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Automatic irrigation System 2017-

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Automatic irrigation system


PROJECT REPORT
OF PROJECT-I (EC-498)

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

Electronics and Communication

SUBMITTED BY

Rohit Kumar BT4060195


Shubham Dutt BT4060199
Rajat Pundir BT4060208
Rohit BT4060209
Sep 2017

SUPERVISOR
Er.Vivek Mankotia

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND


COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING, JNGEC,
SUNDERNAGAR (H.P.) - 175018
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CERTIFICATE

I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the Project Report entitled Automatic

irrigation System, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering and submitted to the


Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering of J.N. Government Engineering
College, Sundernagar Distt. Mandi is an authentic record of my own work carried out during a period
from August 2017 to November 2017 (7th semester) under the supervision of Er.VIVEK
MANKOTIA, Assistant Professor, Electronics and Communication Engineering Department.

Signature of Students

Rohit Kumar BT4060195


Shubham Dutt BT4060199
Rajat Pundir BT4060208
Rohit BT4060209
Bhuvnesh Ganpati 22251

This is to certify that the above statement made by the student(s) is correct to the best of my
knowledge.

Signature of Supervisor

Date: Name & Designation


Head
Electronics and Communication Signature of External
Engineering Department Examiner

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to place on record my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Vivek Mankotia, Assistant
Prof. Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Government
Engineering College, Sundernagar, District Mandi, for his stimulating guidance, help and
useful suggestions, continuous encouragement and supervision throughout the course of
present work.

I also wish to extend my thanks to other professors and other colleagues for attending
my seminars and for their insightful comments and constructive suggestions to improve the
quality of this project work.

I am extremely thankful to Prof. Raman Parti, Director, JNGEC, Sundernagar, for providing
me infrastructural facilities to work in, without which this work would not have been possible.

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ABSTRACT

Pump be turned on/off, saves a lot time for the farmers. This also gives much needed rest to
the farmers, as they dont have to go and turn the pump on/off manually. The motivation for
this project came from the countries where economy is based on agriculture and the climatic
conditions lead to lack of rains & scarcity of water. The farmers working in the farm lands are
solely dependent on the rains and bore wells for irrigation of the land. Even if the farm land
has a water-pump, manual intervention by farmers is required to turn the pump on/off whenever
needed. The aim of our project is to minimize this manual intervention by the farmer, which is
why we are using a micro-controller (89s52).

The micro-controller based automated irrigation system will serve the following purposes:

1) There is no un-planned usage of water, a lot of water is saved from being wasted. 2) The
irrigation is the only when there is not enough moisture in the soil and the microcontroller
decides when should the pump on/off.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE NO.


Certificate 2
Acknowledgement 3
Abstract 4

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction 7-8


1.2 Objective 9
1.3 Principle Behind The Circuit 10
1.4 Circuit Diagram 11-12
1.5 Hardware Requirement 13
1.6 Software Requirement 13-14
1.7 Circuit Design 14

Chapter 2: Hardware Description


2.1 Power Supply 16
2.2 Transformer 17
2.3 Rectifier 18-19
2.4 Microcontroller 19-20
2.6 Vacuum Pump 21
2.7 LCD 22-24
2.8 Resistor 25
2.9 Capacitor 26
2.10 Transistor 27-28
2.11 Relay 29-30
2.12 Voltage Regulator 31-32
2.13 LED 33-34
2.14 Comparator 35-37
2.15 Sensing Probe 38-39
2.16 Tools And Platform Used 40

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Chapter 3: Software Description


3.1 Keil Software 41-51
3.2 Proteus8 Professional 52

Chapter 4
4.1 Conclusion 53
4.2 Future Scope 54
4.3 Reference 55

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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1.1 INTRODUCTION

The continuous increasing demand of the food requires the rapid improvement in food
production technology. In a country like India, where the economy is mainly based on
agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic, still we are not able to make full use of
agricultural resources. The main reason is the lack of rains & scarcity of land reservoir water.
The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of
land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land.

Another very important reason of this is due to unplanned use of water due to which a
significant amount of water goes waste. In the modern drip irrigation systems, the most
significant advantage is that water is supplied near the root zone of the plants as per requirement
to which a large quantity of water is saved. At the present era, the farmers have been using
irrigation technique in India through the manual control in which the farmers irrigate the land
at the regular intervals. This process sometimes consumes more water or sometimes the water
reaches late due to which the crops get dried.

Water deficiency can be detrimental to plants before visible wilting occurs. Slowed growth
rate, lighter weight fruit follows slight water deficiency. This problem can be perfectly rectified
if we use automatic micro controller based drip irrigation system in which the irrigation will
take place only when there will be intense requirement of water. Irrigation system uses soil
moisture sensor to turn irrigation ON and OFF. These valves may be easily automated by using
controllers and soil moisture sensor. Automating farm or nursery irrigation allows farmers to
apply the right amount of water at the right time, regardless of the availability of labor to turn
valves on and off. In addition, farmers using automation equipment are able to reduce runoff
from over watering saturated soils, avoid irrigating at the wrong time of day, which will
improve crop performance by ensuring adequate water and nutrients when needed maximize
their net profits.

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1.2 OBJECTIVE

The Objectives of this project is to design and fabricate an automatic irrigation system

thereby saving time & power for the farmer.

Give the flexibility to the farmer as in case they forgets to irrigate the field

Overirrigation of the field is reduced.

To give user more easier way to irrigate the field

In a more efficient way,The project was to design a small-scale automated irrigation

system that would use water for irrigation purpose.

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1.3 PRINCIPLE BEHIND THE CIRCUIT

The main component used in the circuit is 8051 controller. In this project moisture sensor

YL69 with comparator YL38 is used which sense the conductivity of soil. The Soil Moisture

Sensor is used to measure the volumetric water content of soil then it turn the motor on/off

according to the water content in soil.

Volumetric Water Content :-

In very simplified terms, dry soil is made up of solid material and air pockets, called pore

spaces. A typical volumetric ratio would be 55% solid material and 45% pore space. As water

is added to the soil, the pore spaces begin to fill with water. Soil that seems damp to the touch

might now have 55% minerals, 35% pore space and 10% water. This would be an example

of 10% volumetric water content. The maximum water content in this scenario is 45%

because at that value, all the available pore

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

Figure 1.1

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1.4 Circuit Diagram

Figure 1.2

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1.5 HARDWARE REQUIREMENT

AT89S52 microcontroller
8051 programming board
Programming cable
8051 Programmer
DC battery or 12V,1A adaptor
162 LCD
ISP cable
7805 voltage Regulator
10uF electrolytic capacitor
33pF capacitors
12MHz Crystal
Bridge Rectifier
LED
Pot 10k (1/4 watt)
connecting wires
Soldering Wire
Soldering Iron
Op amp
Relay
Water Pump
Diodes
Transistor

1.6 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT

Keil compiler
Proteus Professional Suite
ISP Programmer

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1.7 CIRCUIT DESIGN

The sensing arrangement is made by using two stiff metallic rods inserted The project uses
an 8051 series microcontroller which is programmed to receive the input signal of varying
moisture condition of the soil th rough the sensing arrangement. This is achieved by using
an op-amp as comparator which acts as interface between the sensing arrangement and the
microcontroller.Once the controller receives this signal, it generates an output that drives a
relay for operating the water pump. An LCD display is also interfaced to the microcontroller
to display status of the soil and water pump into the field at a distance.

Reset Circuit Design: The reset pin of the microcontroller is kept active till the power supply
is in the specified range and a minimum oscillation level is maintained. In other words to
ensure the supply voltage does not falls below the threshold level of 1.2V and the reset pulse
width is greater than 100ms, we select the values of resistor and capacitor such that RC
>=100ms. Here we select a 10K resistor and a 10uF electrolyte capacitor.

Oscillator Circuit Design: A crystal oscillator is used to provide external clock signal to the
microcontroller. To ensure smooth operation, we connect two ceramic capacitors ranges from
20pF to 40pF. This crystal oscillator is connected between pin 18 and 19 of the
microcontroller.

Compilation of Microcontroller Code: Once the circuit is designed and drawn on a piece
of paper, the next step is to write and compile the code. Here we select the Kiel uVision
software to write the program in C language.

Prior to writing the code, general steps needs to be followed like creating a new project and
selecting the target device or the required microcontroller. Once the code is written, we saved
it with .c extension and then added it to the source file group under the target folder. The code
is then compiled by pressing F7 key.

Once the code is compiled, a hex file is created. In the next step, we use Proteus software to
draw the circuit. The code is dumped into the microcontroller by right clicking on the IC and
then adding the hex file.

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CHAPTER 2

HARDWARE DESCRIPTION

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2.1 POWER SUPPLY

A power supply is an electronic device that supplies electric energy to an electrical load. The
primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from an AC source to a
regulated DC voltage correct voltage or current to power the load. A power supply
convert mains AC for the electronic components.

In general, all the electronic circuits require a source of DC power for their operation. The

89S52 microcontroller also works on a DC power supply. A DC power supply can also be

given by a battery. Batteries are rarely used for these purposes as they are costly and require

frequent replacement. So in order to run microcontroller, we have to convert AC main power

supply to DC Power supply. This can be done with the help of regulated power supply circuit.

Figure 2.1

2.2 Transformer: A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy


between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. A transformer is a device
used to convert low alternating voltage at high current to high alternating voltage at low current

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and vice-versa. Transformers are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric
power applications. Transformers are either step up or step down.

Usually electronics circuits require very small voltages. So step down


transformers are mainly used. Step down transformers converts high alternating voltage at low
current to low alternating voltage at high. Step down Transformers give decreased alternating
voltage output.

A transformer works on the principle of mutual induction. An e.m.f. is induced in a coil, when
a changing current flows through its nearby coil.

Figure 2.1

2.3 Rectifier: An electrical device which converts an alternating current into direct current
by allowing current to flow in one direction only.

We are using a full wave rectifier for producing D.C. regulated power supply for hooter. A full
wave rectifier is a circuit which converts an A.C. voltage into a pulsating D.C. voltage using
both half cycles of the applied ac voltage. It uses two diodes of which one conducts during one
half cycle while the other conducts during the other half cycle of the applied ac voltage.

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The output voltage given by rectifier is fluctuating or pulsating in nature. So in order to

smoothen the pulsating or fluctuating D.C. output of a rectifier, a used.A full wave rectifier is

sho filter circuit is to be wn in figure:

Figure:2.2

2.4 MICROCONTROLLER

A microcontroller is an integrated circuit that contains a microprocessor, memory and

programmable input/output peripherals, which are used to interact with things connected to

the chip. A microcontroller is different than a microprocessor which only contains a CPU.

The microcontroller used in our Project is AT89S52 which is a variant of 8051.

The various features of microcontroller are like:

Compatible with MCS-51 Products


8K bytes of In-System Reprogrammable
Downloadable Flash Memory
SPI Serial Interface for Program Downloading
Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
256 x 8 bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines

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Three 16 bit Timer/Counters


Eight Interrupt Sources
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes
Interrupt Recovery from Power Down mode
IC AT89S52

Figure 2.3

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with


4Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM).

This device is manufactured using Atmels high-density non-volatile memory


technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and
pin out.

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The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a


conventional non-volatile memory programmer

By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel
AT89S52 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-
effective solution to many embedded control applications

The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 4Kbytes of Flash, 128 bytes of
RAM, 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, five vector two-level interrupt
architecture, a full duplex serial port, and on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry

The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and
interrupt system to continue functioning

The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all
other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset

Most of the ports of the 89S52 have 'dual function' meaning that they can be used for
two different functions. The first one is to perform input/output operations and the
second one is used to implement special features of the microcontroller like counting
external pulses, interrupting the execution of the program according to external events,
performing serial data transfer or connecting the chip to a computer to update the
software

Each port has 8 pins, and will be treated from the software point of view as an 8-bit
variable called 'register', each bit being connected to a different Input/output pin

There are two different memory types: RAM and EEPROM. Shortly, RAM is used to
store variable during program execution, while the EEPROM memory is used to store
the program itself, that's why it is often referred to as the 'program memory'.

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It is clear that the CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the heart of the micro controllers.
It is the CPU that will Read the program from the FLASH memory and Execute it by
interacting with the different peripherals

PIN DESCRIPTION

Figure 2.4

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Port 0:

Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can

sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as

high-impedance inputs.

Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus

during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal

pull-ups.

Port 1:

Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffer
can sink/source four TTL inputs.

When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and
can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will
source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.

Port 2:

Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output

buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are

pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs.

As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL)

because of the internal pull-ups.

Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program

memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses

(MOVX @ DPTR)

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In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During

accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2

emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register

Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash

programming and verification.

Port 3:

Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output

buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are

pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs.

As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL)

because of the pull-ups.

Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.

Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown

in the following table.

Port Pin Alternate Functions


P3.0 RXD (serial input port)

P3.1 TXD (serial output port)

P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0)

P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1)

P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input)

P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input)

P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe)

P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe)

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RST:Reset input

A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the

device.

This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out.

The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature.

In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled

ALE/PROG:

Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of

the address during accesses to external memory.

This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In

normal operation,

ALE:

It is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for

external timing or clocking purposes.

However, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data

memory.

If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH.

With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.

Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect

if the microcontroller is in external execution mode

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PSEN:

Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When

the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated

twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each

access to external data memory.

EA/VPP: External Access Enable.

EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external

program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH.

However, if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA

should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions.

XTAL1:

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier

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2.6 Vacuum pump (Dc Motor)

Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6


Introduction-:

D. C. motors are seldom used in ordinary applications because all electric supply companies
furnish alternating current However, for special applications such as in steel mills, mines and
electric trains, it is advantageous to convert alternating current into direct current in order to
use d.c. motors. The reason is that speed/torque characteristics of d.c. motors are much more
superior to that of a.c .motors. Therefore, it is not surprising to note that for industrial drives,
d.c. motors are as popular as 3-phase induction motors Like d.c. generators, d.c. motors are
also of three types viz., series-wound, shunt-wound and compound wound. The use of a
particular motor depends upon the mechanical load it has to drive.

Working Principle Of A DC Motor


A motor is an electrical machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The principle of working of a DC motor is that "whenever a current carrying conductor
is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force". The direction of this force
is given by Fleming's left hand rule and it's magnitude is given by F = BIL. Where, B =
magnetic flux density, I = current and L = length of the conductor within the magnetic
field.

Fleming's left hand rule: If we stretch the first finger, second finger and thumb of our left
hand to be perpendicular to each other AND direction of magnetic field is represented by

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the first finger, direction of the current is represented by second finger then the thumb
represents the direction of the force experienced by the current carrying conductor.

Figure 2.7 Animation: Working of DC


Motor
Above animation helps in understanding the working principle of a DC motor. When
armature windings are connected to a DC supply, current sets up in the winding. Magnetic
field may be provided by field winding (electromagnetism) or by using permanent
magnets. In this case, current carrying armature conductors experience force due to the
magnetic field, according to the principle stated above.
Commutator is made segmented to achieve unidirectional torque. Otherwise, the direction
of force would have reversed every time when the direction of movement of conductor is
reversed the magnetic field.

2.7 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

Figure 2.8
An LCD is an electronic display module which uses liquid crystal to produce a visible
image. Liquid crystal displays are super-thin technology display screen that are generally

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used in laptop computer screen, TVs, cell phones and portable video games. LCDs
technologies allow displays to be much thinner when compared to cathode ray tube technology.
Also, Cathode ray tube draws more power compared to LCDs and are also heavier and bigger.

LCD technology is used for displaying the image in notebook or some other electronic
devices like mini computers. Light is projected from a lens on a layer of liquid crystal. This
combination of coloured light with the grayscale image of the crystal forms the coloured
image. This image is then displayed on the screen.

An LCD is either made up of an active matrix display grid or a passive display grid. Most of
the Smartphones with LCD display technology uses active matrix display, but some of the
older displays still make use of the passive display grid designs.

Most of the electronic devices mainly depend on liquid crystal display technology for their
display. The liquid has a unique advantage of having low power consumption than the LED
or cathode ray tube. Liquid crystal display screen works on the principle of blocking light
rather than emitting light. LCDs requires backlight as they do not emits light by them.

A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and
circuits. These modules are preferred over seven segments and other multi segment LEDs.
The reasons being: LCDs are economical; easily programmable; have no limitation of
displaying special & even custom characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so
on.

A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In this
LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers, namely,
Command and Data.

Command Register: The command register stores the command instructions given to the
LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it,
clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc. Processing for commands
happen in the command register.

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Data Register: The data register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the
ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD. When we send data to LCD it goes
to the data register and is processed there. When RS=1, data register is selected.

Figure 2.9

Pin No Function Name

1 Ground (0V) Ground

2 Supply voltage (5V) Vcc

3 Contrast adjustment through a variable resistor VEE

Selects command register when low; and data


4 Register Select
register when high

Low to write to the register; High to read from the


5 Read/write
register

Sends data to data pins when a high to low pulse is


6 Enable
given

7-14 8 Bit Data Pins DB0 - DB7

15 Backlight VCC (5V) Led+

16 Backlight Ground (0V) Led-

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2.8 Resistor

Figure 2.10
A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implements
electrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion
to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a
resistor's terminals to the intensity of current through the circuit is called resistance.
This relation is represented by Ohm's law:
I= V/R.
equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as
resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome).
Network Resistor

Figure 2.11
A resistor network is a combination of several resistors that are configured into a pattern.
Although most resistor networks use resistors that are connected in series, some resistor
networks use resistors in parallel or series-parallel configurations. The resistors in a network

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act as voltage dividers which divide the voltage that is applied to a circuit into smaller
amounts.

2.9 Capacitors

Figure 2.12

A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component


used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all
contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). Capacitors are
used as parts of electrical systems, for example, consist of metal foils separated by a layer of
insulating film.
Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing
alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power supplies, in
the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many other purposes.

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2.10 Transistors

Figure 2.13

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and
power. It is composed of a semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection
to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals
changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output)
power can be much more than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal.
Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in
integrated circuits.
The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is
ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Following its release in the early 1950s the
transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper
radios, calculators, and computers, among other things.

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2.11 Relays

Figure 2.14

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a


switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are
used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical
isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled
by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the
signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used
extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

2.12 IC 7805 (Voltage Regulator IC)

7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a member of 78xx series of fixed linear
voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give
the fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant
value. The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to provide. 7805 provides
+5V regulated power supply. Capacitors of suitable values can be connected at input and output
pins depending upon the respective voltage levels

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Pin Description:

Pin
Function Name
No
1 Input voltage (5V-18V) Input
2 Ground (0V) Ground
3 Regulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V) Output

Description:
This is the basic L7805 voltage regulator, a three-terminal positive regulator with a 5V fixed
output voltage. This fixed regulator provides a local regulation, internal current limiting,
thermal shut-down control, and safe area protection for your project. Each one of these
voltage regulators can output a max current of 1.5A.
Features:

Output Voltage: 5V
Output Current: 1.5A
Thermal Overload Protection
Short Circuit Protection

2.13 LED :
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light sources. The light emitted

from LEDs varies from visible to infrared and ultraviolet regions. They operate on low

voltage and power. LEDs are one of the most common electronic components and are

mostly used as indicators in circuits. They are also used for luminance and optoelectronic

applications.

Based on semiconductor diode, LEDs emit photons when electrons recombine with holes

on forward biasing. The two terminals of LEDs are anode (+) and cathode (-) and can be

identified by their size. The longer leg is the positive terminal or anode and shorter one is

negative terminal.

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2.14 Sensing probe:

YL 69 moisture sensing probe is used to sense the moisture here. It is simply a fork-shaped

PCB with tracks running on both sides of the legs. Just plug this probe into the soil where

you want to sense the moisture. Image of the YL 69 sensing probe is given below.

Figure 2.15

2.15 Comparator circuit:

YL 38 comparator module is used in this project. It is a single channel opamp comparator

based on L393 IC. This module just compares the output voltage of the sensing probe with

a reference voltage and switches its voltage appropriately for the microcontroller to read.

Circuit diagram of the YL 38 comparator module is shown below.

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Figure 2.16

The output voltage of the sensing probe is connected to the inverting input of the opamp.

When the moisture level is high more current passes through the sensing probe and so the

voltage at the inverting pin will be higher than the reference. The reference can be set using

the trim pot R2. At this condition output of the opamp goes low and sinks the LED D1 to

make it glow. When the moisture is lower than the set point, the opposite happens. So in

simple words, a LOW output of the opamp indicates a high moisture and a HIGH output of

the opamp indicates a low moisture. The output of the opamp is marked as pin D0 on the

sensor YL 38 module. This pin is connected to the microcontroller for further processing.

LED D2 is just a power ON indicator. Capacitors C1 and C2 are noise filters.

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2.16 Tools & Platform Used

Various tools are used in this project as:

Printed Circuit Board

Figure 2.17
A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect
electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper
sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. It is also referred to as printed wiring board
(PWB) or etched wiring board. A PCB populated with electronic components is a printed
circuit assembly (PCA), also known as a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). Printed
circuit boards are used in virtually all but the simplest commercially-produced electronic
devices.

Soldering Iron
A soldering iron is a hand tool most commonly used in soldering. It supplies heat to melt the
solder so that it can flow into the joint between two work pieces.
A soldering iron is composed of a heated metal tip and an insulated handle. Heating is often
achieved electrically, by passing an electric current (supplied through an electrical cord or
battery cables) through the resistive material of a heating element. Another heating method

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includes combustion of a suitable gas, which can either be delivered through a tank mounted
on the iron (flameless), or through an external flame.
Soldering irons are most often used for installation, repairs, and limited production work.

Cleaning
When burnt flux and oxidized material begin to accumulate on the tip, they can block heat
transfer and contaminate joints, making soldering difficult or impossible. Therefore, the tips
are periodically cleaned. Many soldering stations come with cellulose sponges which are
dampened and used to wipe a hot iron's tip clean. A wire brush, preferably brass or wire wheel
(mounted on a bench grinder), is sometimes carefully used to remove very severe oxidation,
though this may risk damaging the tip's protective iron plating. A small amount of fresh solder
is usually then applied to the clean tip in a process called tinning. The working surface of the
tip is usually kept tinned (coated with wet solder) to minimize oxidation. Oxidation blocks
heat transfer, corrodes the tip, and contaminates the joint

Soldering Wire
Solder (usually pronounced /sldr/, /sodr/ or in USA /sdr/) is a fusible metal alloy
used to join together metal work pieces and having a melting point below that of the work
piece(s).
Soft solder is what is most often thought of when solder or soldering are mentioned and it
typically has a melting range of 90 to 450 C (190 to 840 F). It is commonly used in
electronics and plumbing. Alloys that melt between 180 and 190 C (360 and 370 F) are the
most commonly used. By definition, using alloys with melting point above 450 C (840 F)
is called 'hard soldering', 'silver soldering' or brazing. Soft solder can contain lead and/or flux
but in many applications lead free solder is used. Perhaps the most common and most familiar
form of solder is as a wire or rod, though plumbers often use bars of solder while jewelers
often use solder in thin sheets which they cut into snippets. Solder can also come in a paste
or as a preformed foil shaped to match the work piece. The word solder comes from the
Middle English word Souder, via Old French soldure and souldur, from the Latin solid are,
meaning "to make solid".
.

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Lead solder
Tin/lead solders, also called soft solders, are commercially available with tin concentrations
between 5% and 70% by weight. The greater the tin concentration, the greater the solders
tensile and shear strengths. At the retail level, the two most common alloys are 60/40 Tin/lead
(Sn/Pb) which melts at 370 F or 188 C and 63/37 Sn/Pb used principally in
electrical/electronic work. The 63/37 ratio is notable in that it is a eutectic mixture, which
means:
1) It has the lowest melting point (183 C or 361.4 F) of all the tin/lead alloys; and
2) The melting point is truly a point not a range.

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CHAPTER 3

SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION

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3.1 KEIL SOFTWARE

Keil Software, world's leading developer of Embedded Systems Software, makes ANSI C

compilers, macro assemblers, real-time kernels, debuggers, linkers, library managers,

simulators, integrated environments, and evaluation boards for the 8051, 251, ARM7, and

C16x/ST10 microcontroller families. Keil Software implemented the first C compiler

designed from the ground-up specifically for the 8051 microcontroller.

Keil development tools offer a complete development environment for Intel, ARM, Cortex-

M, and Cortex-R processor-based devices. They are easy to learn and use, yet powerful

enough for the most demanding embedded applications.

The MDK Core contains all development tools including IDE, Compiler, and Debugger.

The new Pack Installer adds and updates Software Packs for devices, CMSIS, and

middleware.

The Vision IDE combines project management, run-time environment, build facilities,
source code editing, and program debugging in a single powerful environment. Vision is
easy-to-use and accelerates your embedded software development. Vision supports multiple
screens and allows you to create individual window layouts anywhere on the visual surface.

The Vision Debugger provides a single environment in which you may test, verify, and
optimize your application code. The debugger includes traditional features like simple and
complex breakpoints, watch windows, and execution control and provides full visibility to
device peripherals.

With the Vision Project Manager and Run-Time Environment we can create software
application using pre-build software components and device support from Software Packs.

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The software components contain libraries, source modules, configuration files, source code
templates, and documentation. Software components can be generic to support a wide range
of devices and applications.

3.2 PROTEUS 8 PROFESSIONAL

The Proteus Design Suite is a proprietary software tool suite used primarily for electronic
design automation. The software is used mainly by electronic design engineers and
technicians to create schematics and electronic prints for manufacturing printed circuit
boards.
It was developed in Yorkshire, England by Labcenter Electronics Ltd and is available in
English, French, Spanish and Chinese languages.
The micro-controller simulation in Proteus works by applying either a hex file or a debug file
to the microcontroller part on the schematic. It is then co-simulated along with any analog
and digital electronics connected to it. This enables its use in a broad spectrum of project
prototyping in areas such as motor control, temperature control and user interface design

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3.3 Program

RS EQU P2.7

RW EQU P2.6

E EQU P2.5

ORG 00H

SETB P3.51

MOV TMOD,#00000001B

MAIN:ACALL DINT

ACALL TEXT1

JB P3.5, NEXT

ACALL LINE2

ACALL TEXT2

CLR P2.0

SJMP EXIT

NEXT:ACALL LINE2

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ACALL TEXT3

SETB P2.0

EXIT:ACALL DELAY1

SJMP MAIN

DELAY1:MOV R0,#15D

BACK1: MOV TH0,#00000000B

MOV TL0,#00000000B

SETB TR0

HERE2: JNB TF0,HERE2

CLR TR0

CLR TF0

DJNZ R0,BACK1

RET

TEXT1: MOV A,#"M"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"o"

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ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"i"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"s"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"t"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"u"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"r"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"e"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#" "

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"C"

ACALL DISPLAY

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MOV A,#"o"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"n"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"t"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"r"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"o"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"l"

ACALL DISPLAY

RET

TEXT2: MOV A,#"["

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"O"

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ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"K"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"]"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#" "

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"P"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"u"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"m"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"p"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#" "

ACALL DISPLAY

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MOV A,#"O"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"F"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"F"

ACALL DISPLAY

RET

TEXT3: MOV A,#"["

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"L"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"o"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"w"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"]"

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ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#" "

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"P"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"u"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"m"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"p"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#" "

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"O"

ACALL DISPLAY

MOV A,#"N"

ACALL DISPLAY

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RET

DINT:MOV A,#0CH

ACALL CMD

MOV A,#01H

ACALL CMD

MOV A,#06H

ACALL CMD

MOV A,#80H

ACALL CMD

MOV A,#3CH

ACALL CMD

RET

LINE2:MOV A,#0C0H

ACALL CMD

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RET

CMD: MOV P0,A

CLR RS

CLR RW

SETB E

CLR E

ACALL DELAY

RET

DISPLAY:MOV P0,A

SETB RS

CLR RW

SETB E

CLR E

ACALL DELAY

RET

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DELAY: CLR E

CLR RS

SETB RW

MOV P0,#0FFH

SETB E

MOV A,P0

JB ACC.7,DELAY

CLR E

CLR RW

RET

END

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4.1 Conclusion

The Microcontroller based irrigation system proves to be a real time feedback control system

which monitors and controls all the activities of irrigation system efficiently. The present

proposal is a model to modernize the agriculture industries at a mass scale with optimum

expenditure. Using this system, one can save manpower, water to improve production and

ultimately profit

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4.2 FUTURE SCOPE

Various proposed scopes are:

We can enhance the performance of automatic irrigation system by connection it with

IOTs (internet of things),we can versatility by connecting it with many device.

GSM can be added for sending SMS to the concerned person in case of any problem.

Other Parameters such as ambient temperature, light intensity & humidity can be

measured.

Pesticides & fertilizers can also be added automatically in the water.

We can also use solar panel for providing electrical energy in remote area.

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4.3 References

http://www.google.co.in/#sclient=psyb&hl=en&source=hp&q=microcontroller+
AT89C52P6+pin+diagram&pbx=1&oq=microcontroller+AT89C52P6
www.electricalprojects.com
Basic electronics by J.B Gupta.
www.circuittoday.com

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