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Workshop Basic Chemistry of

Corrosion and Corrosion Control


21 November 2007

By : Alfajri Ismail
Technical Manager 3M Indonesia
Fact
Internationally, 1 tone of steel turns into rust every
90 seconds.

The energy required to make 1 tone of steel is


approximately equal to the energy an average
family consumes over three months.

Of every tone of steel from the worlds production,


approximately 50% is required to replace rusted
steel.

Source: Zinc Today, newsletter of the American Zinc Association


(Spring 1997)
Kerugian Akibat Korosi

Sekitar 1 5 % dari Pendapatan Domestik


Nasional / Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1998 kerugian


akibat korosi adalah sebesar US $ 276 Milyar
yang merupakan 3,15 % dari GDP
Data Kerugian Akibat Korosi
No Sektor Industri / Negara Kerugian (US $)

1 Industri pesawat terbang (USA) 13 M / tahun

2 Pesawat militer (USA) 3 M/ tahun

3 Pesawat (tidak bisa terbang) 100.000 / hari

4 Angkatan Udara dan Laut (Australia) 50 juta / tahun

5 Otomotif (Finlandia) 300 Juta / tahun

6 Otomotif (USA) 0,25 % GNP tahun 1998

7 Menara Eiffel (Perancis) 40 juta / 7 tahun

8 Minyak dan gas (AGIP) 0,40 / barrel produksi tahun 1999

9 Minyak dan Gas (Laut Utara) 60% biaya pemeliharaan tahun 1999

10 Swiss 3 5 % GNP
80 % kerusakan material pada industri minyak dan
gas diakibatkan oleh korosi (US $ Milyar)

1.4
7 3.7 Eksplorasi
Refining
Pipa transmisi
Distribusi gas
0.9 Transport
7 Penyimpanan
5
Rust Never Sleep

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.
When Corrosion can happen?
Reaction of a metal with its environment
Aqueous corrosion
reaction with water (usually containing dissolved ions)
High temperature oxidation
reaction with oxygen at high temperature
High temperature corrosion
reaction with other gases
Definition of Corrosion
1. Definition of corrosion in the context of
Corrosion Science : the reaction of a
solid with its environment.

2. Definition of corrosion in the context of


Corrosion Engineering : the reaction of
an engineering constructional metal
(material) with its environment with a
consequent deterioration in properties of
the metal (material).
Examples of Corrosion
Rusting of steel
corrosion product (rust) is solid but not protective
Reaction of aluminium with water
corrosion product is insoluble in water, so may be
protective
Burning of magnesium in air
high temperature oxidation
Three types of oxides
may form, depending
on the volume ratio
between the metal and
the oxide:

(a) magnesium produces a


porous oxide film,

(b) aluminum forms a


protective, adherent,
nonporous oxide film,
and

(c) iron forms an oxide film


that spills off the
surface and provides
poor protection.
Three important factor of corrosion

1. Metalcomposition, detailed atomic structure, microscopic


and macroscopic heterogeneities, stress (tensile, compressive,
cyclic), etc.

2. Environmentchemical nature, concentrations of reactive


species and destructive impurities, pressure, temperature, etc.

3. Metal/environment interfacekinetics of metal oxidation


and dissolution, kinetics of reduction of species in solution; nature
and location of corrosion products; film growth and film dissolution,
etc.
Environment

Environments in
corrosion
Effect of Composition
With regard to the effect of composition, ferrous metals fall into three
broad categories:
1. The ordinary cast irons, wrought irons and steels, to
which no alloying elements are added, and which are vulnerable to
corrosion.

2. Low-alloy steels, which contain about ,2-3% of alloying


elements, commonly copper, chromium and nickel. These steels still
rust, but under certain conditions in the atmosphere, the rust formed
becomes adherent and protective so that the corrosion rate becomes
several times less rapid than with the ordinary steels mentioned above.

3. Stainless steels, which contain high percentages of alloying


elements, e.g. 18% chromium, 8% nickel and 3% molybdenum. Steels
of this type are practically non-corrodible in appropriate circumstances.
Why does metal corrode?
Energy is released as material
proceeds towards natural state i.e.
the thermodynamically stable state.
Valency and Ions
When atoms lose or gain electrons, they become
Ions.
Cations are positive and are formed by elements
on the left side of the periodic chart.

Anions are negative and are formed by elements


on the right side of the periodic chart.

Valence describes the possible number of electrons


an ion will pick up or donate. The valence state a
particular compound is also called its oxidation state.
In general, for metal M corroding:

M Mz+ + z e- (oxidation)

z e- + Z/4 O2 Z/ O2-
2 (reduction)

M + Z/4 O2 MOZ/2
(combined)

For example, the corrosion of zinc in hydrochloric acid is


the net result of two electrochemical reactions:

Zn Zn2+ + 2 e- Anodic
2 HCl + 2e- H2 + 2Cl- (2 H+ + 2 e- H2) Cathodic

Zn + 2HCl H2 + ZnCl2 (Zn+ + 2Cl-)


BOTH REACTIONS OCCUR SIMULTANEOUSLY AND AT THE SAME RATE

It follows, that during metallic corrosion


THE RATE OF OXIDATION EQUALS THE RATE OF
REDUCTION.
Anodic Reactions
Examples
Zn Zn2+ + 2e- zinc corrosion
Fe Fe2+ + 2e- iron corrosion
Al Al3+ + 3e- aluminium corrosion
Fe2+ Fe3+ + e- ferrous ion oxidation
H2 2H+ + 2e- hydrogen oxidation
2H2O O2 + 4H+ + 4e- oxygen evolution
Oxidation reactions
Produce electrons
and there are several possible CATHODIC reactions:

hydrogen evolution (acids) 2 H+ + 2 e- H2


oxygen reduction (acids) O2 + 4H+ + 4 e- 2 H2O
oxygen reduction (neutral or base) O2 + 2 H2O + 4 e- 4 OH-
metal ion reduction M3+ + e- M2+
metal deposition M+ + e- M

Reduction reactions
Consume electrons

Note: More than one oxidation and more than one


reduction reaction can occur during corrosion.
MULTIPLE CATHODIC REACTIONS ARE
IMPORTANT.
Thus, metals tend to dissolve more readily in aerated acids
than in pure, de-aerated acid:
In aerated acids, oxygen reduction AND hydrogen
evolution can occur simultaneously:
2 H+ + 2 e- H2

O2 + 4H+ + 4 e- 2 H2O

Also, an oxidizer, such as ferric ion, as an impurity in


commercial acids makes them much more corrosive than
pure acids because of the extra cathodic reaction that
may occur:
Fe3+ + e- Fe2+
Effect of pH on reaction rate
Consider hydrogen evolution reaction :
2H+ + 2e- H2
The concentration of hydrogen ions will influence
the rate of the reaction
As the hydrogen ion concentration is increased (i.e.
the solution made more acid), so the rate of the
reaction increases
Similarly the potential will influence the reaction -
the more negative the potential the faster the
reaction
Effect of pH and potential on rate of
hydrogen evolution

Slower

Potential

Faster

pH
Effect of pH on reaction rate
H2 2H+ + 2e-

This reaction will go faster in alkaline solution


(since H+ will be removed by H+ + OH- H2O)

This reaction will go faster at more positive


potentials (because electrons will be removed
from metal)
Effect of pH and potential on rate of
hydrogen oxidation
Oxidation
Faster Reduction
Slower
Potential

Oxidation
Slower Reduction Rates equal
Faster Electrochemical
Equilibrium
pH
The Nernst equation
2H+ + 2e- = H2
The Nernst equation gives
RT H ]
[ +
E = E0 ln
nF [ H2 ]
For 1 atm. hydrogen gas
RT
E = E0 ln [ H + ]
nF
Limitations of Pourbaix Diagrams
Tell us what can happen, not necessarily what
will happen

No information on rate of reaction

Can only be plotted for pure metals and simple


solutions, not for alloys
Five basic types of corrosion
Uniform or General corrosion: a regular loss of metal from the
surface cases a uniform thinning.

Localized corrosion: the majority of metal loss is experienced in


discrete areas.

Metallurgically Induced corrosion

Mechanically Assisted corrosion: physical environmental


factors play a significant role in metal loss.

Stress corrosion: generally cracking that is induced by


environmental factors.
8 Type of Corrosion
1. Uniform attack (general corrosion);
2. Galvanic corrosion;
3. Crevice corrosion;
4. Pitting;
5. Intergraular attack (IGA);
6. Selective leaching;
7. Erosion Corrosion;
8. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)
GENERAL CORROSION

This is the most common


form of corrosion.

A chemical reaction (or


electrochemical reaction)
occurs over entire exposed
surface (or large areas)
more or less uniformly.
ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION

Dry, damp or wet conditions have


profound effect on corrosion.

Dry atmospheres:
at ambient temperatures, most
metals corrode very slowly;
atmospheric oxygen promotes a
protective oxide film ... such films
are defect-free (sort of!), non-
porous (more or less!) and self-
healing;
Wet atmospheres:

Corrosion increases with


moisture content;

At critical moisture level (~ 70%


RH), an invisible, thin film of
moisture forms on (metal)
surface, provides electrolyte
for current.

Critical RH depends on surface


condition: cleanliness, presence of
oxide or scale, presence of salts or
other contaminants that may be
hygroscopic.
Wet atmospheres:
Promote puddles, pockets, visible water layers
(from dew, sea spray, rain, etc.);

Crevices, condensation traps, etc., create water


pools, and lead to wet atmospheric corrosion
even when rest of surface dry;

Soluble corrosion products increase wet corrosion


(dissolved ions increase conductivity, sustain
higher electrical currents);

Insoluble corrosion products may retain moisture


during alternate wet and dry conditions, lead to
continuous wet corrosion.
ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANTS
Wet atmospheric corrosion is often governed by
level of contaminants. e.g., marine salts vary
drastically with distance from the sea: steel at 25 m
from the sea will corrode 12x faster than same
steel 250 m away.

Industrial atmospheres are generally more


corrosive than rural, mainly because of sulfur
compounds produced by burning fuels.

SO2 selectively adsorbs on metals under humid


conditions metal oxide corrosion products catalyze
oxidation to SO3:

SO2 + 1/2 O2 SO3 (with a catalyst)


H2O + SO3 H2SO4
ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANTS
Nitrogen compounds promote atmospheric
corrosion from fuel burning (NOx as well as SOx),
as well as by thunderstorms.
N2 + x O2 2 NOx;
Nitrogen-based fertilizers (from NH3) increase
nitrogen pollutants in atmosphere.

H2S promotes atmospheric corrosion (e.g., Ag, Cu)


from industry (oil & gas, pulp and paper , etc.);
from decomposition of organic S compounds;
from sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in polluted
rivers etc.
H2O
SRB + SO42- H2S
ATMOSPHERIC VARIABLES
Surface temperature very
important - as T rises, corrosion rate
rises - though damp and wet corrosion
stop when moisture driven off;

Metal surfaces that retain moisture


generally corrode faster than rain-
washed surfaces; rain flushes impurities
off surfaces, removes particles, etc. that
promote differential aeration, etc.;

Note: dust, particles, etc. on surfaces


create crevices that can condense
moisture at various RHs.

Salt or soluble corrosion


products will form electrolytes in
condensed moisture - lower critical RH,
also increase corrosion.
ATMOSPHERIC VARIABLES
Relative humidity very important: for clean Fe,
critical RH 60%

Above this, rust begins to form slowly from


deposited water film. At 75 - 80% RH,
corrosion rate increases rapidly (probably
because of capillary condensation within the
rust layer).

If corrosion product rust is micro porous,


moisture will condense at different RHs
depending on pore size:
1.5 nm - diameter pore (capillary) condenses
water at 50% RH;
36 nm - diameter pore at 98% RH.
GENERAL CORROSION

Uniform attack minimized by:


Specifying proper materials;
Correctly applying coatings;
Using corrosion inhibition;
Protecting cathodically.
GALVANIC CORROSION
Galvanic corrosion MAY arise when
dissimilar metals are in contact in
aqueous solution.

The potential difference between


them will initiate attack, the corrosion
rate depends on the surface reactions
of (usually) both metals

Galvanic potentials are made use of in


batteries, e.g. the Daniel cell.
In the Daniel cell, the zinc
electrode is 1.1V negative
with respect to the copper
electrode.
GALVANIC CORROSION

This has the accepted sign convention; however, some workers use opposite sign convention. These
potentials are listed in accordance with the Stockholm Convention. See J. OM. Bockris and A. K. N.
Reddy, Modern Electrochemistry, Plenum Press, New York, 2002
GALVANIC CORROSION
NOTE WELL:

The cathodic reaction in


galvanic corrosion is usually
oxygen reduction or
hydrogen evolution, not
metal deposition.

To predict galvanic corrosion


of couples in seawater, we
use the table of Galvanic
Series of some commercial
metals and alloys in
seawater that.
Generally
Galvanic corrosion is under cathodic control if
we reduce the area of the Cathode (by coating,
etc.) we reduce the corrosion; if we reduce the
area of the Anode, corrosion will continue at the
same rate but over a smaller area, so perforation
etc. will occur sooner.
TO REDUCE GALVANIC CORROSION BY
COATINGS, THE MORE CORROSION-
RESISTANT (i.e. THE MORE NOBLE OR
CATHODIC) COMPONENT OF THE COUPLE
IS COATED.
GALVANIC CORROSION
MINIMIZE GALVANIC CORROSION

1. Select metals as close together as possible in galvanic series;


2. Avoid small-anode/large-cathode combinations . . . choose
fasteners of more noble materials;
3. Insulate dissimilar metals (e.g., sleeve bolts in flange joints, as
well as use insulating washers);
4. Apply coatings carefully, keep in good condition (esp. those on
anodes);
5. Add inhibitors, if possible, to environment;
6. Avoid threaded joints where possible;
7. Design for anodic member (make thicker, easily replaceable,
etc.);
8. Install a third metal that is anodic to BOTH in the couple.
CREVICE CORROSION
Crevice corrosion is an intensive,
localized form of corrosion. It
generally occurs in cracks, holes,
crevices, lap joints, under gaskets,
rivet and bolt heads, and anywhere
else that small amounts of solution
can lay stagnate.

Crevice corrosion begins with the


typical corrosion cell, an oxygen
concentration cell. As the oxygen is
depleted the growth of the corrosion
cell is driven by the accumulation of
acidic hydrolyzed salts in the crevice
area.
MECHANISM
Initial Stages
Consider riveted metal section,
immersed in aerated seawater (pH 7)
e.g. stainless steel

Although O2 within crevice is rapidly


used up, corrosion continues,
Later Stages
controlled by overall cathodic reaction
outside the crevice.

Oxidation: M M+ + e-
Reduction:
O2 + 2 H2O + 4 e- 4 OH-

Most metal ions (except alkali metals)


hydrolyze:
M+ + H2O MOH + H+
Both Cl- and H+ accelerate metal
dissolution (Cl- breaks down oxide, also H+
partly responsible).
Minimizing Crevice Corrosion
Methods and procedures for combating or minimizing crevice corrosion are as follows:

1. Use welded butt joints instead of riveted or bolted joints in new equipment.
Sound welds and complete penetration are necessary to avoid porosity and
crevices on the inside (if welded only from one side).

2. Close crevices in existing lap joints by continuous welding, caulking, or


soldering.

3. Design vessels for complete drainage; avoid sharp corners and stagnant areas.
Complete draining facilitates washing and cleaning and tends to prevent solids
from settling on the bottom of the vessel.

4. Inspect equipment and remove deposits frequently.

5. Remove solids in suspension early in the process, if possible.

6. Remove wet packing materials during long shutdowns.


Pitting Corrosion
Extremely localized form of attack
that often causes rapid
penetration of the wall thickness.

Difficult to detect (pits may be small on


surface, but extensive below surface
from undercutting; may be covered
with deposit);

Can cause equipment to fail (by


perforation) with very little weight loss; Pitting of 18-8 stainless steel by acid-
chloride solution.
Difficult to measure as pit depth and
distribution vary widely under
(nominally) identical conditions;

Incubation period may be months or Pitting of stainless steel


years. condenser tube.
Pitting Corrosion
pit growth
Pits usually occur on upward-facing
horizontal surfaces,

and less frequently on vertical surfaces;

pit growth Gravity is involved.

rarely on downward-facing surfaces;

pit growth
Mechanism
Has some features in common with CREVICE CORROSION....
consider metal M being pitted by aerated NaCl solution...
Remember:
inside pit - anodic, rapid dissolution;
outside pit - cathodic, O2 reduction;
most M+ will hydrolyse, form H+;
positive charges attract Cl- ions;
H+ and Cl- accelerate metal dissolution;

high ionic concentrations in pit make O2


solubility very low;
high density of solution within pits
means pits are more stable when
Autocatalytic processes
occurring in a corrosion pit. growing downwards;
static environment accelerates process.
Mechanism

At high pH (i.e., high OH-


concentration), precipitation of
iron hydroxides and oxidation to
Fe3+ oxides can lead to
corrosion product caps or tubes
around pits on steels.

Corrosion tube growth mechanism.


Pitting Environments
Usually, solutions containing chloride or chlorine-
containing ions (e.g., hypochlorites [bleaches]) have
strong pitting tendencies.

Bromides are also aggressive, but fluorides and


iodides are not.

Cupric, ferric and mercuric ions promote pitting . . .


easily reduced cathodically and do not require
dissolved O2; CuCl2 and FeCl3 are extremely
aggressive

Thiosulphate ion (S2O32-) may also promote pitting.


Erosion-Corrosion
Erosion corrosion is a degradation of material surface due to
mechanical action, often by impinging liquid, abrasion by a slurry,
particles suspended in fast flowing liquid or gas, bubles or droplets,
cavitation, etc
The mechanism can be described
as follows:

Mechanical erosion of the


material, or protective (or
passive) oxide layer on its
surface,

Enhanced corrosion of the


material, if the corrosion rate of
the material depends on the
thickness of the oxide layer.
Mechanism
Most metals/alloys are susceptible
to erosion-corrosion.

Metals that rely on protective surface film for


corrosion protection are particularly vulnerable,
e.g.: Al, Pb, SS, CS.

Attack occurs when film cannot form because


of erosion caused by suspended particles (for
example), or when rate of film formation is
less than rate of dissolution and transfer to
bulk fluid.

Magnetite film dissolves reductively


High mass transfer rates remove soluble Fe II species;
Oxide particles eroded from weakened film by fluid shear stress;

Fe3O4 + (3n-4) H2O + 2e 3Fe(OH)n(2-n) + (3n-8)H+


Velocity Effects

Schematic showing the effect of flow velocity on


erosion-corrosion rate.

N.B. Turbulent flow regime for V < Vc is sometimes called


Flow-Assisted Corrosion regime.
Prevention of Erosion-Corrosion
Design (avoid impingement geometries, high
velocity, etc.);

Materials (use Cr-containing steels);

Use hard, corrosion-resistant coatings.


Cathodic Protection
Cathodic protection can, in principle, be applied to any metallic
structure in contact with a bulk electrolyte. In practice its main
use is to protect steel structures buried in soil or immersed in
water. It cannot be used to prevent atmospheric corrosion.
Structures that are commonly protected by cathodic protection are the exterior
surfaces of:
Pipelines
Ships hulls
Storage tank bases
Jetties and harbour structures
Steel sheet, tubular and foundation pilings
Offshore platforms, floating and sub sea structures

Cathodic protection is also used to protect the internal surfaces of:


Large diameter pipelines
Ships tanks (product and ballast)
Storage tanks (oil and water)
Water-circulating systems.
Principle of Cathodic Protection
Fe Fe2+ + 2e (1)

2H+ + 2e H2 (2)

2H2O + 2e H2 + 2OH- (3)

O2 + 2H2O + 4e 4OH- (4)

The principle of cathodic protection is in connecting an external


anode to the metal to be protected and the passing of an electrical
dc current so that all areas of the metal surface become cathodic
and therefore do not corrode.
CATHODIC PROTECTION METHOD

(a) by impressing an electric current


from an external power source.

(b) by connecting the component to a


SACRIFICIAL ANODE
Sacrificial coatings
Zinc, cadmium and aluminium can protect steel by
sacrificial action: being anodic with respect to iron, they
hold the potential of the latter at a value at which it will not
corrode. Since the corrosion product is usually highly
protective, these metals build up a surface layer which
limits corrosion and prolongs the life of the coating. These
coatings can be used alone, or as a foundation for a paint
system, and their effect can be enhanced by chemical
conversion coatings.
ZINC PLATING ( GALVANIZING)
Steel sheeting is coated with zinc by hot-dipping in the
molten metal, by heating with zinc dust (Sherardizing),
etc.
The Zn coating acts as a sacrificial anode... at the
inevitable imperfections, holes, etc., zinc dissolves
preferentially, deposits loose, flocculant Zn(OH)2 from
aqueous solution.

Protection continues as long as


enough Zn is left ... if large enough
areas of steel are exposed steel
corrosion will occur usually at the
middle of the exposed area.
If the temperature >60C, the Zn (OH)2 changes
from a loose to a hard, compact form.

This MAY change the polarity of the steel/Zn


couple by making the Zn more noble than the
steel; this CAN lead to rapid failure of the steel.

NOTE: Galvanized steel should only be used in pH


range 6 - 12.5.. ready dissolution of Zn in acids and
alkalis quickly removes protection outside the range.
CADMIUM PLATING similar action on steels to
zinc plating:
galvanic E less than for Zn;
more protective than Zn in marine environments
(chloride less soluble than ZnCl2- gives more
protective coat);
better than zinc in humid conditions indoors;
used less and less because Cd is toxic

TIN PLATING different action from Zn or Cd;


Sn is CATHODIC to steel; pinhole corrosion
can occur at imperfections in tin plate.
Coatings
If the metal has a poor resistance to corrosion in the environment
under consideration make provision in the design for applying an
appropriate protective coating such as

(a) Metal reaction products, e.g. anodic oxide films on Al,


phosphate coatings on steel (for subsequent painting or
impregnation with grease), chromate films on light metals and
alloys (Zn, Al, Cd, Mg).

(b) Metallic coatings that form protective barriers (Ni, Cr) and also
protect the substrate by sacrificial action (Zn, Al or Cd on steel).

(c) Inorganic coatings, e.g. enamels, glasses, ceramics.

(d) Organic coatings, e.g. paints, plastics, greases.


Temporary protective
Apart from wrapping papers, which may be greased or
waxed, temporary protective materials can be applied to
metal surfaces to exclude moisture and dust.

They may take the form of greases or slushes, pastes,


thin films applied with solvents, or thick films of soft
thermoplastic materials which give mechanical protection.

All these types of protective may contain corrosion


inhibitors (see temporary protection guide).
Environment
Make environment less aggressive by removing
constituents that facilitate corrosion; decrease
temperature, decrease velocity*; where possible prevent
access of water and moisture.

For atmospheric corrosion dehumidify the air, remove


solid particles, add volatile corrosion inhibitors (for
steel).

For aqueous corrosion remove dissolved O2, increase


the pH (for steels), add inhibitors.
Control of RH
Most atmospheric corrosion can be prevented by
maintaining RH below 60%.

Desiccators and dehumidified stores can therefore be


used for storage.

In storerooms and warehouses it is important to maintain


the air temperature at a reasonable level and to avoid
large variations in temperature; a fall in temperature
overnight or at the weekend may lead to heavy
condensation of moisture.
Packaging
Packages may employ desiccants: the two most common
agents are silica gel and activated alumina, both of
which are non-corrosive and an be regenerated by
heating.

Desiccated packages need careful design to take account


of the permeability of the wrapping material to water
vapour, the water content of the interior of the package,
and the absorptive capacity of the desiccant.
Selection of materials
Select metal or alloy (or non-metallic material) for the
particular environmental conditions prevailing
(composition, temperature, velocity, etc.) taking into
account mechanical and physical properties,
availability, method of fabrication and overall cost of
structure.

Decide whether or not an expensive corrosion-


resistant alloy is more economical than a cheaper metal
that requires protection and periodic maintenance.
Design
If the metal has to be protected make provision in the design for
applying metallic or nonmetallic coatings or applying anodic or
cathodic protection. Avoid geometrical configurations that facilitate
corrosive conditions such as

(a) Features that trap dust, moisture and water.


(b) Crevices (or else fill them in) and situations where deposits can
form on the metal surface.
(c) Designs that lead to erosion-corrosion or to cavitations damage.
(d) Designs that result in inaccessible areas that cannot be re-
protected, e.g. by maintenance painting.
(e) Designs that lead to heterogeneities in the metal (differences in
thermal treatment) or in the environment (differences in
temperature, velocity).
Corrosion testing and monitoring
When there is no information on the behavior of a metal
or alloy or a fabrication under specific environmental
conditions (a newly formulated alloy and/or a new
environment) it is essential to carry out corrosion
testing.

Monitor composition of environment, corrosion rate of


metal, interfacial potential, etc. to ensure that control is
effective.
Supervision and inspection
Ensure that the application of a protective coating
(applied in situ or in a factory) is adequately
supervised and inspected in accordance with the
specification or code of practice.
Thank You