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ENGR 2036 Fall 2015 MIDTERM EXAM 30 Marks in total

1. A water pump is operating to raise the pressure by 980 kPa at a flow rate of 2400 L/min. The pump
inlet diameter is 10 cm and the exit diameter is 8 cm. Neglect the potential energy change across the
pump and assume the water density is 1000 kg/m3. The power input to this pump is 50 kW under
this working condition. Please find the mechanical efficiency of the pump. (10 marks)
2. Find the internal energy and enthalpy of H2O at: (a) 85 oC and 200 kPa; (b) 250 oC and 225 kPa. (8
marks)
3. A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0.5 kg of saturated steam at 200 kPa. Now
heat is removed from the fluid with the pressure kept constant, until the volume
reduces to 40% of the initial volume. Find (a) the final volume (2 marks), (b) the
final temperature (3 marks), and (c) the total internal energy change of the fluid
during this process (4 marks). Also (d) please sketch the process on the P-v and T-v
diagrams, including the initial state (State #1), the final state (State #2), and the path.
(3 marks)
Solutions
Q1: Preparation:
Flow rate Q 2400L / min 2400 10 3 m3 / 60s 0.04m3 / s
Inlet Area A1 D 21 / 4 3.14 (0.1m) 2 / 4 0.00785m 2
Exit Area A2 D 22 / 4 3.14 (0.08m) 2 / 4 0.005024m 2
Inlet Velocity: V 1 Q / A1 0.04 / 0.00785 5.0955m / s
Exit Velocity: V 2 Q / A2 0.04 / 0.005024 7.9618m / s
Mass flow rate m Q (1000kg / m3 )(0.04m3 / s) 40kg / s

By neglecting the potential change, the mechanical energy change per unit mass is:
V22 V12
emech P2 v2 P1v1 (incompres sible liquid, v1 v2 v 1 / )
2 2
V22 V12 V22 V12

( P2 P1 )v 2 2 P /
2 2
7.9618 5.0955
(m / s ) 2 980 1000 Pa (1kg m / s ) / m
2 2 2 2

2 2 1000kg / m 3 1Pa

(18.71 980)m 2 / s 2 998.71m 2 / s 2
and for per unit time:
E mech m emech (40kg/s)(9 98.71m 2 /s 2 ) 39948.4(kg m / s 2 )m / s 39948.4 W 39.95kW
With the power input as W 50kW , the mechanical efficiency is
pump,in

E 39.95kW
pump mech 0.799 79.9%
W pump,in 50kW

Q2:
(a) T=85 oC, P=200kPa (b) T=250 oC, P=225kPa
T=85 oC <Tsat@200kPa=120.21 oC (A5) T=250 oC >Tsat@225kPa=123.97 oC (A5)
or P=200kPa >Psat@T=85oC=57.868kPa (A4) this is a superheated vapor.
this is a compressed liquid.
From A-6: do interpolations:
Since no compressed water table provided: 2728.92731.4 2731.4
= u=2730.775 kJ/kg
300200 225200
@=85 = 355.96 /
@85 + ( @85 )@85 2967.92971.2 2971.2
= h=2970.375 kJ/kg
= 356.02 + (200 57.868)(0.001032) 300200 225200
= 356.02 + 0.14668 = 356.17/
0.885783
Q3: (a) Original Volume 1 = 1 = @200 = (0.5) (
)
= 0.442893
Final Volume 2 = 0.41 = (0.4)(0.442893 ) = 0.1771563

2 1 0.885783 0.3543123
(b) 2 =
= 0.4

= 0.41 = (0.4) (
)=
0.0010613 0.885783
@200 = < 2 < =

saturated mixture 2 = @200 = 120.21

(c) 1 = @200 = 2529.1/


2 0.3543120.001061
quality at the final state: 2 = = = 0.39928
0.885780.001061
2 = + 2 ( ) = 504.50 + (0.39928)(2529.1 504.50) = 1312.883 /
Total internal energy change
= (2 1 ) = (0.5 )(1312.883 2529.1) = 608.108

(d)