phalanges
Proximal
Middle absent in
great toe
Distal
14 bones

Figure 5.25
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings