Rigidez torsional de secciones de pared delgada

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Rigidez torsional de secciones de pared delgada

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in Double-T Beams

Yong-Hak Lee, M.ASCE1; Won-Jin Sung2; and Kee-Won Seong3

Abstract: When a prestressed double-T beam is subjected to torsion, a pair of prestressing tendons resists torsional rotation because of

the restoring action of the displaced prestressing tendons. A comprehensive formulation to account for the torsional restoring action of

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double-T beams is presented, based on Vlasovs hypothesis of considering warping displacement in an open-section. The deformation

energies of prestressing tendons and reinforcing bars are calculated based on the deformed geometry to obtain the total potential energy.

A two-noded beam element with seven degrees of freedom per node approximates an axial displacement, two translations, two flexural,

and one torsional rotations, and a warping displacement to derive the finite-element equilibrium equations by minimizing the potential

energy function. The role of prestressing forces of the tendons on the torsional resistance and the limitations of the traditional transformed

section approach are addressed when it is applied to torsional problems. As a numerical example, an existing three-span continuous

double-T beam is analyzed, and the bimoment and angle of twist are compared to those calculated using conventional three-dimensional

finite-element analysis and the analytical solution of governing differential equations.

DOI: 10.1061/ASCEEM.1943-7889.0000203

CE Database subject headings: Beams; Prestressing; Warpage; Rotation; Finite element method; Stiffness.

Author keywords: Double-T beam; Prestressing tendon; In-plane rotation; Warping; Potential energy function; Finite-element analysis.

Introduction combined axial, flexural, and torsional loads, were carried out by

Vlasov 1961, Timoshenko and Goodier 1970, and Heins

Various types of precast prestressed T-beams have been used to 1975. Since then, much research Reissner 1979, 1983; Gjlesvik

build highway bridges, including continuously placed single-T, 1981; Bauld and Tzeng 1984; Chen and Hu 1988; Nakai and Yoo

double-T, and multiple-T sections. Among these section types, the 1988; Simo and Vu-Quoc 1991; Loughlan and Ata 1997, 1998

double-T beam is a common superstructure system in bridges has been conducted on the torsional behavior of thin-webbed

with a span of 4560 m due to advancements in posttensioning, open-section girders. Meanwhile, research into the torsional be-

precast concrete, construction technology, and the need for aes- havior of open-section prestressed concrete girders is rare, in con-

thetic designs. The large depth of double-T beam sections pro- trast to the volume of research into the flexural behavior of

vides good flexural performance with a large moment of inertia prestressed concrete beams, including the works of El-Ariss

and enhanced spanning capability, and it satisfies serviceability 2004, Lou and Xiang 2006, and Luccioni et al. 1996. These

requirements Arokiasamy et al. 1991; Shahawy and Issa 1992. works have been presented based on the transformed section ap-

On the other hand, the open section of double-T beams is weak in proach that considers transformed cross-sectional areas of pre-

torsional performance when compared to closed-section box gird- stressing tendons and reinforcing bars to compute the torsional

ers. However, if the torsional characteristics of prestressed stiffness of open section prestressed concrete girders. When a

double-T beams are considered in a proper way to account for the prestressed double-T beam is subjected to torsion, where the

torsional resistance caused by the restoring action of prestressing beam has a pair of prestressing tendons that are symmetric about

forces, torsional performance may be larger than that evaluated by the weak axis, a pair of prestressing tendons induces restoring

the transformed section approach. forces. In this regard, the transformed section approach may un-

Early studies on the torsional behavior of structural members, derestimate the torsional stiffness of prestressed double-T beams.

in particular thin-webbed open-section members subjected to In this paper, a comprehensive finite beam element formula-

tion to account for the restoring action of a pair of prestressing

1

Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Konkuk Univ., 1-Hwayang- tendons is presented based on kinematic assumptions of Gjlesvik

dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Korea corresponding author. 1981 with consideration of warping displacement in a thin-

E-mail: leeyo@konkuk.ac.kr walled open-section. The deformation energies of prestressing

2

Research Engineer, GS Engineering & Construction Co., 537 tendons and reinforcing bars are calculated based on the deformed

Namdaemun-ro 5-ga, Seoul 100-095, Korea. geometry of the beam to obtain the total potential energy. For this

3

Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Konkuk Univ., 1-Hwayang- purpose, a deformation energy concept of Abdel-Ghaffar 1979

dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Korea. for the free torsional vibration of suspension bridges is revived to

Note. This manuscript was submitted on January 22, 2010; approved

incorporate the restoring forces of prestressing tendons. The role

on July 19, 2010; published online on July 22, 2010. Discussion period

open until June 1, 2011; separate discussions must be submitted for indi- of prestressing forces of tendons on the torsional resistance and

vidual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Engineering Mechan- the limitations of the transformed section approach are addressed

ics, Vol. 137, No. 1, January 1, 2011. ASCE, ISSN 0733-9399/2011/1- through the energy formulation. A two-noded beam element with

6172/$25.00. seven degrees of freedom per node approximates an axial dis-

x x

x

dx

(a)

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x

+ s

Fig. 1. Prestressed double-T beam

s

placement, two translations, two flexural, and one torsional rota-

tions, and a warping displacement. The finite-element equilibrium

equations are derived by minimizing the total potential energy

function, and applied to the analysis of the combined flexural and +p

torsional behaviors of an existing prestressed continuous

double-T beam. The results are compared to the results of a con-

p

ventional three-dimensional 3D finite-element analysis and the

p

analytical approach of governing differential equations.

p

Deformation of Double-T Beam

(b)

When a double-T beam in Fig. 1 is subjected to torsion, the cross

section is displaced due to in-plane rotation and warping as

shown in Fig. 2 where the subscripts s and p denote reinforcing

bar and prestressing tendon, respectively. Derivation of pure tor-

sional and warping stiffnesses required for the displacement

analysis of the double-T beam is complicated because plane sec-

tion hypothesis is not valid due to warping developed under tor- +u f

+u s us

sion. To define and simplify the problem, the following

u f

assumptions are made in addition to kinematic assumptions of

u p x

Gjlesvik 1981 for thin-walled open-sections:

uw

1. The cross section of double-T beam is symmetric about the +u p dx

center of section and therefore, the prestressing tendons and

+u w

reinforcing bars are symmetrically placed along the centroi-

dal axis;

2. The strain between prestressing tendon and concrete, and re- (c)

inforcing bar and concrete is same because of the perfect

bond assumed on their interface; Fig. 2. Deformed configuration of a prestressed double-T beam due

3. The deflection of double-T beam is small enough to the to torsion: a deformed shape; b in-plane rotation; and c warping

length of span, therefore higher order terms of the character-

istic equation of prestressing tendon profile are ignored;

4. The variation of prestrssing force along presressing tendons

due to the curvature of tendon is not taken into account; and subjected to combined axial load and bending moments about

5. Hooks law defines the constitutive relationships of materials y-and z-axes, referred to M y and M z, respectively, in addition to

composing of double-T beam, concrete, prestressing tendons, torsional moment M x, then the resulting displacements u, v, and

and reinforcing bars. w in x-, y-, and z-directions, respectively, can be expressed as

Figs. 2b and c show the deformed geometry of the cross

section due to in-plane rotation and warping, respectively, based

on the first and second assumptions. To derive the strain- dw dv dx

u = u0 z y+

y,z

displacement relationship for the deformed geometry of double-T dx dx dx

beam, an arbitrary cross section rotated with angle x about shear

center is considered as shown in Fig. 3 where C and S denote the

centroid and shear center, respectively. When the cross section is v = v0 z zsx

y garding to flexure and warping because the first, inertia and static

S : shear center moments of area related to flexure and warping are omitted.

C:centroid w Mx

Strain Energy of Concrete Section due to Flexure

A y and Torsion

v

y S

The strain energy stored in a concrete section of double-T beam

A' x S Uco can be expressed in terms of the normal and shear strains as

z

zS

C

Uco = Vc

1

2

xxxx + xyxy + xzxzdVc 4

z x Substituting Eq. 2 into Eq. 4, expressing the stresses in

terms of the corresponding strains using Hooks law, and trans-

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forming the volumetric integration into line integration, Eq. 4

can be rewritten as

w = w0 + y y sx 1

where u0, v0, and w0 = translational displacements along x, y, and

z axes, respectively, and y , z = warping function. The normal

Uco =

l

0

1

2

E cA c

duo

dx

2

+ EcIcy

d 2w

dx2

2

+ EcIcz

d 2v

dx2

2

Eq. 1 as

+ G cK c

dx

dx

2

+ EcIc

d 2 x

dx2

2

dx 5

duo d w dv 2

d x 2 2

xx = 2 z 2y + 2 where Ac = cross-sectional area of concrete; Icy and Icz = second

dx dx dx dx moments about y- and z-axes, respectively; and Kc and Ic

= pure torsional and warping constants, respectively. It should be

dx noted in Eq. 5 that the reference axes for flexure and torsion are

xy = z zs

y dx taken as the centroid and the shear center of double-T beam,

respectively.

dx

xz = y y s 2

z dx Deformation Energy of Prestressing Tendons

due to Torsion

where y s and zs = components of the distance between the centroid

and the shear center in y- and z-directions, respectively. When a cross section of a double-T beam rotates about a shear

Stress resultants acting on cross section can be calculated by center by twist angle x because of torsion, the prestressing ten-

integrating the corresponding stresses over the cross-sectional dons on the left and right sides of y-axis are displaced by v px

area and +v px along the vertical direction, respectively, and w px

along the lateral direction for both sides of tendons as shown in

Fx = xxdA; Fy = xydA; Fz = xzdA Fig. 2b. In addition to in-plane rotation, warping causes the

A A A change in the length of both sides of tendons along the longitu-

dinal direction as shown in Fig. 2c.

My = A

xxzdA; M z = A

xxydA

Figs. 4a and b show the deformed configurations of pre-

stressing tendons in the left and right sides, respectively, due to

in-plane rotation and warping. Denoting the change in twist angle

between the two cross sections at a distance dx as dx, the change

in length of an infinitesimal element of the left side prestressing

Mx = xzy y s xyz zsdA; B = xx

dA 3

tendon in the left side shown in Fig. 4a is expressed as

A A

where Fx, Fy, and Fz = forces along x-, y- and z-directions, respec- ds p + dslp2 = dx + du p2 + dy psi dv p2 + dw2p 6

tively; B = bimoment; and the normal stress xx, and shear stresses where y psi = y component of the distance from the shear center to

xy and xz are obtained from Eq. 2 using Hooks law. the ith prestressing tendon. The deformation energy dUlps stored

in an infinitesimal element of the left side prestressing tendon is

calculated as the product of prestressing force and change in

Strain Energy of Double-T Beam length dslp

The strain energy of a double-T beam is obtained by summing

the contributions of the elastic deformation of concrete section, 1

dUlps = Peh + Pllh

2

ds p

dx

1

dslp = Peh + Pllh

2

du p

dx

dx

and the elongation of prestressing tendons and reinforcing bars.

2 2 2

Based on the uncoupled relationship between the torsional and dv p dy psi 1 du p dv p dw p

dx + + + dx

flexural deformation modes, the energy formulation adopts two dx dx 2 dx dx dx

reference axes, the centroidal axis for flexure and the shear center

7

axis for torsion, to implement the area integrations included in the

energy potential function. Adopting two reference axes simplifies where Peh and Pllh = horizontal

components of prestressing force

the complicated works of calculating the sectional properties re- and the increase of prestressing force in the left side prestressing

y Change in length of the infinitesimal element of the right side

z prestressing tendon shown in Fig. 4b can be obtained by substi-

S .C. Axis tuting Pllh, du p, and v p in Eq. 6 with Prlh, du p, and v p, respec-

x tively. In this case, the deformation energy is calculated similarly

yp x to the case of the left side prestressing tendon as

x +dx

dx P

p

1

Urps = Peh + Prlh

2

l

du p

dx

dx +

l

dv p

dx

dy psi

dx

dx

0 0

l 2 2 2

dy p 1 du p dv p dw p

p + me d + + + dx 10

d efor 2 dx dx dx

u nd ed o

p

orm

p + dp d ef

The terms in the second parenthesis in Eq. 10 can be ex-

pressed in terms of the axial stiffness of the tendon as

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dup

l l l

PrlhL pe du p dv p dy psi 1 du p 2

= dx + dx +

(a) E pA pi dx dx dx 2 dx

o o o

2 2

y dv p dw p

+ + dx 11

z dx dx

S.C Axis Summing the deformation energies of Ulps in Eq. 8 and Urps in

Eq. 10 leads to the deformation energy Upsi of the ith layer

x prestressing tendons due to in-plane rotation and warping

x l 2 2 2

du p dv p dw p

yp Upsi = Peh + + dx

x +dx dx dx dx

p

o

l l 2

dx E pA pi du p dv p dy psi

p + dx dx

L pe dx dx dx

0 0

l 2

p + med 1 E pA pi du p 2

dv p 2

dw p 2

d defor me

d

+ + + dx

p

d e for 4 L pe dx dx dx

dyp un o

dup

12

p + dp Neglecting the higher order terms in the last parenthesis, inte-

grating the second integral in the third term by parts, and substi-

tuting the relationship between warping displacement and

(b) warping function u p = dx / dx

y p,z p and the geometrical rela-

tionship v p = zpsix from Fig. 2b, the torsional deformation en-

Fig. 4. Deformed configuration of prestressing tendons: a left side ergy of Eq. 12 can be rewritten as

prestressing tendon; b right side prestressing tendon

is obtained from Eq. 6 by letting

Upsi = Peh

l

y psi

2 2

+ zpsi dx

dx

2

dx + Peh

l

2pi

d 2 x

dx2

2

dx

0 0

ds2p = dx2 + dy psi

2

and neglecting higher order terms. Integrating l 2

Eq. 7 over the tendon length, the deformation energy of the left E pA pi d 2 x

+

pi y psizpsi dx 13

side prestressing tendon is expressed as L pe dx2

0

l l

1 du p dv p dy psi where pi = warping function of the ith layer prestressing tendons

Ulps = Peh + Pllh dx dx

2 dx dx dx and y psi and zpsi = distances from the shear center to the ith pre-

0 0

l 2 2 2

stressing tendons along y- and z-axes, respectively. The first and

1 du p dv p dw p second deformation energy terms in Eq. 13 are due to in-plane

+ + + dx 8

2 o dx dx dx rotation and warping, respectively. The last deformation energy

term in Eq. 13 reflects the axial deformation of prestressing

The terms in the second parenthesis in Eq. 8 can be ex- tendon induced by the in-plane rotation of cross section. It is

pressed in terms of the axial stiffness of the prestressing tendon as

interesting to note that prestressing force Peh and axial stiffness

PllhL pe

l

du p

l

dv p dy psi 1

l

du p 2 E pA pi / L pe of prestressing tendon are the factors for the torsional

= dx dx + resistance of a pair of prestressing tendons. In fact, the torsional

E pA pi dx dx dx 2 dx

o o o resistance has a mechanical role to restore the cross section of

dv p 2

dw p 2 double-T beam rotated under torsion and may be called a restor-

+ + dx 9 ing action.

dx dx

If torsion is combined with flexure, the strain energy of pre-

where L pe, A pi, and E p = length, area, and elastic modulus of the stressing tendons due to flexure can be considered in addition to

prestressing tendon, respectively. Eq. 13 as

l np 2 2 2 The axial force of reinforcing bar Fsir in Eq. 19 can be ex-

1 duo d 2w d 2v

U ps = E pA pi + z2pci + y 2pci pressed in terms of the axial stiffness as

2 dx dx2 dx2

0 i

l l 2 2

EsAsi dus 1 dus dvs

np Fsir = dx + + dx

dx 2

d x2 2

Lse dx 2 dx dx

+ Peh y psi

2 2

+ zpsi +

2pi dx o o

dx dx2

i 20

np l 2

E pA pi d x

2

i

The deformation energy Us of all the reinforcing bars due to

+

pi y psizpsi dx 14

L pe dx2 in-plane rotation and warping is obtained by summing the defor-

0

mation energy of Usil in Eq. 18 and Usir in Eq. 20 and neglect-

where np defines a number of layered prestressing tendons and ing higher order terms as

y pci and z pci = distances from the centroid to the ith prestressing ns l 2

tendons along y- and z-axes, respectively. In Eq. 14, the three EsAsi dus

Us = i dx 21

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terms in the first summation are obtained in analogy to the way of Lse dx

0

getting the first three terms of Eq. 5 by replacing concrete area

Ac with prestressing tendon area A p. If torsion is combined with flexure, the strain energy of re-

inforcing bars due to flexure can be considered in addition to

Eq. 21 as

Deformation Energy of Reinforcing Bars

due to Torsion l ns 2 2 2

1 duo 2 d 2w 2 d 2v

Us = EsAsi + zsci + y sci dx

When a cross section of a double-T beam rotates by an angle of 2 dx dx2 dx2

0 i

twist x due to torsion, reinforcing bars on the left and right sides

ns

of y-axis displace by vsx and +vsx, respectively, as shown in EsAsi

l

d 2 x

2

Fig. 2b. Denoting the change in length due to in-plane rotation + i Lse 0

si

dx2

dx 22

and warping as dxsl, a geometrical relation among the infinitesi-

mal length and deformation components along x- and y-axes can where ns defines a number of reinforcing bars, and y sci and zsci

be expressed as = distances from the centroid to the ith reinforcing bar along y-

and z-axes, respectively.

dx + dxsl2 = dx + dus2 + dvs2 15

The deformation energy dUsil stored in the infinitesimal element Total Strain Energy

of the ith reinforcing bar in the left side is calculated as the

The total strain energy of a double-T beam U is obtained by

product of the axial force induced during the change in length, Fsl, summing the strain energies of Eqs. 5, 14, and 22

and the change in length of the infinitesimal element dxsl

l

1 duo 2

d 2v 2

d 2w 2

d 2 x 2

1 dus 1 dus 2

dvs 2 U= EA + EIz + EIy + EI

dUsil = Fsil dx + + dx 16 2 dx dx2 dx2 dx2

o

2 dx 2 dx dx

2 np l

where dxsl is obtained from Eq. 15 in analogy to Eqs. 6 and dx E pA pi

+ GK2x dx +

pi y psizpsi

7. Integrating Eq. 16 over the length of reinforcing bar, the dx L pe

i 0

deformation energy of the reinforcing bar can be expressed as 2 ns l 2

d 2 x d 2 x

EsAsi

1

l

dus 1

l

dus 2

dvs 2

dx2

dx + i Lse

si

dx2

dx 23

Usil = Fsil dx + + dx 0

2 o dx 2 o dx dx

where

17 ns np ns

The axial force of reinforcing bar in Eq. 17 can be ex- Fsl E A = E cA c + E s i Asi + Epj Apj ; EIy = EcIcy + Es i Asizsci2

pressed in terms of the axial stiffness as

np

Fsil =

EsAsi

l

dus

dx +

1

l

dus 2

+

dvs 2

dx

+ Ep j Apjz2pcj

Lse o dx 2 o dx dx

18 ns np

where Lse, Asi, and Es = length, area, and elastic modulus of ith

EIz = EcIcz + Es i 2

Asiy sci + Ep j Apjy2pcj

reinforcing bar, respectively.

The deformation energy of ith reinforcing bar in the right side np np

is calculated by substituting Fsil and du with Fsir and du, respec-

tively, as follows:

GK = GcKc + 2Peh

i=1

y psi

2 2

+ zpsi; EI = EcIc + 2Peh

i=1

2pi

l l 2 2

24

1 dus 1 dus dvs

Usir = Fsir dx + + dx Five parameters in Eq. 24 represent cross-sectional stiffnesses

2 o dx 2 o dx dx

of double-T beam related to flexture, pure torsion and warping

19 where EA, EIy, and EIz are related to flexure, GK is to torsion, and

v2

x 2 wx = Nwdw ; x = Nd 25

x2

y

y2

v1 x where do = u1 , u2 = axial nodal displacement vector and

w2

x1

u 2

dv = v1 , dv / dx1 , v2 , dv / dx2 and dw = w1 , dw / dx1 ,

x1 2

w1 y1 w2 , dw / dx2 = flexural nodal displacement vectors associated

Sy S z2

z with centroidal axes along y- and z-directions, respectively,

u1 1 where the Subscripts 1 and 2 indicate the number of nodal

z1

z points. The torsional nodal displacement vector d

= x1 , dx / dx1 , x2 , dx / dx2 is associated with shear center

(a) axes along y- and z-directions. No, Nv, Nw, and N are the shape

function vectors corresponding to do, dv, dw, and d, respectively,

f y2

y

where Nv = N, Nw1 = Nv1, Nw2 = Nv2, Nw3 = Nv3, and Nw4 = Nv4,

x and the Subscripts 1, 2, 3, and 4 indicate the entries of vectors Nv

f x2

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B2

mx2 Substituting Eq. 25 into Eq. 2, the normal strain xx and the

y f y1 q (x) shear strains xy and xz can be expressed in terms of the nodal

fz2

displacements

q (x) mz2

my1 z

S

xx = Bo zBw yBv wBdo dw dv dT

f x1 mx1 f z1

B1

mz1

z w

xy = z zs BdT

y

(b)

acting on the element xz = w

z

+ y y s BdT 26

= dN / dx; and B = d2N / dx2.

EI is to warping. Furthermore, the flexure-related terms are to be

calculated in reference to the centroid of transformed section, and Finite-Element Equilibrium Equations

the torsion-and warping-related terms are to be calculated in ref-

erence to the shear center. It is noted in Eq. 24 that torsional and The external work done on the beam element due to the distrib-

warping constants include the effects of mechanical properties of uted loads qvx and qwx, the equivalent nodal forces f xj, f yj,

prestressing force and axial stiffness of reinforcing bar and pre- and f zj, the moments mxj, myj, and mzj, and the bimoment B j

stressing tendon. This is in contrast to the conventional approach shown in Fig. 5b can be expressed as

of the transformed section for torsional behavior of a double-T

l 2

beam where prestressing tendons and reinforcing bars are totally

transformed to equivalent area to concrete without consideration W= qvv + qwwdx + f xju j + f yjv j + f zjw j + mxjxj

0 j=1

of their mechnical roles.

dw dw dx

+ myj + mzj + Bj 27

dx j dx j dx j

Finite-Element Formulation

Total potential energy of a double-T beam is presented by

= U W. Applying the principle of minimum total potential

Two-noded beam element with seven degrees of freedom DOF

energy, d = / dd = 0, the finite-element equilibrium

including a warping DOF approximates the behavior of a

equations are obtained as Kd = F where the stiffness matrix K is

double-T beam under combined flexural and torsional loads.

given as follows:

Owing to the uncoupled relationship between torsional and flex-

ural deformation modes as shown in Eq. 23, the formulation

l

adopts two reference axes to implement the area integrations of K= EABTo Bo + EIZBTwBw + EIY BTv Bv + GKBT B + EI BTBdx

Eq. 23, centroidal axis for flexure and shear center axis for

0

torsion.

np l l

E PA Pi

+2 i L Pe

pi y psizpsiBTdx

pi y psizpsiBdx

Approximation of Field Values o o

np l l

The displacements ux, vx, and wx and the rotational angle of ESASi

cross section x are approximated using shape function vectors

+2 i LSe o

siBTdx

o

siBdx 28

and nodal displacement vectors shown in Fig. 5a

The torsion and warping-related stiffness terms in Eq. 28 in a

finite element level with finite-element length are explicitly ex-

ux = Nodo ; vx = Nvdv pressed in Appendix I.

y

x

1.9 hs 7.5 6.0

hc hc hc

mT = 59.54 kN-m

(a)

y

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(b)

0.33

Fig. 7. Torsional moment acting on a thin-walled prestressed

double-T beam: a Load Case 1; b Load Case 2

z Re bar

3.00

2.67

elements, 2,620 reinforcing bar elements and 524 PS tendon ele-

ments in case of conventional 3D finite-element analysis.

PS strand

Two different load cases are considered separately: 1 a uni-

formly distributed line load of 9.8 kN/m on all the spans referred

to Load Case 1, and 2 a uniformly distributed line load of 9.8

kN/m only on the center span referred to Load Case 2. To in-

duce the torsional effect in the double-T beam as well as flexure,

(b) the loads are applied along the left web. The induced torsional

moments are shown in Figs. 7a and b for Load Case 1 and Load

Fig. 6. Dimensions of the three-span double-T beam: a longitudinal Case 2, respectively. It should be noted that the level of the ap-

dimensions; b cross-sectional dimensions units= m plied load 9.8 kN/m is selected such that the stress level stays

within the elastic range.

The numerical results obtained by the developed beam ele-

ment are compared to those using an analytical approach employ-

Numerical Examples ing governing differential equations of a beam subjected to

torsion with warping torsion Nakai and Yoo 1988 and a conven-

Properties of the Case Study Double-T Beam tional 3D finite-element analysis. In the conventional 3D finite-

An existing prestressed continuous double-T beam with bonded element analysis, the warping normal stresses of the flange and

prestressing tendons is analyzed using the developed beam ele- webs are computed by decomposing the total stresses into the

ment. Fig. 6 shows the dimensions of the Anpyong-1 Bridge, flexure part of bx and the warping part of x through the rela-

which is an 11-span continuous double-T beam structure located tionships bx = z x + x / 2 and x = x x / 2 as illustrated in

+z z +z

of three spans located at the center of the 11-span bridge is shown The level of warping is estimated based on the bimoment

in Fig. 6 for simplicity. The design details show 10-D22 of rein- M = I /

. The location of the warping function i is shown

forcing bar placed on the top flange of concrete, and 22 seven- in Fig. 9, and the corresponding warping function values are

wire-strand prestressing tendons 138.7 mm2 / strand. The listed in Table 2. The warping constant I is evaluated using

geometry of the cross section with a concrete slab flange with a I = s

2tds; in this study, I = 7.51 105 m4.

width of 12.2 m and a depth of 3 m is symmetric about y-axis.

The material properties of concrete, prestressing tendons, and re- Flexural Behavior

inforcing bars are listed in Table 1. The beam was discretized

with 130 elements in case of the presented beam element analysis Figs. 10a and b show a comparison of the deflections calculated

and with 18,624 elements including 15,480 3D eight-node brick by the developed finite-element analysis and the conventional 3D

x xb xb x

Parameter Value z

+x

x

Concrete Modulus of elasticity, Ec 2.74 104 MPa = +

Poissons ratio, c 0.2 x

z

Prestressing tendon Modulus of elasticity, E p 2.06 105 MPa

Prestressing force, Pe 19,140 kN Fig. 8. Decomposition of normal stress into flexure and warping

Reinforcing bar Modulus of elasticity, Es 2.06 105 MPa parts

y 30.0

6.08 6.08

3D. FEM

Z Proposed

3 + 2 S

5

20.0

Deflection (mm)

1 C 6

2.84

10.0

+

4 7

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-10.0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

finite-element analysis using a commercial finite-element analysis

Span length ( m )

computer program, Midas Information Technology Co. Ltd.

2000 for Load Case 1 and Load Case 2.

In the conventional 3D finite-element analysis, an eight-node (a)

brick element for concrete and a two-node bar element for the

prestressing tendon and reinforcing bar are used in the finite- 30.0

element modeling of the beam. The deflection is taken at the top

of concrete flange where the node closest to the shear center of 3D. FEM

the cross section is located. As shown in Fig. 10, the deflections Proposed

using the two approaches agree well, except for the center of the 20.0

Deflection ( mm)

middle span. This is due to the inherent difference of the two

approaches in the approximation of field values, and the different

monitoring points within the cross section.

10.0

Torsional Behavior

The torsional behavior is analyzed using three approaches: devel- 0.0

oped finite-element analysis, the analytical solution of governing

differential equations, and a conventional 3D finite-element

analysis. In the conventional 3D finite-element analysis approach,

the twist angle is calculated by dividing the relative deflections -10.0

calculated at the two points where the flange and web meet by the 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

distance between these two points. Span length ( m )

Figs. 11a and b show a comparison of the torsional stiffness

in terms of the angle of twist. The results of the developed ap-

proach are close to those of the analytical solution, while they (b)

show a relatively large difference to those of the conventional 3D

finite-element analysis. This difference may be due to the bound- Fig. 10. Comparison of deflections: a Load Case 1; b Load

ary conditions taken at the nodal points across the bottom of the Case 2

webs that are allowed in the full 3D finite-element analysis, but

are not allowed in the beam-type finite-element analysis. The in-

plane deformation of the conventional 3D finite-element analysis

could be another reason for the observed difference, because the twist angle is calculated in terms of the relative deflection be-

tween the two points across the cross section of the beam.

To evaluate the effect of the restoring action on the torsional

Table 2. Warping Function Values of the Anpyong-1 Bridge stiffness, the beam is analyzed using the two cases formulated

with and without consideration of the action where the formula-

Warping Value tion of the latter case is based on the transformed section ap-

function mm2

proach. Figs. 12a and b show that the twist angle at the center of

1 0.0 the middle span in the case without the action is 4 and 7% larger

2 1,790,900 than that in the case with the action for Load Case 1 and 2,

3 3,567,100 respectively. This observation indicates that the role of the restor-

4 6,855,900 ing action on the torsional stiffness is crucial when the effective

5 1,790,900 prestressing force is relatively large, or when the depth of the

cross section is deep enough to allow a distance from the shear

6 3,567,100

center to the location of the prestressing tendons, as observed in

7 6,855,900

Eq. 26.

8.0 8.0

Analytic

3-D. FEM with PS tendon stiff.

Angle of twist (rad.) =10-4 Proposed w/o PS tendon stiff.

6.0 6.0

4.0 4.0

2.0 2.0

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0.0

0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Span length (m) Span length (m)

(a)

(a) 12.0

w/o PS tendon stiff.

Analytic

3-D. FEM

8.0

Angle of twist (rad.) =10-4

Proposed

8.0

4.0

4.0

0.0

0.0

-4.0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Span length (m)

-4.0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Span length (m) (b)

Fig. 12. Effect of the coupled restoring action on the torsional stiff-

(b) ness: a Load Case 1; b Load Case 2

Case 2 rection of the twist. Figs. 14a and b show the change in stress in

the prestressing tendon caused by the flexure and the warping.

In the current case, the sign of the warping function in Fig. 9

results in the tensile warping normal stress observed at the bottom

of the left side web and the compressive warping normal stress

Warping Behavior observed at the bottom of the right side web. When the warping

The bimoments of the double-T beams are calculated using the normal stresses are added to the normal stresses due to the flex-

three approaches of developed finite-element analysis, a conven- ure, the prestressing force in the left side prestressing tendon in-

tional 3D finite-element analysis, and the analytical solution of creases, and the prestressing force in the right side prestressing

the governing differential equations. Figs. 13a and b show that tendon decreases, as shown in Fig. 14. This indicates that warping

good agreement is observed among the three approaches, except can be the dominant behavior in a double-T beam depending on

for the interior supports where the bimoment value of the devel- the level of torsion Fig. 15.

oped approach is close to that of the analytical solution, while it is

different to that of the conventional 3D finite-element analysis

data. This is attributed to the method of calculating the bimoment Conclusions

in the conventional 3D finite-element analysis, as shown in Fig. 8.

When a double-T beam is subjected to torsion, the prestressing A 3D finite beam element was formulated to represent the behav-

force in the tendon increases or decreases depending on the di- ior of a double-T beam subjected to torsion. The deformation

16.0 8.0

Analytic

Proposed (left web)

3-D. FEM

Proposed (right web)

12.0 Proposed 3-D. FEM (left web)

Bimoment ( kN-m2 )=103 6.0 3-D. FEM (right web)

8.0

Stress (Mpa)

4.0

4.0

2.0

0.0

0.0

-4.0

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-8.0 -2.0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Span length (m) Span length (m)

(a) (a)

15.0 12.0

Analytic

Proposed (left web)

3-D. FEM Proposed (right web)

Proposed 3-D. FEM (left web)

Bimoment ( kN-m2 )=103

10.0

3-D. FEM (right web)

8.0

Stress (Mpa)

5.0

4.0

0.0

0.0

-5.0

-10.0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 -4.0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Span length (m)

Span length (m)

(b) (b)

Fig. 13. Comparison of bimoments: a Load Case 1; b Load Fig. 14. Change in stress in the prestressing tendon: a Load Case 1;

Case 2 b Load Case 2

lated based on the deformed geometry. The role of prestressing

forces of the tendons on the torsional resistance and the limita-

tions of the transformed section approach were addressed when it

was applied to pure and warping torsional problems. The finite- 0 1 2 i 1 i n

element equilibrium equations derived by minimizing the total l1 l2 li 2 li ln

potential energy function were used to analyze the combined flex-

ural and torsional behavior of an existing double-T beam. The

results were compared to those using a conventional 3D finite- Xi1 Xi

element analysis method and an analytical approach using gov-

erning differential equations. Several conclusions were drawn, as i 1 i i +1 i+2

follows:

1. Based on the deformed configurations of the prestressing ten- xi

dons and reinforcing bars, the resulting deformation is com- li 1 li li +1

posed of an in-plane rotation part and a warping part, and

shows that the prestressing force and the axial stiffness of

prestressing tendon are the factors for the torsional resis- Fig. 15. Indeterminate bimoment of continuous beam

tance. In fact, the torsional resistance has a mechanical role Stiffness matrix regarding to warping K has symmetric non-

to restore the cross section of double-T beam rotated under zero entries of

torsion and may be called a restoring action. np

12 24Peh

2. The restoring force of the prestressing tendons provides tor-

K

4,4 = K11,11 = 3 EcIc

+

2 36

sional stiffness that is proportional to the prestressing force L L3 j=1 pj

and the square of the distance between the tendon and the

shear center. However, this is not the case in a reinforcing np

6 12Peh

3.

bar, which does not have a prestressing force.

A two-noded finite beam element was derived with seven

K

4,7 =

L 2 EcIc

+

2

L2 j=1 pj

37

DOFs per node to approximate the behavior of double-T

beam. The seven degrees of freedom included an axial defor- np

12 24Peh

mation degree of freedom for axial behavior, two transla-

tional and two flexure-related rotational degrees of freedom

K

4,11 = 3 EcIc

L

2

L3 j=1 pj

38

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dom for pure torsion, and one warping degree of freedom for np

6 12Peh

4.

warping torsion.

The presented beam element can be effectively used to

K

4,14 =

L2

EcIc +

2

L2 j=1 pj

39

stressed beams or girders including double-T beams and 4 8Peh

np

7,7 = K14,14 = EcIc

L

+

2

L j=1 pj

40

in lieu of conventional 3D finite element when torsion is

the dominant force.

np

6 12Peh

K

7,11 = K11,14 =

L

2 EcIc

2

L2 j=1 pj

41

Acknowledgments

np

This paper was partially funded by a Konkuk University Research 2 4Peh

Committee grant that made it possible for the first writer to stay at

K

7,14 = EcIc

L

+

2

L j=1 pj

42

the University of Nevada at Reno, United States, to complete this

research during his sabbatical year. Stiffness matrix regarding to coupled effect Kc has symmet-

ric nonzero entries of

Kc c c c c c c

4,4 = K4,7 = K4,11 = K4,14 = K7,11 = K11,11 = K11,14 = 0 43

Appendix I. Stiffness Matrices

ns np

Stiffness matrix regarding to pure torsion Kr has symmetric non- EsAsi 2 E pA pj

zero entries of

Kc

7,7 = Kc

14,14 = 2

i=1

+2

Lse si

j=1 L pe

pj y psjz psj2

6 12Peh

np

44

Kr r

4,4 = K11,11 =

5L

G cK c +

y 2 + z2

5L j=1 psj psj

29

ns np

EsAsi 2 E pA pj

np

Kc

7,14 = 2

i=1

2

Lse si j=1

L pe

pj y psjz psj2 45

1 Peh

Kr

4,7 =

10L

G cK c +

y 2 + z2

5L j=1 psj psj

30

6 12Peh

Kr

4,11 = G cK c

5L

y 2 + z2

5L j=1 psj psj

31 1988

np differential equation of angle of twist xx can be expressed as

1 Peh

Kr

4,14 =

10L

G cK c + y 2 + z2

5L j=1 psj psj

32

d 4 x 2 d x

2

mT

4 2 = 46

dx dx EI

np

2 4Peh

Kr

7,7 = Kr

14,14 =

15L

G cK c +

y 2 + z2

15L j=1 psj psj

33

warping constant EI are calculated from the transformed section

of concrete.

np

1 Peh

Kr

7,11 = Kr

11,14 =

10L

G cK c

y 2 + z2

5L j=1 psj psj

34

Case I: Simply Supported Beam

1 Peh

Kr

7,14 =

30L

G cK c y 2 + z2

15L j=1 psj psj

35 The angle of twist xox, the bimoment Box, and torsional

moment Tsox

xox =

GK 2

mT sinh x + sinh l x

sinh l

2

1 + xl x

2

Arokiasamy, M., Reddy, M., Badve, D., and Rao, B. V. 1991. Fatigue

strength of joints in precast prestressed double-T bridges. PCI J.,

361, 8497.

47 Bauld, N. R., and Tzeng, L. S. 1984. A Vlasov theory for fiber rein-

forced beams with thin-walled open cross sections. Int. J. Solids

mT sinh x + sinh l x Struct., 203, 277297.

Box = 1 48

2 sinh l Chen, B.-Z., and Hu, Y.-R. 1988. The torsional stiffness matrix of a

thin-walled beam and its application to beams under combined load-

Tsox =

mT cosh x + sinh l x

sinh l

l

+ x

2

49

ing. Comput. Struct., 283, 421431.

El-Ariss, B. 2004. Stiffness of reinforced concrete beams with external

tendons. Eng. Struct., 26, 20472051.

Gjlesvik, A. 1981. The theory of thin walled bars, Wiley, New York.

Heins, C. P. 1975. Bending and torsional design in structural members,

Case II: Continuous Beam

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Universidad De Sevilla on 05/12/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

Lou, T.-J., and Xiang, Y.-Q. 2006. Finite-element modeling of concrete

Boundary conditions: dx,i / dxixi=li = dx,i+1 / dxi+1xi+1=0 where beams prestressed with external tendons. Eng. Struct., 28, 1919

x,ix and li = angle of twist and the length of the ith span, respec- 1926.

tively Fig. 15. Loughlan, J., and Ata, M. 1997. The behavior of open and closed

The angle of twist xx and the bimoment Bx

section carbon fiber composite beams subjected to constrained tor-

x,i = xo,i +

1

GKi

Xi1

sinh ili xi li xi

sinh ili

li

sion. Compos. Struct., 3814, 631647.

Loughlan, J., and Ata, M. 1998. The analysis of carbon fiber composite

box beams subjected to torsion with variable twist. Comput. Methods

+ Xi sinh ixi xi

sinh ili li

50

Appl. Mech. Eng., 15234, 373391.

Luccioni, B. M., Reimundim, J. C., and Danesi, R. 1996. Thin-walled

prestressed concrete members under combined loading. J. Struct.

Eng., 1223, 291297.

sinh ili xi sinh ixi

Bx,i = Bo,i + Xi1 + Xi 51 Midas Information Technology Co. Ltd. 2000. Midas users manual,

sinh ili sinh ili Seoul, Korea.

where Xi can be calculated by solving the simultaneous equations Nakai, H., and Yoo, C. H. 1988. Analysis and design of curved steel

bridges, McGraw-Hill, New York.

i Ki li Reissner, E. 1979. Some considerations on the problem of torsion and

Xi1 1 + Xi ili coth ili 1 + i+1li+1

sinh ili Ki+1 li+1 flexure of prismatic beams. Int. J. Solids Struct., 151, 4153.

Ki+1 li+1

1

i+1li+1

sinh i+1li+1

Reissner, E. 1983. Further considerations on the problem of torsion

and flexure of prismatic beams. Int. J. Solids Struct., 195, 385

392.

Ki Shahawy, W. E., and Issa, M. 1992. Load testing of transversely pre-

= li Tso,i+1xi+1=0 Tso,ixi=li 52 stressed double-T bridges. PCI J., 355, 8699.

Ki+1

Simo, J. C., and Vu-Quoc, L. 1991. A geometrically-exact rod model

incorporating shear and torsion-warping deformation. Int. J. Solids

Struct., 273, 371393.

References Timoshenko, S. P., and Goodier, J. N. 1970. Theory of elasticity, 3rd

Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.

Abdel-Ghaffar, A. M. 1979. Free torsional vibrations of suspension Vlasov, V. Z. 1961. Thin walled elastic beams, 2nd Ed., Israel Program

bridges. J. Struct. Div., 105ST4, 767788. for Scientific Transactions, Jerusalem, Israel.

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