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Homework #1
Due day: 2017/12/05 Instructor: Shu-Hui Chang
Consider the data (2017-11-21 HW data.xlsx) in Table 1 of the paper published in
Mutation Research, Vol. 377, pp. 247-254, 1997.
First, define the outcome variable Yi = asin-spca as the inverse sine of the square root
of the number of cells with chromosome aberrations in per 100 cells (% cells with
chromosome aberrations) for the ith subject in the 3rd column of the data file
Let X1i be sex (=1 if male and =0 if female),
X2i be age (in years),
X3i be the durations of exposure (in years) and X3i =0 for control group,
X4i be the cumulative exposure dose (mSv) and X4i =0 for control group,
Ni be the number of cells scored for the ith subject.
Define X5i as the indicator of exposure status such that X5i =1 if radiation-exposed
group and X5i =0 if control group.

1. Draw the pairwise scatter plots and compute the pairwise correlation coefficients
between Yi , X1i , X2i , X3i , X4i and X5i to illustrate their relationship.

1
Ans
1. R eyeara SAS x5i indicator of exposure
status
2. SAS p indicator of
exposure status durations of exposuredurations of exposure cumulative
exposure dose cumulative exposure dose indicator of exposure status
p 0.0001 R
durations of exposure cumulative exposure dose
indicator of exposure status durations of exposure cumulative
exposure dose indicator of exposure status

2
Consider the following linear regression models:
Model (M0) : the null model does not include any predictors.
Model (M1) : including the exposure indicator only.
Model (M2): including sex and age additively.
Model (M3.1): including the exposure indicator, sex and age additively.
Model (M3.2): including the durations of exposure, sex and age additively.
Model (M3.3): including the cumulative exposure dose, sex and age additively.
Model (M4.1): including the exposure indicator, the durations of exposure, sex and
age additively.
Model (M4.2): including the exposure indicator, the cumulative exposure dose, sex
and age additively.
Model (M5): including the exposure indicator, sex, age as well as the interaction
(product) term of the exposure indicator and age, additively.

2. Write down the fitted regression lines for models (M1), (M3.1) and (M5).
M1:

M3.1:

M5:

Ans
1. Model (M1)
(asin spca) = 0.18659 + 0.02178 (indicator of exposure status)
2. Model (M3.1)
(asin spca) = 0.1704647 + 0.0229064 (indicator of exposure status)
+ 0.0007369 (sex) + 0.0004147 (age)
3. Model (M5)
(asin spca) = 0.16861577 + 0.02278749
(indicator of exposure status) + 0.00289687 (sex)
+ 000046357 (age) 0.00005572 (age sex)

3
3. interpret and compare the 3 estimated effects of the exposure indicator in models
(M1), (M3.1), and (M5). Does age change the effect of the exposure status after
adjustment of sex and age? Why or why not?

Ansthe exposure status age sex


exposure status 0.0229064 0.02278749

4. Calculate the VIFs for all covariates in models (M3.1), (M3.2) and (M3.3).
Interpret and compare these results.
M3.1:

M3.2:

M3.3

Ans model Model covariate


1 1.03 10

4
5. Among the above listed models excluding model (M0), which models will you
select based on which model selection criteria? State your model selection
procedure. Interpret and comment on your selected model(s).

5
AnsSAS R forward selection AIC model
selection indicator of exposure status AIC
model (M1)

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6. Perform the residual analysis for your selected model(s) in problem 5. Comment
on the fitness of this selected model.

Ans R SAS
Q-Q plot 45
asin-spca indicator of exposure status