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Torsional Stiffness of Prestressing Tendons

in Double-T Beams
Yong-Hak Lee, M.ASCE1; Won-Jin Sung2; and Kee-Won Seong3

Abstract: When a prestressed double-T beam is subjected to torsion, a pair of prestressing tendons resists torsional rotation because of
the restoring action of the displaced prestressing tendons. A comprehensive formulation to account for the torsional restoring action of
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double-T beams is presented, based on Vlasovs hypothesis of considering warping displacement in an open-section. The deformation
energies of prestressing tendons and reinforcing bars are calculated based on the deformed geometry to obtain the total potential energy.
A two-noded beam element with seven degrees of freedom per node approximates an axial displacement, two translations, two flexural,
and one torsional rotations, and a warping displacement to derive the finite-element equilibrium equations by minimizing the potential
energy function. The role of prestressing forces of the tendons on the torsional resistance and the limitations of the traditional transformed
section approach are addressed when it is applied to torsional problems. As a numerical example, an existing three-span continuous
double-T beam is analyzed, and the bimoment and angle of twist are compared to those calculated using conventional three-dimensional
finite-element analysis and the analytical solution of governing differential equations.
DOI: 10.1061/ASCEEM.1943-7889.0000203
CE Database subject headings: Beams; Prestressing; Warpage; Rotation; Finite element method; Stiffness.
Author keywords: Double-T beam; Prestressing tendon; In-plane rotation; Warping; Potential energy function; Finite-element analysis.

Introduction combined axial, flexural, and torsional loads, were carried out by
Vlasov 1961, Timoshenko and Goodier 1970, and Heins
Various types of precast prestressed T-beams have been used to 1975. Since then, much research Reissner 1979, 1983; Gjlesvik
build highway bridges, including continuously placed single-T, 1981; Bauld and Tzeng 1984; Chen and Hu 1988; Nakai and Yoo
double-T, and multiple-T sections. Among these section types, the 1988; Simo and Vu-Quoc 1991; Loughlan and Ata 1997, 1998
double-T beam is a common superstructure system in bridges has been conducted on the torsional behavior of thin-webbed
with a span of 4560 m due to advancements in posttensioning, open-section girders. Meanwhile, research into the torsional be-
precast concrete, construction technology, and the need for aes- havior of open-section prestressed concrete girders is rare, in con-
thetic designs. The large depth of double-T beam sections pro- trast to the volume of research into the flexural behavior of
vides good flexural performance with a large moment of inertia prestressed concrete beams, including the works of El-Ariss
and enhanced spanning capability, and it satisfies serviceability 2004, Lou and Xiang 2006, and Luccioni et al. 1996. These
requirements Arokiasamy et al. 1991; Shahawy and Issa 1992. works have been presented based on the transformed section ap-
On the other hand, the open section of double-T beams is weak in proach that considers transformed cross-sectional areas of pre-
torsional performance when compared to closed-section box gird- stressing tendons and reinforcing bars to compute the torsional
ers. However, if the torsional characteristics of prestressed stiffness of open section prestressed concrete girders. When a
double-T beams are considered in a proper way to account for the prestressed double-T beam is subjected to torsion, where the
torsional resistance caused by the restoring action of prestressing beam has a pair of prestressing tendons that are symmetric about
forces, torsional performance may be larger than that evaluated by the weak axis, a pair of prestressing tendons induces restoring
the transformed section approach. forces. In this regard, the transformed section approach may un-
Early studies on the torsional behavior of structural members, derestimate the torsional stiffness of prestressed double-T beams.
in particular thin-webbed open-section members subjected to In this paper, a comprehensive finite beam element formula-
tion to account for the restoring action of a pair of prestressing
1
Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Konkuk Univ., 1-Hwayang- tendons is presented based on kinematic assumptions of Gjlesvik
dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Korea corresponding author. 1981 with consideration of warping displacement in a thin-
E-mail: leeyo@konkuk.ac.kr walled open-section. The deformation energies of prestressing
2
Research Engineer, GS Engineering & Construction Co., 537 tendons and reinforcing bars are calculated based on the deformed
Namdaemun-ro 5-ga, Seoul 100-095, Korea. geometry of the beam to obtain the total potential energy. For this
3
Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Konkuk Univ., 1-Hwayang- purpose, a deformation energy concept of Abdel-Ghaffar 1979
dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Korea. for the free torsional vibration of suspension bridges is revived to
Note. This manuscript was submitted on January 22, 2010; approved
incorporate the restoring forces of prestressing tendons. The role
on July 19, 2010; published online on July 22, 2010. Discussion period
open until June 1, 2011; separate discussions must be submitted for indi- of prestressing forces of tendons on the torsional resistance and
vidual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Engineering Mechan- the limitations of the transformed section approach are addressed
ics, Vol. 137, No. 1, January 1, 2011. ASCE, ISSN 0733-9399/2011/1- through the energy formulation. A two-noded beam element with
6172/$25.00. seven degrees of freedom per node approximates an axial dis-

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J. Eng. Mech. 2011.137:61-72.


x x
x
dx

(a)
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x
+ s
Fig. 1. Prestressed double-T beam

s
placement, two translations, two flexural, and one torsional rota-
tions, and a warping displacement. The finite-element equilibrium
equations are derived by minimizing the total potential energy
function, and applied to the analysis of the combined flexural and +p
torsional behaviors of an existing prestressed continuous
double-T beam. The results are compared to the results of a con-
p
ventional three-dimensional 3D finite-element analysis and the
p
analytical approach of governing differential equations.
p
Deformation of Double-T Beam
(b)
When a double-T beam in Fig. 1 is subjected to torsion, the cross
section is displaced due to in-plane rotation and warping as
shown in Fig. 2 where the subscripts s and p denote reinforcing
bar and prestressing tendon, respectively. Derivation of pure tor-
sional and warping stiffnesses required for the displacement
analysis of the double-T beam is complicated because plane sec-
tion hypothesis is not valid due to warping developed under tor- +u f
+u s us
sion. To define and simplify the problem, the following
u f
assumptions are made in addition to kinematic assumptions of
u p x
Gjlesvik 1981 for thin-walled open-sections:
uw
1. The cross section of double-T beam is symmetric about the +u p dx
center of section and therefore, the prestressing tendons and
+u w
reinforcing bars are symmetrically placed along the centroi-
dal axis;
2. The strain between prestressing tendon and concrete, and re- (c)
inforcing bar and concrete is same because of the perfect
bond assumed on their interface; Fig. 2. Deformed configuration of a prestressed double-T beam due
3. The deflection of double-T beam is small enough to the to torsion: a deformed shape; b in-plane rotation; and c warping
length of span, therefore higher order terms of the character-
istic equation of prestressing tendon profile are ignored;
4. The variation of prestrssing force along presressing tendons
due to the curvature of tendon is not taken into account; and subjected to combined axial load and bending moments about
5. Hooks law defines the constitutive relationships of materials y-and z-axes, referred to M y and M z, respectively, in addition to
composing of double-T beam, concrete, prestressing tendons, torsional moment M x, then the resulting displacements u, v, and
and reinforcing bars. w in x-, y-, and z-directions, respectively, can be expressed as
Figs. 2b and c show the deformed geometry of the cross
section due to in-plane rotation and warping, respectively, based
on the first and second assumptions. To derive the strain- dw dv dx
u = u0 z y+
y,z
displacement relationship for the deformed geometry of double-T dx dx dx
beam, an arbitrary cross section rotated with angle x about shear
center is considered as shown in Fig. 3 where C and S denote the
centroid and shear center, respectively. When the cross section is v = v0 z zsx

62 / JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS ASCE / JANUARY 2011

J. Eng. Mech. 2011.137:61-72.


y garding to flexure and warping because the first, inertia and static
S : shear center moments of area related to flexure and warping are omitted.
C:centroid w Mx
Strain Energy of Concrete Section due to Flexure
A y and Torsion
v
y S
The strain energy stored in a concrete section of double-T beam
A' x S Uco can be expressed in terms of the normal and shear strains as

z
zS
C
Uco = Vc
1
2
xxxx + xyxy + xzxzdVc 4
z x Substituting Eq. 2 into Eq. 4, expressing the stresses in
terms of the corresponding strains using Hooks law, and trans-
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Fig. 3. Deformed configuration of a cross section subjected to torsion


forming the volumetric integration into line integration, Eq. 4
can be rewritten as


w = w0 + y y sx 1
where u0, v0, and w0 = translational displacements along x, y, and
z axes, respectively, and y , z = warping function. The normal
Uco =
l

0
1
2
E cA c
duo
dx
2
+ EcIcy
d 2w
dx2
2
+ EcIcz
d 2v
dx2
2

strain xx and the shear strains xy and xz can be derived from


Eq. 1 as
+ G cK c
dx
dx
2
+ EcIc
d 2 x
dx2
2
dx 5
duo d w dv 2
d x 2 2
xx = 2 z 2y + 2 where Ac = cross-sectional area of concrete; Icy and Icz = second
dx dx dx dx moments about y- and z-axes, respectively; and Kc and Ic


= pure torsional and warping constants, respectively. It should be

dx noted in Eq. 5 that the reference axes for flexure and torsion are
xy = z zs
y dx taken as the centroid and the shear center of double-T beam,


respectively.

dx
xz = y y s 2
z dx Deformation Energy of Prestressing Tendons
due to Torsion
where y s and zs = components of the distance between the centroid
and the shear center in y- and z-directions, respectively. When a cross section of a double-T beam rotates about a shear
Stress resultants acting on cross section can be calculated by center by twist angle x because of torsion, the prestressing ten-
integrating the corresponding stresses over the cross-sectional dons on the left and right sides of y-axis are displaced by v px
area and +v px along the vertical direction, respectively, and w px


along the lateral direction for both sides of tendons as shown in
Fx = xxdA; Fy = xydA; Fz = xzdA Fig. 2b. In addition to in-plane rotation, warping causes the
A A A change in the length of both sides of tendons along the longitu-
dinal direction as shown in Fig. 2c.

My = A
xxzdA; M z = A
xxydA
Figs. 4a and b show the deformed configurations of pre-
stressing tendons in the left and right sides, respectively, due to
in-plane rotation and warping. Denoting the change in twist angle


between the two cross sections at a distance dx as dx, the change
in length of an infinitesimal element of the left side prestressing
Mx = xzy y s xyz zsdA; B = xx
dA 3
tendon in the left side shown in Fig. 4a is expressed as
A A

where Fx, Fy, and Fz = forces along x-, y- and z-directions, respec- ds p + dslp2 = dx + du p2 + dy psi dv p2 + dw2p 6
tively; B = bimoment; and the normal stress xx, and shear stresses where y psi = y component of the distance from the shear center to
xy and xz are obtained from Eq. 2 using Hooks law. the ith prestressing tendon. The deformation energy dUlps stored
in an infinitesimal element of the left side prestressing tendon is
calculated as the product of prestressing force and change in
Strain Energy of Double-T Beam length dslp
The strain energy of a double-T beam is obtained by summing
the contributions of the elastic deformation of concrete section, 1

dUlps = Peh + Pllh
2
ds p
dx
1
dslp = Peh + Pllh
2
du p
dx
dx


and the elongation of prestressing tendons and reinforcing bars.
2 2 2
Based on the uncoupled relationship between the torsional and dv p dy psi 1 du p dv p dw p
dx + + + dx
flexural deformation modes, the energy formulation adopts two dx dx 2 dx dx dx
reference axes, the centroidal axis for flexure and the shear center
7
axis for torsion, to implement the area integrations included in the
energy potential function. Adopting two reference axes simplifies where Peh and Pllh = horizontal
components of prestressing force
the complicated works of calculating the sectional properties re- and the increase of prestressing force in the left side prestressing

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J. Eng. Mech. 2011.137:61-72.


y Change in length of the infinitesimal element of the right side
z prestressing tendon shown in Fig. 4b can be obtained by substi-
S .C. Axis tuting Pllh, du p, and v p in Eq. 6 with Prlh, du p, and v p, respec-
x tively. In this case, the deformation energy is calculated similarly
yp x to the case of the left side prestressing tendon as
x +dx
dx P
p
1
Urps = Peh + Prlh
2

l
du p
dx
dx +
l
dv p
dx
dy psi
dx
dx


0 0
l 2 2 2
dy p 1 du p dv p dw p
p + me d + + + dx 10
d efor 2 dx dx dx
u nd ed o
p
orm
p + dp d ef
The terms in the second parenthesis in Eq. 10 can be ex-
pressed in terms of the axial stiffness of the tendon as
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dup
l l l
PrlhL pe du p dv p dy psi 1 du p 2
= dx + dx +
(a) E pA pi dx dx dx 2 dx


o o o
2 2
y dv p dw p
+ + dx 11
z dx dx
S.C Axis Summing the deformation energies of Ulps in Eq. 8 and Urps in
Eq. 10 leads to the deformation energy Upsi of the ith layer
x prestressing tendons due to in-plane rotation and warping


x l 2 2 2
du p dv p dw p
yp Upsi = Peh + + dx
x +dx dx dx dx
p


o
l l 2
dx E pA pi du p dv p dy psi
p + dx dx
L pe dx dx dx


0 0
l 2
p + med 1 E pA pi du p 2
dv p 2
dw p 2
d defor me
d
+ + + dx
p
d e for 4 L pe dx dx dx
dyp un o

dup
12
p + dp Neglecting the higher order terms in the last parenthesis, inte-
grating the second integral in the third term by parts, and substi-
tuting the relationship between warping displacement and
(b) warping function u p = dx / dx
y p,z p and the geometrical rela-
tionship v p = zpsix from Fig. 2b, the torsional deformation en-
Fig. 4. Deformed configuration of prestressing tendons: a left side ergy of Eq. 12 can be rewritten as
prestressing tendon; b right side prestressing tendon

tendon, respectively, and dslp


is obtained from Eq. 6 by letting
Upsi = Peh
l
y psi
2 2
+ zpsi dx
dx
2

dx + Peh
l

2pi
d 2 x
dx2
2
dx


0 0
ds2p = dx2 + dy psi
2
and neglecting higher order terms. Integrating l 2
Eq. 7 over the tendon length, the deformation energy of the left E pA pi d 2 x
+
pi y psizpsi dx 13
side prestressing tendon is expressed as L pe dx2


0
l l
1 du p dv p dy psi where pi = warping function of the ith layer prestressing tendons
Ulps = Peh + Pllh dx dx
2 dx dx dx and y psi and zpsi = distances from the shear center to the ith pre-


0 0
l 2 2 2
stressing tendons along y- and z-axes, respectively. The first and
1 du p dv p dw p second deformation energy terms in Eq. 13 are due to in-plane
+ + + dx 8
2 o dx dx dx rotation and warping, respectively. The last deformation energy
term in Eq. 13 reflects the axial deformation of prestressing
The terms in the second parenthesis in Eq. 8 can be ex- tendon induced by the in-plane rotation of cross section. It is
pressed in terms of the axial stiffness of the prestressing tendon as


interesting to note that prestressing force Peh and axial stiffness
PllhL pe
l
du p
l
dv p dy psi 1
l
du p 2 E pA pi / L pe of prestressing tendon are the factors for the torsional
= dx dx + resistance of a pair of prestressing tendons. In fact, the torsional
E pA pi dx dx dx 2 dx


o o o resistance has a mechanical role to restore the cross section of
dv p 2
dw p 2 double-T beam rotated under torsion and may be called a restor-
+ + dx 9 ing action.
dx dx
If torsion is combined with flexure, the strain energy of pre-
where L pe, A pi, and E p = length, area, and elastic modulus of the stressing tendons due to flexure can be considered in addition to
prestressing tendon, respectively. Eq. 13 as

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J. Eng. Mech. 2011.137:61-72.



l np 2 2 2 The axial force of reinforcing bar Fsir in Eq. 19 can be ex-
1 duo d 2w d 2v
U ps = E pA pi + z2pci + y 2pci pressed in terms of the axial stiffness as


2 dx dx2 dx2


0 i


l l 2 2
EsAsi dus 1 dus dvs
np Fsir = dx + + dx
dx 2
d x2 2
Lse dx 2 dx dx
+ Peh y psi
2 2
+ zpsi +
2pi dx o o
dx dx2


i 20


np l 2
E pA pi d x
2
i
The deformation energy Us of all the reinforcing bars due to
+
pi y psizpsi dx 14
L pe dx2 in-plane rotation and warping is obtained by summing the defor-
0
mation energy of Usil in Eq. 18 and Usir in Eq. 20 and neglect-
where np defines a number of layered prestressing tendons and ing higher order terms as


y pci and z pci = distances from the centroid to the ith prestressing ns l 2
tendons along y- and z-axes, respectively. In Eq. 14, the three EsAsi dus
Us = i dx 21
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terms in the first summation are obtained in analogy to the way of Lse dx
0
getting the first three terms of Eq. 5 by replacing concrete area
Ac with prestressing tendon area A p. If torsion is combined with flexure, the strain energy of re-
inforcing bars due to flexure can be considered in addition to
Eq. 21 as


Deformation Energy of Reinforcing Bars
due to Torsion l ns 2 2 2
1 duo 2 d 2w 2 d 2v
Us = EsAsi + zsci + y sci dx
When a cross section of a double-T beam rotates by an angle of 2 dx dx2 dx2


0 i
twist x due to torsion, reinforcing bars on the left and right sides


ns
of y-axis displace by vsx and +vsx, respectively, as shown in EsAsi
l
d 2 x
2

Fig. 2b. Denoting the change in length due to in-plane rotation + i Lse 0

si
dx2
dx 22
and warping as dxsl, a geometrical relation among the infinitesi-
mal length and deformation components along x- and y-axes can where ns defines a number of reinforcing bars, and y sci and zsci
be expressed as = distances from the centroid to the ith reinforcing bar along y-
and z-axes, respectively.
dx + dxsl2 = dx + dus2 + dvs2 15
The deformation energy dUsil stored in the infinitesimal element Total Strain Energy
of the ith reinforcing bar in the left side is calculated as the
The total strain energy of a double-T beam U is obtained by
product of the axial force induced during the change in length, Fsl, summing the strain energies of Eqs. 5, 14, and 22
and the change in length of the infinitesimal element dxsl


l
1 duo 2
d 2v 2
d 2w 2
d 2 x 2

1 dus 1 dus 2
dvs 2 U= EA + EIz + EIy + EI
dUsil = Fsil dx + + dx 16 2 dx dx2 dx2 dx2


o
2 dx 2 dx dx
2 np l
where dxsl is obtained from Eq. 15 in analogy to Eqs. 6 and dx E pA pi
+ GK2x dx +
pi y psizpsi
7. Integrating Eq. 16 over the length of reinforcing bar, the dx L pe


i 0


deformation energy of the reinforcing bar can be expressed as 2 ns l 2
d 2 x d 2 x


EsAsi
1
l
dus 1
l
dus 2
dvs 2
dx2
dx + i Lse

si
dx2
dx 23
Usil = Fsil dx + + dx 0
2 o dx 2 o dx dx
where
17 ns np ns

The axial force of reinforcing bar in Eq. 17 can be ex- Fsl E A = E cA c + E s i Asi + Epj Apj ; EIy = EcIcy + Es i Asizsci2
pressed in terms of the axial stiffness as


np

Fsil =
EsAsi
l
dus
dx +
1
l
dus 2
+
dvs 2
dx
+ Ep j Apjz2pcj
Lse o dx 2 o dx dx
18 ns np

where Lse, Asi, and Es = length, area, and elastic modulus of ith
EIz = EcIcz + Es i 2
Asiy sci + Ep j Apjy2pcj
reinforcing bar, respectively.
The deformation energy of ith reinforcing bar in the right side np np
is calculated by substituting Fsil and du with Fsir and du, respec-
tively, as follows:
GK = GcKc + 2Peh
i=1
y psi
2 2
+ zpsi; EI = EcIc + 2Peh
i=1

2pi


l l 2 2
24
1 dus 1 dus dvs
Usir = Fsir dx + + dx Five parameters in Eq. 24 represent cross-sectional stiffnesses
2 o dx 2 o dx dx
of double-T beam related to flexture, pure torsion and warping
19 where EA, EIy, and EIz are related to flexure, GK is to torsion, and

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J. Eng. Mech. 2011.137:61-72.


v2
x 2 wx = Nwdw ; x = Nd 25
x2
y
y2
v1 x where do = u1 , u2 = axial nodal displacement vector and
w2
x1
u 2
dv = v1 , dv / dx1 , v2 , dv / dx2 and dw = w1 , dw / dx1 ,
x1 2
w1 y1 w2 , dw / dx2 = flexural nodal displacement vectors associated
Sy S z2
z with centroidal axes along y- and z-directions, respectively,
u1 1 where the Subscripts 1 and 2 indicate the number of nodal
z1
z points. The torsional nodal displacement vector d
= x1 , dx / dx1 , x2 , dx / dx2 is associated with shear center
(a) axes along y- and z-directions. No, Nv, Nw, and N are the shape
function vectors corresponding to do, dv, dw, and d, respectively,
f y2
y
where Nv = N, Nw1 = Nv1, Nw2 = Nv2, Nw3 = Nv3, and Nw4 = Nv4,
x and the Subscripts 1, 2, 3, and 4 indicate the entries of vectors Nv
f x2
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my2 and Nw.


B2
mx2 Substituting Eq. 25 into Eq. 2, the normal strain xx and the
y f y1 q (x) shear strains xy and xz can be expressed in terms of the nodal

fz2
displacements
q (x) mz2
my1 z
S
xx = Bo zBw yBv wBdo dw dv dT
f x1 mx1 f z1


B1
mz1
z w
xy = z zs BdT
y
(b)

Fig. 5. 3D beam element: a nodal degrees of freedom; b forces


acting on the element xz = w
z

+ y y s BdT 26

where Bo = dNo / dx; Bw = d2Nw / dx2; Bv = d2Nv / dx2; B


= dN / dx; and B = d2N / dx2.
EI is to warping. Furthermore, the flexure-related terms are to be
calculated in reference to the centroid of transformed section, and Finite-Element Equilibrium Equations
the torsion-and warping-related terms are to be calculated in ref-
erence to the shear center. It is noted in Eq. 24 that torsional and The external work done on the beam element due to the distrib-
warping constants include the effects of mechanical properties of uted loads qvx and qwx, the equivalent nodal forces f xj, f yj,
prestressing force and axial stiffness of reinforcing bar and pre- and f zj, the moments mxj, myj, and mzj, and the bimoment B j
stressing tendon. This is in contrast to the conventional approach shown in Fig. 5b can be expressed as


of the transformed section for torsional behavior of a double-T


l 2
beam where prestressing tendons and reinforcing bars are totally
transformed to equivalent area to concrete without consideration W= qvv + qwwdx + f xju j + f yjv j + f zjw j + mxjxj


0 j=1
of their mechnical roles.
dw dw dx
+ myj + mzj + Bj 27
dx j dx j dx j
Finite-Element Formulation
Total potential energy of a double-T beam is presented by
= U W. Applying the principle of minimum total potential
Two-noded beam element with seven degrees of freedom DOF
energy, d = / dd = 0, the finite-element equilibrium
including a warping DOF approximates the behavior of a
equations are obtained as Kd = F where the stiffness matrix K is
double-T beam under combined flexural and torsional loads.
given as follows:
Owing to the uncoupled relationship between torsional and flex-
ural deformation modes as shown in Eq. 23, the formulation

l
adopts two reference axes to implement the area integrations of K= EABTo Bo + EIZBTwBw + EIY BTv Bv + GKBT B + EI BTBdx
Eq. 23, centroidal axis for flexure and shear center axis for


0
torsion.


np l l
E PA Pi
+2 i L Pe

pi y psizpsiBTdx
pi y psizpsiBdx


Approximation of Field Values o o


np l l
The displacements ux, vx, and wx and the rotational angle of ESASi
cross section x are approximated using shape function vectors
+2 i LSe o

siBTdx
o

siBdx 28
and nodal displacement vectors shown in Fig. 5a
The torsion and warping-related stiffness terms in Eq. 28 in a
finite element level with finite-element length are explicitly ex-
ux = Nodo ; vx = Nvdv pressed in Appendix I.

66 / JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS ASCE / JANUARY 2011

J. Eng. Mech. 2011.137:61-72.


y

x
1.9 hs 7.5 6.0
hc hc hc

0.1 17.0 23.0 25.0 25.0 23.0 17.0 (a)

40.0 50.0 40.0


mT = 59.54 kN-m

(a)

y
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(b)

0.33
Fig. 7. Torsional moment acting on a thin-walled prestressed
double-T beam: a Load Case 1; b Load Case 2

z Re bar

3.00
2.67
elements, 2,620 reinforcing bar elements and 524 PS tendon ele-
ments in case of conventional 3D finite-element analysis.
PS strand
Two different load cases are considered separately: 1 a uni-
formly distributed line load of 9.8 kN/m on all the spans referred
to Load Case 1, and 2 a uniformly distributed line load of 9.8
kN/m only on the center span referred to Load Case 2. To in-
duce the torsional effect in the double-T beam as well as flexure,
(b) the loads are applied along the left web. The induced torsional
moments are shown in Figs. 7a and b for Load Case 1 and Load
Fig. 6. Dimensions of the three-span double-T beam: a longitudinal Case 2, respectively. It should be noted that the level of the ap-
dimensions; b cross-sectional dimensions units= m plied load 9.8 kN/m is selected such that the stress level stays
within the elastic range.
The numerical results obtained by the developed beam ele-
ment are compared to those using an analytical approach employ-
Numerical Examples ing governing differential equations of a beam subjected to
torsion with warping torsion Nakai and Yoo 1988 and a conven-
Properties of the Case Study Double-T Beam tional 3D finite-element analysis. In the conventional 3D finite-
An existing prestressed continuous double-T beam with bonded element analysis, the warping normal stresses of the flange and
prestressing tendons is analyzed using the developed beam ele- webs are computed by decomposing the total stresses into the
ment. Fig. 6 shows the dimensions of the Anpyong-1 Bridge, flexure part of bx and the warping part of x through the rela-

which is an 11-span continuous double-T beam structure located tionships bx = z x + x / 2 and x = x x / 2 as illustrated in
+z z +z

on the Gochang-Changsung Highway in Korea. A continuous part Fig. 8.


of three spans located at the center of the 11-span bridge is shown The level of warping is estimated based on the bimoment
in Fig. 6 for simplicity. The design details show 10-D22 of rein- M = I /
. The location of the warping function i is shown
forcing bar placed on the top flange of concrete, and 22 seven- in Fig. 9, and the corresponding warping function values are
wire-strand prestressing tendons 138.7 mm2 / strand. The listed in Table 2. The warping constant I is evaluated using
geometry of the cross section with a concrete slab flange with a I = s
2tds; in this study, I = 7.51 105 m4.
width of 12.2 m and a depth of 3 m is symmetric about y-axis.
The material properties of concrete, prestressing tendons, and re- Flexural Behavior
inforcing bars are listed in Table 1. The beam was discretized
with 130 elements in case of the presented beam element analysis Figs. 10a and b show a comparison of the deflections calculated
and with 18,624 elements including 15,480 3D eight-node brick by the developed finite-element analysis and the conventional 3D

Table 1. Mechanical Properties of the Anpyong-1 Bridge x+z x


x xb xb x
Parameter Value z
+x
x
Concrete Modulus of elasticity, Ec 2.74 104 MPa = +
Poissons ratio, c 0.2 x
z
Prestressing tendon Modulus of elasticity, E p 2.06 105 MPa
Prestressing force, Pe 19,140 kN Fig. 8. Decomposition of normal stress into flexure and warping
Reinforcing bar Modulus of elasticity, Es 2.06 105 MPa parts

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS ASCE / JANUARY 2011 / 67

J. Eng. Mech. 2011.137:61-72.


y 30.0
6.08 6.08
3D. FEM
Z Proposed
3 + 2 S
5
20.0

Deflection (mm)
1 C 6

2.84

10.0
+
4 7

3.05 3.05 0.0

Fig. 9. Warping function diagram units= m


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-10.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
finite-element analysis using a commercial finite-element analysis
Span length ( m )
computer program, Midas Information Technology Co. Ltd.
2000 for Load Case 1 and Load Case 2.
In the conventional 3D finite-element analysis, an eight-node (a)
brick element for concrete and a two-node bar element for the
prestressing tendon and reinforcing bar are used in the finite- 30.0
element modeling of the beam. The deflection is taken at the top
of concrete flange where the node closest to the shear center of 3D. FEM
the cross section is located. As shown in Fig. 10, the deflections Proposed
using the two approaches agree well, except for the center of the 20.0

Deflection ( mm)
middle span. This is due to the inherent difference of the two
approaches in the approximation of field values, and the different
monitoring points within the cross section.
10.0

Torsional Behavior
The torsional behavior is analyzed using three approaches: devel- 0.0
oped finite-element analysis, the analytical solution of governing
differential equations, and a conventional 3D finite-element
analysis. In the conventional 3D finite-element analysis approach,
the twist angle is calculated by dividing the relative deflections -10.0
calculated at the two points where the flange and web meet by the 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
distance between these two points. Span length ( m )
Figs. 11a and b show a comparison of the torsional stiffness
in terms of the angle of twist. The results of the developed ap-
proach are close to those of the analytical solution, while they (b)
show a relatively large difference to those of the conventional 3D
finite-element analysis. This difference may be due to the bound- Fig. 10. Comparison of deflections: a Load Case 1; b Load
ary conditions taken at the nodal points across the bottom of the Case 2
webs that are allowed in the full 3D finite-element analysis, but
are not allowed in the beam-type finite-element analysis. The in-
plane deformation of the conventional 3D finite-element analysis
could be another reason for the observed difference, because the twist angle is calculated in terms of the relative deflection be-
tween the two points across the cross section of the beam.
To evaluate the effect of the restoring action on the torsional
Table 2. Warping Function Values of the Anpyong-1 Bridge stiffness, the beam is analyzed using the two cases formulated
with and without consideration of the action where the formula-
Warping Value tion of the latter case is based on the transformed section ap-
function mm2
proach. Figs. 12a and b show that the twist angle at the center of

1 0.0 the middle span in the case without the action is 4 and 7% larger

2 1,790,900 than that in the case with the action for Load Case 1 and 2,

3 3,567,100 respectively. This observation indicates that the role of the restor-

4 6,855,900 ing action on the torsional stiffness is crucial when the effective

5 1,790,900 prestressing force is relatively large, or when the depth of the
cross section is deep enough to allow a distance from the shear

6 3,567,100
center to the location of the prestressing tendons, as observed in

7 6,855,900
Eq. 26.

68 / JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS ASCE / JANUARY 2011

J. Eng. Mech. 2011.137:61-72.


8.0 8.0
Analytic
3-D. FEM with PS tendon stiff.

Angle of twist (rad.) =10-4


Angle of twist (rad.) =10-4 Proposed w/o PS tendon stiff.
6.0 6.0

4.0 4.0

2.0 2.0
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0.0
0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Span length (m) Span length (m)

(a)
(a) 12.0

12.0 with PS tendon stiff.


w/o PS tendon stiff.

Angle of twist (rad.) =10-4


Analytic
3-D. FEM
8.0
Angle of twist (rad.) =10-4

Proposed
8.0

4.0

4.0

0.0

0.0

-4.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Span length (m)
-4.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Span length (m) (b)

Fig. 12. Effect of the coupled restoring action on the torsional stiff-
(b) ness: a Load Case 1; b Load Case 2

Fig. 11. Comparison of angle of twist: a Load Case 1; b Load


Case 2 rection of the twist. Figs. 14a and b show the change in stress in
the prestressing tendon caused by the flexure and the warping.
In the current case, the sign of the warping function in Fig. 9
results in the tensile warping normal stress observed at the bottom
of the left side web and the compressive warping normal stress
Warping Behavior observed at the bottom of the right side web. When the warping
The bimoments of the double-T beams are calculated using the normal stresses are added to the normal stresses due to the flex-
three approaches of developed finite-element analysis, a conven- ure, the prestressing force in the left side prestressing tendon in-
tional 3D finite-element analysis, and the analytical solution of creases, and the prestressing force in the right side prestressing
the governing differential equations. Figs. 13a and b show that tendon decreases, as shown in Fig. 14. This indicates that warping
good agreement is observed among the three approaches, except can be the dominant behavior in a double-T beam depending on
for the interior supports where the bimoment value of the devel- the level of torsion Fig. 15.
oped approach is close to that of the analytical solution, while it is
different to that of the conventional 3D finite-element analysis
data. This is attributed to the method of calculating the bimoment Conclusions
in the conventional 3D finite-element analysis, as shown in Fig. 8.
When a double-T beam is subjected to torsion, the prestressing A 3D finite beam element was formulated to represent the behav-
force in the tendon increases or decreases depending on the di- ior of a double-T beam subjected to torsion. The deformation

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS ASCE / JANUARY 2011 / 69

J. Eng. Mech. 2011.137:61-72.


16.0 8.0
Analytic
Proposed (left web)
3-D. FEM
Proposed (right web)
12.0 Proposed 3-D. FEM (left web)
Bimoment ( kN-m2 )=103 6.0 3-D. FEM (right web)

8.0

Stress (Mpa)
4.0

4.0

2.0
0.0

0.0
-4.0
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-8.0 -2.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Span length (m) Span length (m)

(a) (a)
15.0 12.0
Analytic
Proposed (left web)
3-D. FEM Proposed (right web)
Proposed 3-D. FEM (left web)
Bimoment ( kN-m2 )=103

10.0
3-D. FEM (right web)
8.0

Stress (Mpa)
5.0

4.0
0.0

0.0
-5.0

-10.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 -4.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Span length (m)
Span length (m)

(b) (b)
Fig. 13. Comparison of bimoments: a Load Case 1; b Load Fig. 14. Change in stress in the prestressing tendon: a Load Case 1;
Case 2 b Load Case 2

energies of prestressing tendons and reinforcing bars were calcu-


lated based on the deformed geometry. The role of prestressing
forces of the tendons on the torsional resistance and the limita-
tions of the transformed section approach were addressed when it
was applied to pure and warping torsional problems. The finite- 0 1 2 i 1 i n
element equilibrium equations derived by minimizing the total l1 l2 li 2 li ln
potential energy function were used to analyze the combined flex-
ural and torsional behavior of an existing double-T beam. The
results were compared to those using a conventional 3D finite- Xi1 Xi
element analysis method and an analytical approach using gov-
erning differential equations. Several conclusions were drawn, as i 1 i i +1 i+2
follows:
1. Based on the deformed configurations of the prestressing ten- xi
dons and reinforcing bars, the resulting deformation is com- li 1 li li +1
posed of an in-plane rotation part and a warping part, and
shows that the prestressing force and the axial stiffness of
prestressing tendon are the factors for the torsional resis- Fig. 15. Indeterminate bimoment of continuous beam

70 / JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS ASCE / JANUARY 2011

J. Eng. Mech. 2011.137:61-72.


tance. In fact, the torsional resistance has a mechanical role Stiffness matrix regarding to warping K has symmetric non-
to restore the cross section of double-T beam rotated under zero entries of
torsion and may be called a restoring action. np
12 24Peh

2. The restoring force of the prestressing tendons provides tor-
K


4,4 = K11,11 = 3 EcIc
+
2 36
sional stiffness that is proportional to the prestressing force L L3 j=1 pj
and the square of the distance between the tendon and the
shear center. However, this is not the case in a reinforcing np
6 12Peh
3.
bar, which does not have a prestressing force.
A two-noded finite beam element was derived with seven

K
4,7 =
L 2 EcIc
+
2
L2 j=1 pj
37
DOFs per node to approximate the behavior of double-T
beam. The seven degrees of freedom included an axial defor- np
12 24Peh
mation degree of freedom for axial behavior, two transla-
tional and two flexure-related rotational degrees of freedom

K
4,11 = 3 EcIc
L

2
L3 j=1 pj
38
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for flexural behavior, one in-plane rotational degree of free-


dom for pure torsion, and one warping degree of freedom for np
6 12Peh
4.
warping torsion.
The presented beam element can be effectively used to
K

4,14 =
L2
EcIc +
2
L2 j=1 pj
39

evaluate the behavior of symmetrically thin-walled pre-


stressed beams or girders including double-T beams and 4 8Peh
np

box girders subjected to a combined flexure and torsion K




7,7 = K14,14 = EcIc
L
+
2
L j=1 pj
40
in lieu of conventional 3D finite element when torsion is
the dominant force.
np
6 12Peh

K

7,11 = K11,14 =
L

2 EcIc
2
L2 j=1 pj
41
Acknowledgments
np
This paper was partially funded by a Konkuk University Research 2 4Peh
Committee grant that made it possible for the first writer to stay at

K
7,14 = EcIc
L
+
2
L j=1 pj
42
the University of Nevada at Reno, United States, to complete this
research during his sabbatical year. Stiffness matrix regarding to coupled effect Kc has symmet-
ric nonzero entries of
Kc c c c c c c
4,4 = K4,7 = K4,11 = K4,14 = K7,11 = K11,11 = K11,14 = 0 43
Appendix I. Stiffness Matrices
ns np
Stiffness matrix regarding to pure torsion Kr has symmetric non- EsAsi 2 E pA pj
zero entries of
Kc
7,7 = Kc
14,14 = 2
i=1

+2
Lse si

j=1 L pe

pj y psjz psj2

6 12Peh
np
44
Kr r
4,4 = K11,11 =
5L
G cK c +
y 2 + z2
5L j=1 psj psj
29
ns np
EsAsi 2 E pA pj
np
Kc
7,14 = 2
i=1

2
Lse si j=1

L pe

pj y psjz psj2 45
1 Peh
Kr
4,7 =
10L
G cK c +
y 2 + z2
5L j=1 psj psj
30

np Appendix II. Analytical Solution Nakai and Yoo


6 12Peh
Kr
4,11 = G cK c
5L

y 2 + z2
5L j=1 psj psj
31 1988

When a beam is subjected to uniform torque mT, the governing


np differential equation of angle of twist xx can be expressed as
1 Peh
Kr
4,14 =
10L
G cK c + y 2 + z2
5L j=1 psj psj
32
d 4 x 2 d x
2
mT
4 2 = 46
dx dx EI

where = GK / EI . In this study, torsional constant GK and


np
2 4Peh
Kr
7,7 = Kr
14,14 =
15L
G cK c +
y 2 + z2
15L j=1 psj psj
33
warping constant EI are calculated from the transformed section
of concrete.
np
1 Peh
Kr
7,11 = Kr
11,14 =
10L
G cK c
y 2 + z2
5L j=1 psj psj
34
Case I: Simply Supported Beam

np Boundary conditions: xo = 0 and d2xo / dx2 = 0 at x = 0 and x = l.


1 Peh
Kr
7,14 =
30L
G cK c y 2 + z2
15L j=1 psj psj
35 The angle of twist xox, the bimoment Box, and torsional
moment Tsox

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS ASCE / JANUARY 2011 / 71

J. Eng. Mech. 2011.137:61-72.


xox =
GK 2
mT sinh x + sinh l x
sinh l
2
1 + xl x
2
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strength of joints in precast prestressed double-T bridges. PCI J.,
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47 Bauld, N. R., and Tzeng, L. S. 1984. A Vlasov theory for fiber rein-


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mT sinh x + sinh l x Struct., 203, 277297.
Box = 1 48
2 sinh l Chen, B.-Z., and Hu, Y.-R. 1988. The torsional stiffness matrix of a
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Tsox =


mT cosh x + sinh l x
sinh l
l
+ x
2
49
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Gjlesvik, A. 1981. The theory of thin walled bars, Wiley, New York.
Heins, C. P. 1975. Bending and torsional design in structural members,
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Lexington Books, Lexington, Mass., 1113.


Lou, T.-J., and Xiang, Y.-Q. 2006. Finite-element modeling of concrete
Boundary conditions: dx,i / dxixi=li = dx,i+1 / dxi+1xi+1=0 where beams prestressed with external tendons. Eng. Struct., 28, 1919
x,ix and li = angle of twist and the length of the ith span, respec- 1926.
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The angle of twist xx and the bimoment Bx


section carbon fiber composite beams subjected to constrained tor-

x,i = xo,i +
1
GKi
Xi1
sinh ili xi li xi
sinh ili

li
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sinh ili li
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Appl. Mech. Eng., 15234, 373391.
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Bx,i = Bo,i + Xi1 + Xi 51 Midas Information Technology Co. Ltd. 2000. Midas users manual,
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+ coth i+1li+1 1 + Xi+1 Ki li


Ki+1 li+1

1
i+1li+1
sinh i+1li+1
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