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API 570 Closed book test

334 terms

When preparing to inspect a piping system inspection personnel should?

Briefly review the history of the individual piping system before any of the inspections required by API
570. API 570 5.3.5

In regard to dead legs in piping circuits, what is recommended to be done by API 570
whenever possible?

Consideration should be given to removing dead legs that serve no further purpose. API 570 5.3.2

When is it necessary to reevaluate the frequency of inspection for an existing piping


The inspection interval must be reviewed and adjusted as necessary after each inspection or significant
change in operating conditions. API 570 6.3

What is the 4th consideration when selecting TML's?

TML's at intermediate locations along the longer straight piping within the injection point circuit may be
required. API 570 5.3.1

When the inspector suspects or is advised that specific circuits may be susceptible to
environmental cracking; the inspector should schedule supplemental inspections.
What types of inspections may this include?

Radiography, Wet Fluorescent Magnetic Particle, and/or Ultrasonic Examinations API 570 5.3.7

Supplemental inspection for piping systems is sometimes required. Which of the

following may be considered supplements to normal inspection techniques?

Periodic use of Radiography and/or Thermography to check for fouling or internal plugging

To what inspection requirements must be applied to small-bore Class 1 secondary


Class 1 secondary SBP shall be inspected to the same requirements as primary process piping. API 570

When is API 570 inspection code not permitted to be applied to a piping system?

As a substitute for the original construction requirements or if in conflict with regulatory requirements
API 570 1.1.3
Which of the following service fluids will justify rating a piping system Class 2?

Hydrogen, Fuel Gas, and Natural Gas API 570 6.2.2

Prior to hydrostatic testing of piping system containing expansion joints it is

determined that the expansion joint will be damaged and cannot be isolated. What
can be done per API 570?

Lines containing expansion joints that cannot be removed or isolated may be tested at a reduced pressure in
accordance with the principles of ASME B31.3 API 570 5.8.4

Corrosion products have built up around a piping system's supports, what additional
inspection work may be called for?

Lifting the pipe off of such supports may be required for inspection. API 570 2nd Ed. 5.4.3 (Deleted in
3rd Ed.)

Inspection for piping weld quality is normally accomplished as a part of the

requirements for new construction, repairs, or alterations. However, welds are often
inspected for corrosion as part of a radiographic profile inspection or as part of
internal inspection. When preferential corrosion is noted, what is the appropriate

Additional welds in the same circuit or system should be examined for corrosion. API 570 5.10

After an external visual CUI inspection on a Class 1 system found to have insulation
damage, the follow up examinations should include NDE testing and insulation
removal of:

At least 75% of all damaged areas. API 570 6.4 Table 6-2

The selection of TML's within injection-point circuits are established at four basic
locations, three of which are: 1) TML's on appropriate fittings within the injection
circuit. 2) TML's on the pipe wall at the location of expected pipe wall impingement of
injected fluid. 3) Establish TML's at both the upstream and downstream limits of the
injection point circuit. What is the 4th consideration when selecting TML's?

TML's at intermediate locations along the longer straight piping within the injection point circuit may be
required. API 570 5.3.1

The following can be said about inspection of refractory linings used in piping systems:

It is usually not necessary to remove them for inspection of the piping API 570 5.3.8

What physical sign does not indicate leakage in buried piping?

Corrosion on the 1st flange above the ground API 570 9.1.1
The inspector shall approve all repair and alteration work at the designated hold
points and after the repairs and alterations have been satisfactorily completed in
accordance with the requirements of:

API 570 API 570 8.1.2

A close-interval potential survey on a cathode-protected line may be used to verify

that the buried piping:

Has good insulation from the surrounding earth and a protective potential throughout it length. API 570

What are the requirements of materials to be used in the welded repair of a piping

The materials used in making repairs or alterations shall be of known weldable quality, shall conform to the
applicable code, and shall be compatible with the original material. API 570 8.2.4

When performing welding on piping systems constructed to ASME B31.3, what must
always be in place prior to welding?

Qualified welding procedures, welders may be tested on production welds in many cases. B31.3 328.2.1

In some instances preheating to 300F may be substituted for PWHT after welding P
No. 1 materials; for which P No. 3 materials this is not allowed?

Materials classified as Mn-Mo. API 570

A welder makes a performance test using a pipe coupon that has an O.D. of 2.375".
What range of outside diameters is he qualified to weld in production?

1" to unlimited diameter IX QW-452.3

A welders performance test was made in the 3G position. Which of the following
describes his test?

Vertical groove weld in plate IX QW-461.3

Per B31.3, may consumable inserts be used for backing piping weld grooves?

Yes, provided the insert is of the same nominal composition as the filler metal. B31.3 328.3.3

When selecting the thickness measurement location (TML's) for piping, what should
the inspector take into account?

Patterns of corrosion experienced in other process units in the same or similar service. API 570 5.5.3
What must the owner/user determine when substituting alloy materials for carbon
steel in a piping system?

The effects the process stream might have on the alloy material. API 578 1.2

An external inspection of a piping system revealed severe piping movement had taken
place. Your 1st action to correct the situation should be;

Consult with a piping engineer about the need for a piping stress analysis. API 570 7.5

When should material verification test be performed?

Verification should be performed at the point in time that assures proper alloy materials have been used.
API 578 4.2.3

Prior to a scheduled piping inspection previous inspection records should be reviewed.

The reason for the review is so:

A schedule can be made to determine the inspection force requirements, to locate areas reaching retirement
thickness, and predict repairs or replacements. API 574 12.5

Defects in protective coatings and the waterproof coating of insulation will permit
moisture to come into contact with the piping. To inspect for CUI, sections of the
insulation should be removed from:

Small connections, such as bleed lines and gauge connections. API 574

Threaded joints are usually limited to piping in non-critical service that had a nominal
size of:

2" or smaller API 574 4.5.2

In regards to markings on fittings used in piping systems, what must always be


Manufacturers name or trademark B16.5 4.2.1

For flanged fittings, the manufacturer shall hold the hydrostatic shell test for ___
minutes on a NPS 8" flange.

2 minutes B16.5 8.2.4

Deviations from specifications or standards for material tolerances, or workmanship

are usually evaluated on the basis of:

Their effects on such factors as safety, strength, corrosion resistance, and serviceability. API 574 10.4.3
The following is a true statement about the use of test reports for the purpose of PMI.

Mill test reports should not be used as a substitution for PMI. API 578 4.2.4

When establishing the minimum thickness of a valve body, the proper calculation
would be:

1.5 times (1.35 times for Class 4500) the thickness of a simple cylinder designed for a stress of 7000
pounds per square inch. API 574 11.2

When determining the frequency of inspection for piping in general, which of the
following must be considered?

The degree of risk, and the remaining corrosion allowance API 574 7.1

If piping is to be butt-welded and is to be in severe cyclic service, the following type of

welding procedure must be used:

A welding procedure, which provides a smooth, regular, fully penetrated inner surface. B31.3 328.5.6

When preheating to make a B31.3 weld, prior to welding, what in the minimum
distance from the weld that preheat shall be applied?

The preheat zone shall extend at least 25mm (1") beyond each edge of the weld. B31.3 330.1.4

One of the main differences between nickel alloys and the carbon and stainless steels
during welding is:

Nickels are more difficult to welds because the molten weld metal is sluggish and does not flow easily and
good sidewall fusion may not be accomplished. API 577 10.10.2

When welding is conducted on alloy piping components, _____ should be tested and
the marking compared to the remainder of the lot to verify correctness.

One electrode or wire from lot or package. API 578 4.2.6

What shall new and replacement piping components comply with?

New connections and replacements shall be designed and fabricated according to the principles of the
applicable code. API 570 8.2.3

What are the requirements for inspection of piping joints during leak test?

All joints, including welds and bonds, are to be left un-insulated and exposed for the examination during
leak testing. B31.3 8.2.3
Which of the following describes a globe valve?

Consist of a valve body that contains a disk, which moves axially to the disk centerline against a seat. API
574 4.3.3

An example of where creep cracking has been experienced in the industry is in:

1 1/4 Chrome steels above 900F API 570 5.3.10

What condition always requires reporting to the owner of the piping system?

Any significant increase in corrosion rates API 570 7.6

A variety of test methods are available to identify materials, the primary methods

Portable X-Ray fluorescence, Portable optical emission spectroscopy, and Laboratory chemical analysis
API 574 5.2

If misalignment of piping was noted during operation, the cause should be determined
and corrected. Misalignment is usually caused by the following conditions:

Inadequate provision for expansion, broken hangers, and defective anchors API 574

When a flange is manufactured in accordance with B16.5, the manufacturer is not

required to:

Hydrostatically test the flange B16.5 8.1

Which of the following best describes the Chemical Spot testing method?

Electrochemically removing a minute amount of the material's surface and depositing in on a moistened
filter paper. API 578

Describe a Class 1 piping system:

Services with the highest potential of resulting in an immediate emergency if a leak were to occur. API
570 6.2.1

Give an example of environmental cracking:

Chloride SCC of austenitic stainless steel due to moisture and chlorides, Polythionic acid SCC of sensitized
austenitic stainless steel due to exposure to sulfide, moisture condensation, or oxygen, and Carbonate SCC.
API 570 5.3.7 2nd Ed. Only

What type of flange is not commonly used in piping?

Threaded Socket Flange API 570 4.5.4

The recommended practice API 574 covers the inspection of:

Piping, tubing, valves, and fittings API 574 1.0

The timing circuits in different ultrasonic contact pulse echo instruments use various
conversion schemes. A common method is the so-called ______ conversion.

Time/Analog SE-797 4.6

Direct visual inspection may usually be made when access is sufficient to place an eye

6" to 24" of the surface to be examined. Section V Article 9 T-952

The signature mark of _______ is a "clam shell" type fingerprint that has concentric
rings called "Beach Marks" emanating from the crack initiation site.

Fatigue Failure API 571 (a)

The following is true about the content of a welding procedure qualification record:

The record may include the nonessential variables. Section IX QW-200.2 (b)

P numbers 1 and 3 are welded together for a procedure qualification; this combination
will allow the writing of a WPS or WPS's to be used to weld the following parent
metals in production:

P No. 1 to P No. 3 Section IX QW-424

Before any method of inspection is adopted for piping what should be checked?

Regulatory Requirements API 574 5.4

Who must be consulted when alterations to a piping system are being considered?

A Piping Engineer API 570 8.1.1

What type of on-stream welded repairs is not permitted by API 570?

Square fillet-welded patches without rounded corners. API 570 App C-2

Under what condition can unlisted materials be used to construct a piping system?

When they conform to published specifications and otherwise meet the requirements of B31.3. B31.3
When impact testing is required for a piping system constructed to B31.3, how many
specimens are normally required in a set?

Three B31.3 323.3.3

What rights does the owners inspector have during the fabrication of a piping

They shall have access to any place where work concerned with the piping installation is being performed,
They shall have the right to audit any examinations, and the right to review all certifications and records
necessary to satisfy the owners responsibility. B31.3 340.3

In accordance with ASME B31.3, when spot radiography is to be used, what is the least
recommended number of spot radiographs for circumferential butt-welds?

One in 20 made by each welder or welding operator. B31.3 341.5.1

ASME B31.3 requires that nondestructive examiners be trained and experienced.

What practice is acceptable to B31.3 for this purpose?

SNT-TC-1A B31.3 footnote 1

Threaded joints are suitable for Normal Fluid Service per B31.3, describe Normal Fluid

A fluid service not subject to Category D, M, or high-pressure services or subject to severe cyclic
conditions B31.3 300.2 definitions

Low yield strength bolting is permitted for use with metallic flange combinations

Calculations have been done to show adequate strength to maintain joint tightness. B31.3 309.2.1

The classification and use of the Initial Service Leak Test it applies to:

Category D Fluid B31.3 345.7

In general, how is the extent of inspection for new piping construction determined?

The extent of inspection during fabrication and installation depends largely on the severity of the service
and the quality of the workmanship. API 574 10.4.1
The frequency and thoroughness of piping inspection will range from often and
complete where deterioration is extreme, to seldom and cursory in non-corrosive
services. What could affect the frequency of the inspection cycle?

The amount of corrosion allowance remaining, Historical data, and Regulatory requirements API 574

The major concern when designing pressure relief discharge piping is:

They shall be designed to facilitate drainage. If discharging to atmosphere, discharge shall not directly
impinge on other piping or equipment and shall be directed away from platforms and other areas used by
personnel. Reactions on the piping system due to actuation of the safety relief devices shall be considered.
B31.3 322.6.2

Describe the scope of API 570:

API 570 covers the inspection, rating, repair, and alteration procedures for metallic and fiberglass
reinforced plastic (FRP) piping systems and their associated pressure relieving devices that have been
placed into service. API 570 1.1.1

Steel and alloy piping are manufactured to standard dimensions in nominal pipe sizes
up to:

48" API 574

A flanged joint is composed of (3) separate and independent, although inter-related

components: the flanges, the gasket, and the bolting, which are affected by yet
another influence. What is this influence?

The assembler B16.5 2.2

What is a physical property of metal?

Density, Hardness, Ductility, or Toughness Density API 577 10.3

The following Charpy impact results were obtained on a piping material with a
required minimum average of 13 ft-lbf, and a minimum value for a single specimen is
10 ft-lbf. The results were 16, 17, and 12 ft-lbf. Are they acceptable?

Yes, When the average value of the (3) specimens equals or exceeds the minimum value permitted for a
single specimen. When the value for more than one specimen is below the required average value, or when
the value for one specimen is below the minimum value permitted for a single specimen, a retest of (3)
additional specimens shall be made. B31.3 323.3.5 (d)(1)

What is safe guarding a piping system?

A provision of protective measures of the type outlined in appendix G, where deemed necessary. B31.3
300.2 Definitions
Per B31.3, Threaded joints can be used where?

Where severe corrosion is not expected. B31.3 314.1

What is the definition of cold spring when used with piping?

The intentional deformation of piping during assembly to produce a desired initial displacement and stress
B31.3 319.2.4

For calculating the MAWP of a system in-service made of an unknown material, the
following approach must be taken:

Computations may be made assuming the lowest grade material and the joint efficiency in the applicable
code. When the MAWP is re-calculated, the wall thickness used in these computations shall be the actual
thickness as determined by inspection minus (2X) the estimated corrosion loss before the date of the next
inspection. API 570 7.2

Dry and wet particles used in the magnetic particle examination method shall be in
accordance with:

SE-709 Section V T-731

Results of PMI testing of dissimilar metal welds should take into account the effects

The dilution of weld metal API 578 6.2

A liquid penetrant comparator block used to prove a high temperature technique is

best described as:

An aluminum block 3/8" X 2" X 3" Section V Article 6 T-653.2

You are inspecting a failure in a piping wall. What conditions would you look for if it is
suspected that the fracture was brittle?

The material exhibits little or no evidence of ductility or plastic deformation. API 571

A welding operator is to be qualified by radiography using his 1st production weld,

what is the minimum length of the radiograph to be performed on his weld?

6-inches Section IX QW-305.1

A welder makes performance test on pipe in the 1G position, how many bend test are
required to qualify his performance?

(2) 1-Face bend and 1-Root bend Section IX QW-302.3 Figure QW-461.4/QW-463.2 (d)(e)
The 6G position listed in Section IX of the ASME code can be described as:

Pipe in a 45 fixed position Section IX QW-461.4

An alternative or supplement to inspection of underground piping is leak testing with

liquid at a pressure of at least:

10% greater than maximum operating pressure API 570 9.3.7

Underground piping inspected periodically by excavation shall be inspected in lengths


6' to 8' at one or more locations judged to be the most susceptible to corrosion. API 570 9.3.6

Who shall establish thickness reading inspection frequencies on in-service piping


The owner/user or the inspector shall establish inspection intervals for thickness measurements. API 570

Acceptance of a welded repair shall include:

NDE of all Welds API 570 8.2.6

Rerating piping systems is defined as:

Changing the temperature rating or the MAWP API 570 8.3

For coating repairs to underground piping, the inspector should be assured that the
coating meets what criteria?

It is free of voids and gaps in the coating (Holidays), it is sufficiently ductile to resist cracking, and it has
sufficient adhesion to the piping. API 570 9.4.1

What should all piping inspection records contain?

Original date of installation, Specifications for material used, Original thickness measurements, Locations
and Dates of all subsequent thickness measurements, Calculated retirement thickness, Repairs and
replacements, temporary repairs, Operational changed i.e. change-in-service, fitness-for-service, and RBI
assessments. API 574 12.1

The recommended downstream limit of an injection point circuit is?

The 2nd change in flow direction past the injection point, or 25' beyond the 1st change in low direction,
whichever is less. API 570 5.5.9
The most common forms of CUI are:

Localized corrosion of carbon steel and Chloride Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel.
API 574

ASME B16.5 covers flanges of various materials through nominal pipe size of 24",
which of the following covers larger flanges?

B16.47 API 574 4.5.1

Flanged joints that have been opened should be visually inspected for:

Corrosion and defects such as scratches, cuts, and gouges in the gasket seating faces. API 574 10.3.3

Gate valves should be measured for thickness between:

The seats API 574

The sensitive leak test method of B31.3 will be performed in accordance with what

Section V Article 10 or by another method demonstrated to have equal sensitivity. B31.3 345.8

Unless otherwise specified by the engineering design, the following records shall be
retained after the record is generated for a piping project: Examination procedures,
and examination personnel qualifications. For how long must they be retained?

5 years B31.3 346.3

In accordance with B31.3, it is permitted to increase the joint Ej (Efficiency) for some
types of piping by the use of additional examination of the piping beyond the
specification for the piping. What piping is this not allowed with?

Furnace butt weld, continuous weld; and Electric resistance weld B31.3 Table 302.3.4 See note 1

In the liquid penetrant process, drying after preparation should:

Be allowed adequate time for evaporation prior to application of the penetrant. Section V Article 6, T-643

The GMAW ______ mode results in a highly directed stream of discrete drops that are
accelerated by arc forces. Spatter is negligible.

Spray Transfer API 577 5.4.3

In low-temperature service, some flange materials may need impact testing above the
B16.5 designated temperatures of ___C and ___F.

-29C and -20F B16.5 2.5.3

When is protective equipment required for inspection personnel?

Protective equipment shall be worn when required by regulations or by the owner/user. API 570 5.3.1

The extent of a CUI inspection program may vary depending on:

Local Climate API 574 7.4.4

Individuals performing PMI testing should obtain and follow the PMI test procedure
approved by the _____.

Owner/User API 578 7.3

What is the responsibility of the Owner/User as regards to piping inspected to the 570
piping code?

The Owner/User of a piping installation within the scope of API 570 shall have overall responsibility for
compliance with API 570. Establish requirements for inspection, repair, alteration, and re-rating.
Documenting and maintaining inspection and quality assurance procedures API 570

For the purpose of planning repairs and other needs how can inspection records be

A list can be made of all predictable repairs and replacements. API 574 12.5

Describe an Alloy material per API RP 578:

Any material (including welding filler materials) that contain alloying elements that are intentionally added
to enhance mechanical or physical properties or corrosion resistance, or a combination thereof (e.g.
Chromium, Nickel, or Molybdenum). API 578 3.1

What methods are used to fabricate valve bodies used in piping systems?

Cast, forged, machined from bar stock, or fabricated by welding a combination of two or more materials.
API 574 4.3.1

Hot cracking is ______________.

Cracking formed at temperatures near the completion of solidification during welding. API 577 3.27

What category of fluid service can an initial service leak test be used with?

Category D Fluid Service B31.3 345.1 b

What temperature markings are required on a fitting made to B16.5 standard?

No temperature markings are required. B16.5 4.2.5

What characteristics classify bolting as being low strength?

Bolting having no more than 206MPa (30ksi) B16.5 5.3.4

Who is responsible for determining that welding equipment has been calibrated?

Authorized Inspector API 577 1 / API 577

As regards Class 3 systems, what extent of follow up NDE examination or insulation

removal from piping with damaged insulation is normally required for a CUI

The examination should include 25% of all suspect areas and areas of damaged insulation. API 570 6.4
Table 3

What types of small bore piping (SBP) is required to be inspected in accordance with
API 570?

Class 1 secondary SBP shall be inspected to the same requirements as primary process piping. Inspection of
Class 2 and Class 3 secondary SBP is optional. SBP deadlegs (such as level bridles) in Class 2 and Class 3
systems should be inspected where corrosion has been experienced or is anticipated. API 570 6.6.1

Is it ever permitted by B31.3 to accept a welder's performance qualifications for a

previous employer?

Yes, Provided that the inspector specifically approves. B31.3 328.2.3

What pipe material specifications are not limited to use in category D fluid service?

ASTM A 134 made from other than ASTM A 285 plate. B31.3 305.2.1

What types of fittings are allowed in severe cyclic service?

Forged, Wrought with a factor E_j 0.09^8, or Cast with a factor E_c 0.09^8 B31.3 306.1.4

What types of joints may be welded in accordance with B31.3?

Joints may be made by welding in any material for which it is possible to qualify welding procedures
B31.3 311
It is not permitted to use split backing rings when welding piping in accordance with
B31.3 when?

Split backing rings shall not be used under severe cyclic conditions B31.3 311.2.4 (b)

Describe a random sampling for the purpose of PMI testing?

Selection process by which choices are made in an arbitrary and unbiased manner API RP 578 3.15

The temperature rating is actually based on what part(s) of the flange?

The pressure-containing shell of the component B16.5 2.4

When consumable inserts are permitted by B31.3, what are the conditions of their

They are the same nominal composition as the filler metal, will not cause detrimental alloying of the weld
metal, and the welding procedure using them is qualified as required by Para. 328.2 B31.3 328.3.3

How does API 574 address the inspection of materials used in piping systems?

All should meet the principles of B31.3 API RP 574 10.11.1

What is the recommended method(s) to evaluate locally thinned areas of piping per
API 570?

Perform fitness-for-service evaluation API 570 7.4

What type of temporary repair by welding is not permitted by API 570?

Cracks that occurred in-service (e.g. cracking caused by vibration, thermal cycling, thermal expansion
problems, and environmental cracking) API 570 8.1.3

Where the base metal will not withstand the 180 guided bend test required by
Section IX, what must be done?

Where the base metal will not withstand the 180 guided bend required by Section IX, a qualifying welded
specimen is required to undergo the same degree of bending as the base metal within 5. B31.3 328.2.1

The _______ is responsible for quality craftsmanship of weldments.

Welder API 577 (a)

The _______is responsible for determining if a retroactive PMI program is appropriate

for each existing piping system.

Owner/User API 578 4.3.2

Some examples of piping components that are covered by API RP 578 include:

Pipe, pipe fittings, flanges, special forgings, process valves, pressure containing welds, instruments, weld
overlays or claddings, expansion joints, and gaskets. API 578 4.2.5 (a-k)

How much strength does a seal weld add to a welded threaded joint per B31.3?

None B31.3 311.2.7

In what service is an expanded joint not allowed?

Severe cyclic conditions B31.3 313

What type of cracking might go undetected in a piping system by NDE, before failure?

Brittle Fracture API 571

(Study guide shows answer to be fatigue and it's located in API 570 2nd Ed. 5.3.9 (This section has been
removed in 3rd Ed.))

When a manufacturer of a flanged fitting is performing a hydrostatic shell test:

The test fluid shall be water or other suitable test fluids may be used provided there viscosity is no greater
than water. B16.5 8.2.3

What is the recommended minimum to be done during inspection of valves in severe


In severe services, such as hydrofluoric acid, slurry, fluidized catalyst services, valves may need to be
dismantled and inspected at specified intervals to assure internal parts of sufficient integrity to provide
reliable and safe operation. API 574

In accordance with API 570, what should all repairs by welding made on piping adhere

The principles of B31.3 or the code to which the piping system was built shall be followed to the extent
practical for in-service repairs. API 570 8.1.1

When an expansion joint is to be pressure-tested in a new piping system, it shall be:

Tested without temporary restraints at 150% of the expansion joint design pressure. If the required pressure
test exceeds 150% of the expansion joint design pressure and the main anchors are not designed to resist
the pressure thrust forces at the required test pressure for that portion of the test the expansion joint will
either be temporarily removed or temporary restraints shall be added to resist the pressure thrust forces.
B31.3 345.3.3

What is the test fluid when applying the initial service leak test of B31.3?

The service fluid B31.3 345.7.1

The alternative leak test of B31.3 is permitted when the following conditions are met:

A hydrostatic test would damage linings or internal insulation, or contaminate a process, which would be
hazardous, corrosive, or would present the danger of brittle fracture due to low metal temperature during
the test. A pneumatic test would present an undue hazard of possible release of energy stored in the system,
or would present the danger of brittle fracture due to low metal temperature. B31.3 345.1 (c, 1&2)

When selecting thickness measurement locations (TML's) on threaded connections:

Include only those that can be radiographed during scheduled inspections. API 570 6.62

At what temperature is carbon steel piping subject to brittle fracture?

In most cases, brittle fracture occurs only at temperatures below the Charpy impact transition temperature
(or ductile-to-brittle transition temperature), the point at which the toughness of the material drops off
sharply. API 571 e)

What is a clear indication of a possible hot spot in a piping system?

Some hot spots can be detected by a red glow, particularly if the inspection is made in the dark. API 573

When severe fouling is found in a piping system, what should be done prior to
cleaning the lines?

Fouling should be investigated to determine whether it consist of deposits from the product stream or is a
buildup of corrosion products. Taking samples for chemical analysis may be necessary. API 574