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GEOTEKNIK TAMBANG

BAWAH TANAH

Klasifikasi Massa Batuan Untuk


Perancangan Terowongan

Ridho Kresna Wattimena

Universitas Negeri Padang


26-27 Oktober 2012
Klasifikasi Massa Batuan Untuk Perancangan Terowongan

PENDAHULUAN
PENDAHULUAN

Pada tahap studi kelayakan dan desain awal proyek, dimana sangat
sedikit informasi yang tersedia, klasifikasi massa batuan dapat
menguntungkan.
Secara sederhana, klasifikasi massa batuan digunakan sebagai
sebuah check-list untuk meyakinkan bahwa semua informasi
penting telah dipertimbangkan.
Satu atau lebih sistem klasifikasi dapat digunakan untuk
memperkirakan:
komposisi dan karakteristik massa batuan;
perkiraan awal kebutuhan penyangga;
perkiraan kekuatan dan sifat deformasi massa batuan.
PENDAHULUAN

Harus diingat bahwa klasifikasi massa batuan tidak dimaksudkan


(dan tidak dapat) menggantikan pekerjaan perancangan rinci.
Pekerjaan perancangan rinci memerlukan informasi mengenai
tegangan in situ, sifat massa batuan, dan tahapan penggalian.
Semua informasi ini mungkin tidak tersedia pada tahap awal proyek.
Jika data ini telah tersedia, klasifikasi massa batuan dapat
diperbaharui dan disesuaikan dengan kondisi spesifik lapangan.
PENDAHULUAN

Klasifikasi massa batuan sudah dikembangkan lebih dari 100 tahun


lalu, sejak Ritter (1879) mencoba melakukan pendekatan empiris
untuk perancangan terowongan, khususnya penentuan kebutuhan
penyangga.
Metode klasifikasi akan cocok jika digunakan dalam kondisi yang
sama dengan kondisi pada saat metode tersebut dikembangkan.
Diperlukan kehati-hatian untuk menerapkannya pada persoalan
mekanika batuan yang lain.
Kebanyakan skema klasifikasi multi-parameter seperti Wickham et
al (1972), Bieniawski (1973, 1989) dan Barton et al (1974)
dikembangkan dari kasus teknik sipil dimana semua komponen
geologi teknik massa batuan diikutsertakan.
PENDAHULUAN

Pada tambang bawah tanah di batuan kuat, terutama di kedalaman


besar, pelapukan massa batuan dan pengaruh air biasanya tidak
signifikan dan dapat diabaikan.
Setiap sistem klasifikasi memberikan titik berat pada parameter
yang berbeda dan direkomendasikan untuk menggunakan paling
tidak dua sistem pada tahap awal proyek (Hoek, 1998).
Klasifikasi Massa Batuan Untuk Perancangan Terowongan

KLASIFIKASI MASSA BATUAN


TERZAGHI
KLASIFIKASI MASSA BATUAN
TERZAGHI
Referensi paling awal mengenai penggunaan klasifikasi massa
batuan untuk perancangan terowongan adalah sebuah paper yang
ditulis oleh Terzaghi (1946) dalam mana beban batuan yang harus
ditahan oleh steel sets diperkirakan berdasarkan deskripsi kualitatif
massa batuan.
Terzaghi mendapatkan perhatian pada karakteristik yang
mendominasi perilaku massa batuan, khususnya pada situasi
dimana gravitasi merupakan gaya yang dominan.
Definisi yang jelas dan uraian-uraian praktis dalam klasifikasi ini
merupakan contoh-contoh yang baik mengenai jenis informasi
geologi teknik yang paling berguna untuk desain keteknikan.
KLASIFIKASI MASSA BATUAN
TERZAGHI
Klasifikasi Terzaghi Original

Rock conditions Rock load, Hp (ft)


1. Hard and intact Zero
2. Hard stratified or schistose 0 0.5B
3. Massive, moderately jointed 0 0.25B
4. Moderately blocky and seamy 0.25B 0.35 (B+Ht)
5. Very blocky and seamy (0.35 1.10) (B+Ht)
6. Completely crushed 1.10 (B+Ht)
7. Squeezing rock, moderate depth (1.10 2.10) (B+Ht)
8. Squeezing rock, great depth (2.10 4.50) (B+Ht)
9. Swelling rock Up to 250 ft
B = Tunnel width (ft), Ht = Tunnel height (ft)
Klasifikasi Terzaghi Umum

Rock conditions Rock load, Hp (ft)


1. Hard and intact Zero
2. Hard stratified or schistose 0 0.5B
3. Massive, moderately jointed 0 0.25B
4. Moderately blocky and seamy 0.25B 0.20 (B+Ht)
5. Very blocky and seamy (0.20 0.60) (B+Ht)
6. Completely crushed but chemically intact (0.60 1.10) (B+Ht)
6a. Sand and gravel (1.10 1.40) (B+Ht)
7. Squeezing rock, moderate depth (1.10 2.10) (B+Ht)
8. Squeezing rock, great depth (2.10 4.50) (B+Ht)
9. Swelling rock Up to 250 ft
B = Tunnel width (ft), Ht = Tunnel height (ft)
Deskripsi batuan menurut Terzaghi
(dikutip dari papernya oleh Hoek, 1998)

Intact rock contains neither joints nor hair cracks. Hence, if it


breaks, it breaks across sound rock. On account of the injury to the
rock due to blasting, spalls may drop off the roof several hours or
days after blasting. This is known as a spalling condition. Hard,
intact rock may also be encountered in the popping condition
involving the spontaneous and violent detachment of rock slabs
from the sides or roof.
Stratified rock consists of individual strata with little or no resistance
against separation along the boundaries between the strata. The
strata may or may not be weakened by transverse joints. In such
rock the spalling condition is quite common.
Deskripsi batuan menurut Terzaghi
(dikutip dari papernya oleh Hoek, 1998)

Moderately jointed rock contains joints and hair cracks, but the
blocks between joints are locally grown together or so intimately
interlocked that vertical walls do not require lateral support. In rocks
of this type, both spalling and popping conditions may be
encountered.
Blocky and seamy rock consists of chemically intact or almost
intact rock fragments which are entirely separated from each other
and imperfectly interlocked. In such rock, vertical walls may require
lateral support.
Crushed but chemically intact rock has the character of crusher run.
If most or all of the fragments are as small as fine sand grains and
no re-cementation has taken place, crushed rock below the water
table exhibits the properties of a water-bearing sand.
Deskripsi batuan menurut Terzaghi
(dikutip dari papernya oleh Hoek, 1998)

Squeezing rock slowly advances into the tunnel without perceptible


volume increase. A prerequisite for squeeze is a high percentage of
microscopic and sub-microscopic particles of micaceous minerals or
clay minerals with a low swelling capacity.
Swelling rock advances into the tunnel chiefly on account of
expansion. The capacity to swell seems to be limited to those rocks
that contain clay minerals such as montmorillonite, with a high
swelling capacity.
Klasifikasi Massa Batuan Untuk Perancangan Terowongan

KLASIFIKASI ROCK
STRUCTURE RATING (RSR)
KLASIFIKASI RSR

Wickham et al (1972) mengusulkan metode kuantitatif untuk


mendeskripsi massa batuan dan untuk memilih penyangga yang
sesuai berdasarkan Klasifikasi Rock Structure Rating (RSR).
Kebanyakan kasus yang digunakan adalah terowongan yang relatif
kecil dan disangga dengan steel sets, meskipun secara historis
sistem ini merupakan sistem pertama yang membuat acuan untuk
penyangga shotcrete.
Sistem RSR mendemonstrasikan logika yang ada dalam
pengembangan sistem klasifikasi massa batuan kuantitatif dan
memperkenalkan konsep rating masing-masing komponennya
untuk mendapatkan sebuah nilai RSR = A + B + C.
Parameter A: General Area Geology

Basic Rock Type


Geological Structure
Hard Medium Soft Decomposed

Igneous 1 2 3 4
Slightly Moderately Intensively
Metamorphic 1 2 3 4 Massive Folded or Folded or Folded or
Faulted Faulted Faulted
Sedimentary 2 3 4 4

Type 1 30 22 15 9

Type 2 27 20 13 8

Type 3 24 18 12 7

Type 4 19 15 10 6
Parameter B: Joint Pattern, Direction of Drive

Strike to Axis Strike to Axis

Direction of Drive Direction of Drive

Average joint spacing Both With Dip Against Dip Either Direction

Dip of Prominent Jointsa) Dip of Prominent Jointsa)

Flat Dipping Vertical Dipping Vertical Flat Dipping Vertical

1. Very closely jointed, < 2 in 9 11 13 10 12 9 9 7

2. Closely jointed, 2-6 in 13 16 19 15 17 14 14 11

3. Moderately jointed, 6-12 in 23 24 28 19 22 23 23 19

4. Moderate to blocky, 1-2 ft 30 32 36 25 28 30 28 24

5. Blocky to massive, 2-4 ft 36 38 40 33 35 36 34 28

6. Massive, > 4 ft 40 43 45 37 40 40 38 34

a) Flat = 0-20O, Dipping = 20-50O, Vertical = 50-90O


Parameter C: Groundwater, Joint Condition

Sum of Parameters A + B

13 - 44 45 - 75
Anticipated water inflow
gpm/1000 ft of tunnel
Joint Conditionb)

Good Fair Poor Good Fair Poor

None 23 24 28 19 22 23

Slight, < 200 gpm 30 32 36 25 28 30

Moderate, 200-1000 gpm 36 38 40 33 35 36

Heavy, > 1000 gpm 40 43 45 37 40 40

b) Good = tight or cemented


Fair = slightly weathered or altered
Poor = severely weathered, altered or open
Adjustment Factor (AF)
Penggalian dengan TBM

Diameter = 9.15 m AF = Diameter = 6.00 m AF =


1.058 1.171
Diameter = 8.00 m AF = Diameter = 5.00 m AF =
1.127 1.183
Diameter = 7.63 m AF = Diameter = 4.58 m AF =
1.135 1.186
Diameter = 7.00 m AF = Diameter = 4.00 m AF =
1.150 1.192
Diameter = 6.10 m AF = Diameter = 3.05 m AF =
1.168 1.200
Rekomendasi Penyangga

Terowongan lingkaran berdiameter 24 ft. (7.3 m)


Klasifikasi Massa Batuan Untuk Perancangan Terowongan

KLASIFIKASI ROCK MASS


RATING (RMR)
KLASIFIKASI RMR

Bieniawski (1976) mempublikasikan sebuah klasifikasi massa


batuan yang disebut Geomechanics Classification atau Rock Mass
Rating (RMR) system.
Selama bertahun-tahun, sistem ini telah diperbaiki dengan semakin
banyaknya studi kasus yang dikumpulkan. Dalam kuliah ini, yang
digunakan adalah RMR 1989.
KLASIFIKASI ROCK MASS RATING (RMR)

Kelima parameter berikut ini digunakan untuk mengklasifikasi


massa batuan dengan menggunakan RMR system:
1. Kuat tekan uniaksial (UCS) batuan utuh.
2. Rock Quality Designation (RQD).
3. Spasi bidang diskontinyu.
4. Kondisi bidang diskontinyu.
5. Kondisi airtanah.
Satu parameter untuk penyesuaian:
6. Orientasi bidang diskontinyu.
KLASIFIKASI ROCK MASS RATING (RMR)

Dalam menerapkan sistem ini, massa batuan dibagi menjadi seksi-


seksi dan masing-masing seksi diklasifikasikan secara terpisah.
Batas-batas seksi umumnya struktur geologi mayor seperti patahan
atau perubahan jenis batuan.
Dalam beberapa kasus, perubahan signifikan dalam spasi atau
karakteristik bidang diskontinu dalam batuan yang sama mungkin
menyebabkan massa batuan dibagi juga menjadi seksi-seksi yang
lebih kecil berdasarkan struktur geologinya .
Parameter Klasifikasi dan Rating-nya

Parameter Range of Values

For this low range -


PLI > 10 MPa 4 10 MPa 2 4 MPa 1 2 MPa
UCS test is preferred
Strength of intact
rock material
1 5 25 15 <1
UCS > 250 MPa 100 - 250 MPa 50 - 100 MPa 25 50 MPa
MPa MPa MPa

Rating 15 12 7 4 2 1 0

Drill core quality RQD 90% - 100% 75% - 90% 50% - 75% 25% - 50% < 25%
2
Rating 20 17 13 8 3

Spacing of discontinuities >2m 0.6 2 m 200 600 mm 60 200 mm < 60 mm


3
Rating 20 15 10 8 5

Slickensided
Slightly rough Slightly rough surfaces Soft gouge >5 mm
Very rough surfaces
surfaces surfaces or thick
Not continuous
Condition of discontinuities Separation < 1 mm Separation < 1 mm Gouge < 5 mm thick or
4 No separation
Slightly weathered Highly weathered or Separation > 5 mm
Unweathered wall
walls walls Separation 1-5 mm Continuous
Continuous

Rating 30 25 20 10 0

Inflow per 10 m
None < 10 10 - 25 25 - 125 125
tunnel length (l/m)
Ground
(Joint water press)/
5 water 0 < 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.5 > 0.5
(Major principal )

General conditions Completely dry Damp Wet Dripping Flowing

Rating 15 10 7 4 0
Petunjuk untuk kondisi bidang diskontinyu

<1m 13m 3 10 m 10 20 m > 20 m


Discontinuity length (persistence)
6 4 2 1 0

None < 0.1 mm 0.1 1.0 mm 1 5 mm > 5 mm


Separation (aperture)
6 5 4 1 0

Very rough Rough Slightly rough Smooth Slickensided


Roughness
6 5 3 1 0

None Hard filling < 5 mm Hard filling > 5 mm Soft filling < 5 mm Soft filling > 5 mm
Infilling (gouge)
6 4 2 2 0
Unweathered Slightly weathered Moderately weathered Highly weathered Decomposed
Weathering
6 5 3 1 0
Kelas massa batuan dan artinya

Ratings
81 100 61 80 41 60 21 40 < 21

Class number I II III IV V

Description Very good rock Good rock Moderate rock Poor rock Very poor rock

Average stand-up time 20 yrs for 15 m span 1 year for 10 m span 1 week for 5 m span 10 hrs for 2.5 m span 30 min for 1 m span

Cohesion of rock mass (kPa) > 400 300 400 200 300 100 200 < 100

Friction angle of rock mass (deg) > 45 35 45 25 35 15 25 < 15


Roof Span vs Stand-up
Pengaruh orientasi bidang diskontinyu
pada penerowongan

Strike perpendicular to tunnel axis


Strike parallel to tunnel axis Dip 0 20O
Drive with dip Drive against dip
Irrespective of strike
Dip 45 90O Dip 20 45O Dip 45 90O Dip 20 45O Dip 45 90O Dip 20 45O

Very favourable Favourable Fair Unfavourable Very unfavourable Fair Fair


Petunjuk penggalian dan penyanggaan
(Terowongan dengan span 10 m)

Rock bolts
Rock mass
Excavation (20 mm diameter, Shotcrete Steel sets
class
fully grouted)
I Very good rock Full face,
RMR: 81-100 3 m advance.
II Good rock Full face , Locally, bolts in crown 50 mm in crown where None.
RMR: 61-80 1-1.5 m advance. 3 m long, spaced 2.5 required.
Complete support 20 m from face. m with occasional
wire mesh.
III Fair rock Top heading and bench Systematic bolts 4 m 50-100 mm in crown None.
RMR: 41-60 1.5-3 m advance in top heading. long, spaced 1.5 - 2 m and 30 mm in sides.
Commence support after each blast. in crown and walls
Complete support 10 m from face. with wire mesh in
crown.
IV Poor rock Top heading and bench Systematic bolts 4-5 m 100-150 mm in crown Light to medium ribs
RMR: 21-40 1.0-1.5 m advance in top heading. long, spaced 1-1.5 m and 100 mm in sides. spaced 1.5 m where
Install support concurrently in crown and walls required.
with excavation, 10 m from face. with wire mesh.
V Very poor Multiple drifts 0.5-1.5 m advance Systematic bolts 5-6 m 150-200 mm in crown, Medium to heavy ribs
rock in top heading. long, spaced 1-1.5 m 150 mm in sides, spaced 0.75 m with steel
RMR: < 21 Install support concurrently with in crown and walls and 50 mm on face lagging and forepoling if
excavation. with wire mesh. Bolt required.
Shotcrete as soon as possible invert. Close invert..
after blasting.
Klasifikasi Massa Batuan Untuk Perancangan Terowongan

KLASIFIKASI Q SYSTEM
KLASIFIKASI Q SYSTEM

Berdasarkan sejumlah besar kasus lubang bukaan bawah tanah,


Barton et al. (1974) dari Norwegian Geotechnical Institute
mengusulkan Tunnelling Quality Index (Q) untuk penentuan
karakteristik massa batuan dan kebutuhan penyangga.
Nilai numerik indeks Q bervariasi secara logaritmik dari 0.001
sampai 1000.
KLASIFIKASI Q SYSTEM

RQD Jr Jw
Q x x
Jn Ja SRF

RQD = Rock Quality Designation


Jn = Joint set number
Jr = Joint roughness number
Ja = Joint alteration number
Jw = Joint water reduction number
SRF = Stress reduction factor
Nilai RQD

Description Value Notes


A Very poor 0 25
B Poor 25 50 1. Where RQD is reported or measured as 10 (including 0), a nominal value
of 10 is used to evaluate Q.
C Fair 50 75
D Good 75 90 2. RQD intervals of 5, i.e. 100, 95, 90 etc. are sufficiently accurate.
E Excellent 90 100
Nilai Jn

Description Value Notes

A Massive, no or few joints 0.5 1.0

B One joint set 2

C One joint set plus random 3

D Two joint sets 4


1. For intersections use (3.0 Jn)
E Two joint sets plus random 6

F Three joint sets 9 2. For portals use (2.0 Jn)

G Three joint sets plus random 12

Four or more joint sets, random,


H 15
heavily jointed, 'sugar cube', etc.

J Crushed rock, earthlike 20


Nilai Jr

Description Value Notes

a. Rock wall contact


b. Rock wall contact before 10 cm shear

A Discontinuous joints 4

B Rough and irregular, undulating 3

C Smooth undulating 2
1. Add 1.0 if the mean spacing of the relevant
D Slickensided undulating 1.5 joint set is greater than 3 m.
E Rough or irregular, planar 1.5
2. Jr = 0.5 can be used for planar,
F Smooth, planar 1.0 slickensided joints having lineations,
provided that the lineations are oriented for
G Slickensided, planar 0.5 minimum strength.
c. No rock wall contact when sheared

Zones containing clay minerals thick 1.0


H
enough to prevent rock wall contact (nominal)

Sandy, gravely or crushed zone thick 1.0


J
enough to prevent rock wall contact (nominal)
Nilai Ja

fr (deg)
Description Value Notes
(approx.)

a. Rock wall contact

Tightly healed, hard, non-softening,


A 0.75
impermeable filling

B Unaltered joint walls, surface staining only 1.0 25 35

Slightly altered joint walls, non-softening Values of fr, the residual friction
C mineral coatings, sandy particles, clay-free 2.0 25 30 angle, are intended as an
disintegrated rock, etc. approximate guide to the
mineralogical properties of the
Silty-, or sandy-clay coatings, small clay- alteration products, if present.
D 3.0 20 25
fraction (non-softening)

Softening or low-friction clay mineral coatings,


i.e. kaolinite, mica. Also chlorite, talc, gypsum
E 4.0 8 16
and graphite etc., and small quantities of swelling
clays. (Discontinuous coatings, 1 - 2 mm or less)
Nilai Ja

fr (deg)
Description Value Notes
(approx.)

b. Rock wall contact before 10 cm shear

F Sandy particles, clay-free, disintegrating rock etc. 4.0 25 30

Strongly over-consolidated, non-softening


G 6.0 16 24 Values of fr, the residual friction
clay mineral fillings (continuous < 5 mm thick)
angle, are intended as an
Medium or low over-consolidation, softening approximate guide to the
H 8.0 12 16
clay mineral fillings (continuous < 5 mm thick) mineralogical properties of the
alteration products, if present.
Swelling clay fillings, i.e. montmorillonite,
(continuous < 5 mm thick). Values of Ja
J 8.0 12.0 6 12
depend on percent of swelling clay-size
particles, and access to water.
Nilai Ja

fr (deg)
Description Value Notes
(approx.)

c. No rock wall contact when sheared

K Zones or bands of disintegrated or crushed. 6.0

L Rock and clay (see G, H and J for clay 8.0 Values of fr, the residual friction
conditions). angle, are intended as an
M 8.0 12.0
approximate guide to the
Zones or bands of silty- or sandy-clay, small 6 24 mineralogical properties of the
N 5.0 alteration products, if present.
clay fraction, non-softening.

O Thick continuous zones or bands of clay. 10.0 13.0

P & R. (see G.H and J for clay conditions). 6.0 24.0


Nilai Jw

Approx.
Water
Description Value Notes
Press.
(kgf/cm2)

Dry excavation or minor inflow


A 1.0 < 1.0
i.e. < 5 l/m locally

Medium inflow or pressure, occasional


B 0.66 1.0 2.5
outwash of joint fillings 1. Factors C to F are crude
estimates; increase Jw if
Large inflow or high pressure in competent drainage is installed.
C 0.5 2.5 10.0
Rock with unfilled joints
2. Special problems caused by ice
D Large inflow or high pressure 0.33 2.5 10.0
formation are not considered.
Exceptionally high inflow or pressure
E 0.2 0.1 > 10
at blasting, decaying with time

F Exceptionally high inflow or pressure 0.1 0.05 > 10


Nilai SRF

Description SRF Notes

a. Weakness zones intersecting excavation, which may


cause loosening of rock mass when tunnel is excavated

Multiple occurrences of weakness zones containing clay or


A chemically disintegrated rock, very loose surrounding rock (any 10.0
depth)

Single weakness zones containing clay, or chemically


B 5.0
disintegrated rock (excavation depth < 50 m)
Reduce these values of SRF by 25 -
Single weakness zones containing clay, or chemically 50% but only if the relevant shear
C 2.5
disintegrated rock (excavation depth > 50 m) zones influence do not intersect the
excavation
Multiple shear zones in competent rock (clay free), loose
D 7.5
surrounding rock (any depth)

Single shear zone in competent rock (clay free) (depth of


E 5.0
excavation < 50 m)

Single shear zone in competent rock (clay free) (depth of


F 2.5
excavation > 50 m)

G Loose open joints, heavily jointed or 'sugar cube' (any depth) 5.0
Nilai SRF

Description SRF Notes

b. Competent rock, rock stress problems sc/s1 st/s1

H Low stress, near surface > 10 > 10 2.5

J Medium stress 200 10 13 0.66 1.0


1. For strongly anisotropic
High stress, very tight structure virgin stress field (if
measured): when
K (usually favourable to stability, may 10 5 0.66 0.33 0.5 2
51/310, reduce c to
be unfavourable to wall stability)
0.8c and t to 0.8t.
L Mild rockburst (massive rock) 5 2.5 0.33 0.16 5 10 When 1/3 > 10, reduce
c to 0.6c and t to 0.6t.
M Heavy rockburst (massive rock) < 2.5 < 0.16 10 20
2. Few case records
c. Squeezing rock, plastic flow of incompetent rock under influence available where depth of
of high rock pressure crown below surface is
less than span width.
N Mild squeezing rock pressure 5 10
Suggest SRF increase
O Heavy squeezing rock pressure 10 20 from 2.5 to 5 for such
cases (see H).
d. Swelling rock, chemical swelling activity depending on presence of water

P Mild swelling rock pressure 5 10

R Heavy swelling rock pressure 10 15


Nilai SRF

(Barton et al, 1974)


Description SRF
b. Competent rock, rock stress problems sc/s1
L Mild rockburst (massive rock) 5 2.5 5 10
M Heavy rockburst (massive rock) < 2.5 10 20

(Grimstad & Barton, 1993)


Description SRF

b. Competent rock, rock stress problems sc/s1


Moderate slabbing after >1 hour in massive rock 53 5 50
L
Slabbing and rockburst after a few minutes in massive rock 32 50 200
M Heavy rockburst (massive rock) <2 200 400
ESR dan De

Untuk menghubungkan nilai Q dengan kebutuhan penyangga,


Barton et al. (1974) mendefinisikan parameter tambahan Dimensi
Ekivalen (Equivalent Dimension), De, dari lubang bukaan.
Dimensi ini diperoleh dengan membagi span (lebar atau tinggi)
lubang bukaan dengan Excavation Support Ratio, ESR:

Excavation span, diameter or height (m)


De
Excavation Support Ratio, ESR

Nilai ESR berhubungan dengan tujuan penggunaan lubang


bukaan dan tingkat keamanan yang dipersyaratkan bagi sistem
penyangga untuk menjamin kemantapan lubang bukaan
ESR dan De

Excavation category ESR


A Temporary mine openings. 35
B Permanent mine openings, water tunnels for hydro power 1.6
(excluding high pressure penstocks), pilot tunnels, drifts and
headings for large excavations.

C Storage rooms, water treatment plants, minor road and railway 1.3
tunnels, surge chambers, access tunnels.
D Power stations, major road and railway tunnels, civil defence 1.0
chambers, portal intersections.
E Underground nuclear power stations, railway stations, sports and 0.5
public facilities, factories.
Rekomendasi Penyangga
Klasifikasi Massa Batuan Untuk Perancangan Terowongan

LATIHAN
(Terowongan Berdiameter 6.7 m)
Classification of Rock Mass Conditions

1. Terzaghi
Moderately blocky and seamy
2. RSR
Soft sedimentary rock
Slightly faulted and folded
Spacing: moderate to blocky
Strike approximately perpendicular to tunnel axis, dip 0-20O
Water inflow: moderate
Joint conditions: moderately open, rough, and weathered
Classification of Rock Mass Conditions

3. RMR
Intact rock strength, sc = 50 MPa
Drill core quality, RQD = 55-88%, average 72%
Spacing of discontinuities, range 50 mm to 0.9 m
Condition of discontinuities: separation 0.8 mm to 1.1 mm,
slightly weathered, rough surfaces
Groundwater: dipping water, low pressure, flow 25-125 L/min
Discontinuity orientation: strike perpendicular to tunnel axis, dip
20O
Classification of Rock Mass Conditions

4. Q
Drill core quality, RQD = 55-88%, average 72%
Two joint sets and random
Rough, planar joints
Unaltered joint walls, surface staining only
Possible large water inflow
Medium stress sc/s1 = 50/0.91 = 55
Determine/Calculate

1. Rock loads
2. Self supporting span and maximum span
3. Stand-up time, deformability and c,f values
4. Support recommendations
Terima Kasih

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