Shape Optimization CAS 2

© All Rights Reserved

0 tayangan

Shape Optimization CAS 2

© All Rights Reserved

- Conte OpenSees Snopt a Framework for Finite Element Based Optimization 26Oct2012 Final
- PQ
- Structural Shape Optimization Using Moving Mesh Method
- Optimization Notes
- Studies in Chemical Process Design and Synthesis_PartII_Optimal Synthesis of Dynamic Process Systems with uncertainty.pdf
- Ansys Sbeam Do
- Drill Bit Replacement
- OTC-20777-MS_2.pdf
- Aggregate Planning and MPS - Final 2009 (2)
- final imdc
- Influence of the Objective Function in the History Matching Process
- Dynamic Economic Dispatch Using Hybrid DE-SQP for Generating Units with Valve-Point Effects
- A Study of Firefly Algorithm and its Application in Non-Linear Dynamic Systems
- a
- BBBC
- allaire2004
- Chapter_13
- SMA_PSB_GS_2015
- 05275860
- OR introduction

Anda di halaman 1dari 17

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruc

composite plates

P.M. Mohite , C.S. Upadhyay

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 208016, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this study a reliable shape optimization for laminated plate structures has been attempted. For a xed

Received 2 October 2014 higher order plate model, a simple a-posteriori strain recovery algorithm, following ZZ type patch

Accepted 14 February 2015 recovery technique, has been developed. The recovery is seen to be accurate. The effect of higher

approximation order and mesh renement on the quality of the obtained solution quantities like stress

components and displacements, is studied in detail. The shape of the cutout is optimized with weight

Keywords: minimization as the objective function and the rst-ply failure criterion as the constraint. It is observed

Higher order shear deformation model

that control of the discretization error (via adaptive mesh renements) leads to vastly different nal

Strain recovery

a-posteriori error estimation

designs, as compared to those obtained using reasonably rened meshes, but without adaptivity. It is

Discretization error seen that without adaptivity, the design obtained is unsafe, as either more material removal is predicted

Shape optimization or failure is predicted at higher loads, as compared to that obtained using adaptivity.

First-ply failure 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

nents, the use of nite element technique has become an integral

Composite materials are nding wide applications in critical part. Therefore, accurate evaluation of the nite element data,

structural applications due to their capability of giving desired which in turn, is used in constraint evaluation, is very important.

enhanced properties. Moreover, one can tailor these properties Many researchers have attempted to optimize the composite

according to the requirements. These materials have very high laminate with design variables like ply thickness and ply orienta-

strength to weight ratios. Cutouts in these critical structural tion in order to obtain minimum weight designs subjected to

components are inevitable. For example, in aerospace applications several constraints, such as maximum deection, maximum

cutouts are made in wing ribs to facilitate the easy passage of fuel. strength, maximum stress, von-Mises stress, rst ply failure load

Sometimes the cutouts are made to provide access for damage (or reliability requirements), etc. (see [14]). The optimum design

inspection or electrical circuits. In aerospace applications, weight of laminated plates for maximum buckling load has also been

saving is one of the important design criteria. Therefore, the attempted in [58] with constraint on the natural frequency.

cutouts are made just to reduce the weight of the structures. Botkin [9] has worked on shape optimization of stamped sheet

Since, these components are used for critical applications one metal parts with buckling and stress constraints. Sometimes the

should have condence in the design procedure adopted. cutouts are just unavoidable in laminated structures. Hence, the

A typical optimization based designing procedure involves shape optimization of laminated plates with cutouts for weight

evaluation of an objective function subjected to one or more con- minimization has gained importance. For example, one can see

straints. For example, the objective function could be cost or weight the work on the optimization of composite plates with a cutout in

minimization or prot maximization. Optimization problems, from [10,11]. Sivakumar et al. [12] have worked on optimization with

engineering discipline, involve evaluation of the constraints which dynamic constraints.

may include state of stress at a point; or a function which is a A survey on structural optimization can be seen in [13,14]. The

combination of stress components; deection at a particular point; optimization of aerospace structures with minimum weight objec-

thermal stresses; buckling load, etc. Accurate computation of these tive, subjected to various constraints is reviewed in [15,16].

constraints plays an important role in a reliable optimum design. In In general, the focus in all the studies mentioned above has

been to demonstrate the effect of optimization on the nal design.

Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 512 2596024; fax: +91 512 2597561/7626. Thus, a xed nite element mesh has been used, with a suitable

E-mail address: mohite@iitk.ac.in (P.M. Mohite). order of approximation, to obtain the results. The effect of the

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruc.2015.02.020

0045-7949/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

20 P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935

discretization error on the nal optimal design was not studied. and design, some specic applications of laminated composites

The early work which involves the study of effect of discretization require unsymmetric laminates. For example, the coupling

error, on the nal optimum shape, was seen due to Kikuchi et al. between bending and extension exhibited by this type of laminates

[17]. In the shape optimization procedure, due to change in shape, is an essential feature of jet turbine fan blades with pre-twist. It

the mesh gets distorted and the nal design is sensitive to the can be noted that the theories for unsymmetric laminates are

approximation error associated with the discretization. Thus, applicable to symmetric laminates as a special case. Unlike sym-

improvement in the quality of the approximation is needed [17]. metric laminates, unsymmetric laminates exhibit membrane-ex-

In this work global error estimates were developed for adaptive ure coupling phenomenon, which necessitates the use of a

renement strategies. A similar work was carried out by Hinton displacement eld containing both, membrane as well as exure

et al. [18]. Weck et al. [19] have worked on saving the computa- deformation terms which contribute to the overall response of a

tional cost during optimization of composite structures with laminate. The analysis of laminated plates is based on the choice

ply-orientations and thickness as optimization variables using of a plate theory. Several plate theories have been developed with

adaptive meshing technique. Benneet and Botkin [20] aimed to assumed variation of the displacement eld in the transverse

provide more accurate estimate of the true optimal solution with direction. For example, see plate theories in [3,4,12,3438]. These

the effect of adaptive meshing on stresses used in constraint theories attempt to give a higher order representation of strains

evaluation. Schleupen et al. [21] developed both global (based on in the laminate thickness direction. In the following, we present

error of the strain energy of overall structure) and local error esti- the details of plate theory due to Reddy [27] implemented in the

mates (based on error in a particular quantity of interest like dis- present study. The displacement eld

placement or stress component) for global and local adaptive

renements separately. The potential of these two techniques were ux; y; z ux; y; z v x; y; z wx; y; zT 1

then compared through two dimensional shape optimization prob- is derived from the expanded Taylors series in terms of thickness

lems. Morin et al. [22] developed an algorithm based on adaptive coordinate z. Here, ux; y; z; v x; y; z and wx; y; z are the

nite element method to equidistribute the errors due to shape displacement components along x; y and z axes, respectively.

optimization and discretization to optimize the computational These components, following the work of Reddy [27], are given as

cost. An application to X-FEM based structural optimization can

be seen in [23]. An evolutionary technique was used along with ux; y; z u0 x; y zhx x; y z2 /x x; y z3 wx x; y

sensitivity analysis, for a low cost adaptive remeshing, in shape

optimization problems by Bugeda et al. [24].

v x; y; z v 0 x; y zhy x; y z2 /y x; y z3 wy x; y 2

The application of adaptive meshing using goal oriented error wx; y; z w0 x; y

control for topology optimization was done by Bruggi and Verani

[25]. Another application of adaptive renement approach to In the expansion in Eq. (2), it is assumed that transverse normal

topology optimization can be seen in Wang et al. [26]. strain zz is zero. The linear straindisplacement relationships

In the present work a design of laminated composite plate, with using small deformation theory can be obtained from this

a centrally located cutout for minimum weight, subjected to a con- equation.

straint that the plate should not fail under rst-ply failure load cri- The condition that the transverse shear stresses vanish on the

terion, has been studied. Here, an attempt is made to demonstrate plates top and bottom faces (see Fig. 1) is equivalent to the

the effect of reliability of constraints on the nal optimal solution. requirement that the corresponding strains be zero on these

Initially, the nal optimal solution is obtained without considering surfaces, i.e.

reliability of the computed data used in the evaluation of rst-ply

d d

failure load constraint. The process is then repeated with a control cyz x; y; cxz x; y; 0 3

2 2

on the reliability of the computed data, i.e. effect of discretization

error control on nal optimal shape. In the present work a higher On introduction of these conditions in the expressions for trans-

order shear deformable plate theory proposed by Reddy [27] has verse shear strains, the following relations are obtained.

been adopted and implemented in a nite element code. Further, 4 4

Zienkiewicz-Zhu (ZZ) [2831] type a-posteriori patch recovery /x /y 0; wy 2

hy w0 ;y and wx 2 hx w0 ;x

3d 3d

based error estimator is developed for strain eld corresponding

4

to the plate model considered. Although, the use of Genetic

Algorithms (GA) (for example, [12]) and evolutionary algorithms The displacement eld of Eq. (2) is modied by setting /x and /y

(for example [24]) is very popular in optimization studies, in the to be zero according to conditions of Eq. (4). The resulting displace-

present study we have used a conventional optimization algorithm ment eld is now written as

- Complex Search [32] to obtain an optimal design. Finally, the

effect of evaluation of rst-ply failure load constraint, with and ux; y; z u0 x; y z hx x; y z3 wx x; y

without control in discretization error, is studied. Here, the Tsai-

v x; y; z v 0 x; y z hy x; y z3 wy x; y 5

Wu rst-ply failure criterion [33] has been used as a constraint.

wx; y; z w0 x; y

components while hx and hy are the rotations about y and x axes,

In this section a higher order shear deformable plate theory due respectively. Further, wx and wy are higher order terms in the

to Reddy [27] is presented followed by the nite element Taylors series expansion and are also dened at the mid-plane.

formulation for this plate model. Thus, the generalized displacement vector fdg of the mid-surface

contains seven degrees of freedom (DOF) and is given by:

2.1. Higher order plate model fdg fu0 v 0 w0 hx hy wx wy gT 6

Symmetric laminates nd many applications in the aircraft The corresponding straindisplacement relations, using

industry. Although symmetric laminates are simple to analyze innitesimal strains, are:

P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935 21

y

Initial element of interest

Top surface y

d T,2 L,

1

z

Y

Bottom surface

l

4

l x

3 x

l

2

l

1

X

(a) (b)

Fig. 1. Laminate geometry, coordinate systems, stacking sequence and layer numbering.

xx u0 ;x z hx ;x z3 wx ;x uh . Note that in this study Dirichlet means the part of lateral bound-

yy v 0 ;y z hy; z3 wy ;y ary where geometric constraints are imposed, while Neumann

y

stands for the parts of the lateral boundary where in-plane traction

cxy u0 ;y v 0 ;x z hx ;y z hy ;x z3 wx ;y z3 wy ;x 7 is applied. Further, M is a generic representation of displacement

2

cyz hy 3 z wy w0 ;y constraints on the Dirichlet boundary edge. For example, the

cxz hx 3 z2 wx w0 ;x boundary conditions can be clamped ui 0; i 1; 2; 3; soft

simple-support un ; u3 0; hard simple-support ut ; u3 0; etc.

Here, comma ; denotes the partial derivative. Here, un and ut denote in-plane displacement components normal

and tangential to an edge, respectively.

2.2. Finite element formulation Triangular elements are used in the nite element

approximation employed in this study, along with hierarchic shape

The total potential, Pp , for the structure is given by functions of order p (p 6 4). The mesh generation is done using

Z Z advancing front method based automatic mesh generator. A typical

1

Pp u ru eu dV T 3 u3 ds mesh generated over the plate domain is shown in Fig. 2.

2 V R [R

Z A detailed study on various plate models for laminate applica-

T 1 u1 T 2 u2 ds 8 tions and their nite element implementation can be seen in

CN Pandya and Kant [3638].

where V is the volume enclosed by the plate domain; ru and eu

are the engineering stress and strain vectors, respectively. R and R 3. A-posteriori recovery of pointwise strains and error

denote the top and bottom faces of the laminated plate and T 3 x; y estimation

is the applied transverse load on these faces; C are the lateral faces

with C CN [ CD . Here, CN denotes the Neumann boundary and CD In a typical engineering analysis a mathematical model for

denotes Dirichlet boundary; T 1 ; T 2 are the in-plane tractions speci- physical problem is rst selected, such that it incorporates the

ed on the lateral faces along 1 and 2 directions, respectively. Here, essential features of the actual physical problem. The nite

u1 ; u2 and u3 denote the three components of the displacement eld element method determines an approximation to the exact

u in 1, 2 and 3 directions, respectively. Using the model described solution of the mathematical model. The computed solution should

by (5), the total potential Pu can be dened by substituting u in be compared with exact solution of the mathematical model which

Eq. (8). is being solved. Hence, the computed results can be used to make

The approximate solution to the problem, uh , is the minimizer engineering decisions only when one can guarantee that nite

of the total potential Pp uh and is obtained from the solution of

the following weak problem:

Find uh 2 H0 V such that

B uh ; v h F v h 8 vh H 0 V 9

where

Z

h T h

B uh ; v h ru e v dV; 10

V

Z Z

y

F vh T 3 v h3 ds T 1 v h1 T 2 v h2 ds 11

R [R CN

and H0 V v h j Pp v h < 1 and M v h 0 on CD ; v h is the test

function and has the same form as uh given by (2). We will further x

p

dene Bv ; v kv kE as the energy norm. Note that Fig. 2. Rectangular domain with a circular cutout, meshed with an advancing front

h h

B u ; u 2U uh where U uh is the strain energy for the solution method based automatic mesh generator.

22 P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935

where exx;i denotes the unknown coefcients and qi are the

mathematical model problem. In general, the results of interest monomials. The monomials are dened in terms of a local coordi-

obtained from the nite element solution can be very different nate system described later. Similarly, the strain components

from those corresponding to the exact solution of the mathemati- 1 2 1 2 0 1 2

xx ; xx ; 0

yy ; yy ; yy ; xy ; xy and xy

can be approximated as

cal formulation and can lead to serious design errors. Thus, it is

above.

imperative to accompany any computational analysis with an

Now, the transverse shear strain components of the strain ten-

accurate indication of the error in the quantity of interest.

The error estimator should be reliable. Unreliable error sor are approximated by p 1th order polynomial. For example,

p2X

p3=2

estimates are dangerous because they could lead to a misleading 0

condence in the computed quantities. The reliability of the error cyz0 eyz;i qi 15

i1

estimator has to be understood with respect to the solution quan-

1 0 1

tity of interest. Here, an error estimator is constructed for the Similarly, the strain components cyz ; cxz and cxz can be

energy norm of the error and it is assumed that if the error in approximated as above.

the global energy norm is low then all solution quantities of inter- A patch is constructed by taking an element s and one layer

est are also reasonably accurate. neighborhood of elements around it, as shown in Fig. 3. Let the

Many classes of a-posteriori error estimators are available in the centroid of the element s be xc ; yc . A local coordinate system

literature (see [3941]). For the three-dimensional problems, the can be dened, with xc and yc as the center, as

implicit type residual error estimators would prove to be computa-

^x x xc

tionally expensive. Hence, the more economical recovery (or pro- 16

^

y y yc

jection) based error estimators have been employed in this study.

It was found in [42,43] that the error estimator based on stress The monomials qi are given as,

recovery (dened in [29]) was reliable locally for patches at the

^; q4 ^x2 ; q5 ^xy

q1 1; q2 ^x; q3 y ^2 ; . . .

^ ; q6 y 17

boundary of the domain, as well as the interior of the domain.

Several denitions of such projections are possible (see [42,44]). Now, to recover a smoothened strain eld we should nd

In this study a simple procedure for the recovery of strains, from smoothened strain components. To get these coefcients, as afore-

the nite element solution, using patchwise data is proposed (as an said, the strain recovery procedure uses the principle of minimiza-

extension of the method in [45]). More details of this estimator can tion of energy norm of the error, i.e. the energy due to errors in

be seen in earlier works of authors [46,47]. These recovered strains strain and stress components, over the patch considered. A typical

will be then used to design a simple error estimator. patch, with a layer of one element neighborhood, over element s is

shown in Fig. 3. In this, the strain components of the nite element

3.1. Procedure for recovery of strains solution are known. The material properties and other relevant

information about patch is also available. From this, the strain

Following the representation of the solution by Eq. (7), we energy of the error can be computed as,

re-write the components of strain in the following form as Z Z d

8 0 9 1 2

8 9 8 1 9 8 9 8 2 9 J h Q h dz dA 18

>

> exx >

> >

>

>

> e >

exx >

> xx> >

>>

> 0 > > >

> exx > > 2 Apatch z2d

>

> >

> >

> >

>

1 >

> >

0 >

>> >

> >

> >

2 >

>

> >

< eyy >

=

>

> e >

>

< yy =

<

e >

> >

yy >

>

<>

= 0 >

>

=

>

< eyy >

> >

=

1 where and h are the recovered and nite element strain vectors

cyz cyz0 z 0 z2 cyz z3 0 12

>

> > > > > > > > > > and Q is material stiffness matrix, respectively. Note that J is the

>

>

> cxz >

>

>

>

>

>

> 0 >

> cxz >

>

>

>

>

>

> 0 >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

cxz1 >

>

>

>

>

>

> 0 >

>

>

>

>

: ; >

> > >

> >

: >

; >

: >

; >

: >

2 ;

strain energy of the error in the strain, h . In Eq. (18), although,

c : 0 ; c 1

0 c

xy cxy xy xy

the material stiffness matrix Q varies over the laminate thickness, it

The recovered strain is also assumed to have the same form is constant over a given lamina thickness. Hence, the integration

(in terms of z) as the exact one, Eq. (7). Thus, the recovered strain is over laminate thickness can be written as sum of integration over

also represented as the individual lamina thicknesses. Further, the integration over

8 9 8 ;0 9

8 ;1 9 8 9 8 ;2 9 patch area can be written as sum of integration over the element

>

> exx >

>

>

>

>

exx >

>

> exx >>

> > >

> 0 > > >

> exx > > areas in the patch. Thus, the above equation can be written as

>

> e >> >

> > > > > > > >

>

>

< yy >

>

=

>

>

> ;1 >

e;0 >

>

< eyy >

>

< yy >

>

=

>

=

>

>

< 0 >

>

>

>

=

>

> ;2 >

< eyy >

> >

= N P 1 Z

"

LAY Z zl n

#

;0 ; 1 1X X

N

o

cyz cyz

z 0 z cyz

2

z 3

0 J h l h

Q dz dA 19

>

> > > > > > > > > > 2 i0 sP l1 zl1

>

>

> cxz >

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

;0 >

cxz >

>

>

>

>

>

> 0 >

>

>

>

>

>

> ;1 >

> cxz >

>

>

>

>

>

> 0 >

>

>

>

i

>

: ; >> > >

> >

: >

; >

: >

; >

: >

;

cxy : ;0 ; c; 1

0 c ; 2

cxy xy xy

13

Given the representation of as in Eq. (13), it is now desired to Material 1 Material 2

obtain the recovered strain eld as a polynomial, element by p3

4p 2p p

element, such that the recovered strain components are poly-

1

nomials that are one order higher than the corresponding nite p p

5p 1p 3 2

element strain components. Thus, if the order of approximation = p0 11

p p

=

for elements p is employed then all the recovered in-plane strain 6p p

4 p 0

components will be polynomials of degree p and the out of plane 10

p 5

7p 8p

p

strain components will be polynomials of degree p 1. The 9p 6

representation of the recovered strain components in terms of

0

polynomials are given below. For example, xx is given as (a) (b)

p1X

p2=2

0 Fig. 3. One nelemento neighborhood patch P s over an element n o s consisting of

xx0 exx;i qi 14 p p

elements (a) sj ; j 0; 1; 2; . . . ; 11 in one material and (b) sj ; j 0; 1; 2; . . . ; 6

i1 in two different materials.

P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935 23

where NP is the number of elements in the patch over an element s, for testing the quality of a-posteriori error estimators for general

NLAY is the number of laminae in the laminate, Q l is the material second order elliptic problems. A detailed study was carried out

stiffness matrix and zl and zl1 are the top and bottom coordinates by the authors in [46] to ascertain the quality of the estimator.

of lth lamina, respectively. The procedure was based on the basic idea given in [44]. The pro-

The minimization of the function J with respect to each cedure is presented in the following for the sake of completeness.

unknown coefcient of recovered strain term gives as many For more details, see the earlier work of authors in [46].

linearly independent equations as the number of coefcients in Let x be a small subregion of interest, lying inside the domain

Eq. (18). The coefcients are solved for each element patch and X. Then asymptotically, for x sufciently small, the nite element

the values are retained for the element s. solution is essentially the best approximation of the local p 1th

The above step is followed by reconstruction. In this, using order Taylor series expansion of the exact solution u, over a region

these coefcients, smoothened strain components can be slightly bigger than x . It was assumed for the asymptotic error

constructed over the patch. These strains, in turn, can be used to analysis that all global contributions to error in the local region

construct the stress components. The in-plane stresses are x (i.e. pollution error) were negligible. Further, it was assumed

constructed using material properties, i.e. from the constitutive that the dominant part of the local error was due to the p 1th

equation. Although, the recovered shear strains are improvements degree terms of the local Taylor series expansion of the exact

over the nite element strains, equilibrium equations are used to solution.

get the transverse stress eld as the model used itself will not give However, for laminated composite plates, limited detailed

good transverse stress components. This is because the strain interior analysis of local error exists (for example see the earlier

continuity through the laminate thickness has been assumed and works of authors in [4650]). In [46], the work of [51,52] was fol-

it will lead to discontinuity of stresses at the interfaces. lowed to get the global component of the error (for a rectangular

The strain energy from recovered and nite element strains are plate) in a local region x due to only boundary layer effect. The

calculated over the whole domain. effect of the thickness of the plate, d, on the convergence rate is

Z seen through a slowing down in the setting of asymptotic behavior,

1XNEL

i.e. a more rened mesh may be required to get asymptotic behav-

U r dV patch

2 j1 j ior. This phenomenon is also known as locking effect. It is known

Z 20 that the h-version of the nite element method can be used to con-

1XNEL

trol the boundary layer effect by using sufcient mesh renements

Uh rh h dV patch

2 j1 j near the boundaries. Assuming that the thickness d is xed (away

from zero), for the error e u uh , we can write

where U and U h are the strain energies over the whole domain

l

from recovered strains and nite element strains, respectively. r jjejjEX 6 C d h 23

and rh are the recovered and nite element stresses, and h are

the recovered and nite element strains, respectively and NEL is where l minp; r and r depends on the regularity of the solution

the number of elements in the mesh constructed over the domain. u of the plate model; k kEx is the energy norm given by

p

Remark: When there is a material discontinuity, the averaging kukEx 2 U x u. Here, U x is the strain energy of u over region

is done over the elements with same material. For example, given x.

the element sP0 , the patch consists of elements fsPi gi 0; 1; . . . ; 6 Further, assume that for a subregion x 2 X, sufciently away

(see Fig. 3(b)). from the boundary

Remark: No attempt is made here to obtain a smoothened

p

stress or strain eld (as prescribed in [30,31]). It is expected, fol- jjejjEx 6 C d h 24

lowing the work of [42,45], that the recovered strain eld will be

more accurate than that obtained by the nite element solution. in the absence of boundary layer effects, and for a xed d. The

readers are referred to the work of [53] for a detailed proof on

convergence of local error for isotropic plates. Thus, if the nite

4. Denition of a-posteriori error estimator based on strain

element solution is obtained over the same mesh using p 1

recovery p1

order elements, the error ep1 u uFE in the nite element

p1

The recovered strain can be used to dene an a-posteriori solution uFE satises

estimate of the error. The element error indicator gs , for an p1

element s is given as: jjep1 jjEx 6 C d h 25

Z "NLAY

XZ n

#

zi o Hence, we can obtain,

g2s h Q i h dz dA 21

p1 p1 p1

s i1 zi1 jjejjEx jju uFE uFE uh jjEx 6 jju uFE jjEx

p1 p1

26

The element error indicators can be used to dene the global jjuFE h

u jjEx jjuFE h

u jjEx

error estimator nX as:

v thus, Eq. (26) means that the error is essentially the difference

u NEL

uX between the p 1th order solution and the pth order solution,

nX t g2s 22 p1

s1 when h ! 0. Here it is to be noted that uFE denotes the nite ele-

ment solution uh obtained with an approximation of order p 1.

The error estimator based on the recovered strain developed Letting nx be the error estimator for subregion x

, we dene

above has to be tested for robustness and accuracy. Following

the work of [42,45], it is imperative to subject an estimator to rig- nx nx

jx 27

orous bench-marking tests in order to ascertain the quality of the jjejjEx jjuFEp1 uh jjEx

estimator for the class of materials, domains, loading and boundary

conditions of interest. In [44,45], a rigorous mathematical proof where jx is the effectivity index for the subregion x

. Ideally,

was given, which leads to a simple computer-based procedure jx 1 is desired.

24 P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935

The details of this work for laminated plates with various stack- 5.1. Optimization algorithm

ing sequences, boundary conditions, plate length to thickness

ratios, materials, mesh patterns, etc. can be seen in earlier work Complex Search Method algorithm is used for solving this

of authors [46]. The quality of the proposed error estimator was optimization problem [32]. The algorithm begins with a number

also studied in [46]. of feasible points created at random. If a point is found to be infea-

sible, a new point is created using previously generated points.

Usually, the infeasible point is pushed towards the centroid of the

4.1. Adaptivity

previously found feasible points. Once a set of feasible points is

found, the worst point is reected about the centroid of rest of the

The energy norm of the error obtained using the recovered

points to nd a new point. Depending on the feasibility and function

strain eld is used to rene the mesh. The procedure developed

value of the new point, the point is further modied or accepted. If

is very simple. It involves the computation of the energy norm of

the new point falls outside the variable boundaries, the point is

the error in each element, followed by a ranking of the elements

modied to fall on the violated boundary. If new point is infeasible,

in the order of highest contributions to the total error. The

the point is retracted towards the feasible points. The worst point in

elements contributing eighty percent or more of the maximum

the simplex is replaced by this new feasible point and algorithm

error are rened. This procedure is repeated till convergence to

continues for next iteration. Here, the reection parameter and con-

within the specied tolerances is obtained. It should be noted that

vergence parameter are chosen as 1.3 and 0.01, respectively.

adaptive analysis requires repeated solution of the boundary value

The algorithm given above is presented in the following.

problem, with the modied meshes. Thus, the cost of computation

increases (see [39,45] for details).

Step 1: Assume a bound in x xL ; xU , a reection parameter a

and termination parameters and d.

5. Optimization problem formulation Strep 2: Generate an initial set of P feasible points

For p 1; . . . ; P 1.

The plate with dimensions of X; Y, thickness d and a centrally p

(a) Randomly generate xi ; i 1; . . . ; N

located cutout of elliptical shape with initial size 2a; 2b and p

(b) If xi is infeasible then reset

oriented at h degrees with respect to x axis, is shown in Fig. 4.

Here, 2a is major axis, 2b is minor axis.

1

xp xp x xp 29

The objective of the optimization problem is to minimize the 2

weight of the plate. Since all the laminae of same material are where x is the centroid of previously generated feasible points.

taken, the objective becomes the minimization of the plate mate- Repeat this process until xp becomes feasible.

rial area. Hence, the design parameters are, semi-major axis - a, (c) Else if xp is feasible then continue with (a) until P feasi-

semi-minor axis b and orientation of the elliptical cutout. ble points are generated.

Objective function : Minimize weight of the material; W

(d) For all feasible points evaluate the function value f xp

Or

Set the iteration counter k = 1.

Step 3: Reection step

Minimize area of the material; A X Y p ab

Subject to : State of stress is such that the Tsai Wu failure index 6 0:8 and

(a) Select the point xR such that

Y f xR Max f xp Fmax 30

6 a;b 6 0:4Y

8

28 x of all feasible points except xR

(b) Calculate the centroid

and the new point

The second constraint given above is purely from geometric

constraints point of view. xm x a x xR 31

(c) If xm is feasible and f xm P Fmax , retract half the distance

to the centroid x. Continue until f xm < Fmax ;

y

Else if x is feasible and f xm < Fmax , go to Step 5.

m

Step 4: Check for feasibility of the solution

(a) For all i reset violated variable bounds:

L L

2a If xm

i < xi set xm

i xi

U U

32

2b If xm

i < xi set xm

i xi

(b) If the resulting xm is infeasible, retract half the distance

Y to the centroid. Continue until xm is feasible. Go to Step

3(c).

Step 5: Replace xR by xm . Check for termination.

P P

(a) Calculate f 1P p f xp and x 1P p xp

q

q

P p 2 6 and P jj xp

(b) If p f x f p x j j2 6 d

x Terminate;

Else go for another iteration. Set k k 1 and go to Step 3(a).

d

5.2. Failure criterion

X

The failure criterion based on interactive failure theories is

Fig. 4. Geometry of the laminate and initial shape of the cutout. considered. We have used here second-order tensor polynomial

P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935 25

MeshI MeshII

MeshIII MeshIV

Fig. 5. Mesh types or patterns used for plate validation study.

tensor polynomial with the linear terms included. The most com-

pact form for expressing this theory is through tensor notation: The shape optimization process requires computation of con-

straint information (here, rst-ply failure criterion). In order to

F i ri F ij ri rj 6 0:8 i; j 1; 2; . . . ; 6 33 guarantee the reliability of the constraint information, the accu-

racy of the plate model (and its implementation), the discretization

where F i and F ij are the strengths tensors established through procedure and postprocessing module have to be established. In

experimental procedures and are related to failure strengths in this section, a detailed validation study for the plate model, along

principal lamina directions. ri denotes the stress components. with the inuence of mesh renement and p-enrichment, is done.

Here, right hand side of above equation is deliberately taken 0.8 Further, a validation study for rst-ply failure load is also carried

instead of 1 as a safe constraint for the optimization problem men- out. This is followed by the shape optimization problem with and

tioned earlier. For orthotropic lamina this reduces to (see [33,54,55] without adaptivity. The mesh types or patterns used in the study

and references therein) for plate model validation are shown in Fig. 5.

F 66 r212 2F 12 r11 r22 2F 13 r11 r33 2F 23 r22 r33 6 0:8 34 6.1. Comparison of displacement and stress components

The components of the strength tensor are given below as:

In this section, rst we dene the problem for validation study.

F 1 X1T X1C ; F 2 Y1T Y1C ; F 3 Z1T Z1C ; It is followed by validation studies for thick, moderately thick and

thin laminates. Lastly, the validation study for rst-ply failure load

F 11 X T1XC ; F 22 Y T1Y C ; F 33 ZT1ZC ;

of laminates is presented.

F 44 R12 ; F 55 S12 ; F 66 T12 ; Remark: The denition of thin, moderately thick and thick

F 12 12 p

1 ; F 13 12 p

1

; F 23 12 p

1 plates depends upon length to thickness ratio S Xd , loadings,

XT XC Y T Y C XT XC ZT ZC Y T Y C ZT ZC

boundary conditions, etc. In general, this denition is based on

35 thickness ratio. Hence, we have used this denition in this analysis.

Further, unless specied, the analysis is done for full laminate.

where subscript T denotes tensile strengths, C denotes compressive A laminated plate of dimensions X and Y along x and y direc-

strengths. X; Y and Z are the strengths in L; T and T 0 directions, tions, respectively, and thickness d, as shown in Fig. 1, has been

respectively. R; S and T are shear strengths in TT 0 ; LT 0 and LT planes, considered for the analyses. The coordinate system and laminate

respectively. T 0 is perpendicular to plane LT (see Fig. 1). sequence convention are also shown in this gure. The plate is

26 P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935

Comparison of non-dimensionalized transverse deection for square cross-ply thick

plate under sinusoidal loading with mesh renement and p = 3 xed. qz x; y q0 37

Mesh pattern 0

w Pp 105 where qc is the amplitude of the sinusoidal loading and q0 is the

intensity or magnitude of the uniform transverse load. The

Mesh-I 1.9230 1.7371

transverse mid-plane displacement at the center of the plate (that

Mesh-II 1.9242 1.7395

Mesh-III 1.9258 1.7397

0

is, at z 0), w0 (unless specied) is normalized as w

Mesh-IV 1.9260 1.7397 3

E2 d

Kant et al. [38] 1.9058 0 w0

w 102 38

qc X 4

In above equation, when the load is uniformly distributed, the

Table 2 term qc is replaced by q0 . Unless specied, in all problems the mesh

Comparison of non-dimensionalized transverse deection for square cross-ply thick

types used are shown in Fig. 5.

plate under sinusoidal loading with p renement for Mesh-III.

p 0

w Pp 105 6.1.1. Comparison for thick laminates

In this section cross-ply square and rectangular laminates under

1 1.8339 1.6009

2 1.9267 1.7388

transverse loads are studied for their predictive capabilities of

3 1.9258 1.7397 pointwise transverse deection and stress components. This study

4 1.9261 1.7397 is carried out for different types of mesh patterns (as shown in

Kant et al. [38] 1.9058 Fig. 5) and degree of approximation (p = 1 and 2) used. The results

are compared with those available in literature.

Case 1: A cross-ply square laminate under sinusoidal transverse

Table 3

loading

Material properties used for rectangular 0=90S thick laminate under transverse A 0=90=0 square laminated plate and S 5, under sinusoidal

sinusoidal loading [35]. transverse load, with qc 6:89 103 N/mm2 and m n 1, is

Property E1 GPa E2 GPa G12 G13 GPa G23 GPa m12 m13 m23 analyzed. The plate is simply supported over all edges. The lamina

Value 138 9.3 4.6 3.1 0.3 0.5 has properties E2 E3 6:89 GPa and m12 m23 m13 0:25.

Further, E1 25 E2 ; G23 0:2 E2 and G13 G12 0:5 E2 is taken.

Here, all the laminae have equal thicknesses.

Table 4 The comparison of non-dimensionalized transverse deection

Comparison of transverse deection for rectangular cross-ply thick plate under with mesh renement when p 3 is xed, is reported in Table 1.

sinusoidal loading with mesh renement for xed p = 3. Table 2 reports these results for p renement with mesh xed to

Mesh-III.

Mesh pattern w0 104 Pp 104

From these tables we can see that the values of non-dimen-

Mesh-I 5.8090 3.1683 sionalized transverse deection from our study are close to the

Mesh-II 5.8439 3.1954 one with reference results obtained by Kant et al. [38]. For approx-

Mesh-III 5.8467 3.1974

imation order p 3 the effect of mesh renement shows that

Mesh-IV 5.8468 3.1975

3D solid [35] 5.7263 3.0851 results converge with mesh renement above Mesh-III and with p

renement it converges for p P3. It should be noted that the refer-

ence results are obtained for a xed rectangular mesh with four ele-

ments and no convergence analysis has been reported. Hence, we

Table 5

Comparison of transverse deection for rectangular cross-ply thick plate under

see a difference in the two results. Further, it can be seen that the

sinusoidal loading with p renement for xed Mesh-III. total potential converges to a value of 1:7397 105 and for this

p

value of total potential we observe that the non-dimensionalized

w0 104 Pp 104

transverse deection also shows convergence.

1 5.2480 2.8603 Case 2: A cross-ply rectangular laminate under sinusoidal trans-

2 5.8439 3.1954 verse loading

3 5.8467 3.1975

A rectangular 0=90S laminated plate, hard simple supported

4 5.8469 3.1975

3D solid [35] 5.7263 3.0851 along all edges, and subjected to transverse sinusoidal loading is

analyzed. All the layers have equal thicknesses and S 5 is taken.

The laminae properties are listed in Table 3. The amplitude of

loaded transversely on the upper surface through a sinusoidal load sinusoidal loading qc is 1 N/mm2 with m n 1. The sinusoidal

as loading in this case is of the from

m p x n p y m p x n p y

qz x; y qc sin sin 36 qz x; y qc cos cos 39

X Y X Y

Table 6

Comparison of stresses for rectangular cross-ply thick plate under sinusoidal loading with mesh renement for xed p 3.

X X X X

pattern Y d

2;2;2

Y d

2;2;2 X; Y; 2d Y d

2;2;2

Y d

2;2;2 X; Y; 2d

Mesh-II 7.9947 1.7597 0.9057 7.9523 1.7496 0.8990

Mesh-III 7.9137 1.7410 0.8989 7.9118 1.7403 0.8982

Mesh-IV 7.9042 1.7384 0.8980 7.9042 1.7382 0.8970

3D solid [35] 7.7388 1.9267 0.8602 7.7388 1.9267 0.8602

P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935 27

Table 7

Comparison of stresses for rectangular cross-ply thick plate under sinusoidal loading with p renement for xed Mesh-III.

X Y d

X Y d

X X

2;2;2 2;2;2 X; Y; 2d Y d

2;2;2

Y d

2;2;2 X; Y; 2d

2 7.9947 1.7597 0.9057 7.9523 1.7496 0.8990

3 7.8687 1.7298 0.8936 7.8972 1.7363 0.8970

4 7.8663 1.7513 0.8980 7.8980 1.7365 0.8972

3D solid [35] 7.7388 1.9267 0.8602 7.7388 1.9267 0.8602

Comparison of non-dimensionalized transverse deection for a square cross-ply, gence to the values in [35] than compared to the convergence

moderately thick plate with mesh renement and p 3 xed.

of nite element stress components.

Mesh pattern 0

w Pp 104

6.1.2. Comparison for moderately thick laminates

Mesh-II 0.7171 1.0127 In this section square cross-ply anti-symmetric laminates under

Mesh-III 0.7176 1.0129 uniformly distributed transverse load are studied for their predic-

Mesh-IV 0.7176 1.0129 tive capabilities of pointwise transverse deection. This study is

Kant et al. [38] 0.7164

carried out for different types of mesh patterns (as shown in

Fig. 5) and degree of approximation (p = 1 through 4) used. Then

The transverse deection for mesh renement with xed p 3 these results are compared with the results available in literature.

is tabulated in Table 4 and for p renement with Mesh-III is Case 1: A cross-ply square laminate under sinusoidal transverse

reported in Table 5. The convergence of the in-plane stress compo- loading

nents has been reported in Table 6 for mesh renement with p 3 The problem description is same as Case 1 of the Section 6.1.1,

xed and in Table 7 for p renement with Mesh-III xed. In Tables but with S 10. The effect of mesh renement, with approx-

6 and 7, the stress components rxx ; ryy and sxy denote recovered imation order p 3, on the convergence of the results has been

stresses and rxx ; ryy and sxy denote nite element stresses. The studied and is reported in Table 8. Similarly, with Mesh-III xed

recovered stresses are obtained using constitutive relations and the effect of p renement on the convergence of the results is

the recovered strain components, as discussed in Section 3.1. reported in Table 9. Further, for these cases the convergence of

These results are compared with the 3D nite element results the total potential is also reported.

reported in [35]. It should be noted that the origin of the coordinate The observations for this study show that the non-dimen-

system for laminate geometry in the present study is xed at the sionalized transverse displacement convergences to a value of

lower left corner and in [35] it is xed at the center of the laminate. 0:7176 and total potential to a value of 1:0129 104 for

From the results we observe that: Mesh-III and higher levels of mesh renement. Similarly, for

Mesh-III the convergence is observed for p P3. It can be observed

1. The results for transverse deection converge to 5:8467 104 that the convergence in the non-dimensionalized transverse

for mesh renement with meshes above Mesh-III type and displacement is seen when the value for total potential is con-

p 3 xed. The results from present study are close to 3D nite verged. It can be easily seen that the converged value of the non-

element results reported in [35]. dimensionalized transverse displacement is very close to the value

2. The results from present study for deection component with p reported in [38]. Further, it can be observed that the convergence

renement converge with Mesh-III xed for p P3. The with mesh and p renements is achieved faster as compared to

converged values are same as mentioned in point 1 above. thick plate case.

3. The plate model gives a converged total potential value of Case 2: An anti-symmetric square laminate under uniform

3:1975 104 , which is higher than the reference values in transverse loading

[35]. This difference between total potential values is because A four-layer antisymmetric angle-ply square laminate,

the plate model considered here assumes a smooth strain eld 45= 45=45= 45, subjected to uniformly distributed transverse

through the thickness, which may lead to a jump in the values load is analyzed for all edges hard simple supported and all edges

of the transverse stresses at the interfaces. This is in direct vio- clamped boundary conditions. The intensity of the uniformly dis-

lation of the stress continuity requirement (from 3D elasticity tributed load is q0 6:89 103 N/mm2. Here, the thicknesses of

solution point of view) at the interface.

4. The convergence of stress components to the values reported in

[35], obtained using three dimensional nite element analysis, Table 10

Comparison of non-dimensionalized transverse displacement for 45= 45=45= 45

does not show much difference between stress components

square, moderately thick laminate with mesh renement for p 3 xed.

obtained using recovery and nite element approach for mesh

renement with p 3. However, for p renement, with mesh Boundary condition Mesh pattern 0

w Pp 104

Table 9

Mesh-II 1.1059 2.6682

Comparison of non-dimensionlaized transverse deection for a square cross-ply,

Mesh-III 1.1068 2.6698

moderately thick plate with p renement and Mesh-III xed.

Mesh-IV 1.1069 2.6700

p 0

w Pp 104 Reddy and Miravete [56] 1.1598

2 0.7175 1.0118 Mesh-II 0.5779 1.1756

3 0.7176 1.0129 Mesh-III 0.5799 1.1819

4 0.7176 1.0129 Mesh-IV 0.5800 1.1812

Kant et al. [38] 0.7164 Reddy and Miravete [56] 0.7708

28 P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935

Comparison of non-dimensionalized transverse displacement for 45= 45=45= 45 loading

square, moderately thick laminate with p renement for xed Mesh-III.

The problem description is same as in Case 1 in Section 6.1.1

Boundary condition p 0

w Pp 104 with the change that S 100. The results from present study are

H-SSSS 1 0.8862 2.0615 given in Table 12 and Table 13. From above tables we can see that:

2 1.1055 2.6642

3 1.1068 2.6698 1. The non-dimensionalised displacement converges to 0.4353

4 1.1069 2.6700 and total potential to 0.0614 for mesh renement Mesh-III

Reddy and Miravete [56] 1.1598

and p 3 xed and similar results are seen for xed mesh

CCCC 1 0.4632 0.9143 Mesh-III and p renement with p P 3.

2 0.5773 1.1719

3 0.5799 1.1819

2. The non-dimensional displacement obtained from present

4 0.5801 1.1812 study is very close to the reference values in [38]. It should be

Reddy and Miravete [56] 0.7708 noted that the laminate considered here is thin. Hence, the

effect in transverse direction is easily captured by HSDT model

used in the present study.

all layers are same and S 4 is taken. The properties of the lami- 3. The convergence in both displacement and total potential

nate material are: E2 6:89 103 N/mm2, m12 m13 0:25; E1 values is achieved with a moderate mesh and p renements.

10 E2 ; G12 G13 0:6 E2 , and G23 0:5 E2 .

The convergence study for the values of non-dimensionalized Case 2: A cross-ply rectangular laminate under uniform transverse

transverse deection and total potential has been carried out for loading

both mesh and p renements. These results are tabulated in A simply supported thin cross-ply laminate 0=90S with

Table 10 and Table 11, respectively. Here, H-SSSS or CCCC denote thickness of each ply as 0.127 mm and S 450 under uniformly

the boundary conditions that all edges are hard simple supported distributed load is considered. The intensity of the uniform load

or clamped, respectively. applied is q0 6:9 104 MPa. T300/5208 Graphite/Epoxy

The observations drawn from this study are:

(pre-preg) v f 0:7 is used as the material for the laminate ana-

lyzed. The material properties for this material are given in

1. Both non-dimensionalized transverse displacement and total Table 14. Results are tabulated in Table 15 and Table 16. From

potential converge for mesh renements above Mesh-III, these tables, it can be observed that:

whereas, for a xed mesh Mesh III, the convergence with p

renement can be seen for p P3. Further, the convergence for 1. The displacement converges to a value of 11.5004 with mesh

displacement component is seen when there is convergence renement for mesh renement level of Mesh-III or above.

for total potential as well. 2. The convergence with renement for the Mesh-III or above

2. The displacements from present study are higher than those levels is achieved with p P3.

obtained by Reddy and Miravete [56]. We have used higher 3. The reference results are obtained for constant mesh and with

order shear deformation theory (HSDT) while in [56] rst order FSDT model. Also, no convergence study with respect to either

shear deformation plate theory (FSDT) is used. The solution to mesh renement or p renement was done. The results with

the problem is obtained by using Le vy method with state-space present HSDT model match exactly with the results reported

approach. The HSDT model leads to a more exible structure as in [56].

compared to the FSDT model. However, one should note that 4. Mesh renement level Mesh-III and p 3 seem to be reason-

there is no signicant difference in the values obtained by these able for convergence study.

models for hard simple supported boundary condition case.

However, for all edges clamped boundary condition the results 6.2. First-ply failure load

from present study are not in good agreement with [56]. This is

due to the locking effect caused by edge constraints. In this section, the rst-ply failure load using Tsai-Wu failure

3. In both the studies, the results converge fast for simple sup- theory [33] has been obtained. The transverse deection at the

ported plate as compared to the clamped one. The clamped center of the plate corresponding to the rst-ply failure load is also

plate shows signicant effect of edge constraints, in comparison obtained. These results are then compared with the results

to the simple supported plate. reported in [57].

The non-dimensionalized transverse deection at the center of

6.1.3. Comparison for thin laminates the plate, corresponding to the rst-ply failure load, is dened as

In this section the non-dimensionalized transverse deection is w0

validated for cross-ply square laminate under sinusoidal load and w0 40

d

cross-ply rectangular laminate under uniform transverse load for

and the non-dimensionalized rst-ply failure load (FLD) is given by

both mesh and p renements.

Table 12 Table 13

Comparison of non-dimensionalized transverse displacement for thin cross-ply Comparison of non-dimensionalized transverse displacement for thin cross-ply

laminate with mesh renement for p 3 xed. laminate with p renement for xed Mesh-III.

Mesh pattern 0

w Pp p 0

w Pp

Mesh-I 0.4336 0.0605 1 0.0388 0.0530

Mesh-II 0.4352 0.0612 2 0.4255 0.0600

Mesh-III 0.4353 0.0614 3 0.4353 0.0614

Mesh-IV 0.4353 0.0614 4 0.4353 0.0614

Kant et al. [38] 0.4344 Kant et al. [38] 0.4344

P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935 29

Material properties for T300/5208 Graphite/Epoxy unidirectional composite [56]. Epoxy (pre-preg) is analyzed for rst-ply failure load. The material

Property E1 E2 E3 G12 G13 G23 m12 m13 m23 strength parameters are given in Table 17.

GPa GPa GPa GPa Results from our analysis are reported in Table 18 for h rene-

Value 132.5 10.8 5.7 3.4 0.24 0.49 ment and in Table 19 for p renement. In these tables RR denotes

that the stresses constructed from recovered strains are used in

failure criterion in Eq. (34) and FE denotes nite element stresses

Table 15 along with Eq. (41). Here and in the following, xco and yco

Comparison of non-dimensionalized transverse displacement for cross-ply thin denote the x and y coordinates of the point where the failure index

laminate with mesh renement and xed p 3. value is reported.

Mesh pattern w0 Pp From the above tables we can see that:

Mesh-I 11.7421 23.9584

Mesh-II 11.5132 24.2721 1. For xed value of p 2 with mesh renement, the failure load

Mesh-III 11.5004 24.4141 for Mesh-II is very high. This is due to locking effect exhibited

Mesh-IV 11.5004 24.4231 by plate. Since, plate is very thin and clamped along all edges,

Reddy et al. [56] 11.5000 this effect is more severe. A similar observation can be made

for p renement.

2. With higher levels of renement for mesh (Mesh-IV) or higher p

Table 16

values the failure loads are very close to one reported in [57].

Comparison of non-dimensionalized transverse displacement for cross-ply thin 3. The failure loads with stresses obtained from recovered strains

laminate with p renement for xed Mesh-III. are lower compared to failure load obtained by using nite ele-

p w0 Pp

ment stresses.

4. The failure locations obtained for our study are different from

1 0.0340 0.0712

those reported in [57]. The problem considered is symmetric

2 10.9555 23.2155

3 11.5004 24.4141 in all respect. Hence, locations can also be expected to be sym-

4 11.5004 24.4250 metric. We are getting the locations on the face opposite to that

Reddy et al. [56] 11.5000 obtained from reference results. It should be noted that the

reference results were obtained for a xed mesh with FSDT

model using Lagrangian iso-parametric rectangular elements

4

q0 X and no convergence study was done.

FLD 41 5. Failure location is found mostly on top face of the laminate.

E2 d

Further, the maximum contribution to failure index is due to

For this validation study, the mesh topology shown in Fig. 5 has rxx and sxy stress components. The failure mode is, thus, matrix

been used. First, an antisymmetric angle ply laminated plate is failure.

studied for its rst-ply failure load. In the second problem, we have

analyzed a symmetric cross ply laminate for its rst-ply failure Case 2: A cross-ply laminate under uniformly distributed load

load. The rst-ply failure load has been obtained by using nite The problem description is same as in Case 1 above, but the

element stresses as well as stresses constructed using recovered lamination scheme for this problem is 0=90S . Results from present

strains and constitutive relations. In both cases the transverse analysis are reported in Table 20 for mesh renement with p 2

stresses used are obtained by using equilibrium equations. held constant and in Table 21 with p renement for a constant

Case 1: Antisymmetric angle-ply laminate under uniformly dis- mesh, Mesh-II.

tributed load The comparison of the results with the reference results yield

The problem description is same as Case 2 in Section 6.1.3. The the same conclusions as discussed in Case 1 above.

antisymmetric angle ply laminated plate considered here is Fig. 6 depicts the failure locations obtained from present study

clamped along all edges and loaded with uniformly distributed and those reported in [57]. The point 1 and 2 denote the failure

locations obtained by Reddy and Reddy [57] for 45=45=

Table 17

45=45 and 0=90S laminates, respectively. Further, the points

Strength parameters for T300/5208 Graphite/Epoxy unidirectional composite [57].

1 and 2 show the failure locations from our study for

Property XT XC Y T ZT Y C ZC R ST 45=45= 45=45 and 0=90S laminates, respectively. A detailed

MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa

Value 1515 1697 43.8 43.8 67.6 86.9

study on the rst-ply failure loads along with discretization error

control can be seen in earlier works of authors [49].

Table 18

Comparison study for rst-ply failure load for 45=45= 45=45 laminate with h renement for p 2 xed.

pattern type number

Mesh-II RR 1.771106 35.09 111.93 2.84 1 Top

FE 1.223106 24.25 166.62 93.82 4 Bottom

FE 55555.74 30.94 111.93 0.71 1 Top

Mesh-IV RR 37661.66 23.85 115.35 0.95 1 Top

FE 41294.01 26.15 112.79 0.47 1 Top

Reddy et al. [56] FE 39354.80 26.79 125 125 1 Top

30 P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935

Table 19

Comparison study for rst-ply failure load for 45=45= 45=45 laminate with p renement for xed Mesh-II.

type number

2 RR 1.771106 35.09 111.93 2.34 1 Top

FE 1.223106 24.25 166.62 93.82 4 Bottom

FE 35558.73 24.10 119.62 125.57 1 Top

4 RR 32385.21 21.92 99.68 125.83 1 Top

FE 29058.74 19.64 176.87 3.32 1 Top

Reddy et al. [56] FE 39354.80 23.79 125 125 1 Top

Table 20

Comparison study for rst-ply failure load for 0=90S laminate with h renement for p 2 xed.

type type number

Mesh-II RR 1.215106 24.38 117.06 2.84 4 Bottom

FE 1.173106 23.53 119.62 1.42 1 Top

FE 29899.92 24.32 117.06 0.71 1 Top

Mesh-IV RR 19499.95 18.41 115.35 126.05 1 Top

FE 21029.35 19.85 112.79 126.52 1 Top

Reddy et al. [56] FE 19050.90 19.34 2 75 1 Top

Table 21

Comparison study for rst-ply failure load for 0=90S laminate with p renement for xed Mesh-II.

type number

2 RR 1.215106 24.38 117.06 2.84 4 Bottom

FE 1.738106 19.58 119.62 1.42 1 Top

FE 17588.19 17.80 119.62 125.57 1 Top

4 RR 16823.48 16.97 119.62 1.42 1 Top

FE 15676.43 15.82 119.62 125.57 1 Top

Reddy et al. [56] FE 19050.90 19.34 2 75 1 Top

y 2

1

*

1

229 mm

127 mm

*

2

1 2

Fig. 6. Laminate showing the failure locations predicted from present study and reported in [57].

P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935 31

Remark: In above example cases the transverse normal stress, transversely with uniformly distributed load, is analyzed for shape

that is r33 , is not considered while evaluating the failure index in optimization. The intensity of the transverse uniform load is

Eq. (34). This is because this component cannot be computed q0 2:0 N/mm2. The lamination scheme considered is 0=90S with

either from recovered strain data or nite element data, directly. S 10. Here, Y X2 is taken.

Further, no attempt has been made to evaluate this component All laminae are made of T300/5208 Graphite/Epoxy (pre-preg)

using equilibrium equations. and have a thickness of 0.127 mm. The material mechanical prop-

erties are given in Table 14 and strength parameters are given in

Table 17. Here, p 2 is used in the study.

6.3. Shape optimization

The optimum cutout shape results are tabulated in Table 22 and

the corresponding cutout shapes during optimization process are

Here, with few typical examples, we will demonstrate the effect

shown in Fig. 7. From these results we observe that:

of control of discretization error on the nal optimal shape of the

cutout and value of failure index attained. In this study, cross-ply

1. The discretization errors are below 5% for all the feasible

and angle-ply symmetric laminates with cutouts have been

shapes. Hence, adaptive renement is not needed.

studied.

2. The initial conguration with the given loading had a maximum

Remark: In each of the problems, we start with an initial prole

failure index of 0.4095. Thus, there was scope for reduction in

of the elliptical cutout to be circular with a b Y=8, and h 0

.

weight by increasing the size of cutout, which in turn may

Since the p 2 approximation, with sufciently rened mesh,

increase the failure index value. This fact is seen through the

gives reasonable failure load values, this is taken as the order of

intermediate conguration during the optimization procedure.

approximation for all future computations.

The size of the cutout is increased, thereby increasing the maxi-

mum value of failure index.

6.3.1. A rectangular 0=90S laminate under transverse uniform loading 3. The maximum failure index for optimal solution is very close to

A rectangular symmetric laminated plate, with a cutout, the allowable value set (FLD 6 0:8).

clamped along one of the smaller edge (that is, x 0) and loaded 4. The reduction in weight for this study is 3.68%.

Table 22

Optimal shape for cutout in 0=90S laminate without adaptive renement and p 2.

Initial 0.3175 0.3175 12.5865 0.4095 3.6582 2.2109 1.2165

Intermediate 0.5799 0.4109 12.1544 0.7709 4.8672 1.9517 1.3472

Intermediate 0.6015 0.4119 12.1245 0.7899 4.3852 1.9197 1.2083

Optimal 0.6057 0.4100 12.1229 0.7959 4.8293 1.9157 1.2077

y y

x x

Mesh I a=b=0.3175, max. index=0.4095, error=3.658% Mesh II a=0.5799, b=0.4109, max. index=0.7709, error=4.867%

y y

x x

Mesh III a=0.6057, b=0.41, max. index=0.7959, error=4.8293% Mesh IV a=0.6015, b=0.4119, max. index=0.7899, error=4.385%

Fig. 7. Cutout shapes during optimization in 0=90S laminate under uniform transverse load.

Table 23

Optimal shape for cutout in 45= 45S laminate without adaptive renement and p 2.

Initial 0.3175 0.3175 12.5865 0.4953 7.1979 0.0740 0.0224

Intermediate 0.8598 0.8808 10.5236 0.3461 11.8820 2.1983 0.4315

Intermediate 1.0122 0.8960 10.0535 0.3939 11.8937 2.1435 0.4188

Optimal 1.0160 1.0160 09.6602 0.7712 15.6503 2.4090 2.3167

32 P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935

y y

x x

Mesh I Mesh II

y y

x x

Mesh III Mesh IV

y y

x x

Mesh V Mesh VI

Fig. 8. Adaptive renements in optimum shape for 45= 45S laminate under uniform transverse load.

Table 24

Effect of adaptivity on nal optimal shape in 45= 45S laminate under transverse

uniform load. Table 26

Effect of adaptivity on optimal shape in 45= 45S laminate subjected to combined

Renement level error (%) Max. index loading.

Initial 15.6503 0.7712 Adaptivity a b Weight Max. index error (%)

First 15.0825

Second 13.5012 No 1.0155 0.8753 10.1103 0.7997 8.3792

Third 12.4125 Yes 1.0157 0.8258 10.2681 0.7999 6.4297

Fourth 11.0823

Fifth 10.4591 1.0089

Table 25 loading

Effect of adaptivity on optimal shape in 45= 45S laminate subjected to uniform The problem description is same as in Section 6.3.1. However, in

transverse loading.

this case the lamination scheme is changed to 45= 45S . The

Adaptivity a b Weight Max. index error (%) intensity of uniform transverse load is q0 0:22 N/mm2.

No 1.0160 1.0160 09.6602 0.7712 15.6503 In this study the discretization error was estimated but not con-

Yes 0.5248 0.3175 12.3796 0.7978 6.7000 trolled by adaptive renements. These results are tabulated in

Table 23. From these results we observe that:

5. The failure occurs at the edges of cutout boundary. When the 1. The discretization errors are above 10% in most of the feasible

contribution to the failure index from each of the stress compo- shapes.

nent is studied in detail, it was seen that the stress component 2. The reduction in weight obtained is about 22%.

ryy contributes more as compared to other components. Thus, 3. The nal optimum shape has reached the upper bound on the

the mode of failure can be said to be a matrix failure. This result design variables, that is, the minor and major axes of the ellip-

is in accordance with the results obtained by Ericson et al. [58]. tical cutout. Although, the value of failure index is very close to

6. The optimal shape of the cutout is an ellipse with an orientation the allowable value set for this optimum shape, there is scope of

angle of 0

with respect to x axis. additional material removal from this design.

P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935 33

4. Failure occurs at the edges of cutout boundary. This is due to are taken. Here, N xx and N xy denote uniform axial stress along x

high stress concentration because of constraint and free-edge direction and shear stress in x y plane per unit length, respec-

effects. Further, it was observed that the location of rst-ply tively, applied on the edges.

failure changes from one iteration to another in the cutout In this study rst the optimal cutout shape is obtained without

vicinity. controlling the discretization error and then the optimal shape is

5. When the contribution to failure index from each of the stress obtained with control of discretization error. Again, the mesh is

component at the point of failure was analyzed, it was seen that rened adaptively till either the tolerance in discretization error

the stress components ryy and sxy contribute most. Thus, it can is reduced below 7% or for ve levels of renement, whichever is

be said that the mode of failure in this case is matrix failure. attained earlier. The results are reported in Table 26. Here, we

This result is in accordance with experimental study reported see that the nal optimal shapes obtained with and without adap-

by Herakovich [54]. tivity are closer to each other in all respects. This is because the

discretization error in both the cases is close. Further, it is seen that

In the above study the discretization error was not controlled. failure occurs near the cutout boundary, but the location changes

The discretization error for the optimal shape is over 15%. Now, during the iterations. Thus, it can be concluded that if the dis-

without changing the optimal shape obtained, an attempt is made cretization error is within specied tolerance, then there is no

to control the discretization error below 7% or ve renement effect of adaptivity on nal design. Note that using higher p

levels, whicever is attained earlier. The sequence of adaptive mesh (p P 3) will not result in signicant change in the conclusions, as

renements is shown in Fig. 8. Mesh-I is the initial mesh used. The the discretization error is controlled.

discretization errors for these rened meshes are reported in Remark: The optimization algorithm used here works with a set

Table 24. of feasible points. In the present study the initial set of feasible

The error estimator predicts that the elements of the clamped shapes are chosen such that the failure index is closer to 0.8.

edge and the cutout boundaries have high discretization error. Further, it is seen that during each iteration the feasible shape

Hence, a relatively rened mesh is seen at these locations. This attained is such that failure index reaches close to the maximum

result is in agreement with the earlier study of the authors [46]. value of 0.8. Therefore, the evolution of failure index with iterations

The higher discretization error near the constraint and free edges will be almost a horizontal line. Further, it is interesting to see the

of the cutout are expected due to constraint and free-edge effects. evolution of optimal shape with iterations. Here, this has been

Thus, due to adaptive renement the errors are reduced from depicted for Examples 6.3.1 and 6.3.2 for some of the iterations.

15.6503% to 10.4591%. However, the failure index has increased Remark: The proposed approach is very efcient as it simultane-

from 0.7712 to 1.0089. This shows that the optimal solution ously estimates and controls the discretization error in each itera-

obtained without control over discretization error is unsafe. tion. The cost of computation involved with this approach, with

Hence, control of discretization error is essential in shape lower value of approximation, can be signicantly lower than that

optimization study. without the control of discretization error but a highly rened mesh

Now we will see the effect of discretization error control, and/or higher value of approximation. It was shown in [42,45] that

through adaptive mesh renements, on the outcome of the recovered strain eld is accurate than that obtained by the nite

optimization process. The mesh is rened adaptively till either element solution. This leads to the accurate computations of stres-

the tolerance in discretization error is reduced below 7% or for ve ses used in the optimization constraints evaluation. Further, it was

levels of renement, whichever is attained earlier. The comparison shown in [42,4547] that the ZZ type approach of estimating and

of results with and without adaptivity is shown in Table 25. controlling the discretization error is computationally economical.

From these results it is seen that: Therefore, the overall approach used for shape optimization is

computationally economical and accurate as well.

1. The nal optimal shape obtained with and without adaptivity Remark: Here, all computations have been carried out approx-

are signicantly different. The optimal shape of the cutout with- imation order p 2. This has been done intentionally because in all

out discretization error control is circular in nature while the practical purpose computations a lower order of approximation is

one obtained with discretization error controlled throughout used. When a lower approximation order is used and discretization

the optimization procedure is elliptic in shape with orientation error is not controlled then nal solution may not be accurate.

of 0

with x-axis. Here, we wanted to demonstrate this fact through the optimization

2. The discretization error for the nal optimal shape with adap- study. If the approximation order is increased then the recovered

tive procedure is well below the tolerance mentioned. strains will be more accurate. Therefore, the discretization error

3. Failure occurs at the cutout boundary, but the location changes will be lesser as compared to the error when obtained with

from one iteration to another. p 2. However, the nal optimal shape obtained with higher

4. The value of the maximum failure index attained is very close to approximation order may not be different from that one obtained

the allowable value. with p 2.

5. The weight reduction in the optimal design obtained without

control of discretization error (about 22%) is more compared

to one obtained with control of discretization error (about 7. Conclusions

2%). Thus, from this example it is seen that if the discretization

error is not controlled, more material removal will be predicted In this study the shape optimization of laminated composites

erronouysly, hence compromising safety of design. plates with cutout has been studied with a special emphasis on

control of the nite element discretization error. A third order

shear deformation plate theory has been used for the laminate

6.3.3. A rectangular 45= 45S laminate under combined loading analysis and is implemented in a nite element code. A strain eld

A rectangular symmetrically laminated composite plate, having same representation as the exact solution of the displace-

45= 45S clamped along a smaller edge, x 0 is taken. The plate ment eld of the plate model considered is recovered using energy

is loaded under uniformly distributed load, in-plane tensile loading projections over the element patches similar to ZZ type patch

and shear load. The laminate properties are as in Section 6.3.1. For recovery. Then these recovered strains are used to dene a-posteri-

this case, q0 0:15 N/mm2, N xx 20 N/mm and N xy 0:35 N/mm ori error estimator, which drives a simple mesh renement

34 P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935

algorithm. The plate model used is tested for its accuracy in pre- [3] Abrate S. Optimal design of laminated plates and shells. Compos Struct

1994;29:26986.

dicting transverse displacement component, stress components

[4] Kam TY, Lai FM, Liao SC. Minimum weight design of laminated composite

and rst-ply failure load obtained using Tsai-Wu failure theory plates subject to strength constraint. AIAA J 1996;34(8):1699708.

under various boundary; transverse loading conditions, plate [5] Shin YS, Haftka RT, Watson LT, Plaut RH. Design of laminated plates for

thickness ratios and lamination schemes. An optimization algo- maximum buckling load. J Compos Mater 1989;23:34869.

[6] Lee MS, Kikuchi N, Scott RA. Shape optimization laminated composite plates.

rithm using complex search method has been employed. Finally, Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1989;72:2955.

the effect of discretization error control over the nal optimal [7] Adali S, Richter A, Verijenko VE, Summers EB. Optimal design of hybrid

design is demonstrated through simple, yet effective examples. laminates with discrete ply angles for maximum buckling load and minimum

cost. Compos Struct 1995;32:40915.

The key conclusions from this study can be given as follows: [8] Adali S, Walker M, Verijenko VE. Multiobjective optimization of laminated

plates for maximum prebuckling, buckling and postbuckling strength using

1. For thick laminates, the plate model used needs moderately continuous and discrete ply angles. Compos Struct 1996;35:11730.

[9] Botkin ME. Shape optimization with buckling and stress constraints. AIAA J

rened mesh and the cubic approximation order used is Technical Notes 1996;34(2):4235.

sufcient. [10] Nagendra S, Haftka RT, Grdal Z. Design of a blade-stiffened composite panel

2. For moderately thick laminates, proper mesh renement with a hole. Compos Struct 1991;18:195219.

[11] Naik NK, Ganesh VK. Optimum design studies on FRP beams with holes.

and approximation orders should be chosen for a better Compos Struct 1993;24:5966.

convergence. [12] Sivakumar K, Iyengar NGR, Deb K. Free vibration of laminated composite

3. For thin laminates, boundary layer effect is severe. Mesh plates with cutout. J Sound Vib 1999;221(3):44370.

[13] Haftka RT, Grandhi RV. Structural shape optimization a survey. Comput

renements are needed in order to eliminate the effect of

Methods Appl Mech Eng 1986;57:91106.

locking. Higher approximation orders p P 3 is also needed [14] Ding Y. Shape optimization of structures: a literature survey. Comput Struct

in order to reduce the locking effect. Thus, for a thin plate 1986;24(6):9851005.

greater care should be taken (with respect to the approx- [15] Sobieszczanski-Sobieski J, Haftka RT. Multidisciplinary aerospace design

survey of recent developments. Struct Optim 1997;14:123.

imation) in order to ensure reliability of the solution [16] Kaufmann M, Zenkert D, Wennhage P. Integrated cost/weight optimization of

quantities. aircraft structures. Struct Multidisc Optim 2010;41:32534.

4. The transverse displacement component obtained for thick, [17] Kikuchi N, Chung KY, Torigaki T, Taylor JE. Adaptive nite element methods for

shape optimization of linearly elastic structures. Comput Methods Appl Mech

moderately thick and thin cross-ply and angle ply laminates Eng 1986;57:6789.

for various boundary conditions under uniform as well as [18] Hinton E, zakca M, Rao NVR. An integrated approach to structural shape

sinusoidal transverse loads are accurate. Further, the stres- optimization of linearly elastic structures. Part II: Shape denition and

adaptivity. Comp Sys Eng 1991;2:4156.

ses obtained using recovered strains are reasonably [19] Weck M, Nottebaum T. Adaptive meshing saving computational costs during

accurate. the optimization of composite structures. Struct Optim 1993;6:10815.

5. For angle ply laminates the failure starts at the top or bottom [20] Bennett JA, Botkin ME. Structural shape optimization with geometric

description and adaptive mesh renement. AIAA J 1985;23(3):45864.

edge of the laminate. The failure is dominated by ryy and sxy [21] Schleupen A, Maute K, Ramm E. Adaptive FE-procedures in shape

stress components. This results in matrix type failure in the optimization. Struct Multidisc Optim 2000;19:282302.

laminate. [22] Morin P, Nochetto RH, Pauletti MS, Verani M. Adaptive nite element method

for shape optimization. ESAIM: Control Optim Calculus Variations

6. For cross-ply laminates, the failure starts at the top or bot-

2012;18:112249.

tom edge of the laminate. The failure mainly occurs due to [23] Tian X, Wang MY. h-Adaptive extended nite element method for structural

stress component ryy . Again, this gives rise to matrix type optimization. 10th World Congress on Structural and Multidisciplinary

Optimization. USA: Orlando, Florida; 2013.

failure in the laminate.

[24] Bugeda G, Rdenas JJ, Oate E. An integration of a low cost adaptive remeshing

7. In case of laminates with cutout, the failure starts at the cut- strategy in the solution of structural shape optimization problems using

out boundary. This is because of high stresses due to free- evolutionary methods. Comput Struct 2008;86:156378.

[25] Bruggi M, Veranio M. A fully adaptive topology optimization algorithm with

edge effect at the cutout boundaries.

goal-oriented error control. Comput Struct 2011;89:148193.

8. With the use of stresses obtained using recovered strains, [26] Wang Y, Kang Z, He Q. An adaptive renement approach for topology

failure is predicted earlier than that obtained using the nite optimization based on separated density eld description. Comput Struct

element stresses. These failure loads are 518% lesser than 2013;117:10122.

[27] Reddy JN. A simple higher-order theory for laminated plates. J Appl Mech

the reported results for angle-ply laminates. Further, these 1984;51:74552.

values for failure load are about 12% lesser than the values [28] Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. A simple error estimator and the adaptive procedure

reported in literature for cross-ply laminates. for practical engineering analysis. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987;24:

33757.

9. Adaptive renement procedure based on a-posteriori error [29] Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. The superconvergent patch recovery and a-posteriori

estimation affects the nal optimal solution. The nal design error estimates. Part 1: The recovery technique. Int J Numer Methods Eng

obtained with a cruder approximation is dangerous, because 1992;33:133164.

[30] Rank E, Zienkiewicz OC. A simple error estimator in the nite element method.

more material removal is predicted if the discretisation error Comm Appl Numer Methods 1987;3:2439.

is high (20% more material removal predicted). This is [31] Zhu JZ, Zienkiewicz OC. Superconvergence recovery technique and a-posteriori

because the plate behavior is stiffer with a crude approx- error estimators. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1990;30:132139.

[32] Deb K. Optimization for Engineering Design, Algorithms and Examples. New

imation, as compared to that obtained with proper rene-

Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private Limited; 1998.

ments and/or approximation order. [33] Tsai SW, Wu EM. A general theory of strength for anisotropic materials. J

10. This study brings out the important point that it is impera- Compos Mater 1971;5:5880.

[34] Lo KH, Christensen RM, Wu EM. A higher-order theory of plate deformation

tive to have some indication of the discretisation error, in

Part-2: Laminated plates. J Appl Mech 1977;44(4):61669.

order to accept or reject the nal design obtained from the [35] Actis RL, Szab BA, Schwab C. Hierarchic models for laminated plates and

shape optimization. shells. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999;172(14):79107.

[36] Pandya BN, Kant T. A rened higher-order generally orthotropic C0 plate

bending element. Comput Struct 1988;28:11933.

[37] Pandya BN, Kant T. Finite element stress analysis of laminated composite

References plates using a higher-order displacement model. Comp Sci Technol

1988;32:13755.

[38] Pandya BN. Higher-order theories and nite element evaluations for

[1] Park WJ. An optimal design of simple symmetric laminates under the rst ply

multilayer composite plates. Ph.D. dissertation, Indian Institute of

failure criterion. J Compos Mater 1982;16:34155.

Technology Bombay, India; 1988.

[2] Fukunaga H, Sekine H. Optimum design of composite structures for shape,

[39] Babuka I, Strouboulis T. The nite element method and its

layer angle and layer thickness distributions. J Compos Mater

reliability. Oxford: Oxford Science Publications; 2001.

1993;27(15):147992.

P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay / Computers and Structures 153 (2015) 1935 35

[40] Verfrth R. A review of a-posteriori error estimation and adaptive mesh- [49] Mohite PM, Upadhyay CS. Accurate computation of critical local quantities in

renement. New York: Wiley; 1996. composite laminated plates under transverse loading. Comput Struct

[41] Verfrth R. A review of a-posteriori error estimation techniques for elasticity 2006;84(1011):65775.

problems. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999;176:41940. [50] Mohite PM, Upadhyay CS. A generalized adaptive nite element analysis of

[42] Babuka I, Strouboulis T, Upadhyay CS, Gangaraj SK, Copps K. Validation of a- laminated plates. Comput Struct 2012;112113:21734.

posteriori error estimators by numerical approach. Int J Numer Methods Eng [51] Suri M, Babuka I, Schwab C. Locking effects in the nite element

1994;37:1073123. approximation of plate models. Math Comput 1995;64(210):46182.

[43] Babuka I, Strouboulis T, Mathur A, Upadhyay CS. Pollution error in the h [52] Yunus SM, Pawlak TP, Wheeler MJ. Application of the Zienkiewicz-Zhu error

version of the nite element method and the local quality of a-posteriori error estimator for plate and shell analysis. Int J Numer Methods Eng

estimators. Finite Elem Anal Des 1994;17:273321. 1990;29:128198.

[44] Babuka I, Strouboulis T, Upadhyay CS. A model study of the quality of a- [53] Gastaldi L. Uniform interior error estimates for the ReissnerMindlin plate

posteriori error estimators for linear elliptic problems. Error estimation in the model. Math Comp 1993;61(204):53967.

interior of patchwise uniform grids of triangles. Comput Methods Appl Mech [54] Herakovich CT. Mechanics of brous composites. Delhi: John Wiley and Sons,

Eng 1994;114:30778. Inc; 1998.

[45] Upadhyay CS. Computer-based analysis of error estimation and [55] Mohite PM. Composite materials and structures, NPTEL course. http://nptel.ac.

superconvergence in nite element computations. Ph.D. dissertation at Texas in/courses/101104010/.

A&M University, Texas; May 1997. [56] Reddy JN, Miravete A. Practical analysis of composite laminates. New

[46] Mohite PM, Upadhyay CS. A simple strain-recovery based a-posteriori error York: CRC Press; 1995.

estimator for laminated composite plates. J Aerospace Sci Technol [57] Reddy YSN, Reddy JN. Linear and non-linear failure analysis of composite

2007;59(3):21222. laminates with transverse shear. Comp Sci Technol 1992;44:22755.

[47] Mohite PM, Upadhyay CS. Local quality of smoothening based a-posteriori [58] Ericson K, Persson M, Carlsson L, Gustavsson A. On the prediction of the

error estimators for laminated plates under transverse loading. Comput Struct initiation of delamination in a 0=90s laminate with a circular hole. J Compos

2002;80(1819):147788. Mate 1984;18:495506.

[48] Mohite PM, Upadhyay CS. Focussed adaptivity for laminated plates. Comput

Struct 2003;81(5):28798.

- PQDiunggah olehPranjal Verma
- Structural Shape Optimization Using Moving Mesh MethodDiunggah olehAtish Gawale
- Optimization NotesDiunggah olehAkshansh Chaudhary
- Drill Bit ReplacementDiunggah olehmario5681
- Conte OpenSees Snopt a Framework for Finite Element Based Optimization 26Oct2012 FinalDiunggah olehgreenday3
- Studies in Chemical Process Design and Synthesis_PartII_Optimal Synthesis of Dynamic Process Systems with uncertainty.pdfDiunggah olehMarco Ravelo
- OTC-20777-MS_2.pdfDiunggah olehChinmaya Ranjan Jena
- Aggregate Planning and MPS - Final 2009 (2)Diunggah olehSavya Jaiswal
- Ansys Sbeam DoDiunggah olehshinobmechtech
- final imdcDiunggah olehAhmad Zikri
- Influence of the Objective Function in the History Matching ProcessDiunggah olehNeil Bryan Closa
- Dynamic Economic Dispatch Using Hybrid DE-SQP for Generating Units with Valve-Point EffectsDiunggah olehahmed
- A Study of Firefly Algorithm and its Application in Non-Linear Dynamic SystemsDiunggah olehEditor IJTSRD
- aDiunggah olehgudun
- BBBCDiunggah olehShivam
- allaire2004Diunggah olehrahulbachute
- Chapter_13Diunggah olehPrabir Acharya
- SMA_PSB_GS_2015Diunggah olehLava Kumar
- 05275860Diunggah olehms6675223
- OR introductionDiunggah olehminoshini
- CHAPTER_1Diunggah olehPranav Aggarwal
- Reconstruction of Deforming Geometry From Time-Varying Point CloudsDiunggah olehChuckie Balbuena
- Managerial EconomicDiunggah olehMuhammad Haris
- Low 201506 OLC3 SkoltechDiunggah olehSorn Darong
- main_paperDiunggah olehAvadhoot Rane
- 2011DelhiStudy-Appendix C Geotechnical Analysis and Design_Part2Diunggah olehdedypunya
- nareyek-puk01Diunggah olehpostscript
- 01-xabaid01Diunggah olehlrdseeker
- 06742918Diunggah olehSujoy Das
- Unit1 Lecture NotesDiunggah olehsignalhuckster

- Progressive Failure Analysis of Glass/Epoxy Composites at Low TemperaturesDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- Solidshell finite elements for quasi-static and dynamic analysis of 3D thin structures: Application to sheet metal forming processesDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- Finite Element Analysis of Progressive DDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- OPTIMISATION OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES CONSIDERING DIFFERENT FAILURE CRITERIADiunggah olehHako Khechai
- A New Finite Element Based on the Strain Approach for Linear and Dynamic AnalysisDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- An effective quadrilateral membrane finite element based on the strain approachDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- A new strain based rectangular finite elementDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- Stress_and_Strain_Concentration_Factors_in_Orthotr.pdfDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- theotoglou-main.pdfDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- EVALUATION OF MODE I INTERLAMINAR FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF FILAMENT-WOUND GFRE COMPOSITE PIPEDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- 05_EN sbírka Matematika 3Diunggah olehg161803
- Stress Distribution around Polygonal Holes in Graphite/Epoxy Laminates Under in Plane LoadingDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- Shape optimization of a Timoshenko beam together with an elastic foundationDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- STABILITY AND VIBRATION OF ISOTROPIC, ORTHOTROPIC AND LAMINATED PLATES ACCORDING TO A HIGHER-ORDER SHEAR DEFORMATION THEORYDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- Free Vibration of Thermally Stressed Angle-Ply Laminated Composite Using First-Order Shear Deformation Theory Model with Assumed Natural Shear StrainDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- Finite Element Analysis of Stress Concentrations in Isotropic and Composite Plates with Elliptical HolesDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- Numerical Analysis of Stress Concentration in Isotropic and Laminated Plates with Inclined Elliptical HolesDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- Multiobjective optimization of modular design concepts for a collection of interacting systemsDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- 1-s2.0-S135983681400331X-mainDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- 3222-14189-1-PB_2.pdfDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- 1-s2.0-S0263822300001707-main.pdfDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- An experimental investigation into the tensile strength scaling of notched compositesDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- Effects of environment on tensile properties of laminated composites containing a central holeDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- Experimental analysis of composite bolted joints using digital image correlationDiunggah olehHako Khechai
- Development of genetic algorithm toolbox using MATLAB in cutting tool path optimizationDiunggah olehHako Khechai

- FTM '12 DBZ Wedge AnchorDiunggah olehshanker
- Plate GirderDiunggah olehAfia S Hameed
- 1-s2.0-S0950061815002834-mainDiunggah olehSanjithRNair
- JSSG-2006Diunggah olehRoberta Varela
- WA-LISTDiunggah olehjohndone
- Grinda Lamelara SimetricaDiunggah olehButziu Bogdan
- 2010 Vamas Twa33 Project3 Mechanical Testing of Polymer NanocompositesDiunggah olehdownloadlagum
- ASTMA860_A860M_09Diunggah olehjerrymcfly
- A More Practical Joist Spec - MSCDiunggah olehHyunkyoun Jin
- Pb 99100182Diunggah olehtt3340
- StonesDiunggah olehKimutai Kirui Alphonce
- ABS Bulk CarrierDiunggah olehAlexandraNguyen
- training presentationDiunggah olehhj
- A Compilation of Elevated Temperature Concrete Material Property Data and Information for Use in Assessments of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete StructuresDiunggah olehEnformable
- Deformation of Polyurea Coated Steel Plates Under Localised Blast Loading 2013 International Journal of Impact EngineeringDiunggah olehheltaher
- HIT HY-150.pdfDiunggah olehEduardo Antonio Duran Sepulveda
- Torsion Em 327: Mechanics of Materials LaboratoryDiunggah olehfrankjono
- C610Diunggah olehVincent Coss
- Seismic Concentric Braced FramesDiunggah olehAlvaro Carranza
- 54158Diunggah olehSameer Ul Bashir
- Strength of Concrete Cubes and CylindersDiunggah olehZiyad12
- PV Elite Training Presentation(2007)Diunggah olehAnh Vân Trần
- Finite Element Modeling of Concrete Masonry-Infilled (El-Dakhakhni, Et Al. 2008)Diunggah olehJose Manuel
- Fatigue and Brittle Fracture of Carbon Steel Process PipelineDiunggah olehEsteban Rodriguez
- Strength of Machine Elements (2003)1Diunggah olehbarupatty
- Effect of Fiber Volume Fraction on Tensile Properties of Rice Husk Reinforced Polyester ComposittesDiunggah olehlazirbeffebrizal
- Lightweight Composites Containing Hemp HurdsDiunggah olehsami_bangash_1
- 5 Residual Stresses in Welded StructuresDiunggah olehSon Tran
- AstmDiunggah olehRaden Yudityo Afri Adji
- Lecture 17Diunggah olehMayMST