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Automatic Negative Thoughts (ANT) are thoughts that are negative and random in nature in reference to ones
self[1].

Contents
1 Measures
2 Depression
3 Social Anxiety Disorder
4 Reducing Automatic Negative Thoughts
4.1 Mindfulness

Measures
Automatic Thought Questionnaire 30 (ATQ 30) is a scientific questionnaire created by Steven D. Hollon and Phillip C.
Kendall that measures automatic negative thoughts. The ATQ 30 consists of 30 negative statements and asks participants
to indicate how often they experienced the negative thought during the course of the week on a scale of 1-5 (1=Low-
High=5)[2][3]. This measure was created in response to Aaron T. Becks hypothesis that thinking in depressed populations
tends to be negative[4]. Example statements include "I'm worthless", "I've let people down", "I can't get started" and "My
future is bleak"[5].

Depression
It has been suggested in some studies that depression is associated with having increased levels of automatic negative
thoughts. Additionally, the extent of automatic negative thoughts experienced is associated with depression severity[6].

Social Anxiety Disorder


In this disorder, people experience a high degree of fear and avoidance of social situations. There has not been much
research conducted to date on the association between automatic thoughts and social anxiety disorder. However, one
study by Iancu and colleagues attempted to evaluate a possible relationship. They proposed a possible relationship
because of the distorted thinking that occurs with social anxiety disorder. In their study, the researchers selected a group
of individuals who were diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, and then administered them automatic thought
questionnaires. The study found that people with higher levels of automatic negative thoughts were more likely to show
more fear and avoidance. In addition, levels of automatic thoughts that were measured were correlated with severity of
symptoms[7]..

Reducing Automatic Negative Thoughts

Mindfulness
Mindfulness is a technique used to help people focus on the present moment, thereby helping in restructuring distorted
thoughts and feelings. Some studies suggest that mindfulness reduces automatic negative thinking[8][9].. Ritvo and
colleagues found that university students going through a series of mindfulness courses had an overall group reduction in
automatic negative thoughts[10].

1. Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Joubran, Samia; Lupinsky, Yelena; Barenboim, Damian (June 1, 2015). "Negative and
Positive Automatic Thoughts in Social Anxiety Disorder". Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences. 52 (2):
129136.
2. Netemeyer, Richard; Williamson, Donald; Burton, Scot; Biswas, Dipayan; Jindal, Supriya; Landreth, Stacy; Mills,
Gregory; Primeaux, Sonya (Oct, 2003). "Psychometric properties of shortened versions of the Automatic Thoughts
Questionnaire". Educational and Psychological Measurement. 63 (5): 111129. Check date values in: |date= (help)
3. Hollon, Steven; Kendall, Philip (December 1980). "Cognitive self-statements in depression: Development of an
automatic thoughts questionnaire". Cognitive Therapy and Research. 4 (4): 383395.
4. Hollon, Steven; Kendall, Philip (December 1980). "Cognitive self-statements in depression: Development of an
automatic thoughts questionnaire". Cognitive Therapy and Research. 4 (4): 383395.
5. Netemeyer, Richard; Williamson, Donald; Burton, Scot; Biswas, Dipayan; Jindal, Supriya; Landreth, Stacy; Mills,
Gregory; Primeaux, Sonya (Oct, 2003). "Psychometric properties of shortened versions of the Automatic Thoughts
Questionnaire". Educational and Psychological Measurement. 63 (5): 111129. Check date values in: |date= (help)
6. Harrel, Thomas; Ryon, Nancy (Oct 1983). "Cognitive-behavioral assessment of depression: Clinical validation of the
Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 51 (5): 721725.
7. Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Joubran, Samia; Lupinsky, Yelena; Barenboim, Damian (June 1, 2015). "Negative and
Positive Automatic Thoughts in Social Anxiety Disorder". Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences. 52 (2):
129136.
8. Mehdipour, Fatemeh; Rafiepoor, Amin; Alizadeh, Kobra (June 30, 2017). "The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based
Cognitive Group Therapy in Reducing Negative Automatic Thoughts and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Cancer Patients".
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 19 (6).
9. Ritvo, Paul; Vora, Khushboo; Irvine, Jane; Mongrain, Myriam; Azargive, Saam; Abid Azam, Muhammad; Pirbaglou,
Meysam; Guglietti, Crissa; Wayne, Noah; Perez, Daniel; Cribbie, Rob (10/24/2013). "Reductions in Negative
Automatic Thoughts in Students Attending Mindfulness Tutorials Predicts Increased Life Satisfaction". International
Journal of Educational Psychology. Check date values in: |date= (help)
10. Ritvo, Paul; Vora, Khushboo; Irvine, Jane; Mongrain, Myriam; Azargive, Saam; Abid Azam, Muhammad; Pirbaglou,
Meysam; Guglietti, Crissa; Wayne, Noah; Perez, Daniel; Cribbie, Rob (10/24/2013). "Reductions in Negative
Automatic Thoughts in Students Attending Mindfulness Tutorials Predicts Increased Life Satisfaction". International
Journal of Educational Psychology. Check date values in: |date= (help)

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