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Semester II Session 2016/2017

ID NO AND NAME 1.Abdul Rahim Bin Md Saad (D20162075593)

2.Mohd Hafiz Aiman Bin Abdullah (D20162075602)
LECTURER Prof. Madya Dr. Ismail Zainol
TITLE Electrochemistry
DATE & DAY 23rd October 2017, Monday

CHECK LIST (Please tick)

Methods (in diagram)
Observations (in table)
Data & calculation
Questions & answers (if appropriate)
References (at least 2)


1.1. To explain the concept of electrons flow, anions and cations.

1.2. To determine the relative potential of reduction for the redox reactions.
1.3. To describe the effect of concentration to the cell potential.


Electrochemical reaction, any process either caused or accompanied by the passage of an electric
current and involving in most cases the transfer of electrons between two substancesone a solid and
the other a liquid. (Bockris & Despi, 2011) Oxidation reaction occurred at the anode and reduction
reaction occurred at the cathode

Since electrons transfer occurs spontaneously, one set of galvanic cell can be designed by
separations of the redox pair. Electrons transfer does not occur in the inter phase anymore, but through
an external circuit. The two halves of the redox reaction are separated in two different containers (such
as beaker) and named half-cell. A common kind of half-cell consists of a piece of metal (the electrode)
immersed in a solution of its ions. The electrons are connected with a wire. The circuit between the two
solutions is completed with a salt bridge. A salt bridge allows electrical contact between the two half-
cells, internal circuit. It maintains the electrical neutrality in each half-cell as ions flow into and out of
the salt bridge. "Pored pot" also serves the same function as the salt bridge.

Section A: Galvanic Cell

Chemicals Apparatus
Copper metal 50 mL beaker
Zinc metal Magnesium metal Wire
Iron metal Sand paper
0.1M copper sulphate solution Voltmeter
0.1M zinc salt solution Filter paper
0.1M magnesium salt solution
0.1M iron salt solution

Refer to jotter 1.0

Section B: Cell Potential

Chemicals Apparatus
Zinc metal 50 mL beaker
Copper metal Wire
0.1M CuSO4 solution Sand paper
0.01M CuSO4 solution Voltmeter
0.001M CuSO4 solution Filter paper
6 M NH3 solution
0.2M Na2S solution

Refer to Jotter 2.0

Section A

Electrochemical Cell Cell Potential/emf, Volt(v)

CuSO4 and ZnSO4 0.46V

Section B

Electrolyte Concentration, M Emf, V

0.1M & 0.001M 0.03V

Addition of 5ml NH3 0.37V

Addition of 4ml Na2S 0.97V

Action Changes

Addition of 5ml NH3 Solution turn from light blue to light purple

Addition of 4ml Na2S Solution turn from light purple to brown

Section A: Galvanic Cell

1. Identify anode and cathode electrodes for each reaction.


2. Write half-cell equation for each reaction.

() 2+ () + 2 (anode)
2+ () + 2 () (cathode)

3. Write overall reaction equation for each reaction

() + 2+ () 2+ () + ()

4. Give two reasons why reduction potential readings are difference from theory.
The metal used as a cell may be contaminated
The concentration of chemical used may not be precise
Section B: Cell Potential

1. Identify anode and cathode electrode in step 1.

2. Write half-cell equation.

() 2+ () + 2 (anode)
2+ () + 2 () (cathode)

3. Write overall reaction equation.

() + 2+ () 2+ () + ()

4. Explain why there is a potential in step 2?

According to Le Chatelier's principle, increase in concentration must cause the equilibrium to
move to the left-hand side making the electrode potential more positive. And a decrease in
concentration must have the opposite effect i.e. make it more negative. (The Student Room
website, 2007 )
5. Explain why potential changed with the addition of NH 3(aq)?
NH3 will bind with the Cu2+ ion to form the complex ion Cu(NH3)42+. This has the effect of
reducing the concentration of the Cu2+. Therefore, it will increase the potential between the two

6. Explain why potential changed with addition of Na 2S?

S2- will bind with the Cu2+ ion to form the insoluble salt of CuS. This has the effect of reducing
the concentration of the Cu2+. Therefore, it will increase the potential between the two

For section A, a galvanic cell was set up by connecting a half cell of CuSO4 with half cell of ZnSO4
using salt bridge. The electrode for the cells are copper rod and zinc rod respectively. The salt bridge
used to connect between the two half cell is a filter paper soaked in 0.1M KMnO4. The cathode rod in
this reaction is copper rod where reduction process occurs while the anode is Zinc rod where oxidation
occurs. The electrons will flow from anode to cathode resulting electrical potential detected using
voltmeter. The theorotical electrical potential between the two electrolyte is 1.10V while the electrical
potential we collected from the experiment is 0.46V. the experimental result is much lower from the
theoretical value because of several reasons. The first one is the electrode may have been contamianted.
We cannot conform that the electrode are the pure form of the metal. It may have been oxidized due to
exposure to air and water. The second is the solution produced may have not the exact of measuremnet.
The concentration may have been lower form what we expected. Therefore, the result should be lower
than the theoretical value.

For section B, the interaction of half cell by changing the means of its concentration was studied for
the first step. From the equation, () + 2+ () 2+ () + () , we can predict that there should
be no potential between the two cells because there is no change in the system. Due to the difference in
the concentration between the half-cell, the solution reacted to balance the concentration thus creating
the electrical difference. When we added NH3 to the 0.001M solution, we are reacting the Cu2+ in the
solution thus decreasing the amount of Cu2+ available. The decreasing of Cu2+ thus increasing the
difference of concentration. To balance the system more Cu(s) was corroded from the plate thus
increasing the electrical potential. The same case happens when we added Na2S into the solution. The
changes in colour from adding of NH3 is due to the formation of copper ammonia complex. The colour
changes when Na2S was added are due to the formation of CuS salt.

From the experiment, we are able to explain the concept of electrons flow, anions and cations. Besides
that, we also able to determine the relative potential of reduction for the redox reactions which in this
experiment is between Zn and Copper which is 0.46V. we cannot get the theoretical value due to several
errors. We also able to describe the effect of concentration to the cell potential.


Bockris , O. J., & Despi, R. A. (2011, December 15). electrochemical reaction. Retrieved November
24, 2017, from Encyclopdia Britannica:
Shakhashiri, Z. B. (1983). Chemical Demonstrations: A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry, Volume
3. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.
The Student Room website. (2007 , March 7). Effect of concentration on electrode potential . Retrieved
from The Student Room website: