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REPORT TEXT

A. Pengertian Report Text


Istilah report text sering juga dikenal dengan sebutan informational report. Report, dalam
Concise Oxford Dictionary Edisi 10, diartikan sebagai 1) an account given of a matter after
investigation or consideration. 2) a piece of information about an event or situation. Jika
disimpulkan, secara bahasa report text adalah teks yang berfungsi untuk memberikan
informasi tentang suatu peristiwa atau situasi, setelah diadakannya investigasi dan melalui
berbagai pertimbangan.
Definisi report text ini juga hampir mirip dengan apa yang sering disebutkan dalam berbagai
buku bahasa Inggris di tingkat menengah, "Report is a text which present information about
something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analyses." [Report adalah
sebuah teks yang menghadirkan informasi tentang suatu hal secara apa adanya. Teks ini
adalah sebagai hasil dari observasi dan analisa secara sistematis.
Dengan demikian, sebenarnya teks report dan descriptive mempunyai perbedaan yang cukup
jelas, meski nampak keduanya dikatakan sebagai "saudara kembar" sekalipun.
Intinya, dalam report text itu biasanya berisi dengan fakta-fakta yang bisa dibuktikan secara
ilmiah.
B. Generic Structure Report Text
Seperti halnya dengan descriptive text, Report text juga hanya memiliki dua struktur umum
[generic structure] yaitu :
1. General Clasification; Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan,
keterangan, dan klasifikasinya.
2. Description: tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts,
qualities, habits or behaviors; Pada bagian ini biasanya memberikan gambaran
fenomena-fenomena yang terjadi; baik bagian-bagiannya, sifat-sifatnya, kebiasaannya,
ataupun tingkah lakunya. Intinya adalah penjabaran dari klasifikasi yang disajikan
dengan ilmiah.
Ada juga beberapa keterangan mengenai generic structure report text, yang meliputi :
1. General information
2. Bundles of Specific Information
General information adalah bagian yang menyebutkan informasi umum dari tema tulisan
yang. Sedangkan Bundles of specific information, adalah penjabaran dari informasi umum
tersebut.
Saya sendiri lebih cenderung setuju dengan generic structure kedua; karena hal ini bisa
membuat siswa lebih paham akan cara menulis report text.
C. Tujuan Report Text
Setiap tulisan pasti memiliki tujuan mengapa tulisan itu ditulis. Begitu juga dengan report
text. Beberapa pakar menyebutkan bahwa tujuan teks report adalah :
Its social purpose is presenting information about something. They generally describe an
entire class of things, whether natural or made: mammals, the planets, rocks, plants, countries
of region, culture, transportation, and so on.
Jika disimpulkan, tujuan report text adalah untuk menyampaikan informasi hasil pengamatan
dan analisa yang sistematis. Informasi yang dijelaskan dalam report text biasanya bersifat
umum, baik itu alamiah ataupun buata seperti binatang mamalia, planet, bebatuan, tumbuh-
tumbuhan, negara bagian, budaya, transportasi, dan lain sebagainya.
D. Pola Tata Bahasa dalam Report Text
Setiap tulisan pasti memiliki ciri bahasa tersendiri; jika recount text dan narrative text
cenderung memiliki ciri menggunakan simple past, lalu bagaimana dengan report text? Oke
berikut adalah pola grammar yang umum digunakan dalam teks report, yang meliputi :
Use of general nouns, eg hunting dogs, rather than particular nouns, eg our dog;
Use of relating verbs to describe features, eg Molecules are tiny particles;
Some use of action verbs when describing behaviour, eg Emus cannot fly;
Use of timeless present tense to indicate usualness, eg Tropical cyclones always begin
over the sea;
Use of technical terms, eg Isobars are lines drawn on a weather map;
Use of paragraphs with topic sentences to organise bundles of information; repeated
naming of the topic as the beginning focus of the clause.
Keterangan :
General nouns, maksudnya adalah, suatu benda (baik itu hidup atau mati) yang
bersifat umum. Coba bandingkan : Hunting dogs >< My dog. Hunting dogs bersifat
umum; sedangkan my dog bersifat khusus.
Relating verbs, dalam grammar disebut juga dengan linking verbs. Seperti to be [is,
am, are: present], seem, look, taste dan lain sebagainya.
Timeless present tense adalah salah satu penanda waktu dalam simple present seperti
"often, usually, always" dan lain-lain.
Technical terms, maksudnya adalah istilah-istilah yang meliputi teks report tersebut.
Misalnya tentang "music" maka, istilah-istilah musik harus ada.
E. Contoh Report Text :
Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is a celebration of harvest, thankfulness for peace,


and the attempt of Native Americans. It is usually celebrated in late autumn.
In the past, Thanksgiving was celebrated for their rich harvest in New England. In North
America, however, it was originally held to thank God for their survival in the new land
which was not easy for them. However, in Canada, it had been celebrated as in New England.
Thanksgiving now is celebrated in United States of America and in Canada. Thanksgiving
festivals are held every fourth Thursday of November in the U.S and on the second Monday
of October in Canada. It is usually celebrated in four to five days in the North America and
for three days in Canada.
It is celebrated through families and friends gathering to eat and give good luck. Turkey
is the main dish in the thanksgiving dinner. Thanksgiving parades are also usually held. In
Thanksgiving homes are decorated with wreaths, fresh and dried flowers. Lamps are lighted
to brighten the environment. Tables are decorated with best china and antique silver dishes to
mark the occasion.

Venice

Venice is a city in northern Italy. It is the capital of region Veneto. Together with Padua,
the city is included in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area. Venice has been known as the
Queen of the Adriatic, City of Water, City of Bridges, and The City of Light. The
city stretches across 117 small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea
in northeast Italy.
Venice is world-famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of 117 islands formed
by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on which the city is built are connected
by about 400 bridges. In the old center, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form
of transport is on water or on foot.
You can ride gondola there. It is the classical Venetian boat which nowadays is mostly
used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies. Now, most Venetians travel
by motorised waterbuses (vaporetti) which ply regular routes along the major canals and
between the citys islands. The city also has many private boats. The only gondolas still in
common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at
certain points without bridges.
You can see the amusing citys landmarks such as Piazza San Marco, Palazzo Contarini
del Bovolo, Saint Marks Cathedral or villas of the Veneto. The villas of the Veneto, rural
residences for nobles during the Republic, are one of the most interesting aspects of Venetian
countryside.
They are surrounded by elegant gardens, suitable for fashionable parties of high society.
The city is also well known for its beautiful and romantic view, especially at night.