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Penal Management

Corrections - is typically carried out by government agencies and involves the punishment,
treatment, and supervision of persons who have been convicted of crimes.

Penology - The study of the punishment of crime and prison management.Is a section of
criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice to repress criminal activities via an
appropriate treatment and supervision of persons convicted of criminal offenses.

Punishment - is the infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution for an offense."The penalty


inflicted".

Prison reform - is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons and aiming a a more effective
penal system.

Prison - is a place in which people are physically confined and usually deprived of a range of
personal freedoms.

Jail - is a short term detention facility.

Halfway house - also called recovery house or sober house - is a place to allow people to begin the
process of reintegration with society while still providing monitoring and support; this is generally
believed to reduce the risk of recidivism or relapse when compared to a release directly into
society.

Rehabilitation - it came from latin word "habilis" literally fit or suitable. Its meaning was expanded
to mean "restore to sound operation" or "to establish the good reputation".

Solitary confinement - is a special form of imprisonment in which a prisoner is isolated from any
human contact, though often with the exception of members of prison staff.

Jail
Prison
a place of detention; a place where
a place of long term confinement
a person convicted or suspected of
for those convicted of serious
a crime is detained.
crimes.
BJMP
Bureau of Corrections
DILG
DOJ
holds people awaiting trial and
holds people convicted of
people sentenced for a short
crimes;sentenced for a longer term.
duration.
Zebulon Reed Brockway - regarded as the father of prison reform in the United States. Believed
that the primary reason to have a prisoner in custody was to rehabilitate and not simply to punish.
Warden at the Elmira reformatory from 1876 to 1900. He introduced the following:

1. a program of education

2. training in useful trades

3. physical activity

4. indeterminate sentence

5. inmate classification

6. incentive program.

Alexander Maconochie - (1787 -1860) - a Scottish naval officer, geographer and penal reformer.
His two basic principle of penology were that:

1. as cruelty debases both the victim and society, punishment should not be vindictive but
should aim at the reform of the convict to observe social constraints.

2. a convicts imprisonment should consist of task, not time sentences with release depending
on the performance of a measurable amount of labor.

Modern Form/Method of Punishment

1. Execution - for capital offenses. ex. death by lethal injection

2. Imprisonment/Incarceration

3. Fines

4. Probation and Parole

5. House Arrest - is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to his or her
residence. Travel is usually restricted if allowed at all.

Ancient Form/Method of Punishment

1. shame punishment

2. exile/banishment

3. payment to the victim

4. branding - (Stigmatizing) - is the process by which a mark is burned into the skin of a living
person.
5. flogging - (flagellation) - is the act of methodically beating or whipping the human body.

6. mutilation - (maiming) - is the act of physical injury that degrades the appearance or
function of any living body usually without causing death.

7. burning

8. beheading

9. torture

* In the Philippines so far, 17 persons were executed


by hanging, 84 persons were executed by electric
chair, 7 persons were executed by lethal injection.

* Majority of inmates confined in national prison did


not finish high school, 6% never went to school or
were illiterate and 3% earned a college degree.

Penal Management Review Questions 1

1. The authoritative imposition of something negative or unpleasant


on a person in response to behavior deemed wrong by law.
A. Punishment
B. Banishment
C. Retribution
D. Penalty

2. The branch of criminology concerned with prison management


and prison rehabilitation.
A. Penology
B. Sociology
C. Correction
D. Anthropology

3. Getting back at someone for something they did to hurt you.


A. Punishment
B. Retribution
C. Justification
D. Penalty

4. A punishment for some violation of conduct which involves the


infliction of pain on or harm to the body.
A. Penalty
B. Punishment
C. Banishment
D. Corporal punishment

5. French penal colony from 1852 to 1959 where political prisoners are
exiled.
A. Devil's island
B. Tasmanian island
C. Robben Island
D. Cape of good hope

6. A prison reformer who published an influential book that proposed


prison reform.
A. Elizabeth Fry
B. John Howard
C. John Goodman
D. Victoria Azarenka

7. An English reformer sometimes referred to as the "angel of prisons"


because of her driving force behind new legislation to treat prisoners
humanely.
A. Elizabeth Fry
B. John Howard
C. John Goodman
D. Alex Morgan

8. A prison complex located at the coast of Capetown South Africa


which serve as a refugee camp for people afflicted with leper before
converted into a prison.
A. Port Arthur
B. Robben island
C. Pennsylvania prison
D. Elmira prison

9. A penal method of the 19th century in which persons worked during


the day and were kept in solitary confinement at night and silence
enforced at all times.
A. Auburn System
B. U.K system
C. Pennsylvania system
D. Irish system
10. The first reformatory prison.
A. Auburn prison
B. Pennsylvania prison
C. New York correctional facility
D. Elmira correctional facility

Remember the following: Penal Management

1. Punishment - The authoritative imposition of something negative or


unpleasant on a person in response to behavior deemed wrong by
law.

2. Penology - The branch of criminology concerned with prison


management and prison rehabilitation.

3. Retribution - Getting back at someone for something they did to


hurt you.

4. Corporal punishment - A punishment for some violation of conduct


which involves the infliction of pain on or harm to the body.

5. Devil's island - French penal colony from 1852 to 1959 where


political prisoners are exiled.

6. John Howard - A prison reformer who published an influential book


that proposed prison reform.

7. Elizabeth Fry - An English reformer sometimes referred to as the


"angel of prisons" because of her driving force behind new legislation
to treat prisoners humanely.

8. Robben island - A prison complex located at the coast of


Capetown south Africa which serve as a refugee camp for people
afflicted with leper before converted into a prison.

9. Auburn System - A penal method of the 19th century in which


persons worked during the day and were kept in solitary
confinement at night and silence enforced at all times.

10.Elmira correctional facility - The first reformatory prison.


11.Notable elements of Auburn system
a. stripped uniform
b. lockstep
c. silence

12.Auburn correctional facility - the site of the first execution by


electric chair in 1890.

13.Pennsylvania system - penal method based on the priciple that


solitary confinement fosters penitence and encourages
reformation.Superseded by the Auburn system.

14.Separate system - is a form of prison management based on the


principle of keeping prisoners in solitary confinement.

15.Magna Carta - Englands historic document which states that no


man could be imprisoned without trial.

16.Port Arthur - located in Tasmania, Australia, is a penal colony


which is the destination for the hardest English prisoner during the
middle of the 19th century.

17.Banishment - to force offenders to leave a country, home,or place


by official decree.

18.Piracy act of 1717 - was an act of the parliament of Great Britain


that established a 7 years penal transportation to North America
as a possible punishment for those convicted of lesser felonies.

Answers: Penal Management

1. A
2. A
3. B
4. D
5. A
6. B
7. A
8. B
9. A
10. D