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12/7/2017 CODES and STANDARDS

Satish Lele
M:91-98202 77283
For Piping Systems proper selection of Material of Construction along with Specifications, P&I Diagrams
Adherence to Codes and Standards is essential. Standardization reduces cost, confusion and 2D Piping
inconvenience. Standards are published by Professional Societies, Committees and Trade 3D Piping
Organizations. It is also accepted by Governments. The main objective is to have Models
Standardization and Safety.
LISP Training
CODE : A group of general rules or systematic procedures for Design, Fabrication, Piping Training
Installation and Inspection methods prepared in such a manner that it can be adopted
by legal jurisdiction and made into a law. Design Info
STANDARDS : Documents prepared by a Professional group or Committee which Exchanger
are believed to be good and proper Engineering Practices and which contain Agitator / Mixer
mandatory requirement.
Design &
RECOMMENDED PRACTICES : Documents prepared by professional group or Drawings
committee indicating Good Engineering Practices but which are optional. Tubular
Companies also develop Guides in order to have consistency in the documentation. These Agitator / Mixer
cover various engineering methods which are considered good practices, without specific Zero Hold up
recommendations or requirements. Filter
Process Vessel
Codes and Standards, besides being regulations, might also be considered as Design Aids Jib Crane
since they provide guidance from experts.
About Me
Each country has its own Codes and Standards. On global basis, American National My Resume
Standards are the most widely used and compliance with those requirements are accepted Contact Me
world over. In India, other than American Standards, British and Indian Standards are also
used for design and selection of Piping Systems. Cross Country
Not all American Standards are issued directly by American National Standards
Institute. The Material Standards are covered under ASTM (American Society for
Testing and Materials) and Dimension Standards under ANSI (American National
Standards Institute). Most of these Standards are adapted by ASME (American
Society for Mechanical Engineers).
The American Standards referred by Piping Engineers are:

The American Petroleum Institute (API) : The Standards referred by Piping

Engineers are: 1/10
12/7/2017 CODES and STANDARDS

1. API 5L - Specification for Line Pipe

2. API 6D - Pipe Line Valves, End Closures, Connectors and Swivels
3. API 6F - Recommended Practice for Fire Test for valves
4. API 593 - Ductile Iron Plug Valves - Flanged Ends
5. API 598 - Valve Inspection and Test
6. API 600 - Steel Gate Valves
7. API 601 - Metallic Gaskets for Refinery Piping
8. API 602 - Compact Design Carbon Steel Gate Valves
9. API 604 - Ductile Iron Gate Valves - Flanged Ends
10. API 605 - Large Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges
11. API 607 - Fire Test for Soft Seated Ball Valves
12. API 609 - Butterfly Valves
13. API 1104 - Standard for Welding Pipeline and Facilities

The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) : These specify the material by its
Chemical and Physical properties. When specific model of manufacture of the
element is not to be specified, then the material can be identified by ANSI
Standards. The most commonly used AISI specifications are :

1. AISI 410 - 13% Chromium Alloy Steel

2. AISI 304 - 18/8 Austenitic Stainless Steel
3. AISI 316 - 18/8/3 Austenitic Stainless Steel

American National Standard Institute (ANSI) and The American Society for
Mechanical Engineers (ASME) : The American National Standards Institute's
standards used in the design of the Piping Systems are :

1. B31.1 - 2001 - Power Piping: Piping for industrial plants and marine
applications. This code prescribes minimum requirements for the design,
materials, fabrication, erection, test, and inspection of power and
auxiliary service piping systems for electric generation stations,
industrial institutional plants, central and district heating plants.
The code covers boiler external piping for power boilers and high
temperature, high pressure water boilers in which steam or vapor is
generated at a pressure of more than 15 pounds per square inch (PSIG)
or 1 Kg per square centimeters, and high temperature water is generated
at pressures exceeding 160 pounds per square inch (PSIG) or 12.5 Kg
per square centimeters and / or temperatures exceeding 250 degrees F.
(120 degrees C.)

2. B31.2 - 1968 - Fuel Gas Piping : This has been withdrawn as a National
Standard and replaced by ANSI/NFPA Z223.1, but B31.2 is still
available from ASME and is a good reference for the design of gas
piping systems (from the meter to the appliance).

3. B31.3 - 2002 - Process Piping : Design of chemical and petroleum plants

and refineries processing chemicals and hydrocarbons, water and steam.
This Code contains rules for piping typically found in petroleum
refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and
cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals.
This Code prescribes requirements for materials and components,
design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection, and
testing of piping. This Code applies to piping for all fluids including:

Raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals 2/10
12/7/2017 CODES and STANDARDS

Petroleum products
Gas, steam, air and water
Fluidized solids
Cryogenic fluids

Also included is piping which interconnects pieces or stages within a

packaged equipment assembly.
The principal design codes used for piping design are the ANSI/ASME
B31.1(Code for Power Piping) and ANSI/ASME B31.3 (Code for
Process Piping). Complementing these codes are ASME VIII (Code for
Pressure Vessel) and British Standard BS5500 for unfired fusion welded
pressure vessel.
The basic consideration of B31.1 Code is safety. It includes:
a. Material and component standards
b. Designation of dimensional standards for elements of piping system
c. Requirements for design of components, including supports
d. Requirements for evaluation and limitation of stresses, reactions and
movements associated with pressure, temperatures and external forces
e. Requirements for fabrication, assembly and erection
f. Requirements for testing and inspection before and after assembly.
Pipes: For pipes, the materials used in geothermal application are
normally A53-B, A106-B and API 5L-B pipe , with mill tolerance.
Commercial available pipes normally have a mill tolerance of 12.5% and
pipe schedule numbers based in B36.10.
Fittings: For elbows, tees, and reducers, the material used in geothermal
application is normally A234 WPB. All dimensions are in accordance
with B16.9. Flanges and valves rating Flanges are rated to ANSI B16.5
standard, For those up to 24 diameter, they are rated to ANSI 150,
ANSI 300, ANSI 600 and ANSI 900. For flanges of 26 and bigger ,
ANSI B16.47 applies. The flanges are usually classified series A and
series B. The material used for these flanges are A181 grade I and A105
grade I. Valve rating is similar to the flange rating selected for the pipe.

4. B31.4 - 2002 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid

Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids : This Code prescribes requirements
for the design, materials, construction, assembly, inspection, and testing
of piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural
gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide,
liquid alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia and liquid petroleum products
between producers' lease facilities, tank farms, natural gas processing
plants, refineries, stations, ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail and
truck) and other delivery and receiving points.
Piping consists of pipe, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, relief devices,
fittings and the pressure containing parts of other piping components. It
also includes hangers and supports, and other equipment items necessary
to prevent overstressing the pressure containing parts. It does not include
support structures such as frames of buildings, buildings stanchions or

5. B31.5 - 2001 - Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components :

This Code prescribes requirements for the materials, design, fabrication,
assembly, erection, test, and inspection of refrigerant, heat transfer
components, and secondary coolant piping for temperatures as low as 3/10
12/7/2017 CODES and STANDARDS

-320 deg F (-196 deg C), whether erected on the premises or factory
assembled, except as specifically excluded in the following paragraphs.
Users are advised that other piping Code Sections may provide
requirements for refrigeration piping in their respective jurisdictions.
This Code shall not apply to:

1. any self- contained or unit systems subject to the requirements of

Underwriters Laboratories or other nationally recognized testing

2. water piping

3. piping designed for external or internal gage pressure not

exceeding 15 psi (105 kPa) regardless of size

4. pressure vessels, compressors, or pumps, but does include all

connecting refrigerant and secondary coolant piping starting at the
first joint adjacent to such apparatus.

6. B31.8 - 2003 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems : This

Code covers the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, and testing
of pipeline facilities used for the transportation of gas. This Code also
covers safety aspects of the operation and maintenance of those

7. B31.8S-2001 - 2002 - Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines :

This Standard applies to on-shore pipeline systems constructed with
ferrous materials and that transport gas. Pipeline system means all parts
of physical facilities through which gas is transported, including pipe,
valves, appurtenances attached to pipe, compressor units, metering
stations, regulator stations, delivery stations, holders and fabricated
assemblies. The principles and processes embodied in integrity
management are applicable to all pipeline systems. This Standard is
specifically designed to provide the operator (as defined in section 13)
with the information necessary to develop and implement an effective
integrity management program utilizing proven industry practices and
processes. The processes and approaches within this Standard are
applicable to the entire pipeline system.

8. B31.9 - 1996 - Building Services Piping : This Code Section has rules
for the piping in industrial, institutional, commercial and public
buildings, and multi-unit residences, which does not require the range of
sizes, pressures, and temperatures covered in B31.1. This Code
prescribes requirements for the design, materials, fabrication,
installation, inspection, examination and testing of piping systems for
building services. It includes piping systems in the building or within the
property limits.

9. B31.11 - 2002 - Slurry Transportation Piping Systems : Design,

construction, inspection, security requirements of slurry piping systems.
Covers piping systems that transport aqueous slurries of no hazardous
materials, such as coal, mineral ores and other solids between a slurry
processing plant and the receiving plant. 4/10
12/7/2017 CODES and STANDARDS

Of the above, the most commonly used code is ASME B 31.3. Refineries and
Chemical Plants are designed based on the same. All Power Plants are
designed as per ASME B31.1. Other major ANSI / ASME Standards refereed
for the piping elements are :
1. ANSI B 1.1 - Unified Inch Screw Threads
2. ANSI / ASME B 1.20.1 - Pipe threads for general purposes
3. ANSI / ASME B 16.1 - Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
4. ANSI / ASME B 16.3 - Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings
5. ANSI / ASME B 16.4 - Cast Iron Threaded Fittings
6. ANSI / ASME B 16.5 - Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
7. ANSI / ASME B 16.9 - Steel Butt Welding Fittings
8. ANSI / ASME B 16.10 - Face to Face and End to End dimensions of
9. ANSI / ASME B 16.11 - Forged Steel Socket Welding and Threaded
10. ANSI B 16.20 - Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges - ring joint, spiral
11. ANSI / ASME B 16.21 - Non Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
12. ANSI / ASME B 16.25 - Butt Welding Ends
13. ANSI / ASME B 16.28 - Short Radius Elbows and Returns
14. ANSI / ASME B 16.34 - Steel Valves, Flanged and butt welding ends
15. ANSI / ASME B 16.42 - Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
- Class 150# and 300#
16. ANSI / ASME B 16.47 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges - NPS - 26" to
17. ANSI / ASME B 18.2 1 and 2 - Square and Hexagonal head Bolts and
Nuts (Inch and mm)
18. ANSI / ASME B 36.10 - Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipes
19. ANSI / ASME B 36.19 - Welded and Seamless Austinitic Stainless Steel

American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) : These consist of 16 sections

on definitions and classifications of materials of construction and Test
methods. Most of the ASTM Standards are adapted by ASME and are
specified in ASME Section II. The Section II has four parts.

Part A - Ferrous Materials

Part B - Non-Ferrous Materials
Part C - Welding Materials
Part D - Properties of Materials

In Section II, the materials are listed in the index based on the available forms
such as plates, castings, tubes etc., and also on the numerical index.
The selection of ASTM Specification depends on the manufacturer, form of
material, its mechanical strength and corrosion properties.
The specification number is given an Alphabetical prefix "A" for ferrous and
"B" for non-ferrous materials.
ASTM also specifies standard practice for numbering metal and alloys as
Unified Numbering System.
Unified Numbering System (UNS) establishes 18 series numbers of metals and
alloys. Each UNS number consists of a single letter prefix followed by 5 digits.
In most cases the alphabet is suggestive of the family of the metal identified.

A00001 - A99999 - Aluminum and Aluminum alloys 5/10
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C00001 - C99999 - Copper and Copper Alloys

E00001 - E99999 - Rare earth and rare earth like metals and alloys
L00001 - L99999 - Low Melting metals and alloys
M00001 - M99999 - Miscellaneous non-ferrous metals and alloys
N00001 - N99999 - Nickel and Nickel Alloys
P00001 - P99999 - Precious Metals and Alloys
R00001 - R99999 - Reactive and Refractory metals and alloys
Z00001 - Z99999 - Zinc and zinc alloys
D00001 - D99999 - Specified mechanical properties of Steel
F00001 - F99999 - Cast Iron and Cast Steel
G00001 - G99999 - AISI and ASE Carbon and alloy steels
H00001 - H99999 - AISI H Steels
J00001 - J99999 - Cast Steel
K00001 - K99999 - Miscellaneous Steels and Ferrous alloys
S00001 - S99999 - Stainless Steel
T00001 - T99999 - Tool Steel
W00001 - W99999 - Welding Filler Metals and Electrodes

American Welding Society (AWS) : These standards provide information on

the welding fundamentals, weld design, welder's training qualifications, testing
and inspection of the welds and guidance on the application and use of welds.
Individual electrode manufacturers have given their own brand names for the
various electrodes and the same are sold under these names.

American Water Works Association (AWWA) : These standards refer to the

piping elements required for low pressure water services. These are less
stringent than other standards. Valves, Flanges etc., required for large diameter
water pipelines are covered under this standard and are refereed rarely by
piping engineers.

C-500 : Gate Valves for Water and sewage system

C-504 : Rubber Seated Butterfly Valves
C-507 : Ball Valves 6" to 48"
C-508 : Swing Check Valves 2" to 24"
C-509 : Resilient Seated Gate Valves for water and sewage
C-510 : Cast Iron Sluice Gate Valves

The manufacturers Standardization Society of Valves and Fitting Industry -

Standard Practices (MSS-SP) : In addition to the above standards and material
codes, there are standard practices followed by manufacturers. These are
published as advisory standards and are widely followed. The most common
MSS-SP standards referred for piping are :

MSS-SP-6 : Standard Finishes for contact surface for flanges

MSS-SP-25 : Standard marking system for valves, fittings, flanges
MSS-SP-42 : Class 150 corrosion resistant gate, globe and check valves
MSS-SP-43 : Wrought stainless steel butt weld fittings
MSS-SP-56 : Pipe hanger supports - Material, design and manufacture
MSS-SP-61 : Pressure testing of valves
MSS-SP-67 : Butterfly Valves
MSS-SP-68 : High Pressure off seat butterfly valves
MSS-SP-69 : Pipe hanger supports - selection and applications
MSS-SP-70 : Cast iron gate valves
MSS-SP-71 : Cast iron check valves
MSS-SP-72 : Ball Valves 6/10
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MSS-SP-78 : Cast iron plug valves

MSS-SP-80 : Bronze gate, globe and check valves
MSS-SP-81 : Stainless steel bonnet-less knife gate valves
MSS-SP-83 : Pipe unions
MSS-SP-85 : Cast iron globe valves
MSS-SP-88 : Diaphragm valves
MSS-SP-89 : Pipe hangers and supports - fabrication and installation
MSS-SP-90 : Pipe hangers and supports - guidelines on terminology
MSS-SP-92 : MSS valves user guide
MSS-SP-108 : Resilient seated eccentric CI plug valves

2. BRITISH STANDARDS : In many instances, it is possible to find a British Standard

which may be substitutes for American Standards. For example, BS 2080 (British
Standard for Face to Face or End to End dimensions of valves) is identical to
ANSI/ASME B16.10. Similarly BS 3799 and ANSI/ASME B 16.11 also compare.
There are certain British Standards referred by Indian Manufacturers for Piping and
Valves. The most commonly referred British Standards in the Piping Industry are :

BS 10 : Flanges
BS 806 : Pipes and Fittings for Boilers
BS 916 : Black Bolts, Nuts and Screws
BS 970 : Steel for Forging, Bars, Rods, valve steel, etc.
BS 1212 : Specification for Float Operated Valves
BS 1306 : Copper and Copper alloy pressure piping system
BS 1414 : Gate Valves for Petroleum Industry
BS 1560 : Steel Pipe Flanges
BS 1600 : Dimensions of Steel Pipes
BS 1640 : Butt Welding Fittings
BS 1740 : Wrought Steel screwed pipe fittings
BS 1868 : Steel Check Valves for Petroleum Industry
BS 1873 : Steel Globe and Check Valves for Petroleum Industry
BS 1965 : Butt welding pipe fittings
BS 2080 : Face to Face / End to End dimensions of Valves
BS 2598 : Glass Pipelines and Fittings
BS 3059 : Boiler and Super-heater Tubes
BS 3063 : Dimensions of Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
BS 3381 : Metallic Spiral Wound Gaskets
BS 3600 : Dimensions of Welded and Seamless Pipes and Tubes
BS 3601 : C.S. Pipes and Tubes for pressure purposes at room
BS 3602 : C.S. Pipes and Tubes for pressure purposes at high
BS 3603 : C.S. and Alloy Steel Pipes and Tubes for pressure
purposes at low temperature
BS 3604 : Alloy Steel Pipes and Tubes for high temperature
BS 3605 : SS Pipes and Tubes for pressure purposes
BS 3799 : Socket Weld / Screwed Fittings
BS 3974 : Pipe hangers, Slides and Roller type supports
BS 4346 : PVC pressure pipe - joints and fittings
BS 4504 : Steel, Cast Iron and Copper alloy fittings
BS 5150 : Cast Iron Wedge and Double Disc Gate Valves for
general purposes 7/10
12/7/2017 CODES and STANDARDS

BS 5151 : Cast Iron Gate (parallel slide) Valves for general

BS 5152 : Cast Iron Globe and Check Valves for general purposes
BS 5153 : Cast Iron Check Valves for general purposes
BS 5154 : Copper alloy Globe, Gate and Check Valves
BS 5155 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Butterfly Valves for general
BS 5156 : Diaphragm Valves for general purposes
BS 5157 : Steel Gate (parallel slide) Valves for general purposes
BS 5158 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Plug Valves for general
BS 5159 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Ball Valves for general
BS 5160 : Flanged Steel Globe and Check Valves for general
BS 5163 : Flanged Cast Iron Wedge Gate Valves for general
BS 5351 : Steel Ball Valves for Petroleum Industry
BS 5352 : Steel Gate, Globe and Check Valves, smaller than 2"
BS 5353 : Specifications for Plug Valves
BS 5391 : Specifications for ABS pressure pipes
BS 5392 : Specifications for ABS fittings
BS 5433 : Specifications for underground stop valves for water
BS 5480 : Specifications for GRP pipes and fittings
BS 6364 : Specifications for Valves for Cryogenic services
BS 6755 : Testing of Valves
BS 6759 : Safety Valves

3. INDIAN STANDARDS : Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) have so far not

developed an Indian Standard for the design of Piping Systems. Hence, ANSI
Standards ASME 31.1 and 31.3 are widely used for the design. These standards also
accept materials covered in other standards. Unlike American Standards, Indian
Standards cover dimensions and material specifications under the same standard
number. There are no groupings based on branch of engineering. Some of the most
commonly referred Indian Standards by Piping Engineers are :

IS 210 : Grey Iron Castings

IS 226 : Structural Steel (superseded by IS 2062)
IS 554 : Dimensions of Pipe Threads
IS 778 : Specification for Copper Alloy Gate, Globe and Check Valves
IS 780 : Specification for Sluice Valves - 50 NB to 300 NB
IS 1239 (Part I and II) : Specification for Mild Steel tubes and fittings
IS 1363 : Hexagonal Bolts, Screws and nuts - Grade C
IS 1364 : Hexagonal Bolts, Screws and nuts - Grade A and B
IS 1367 : Technical supply conditions for threaded steel fastners
IS 1536 : Centrifugally Cast Iron Pipes
IS 1537 : Vertically Cast Iron Pipes
IS 1538 : Cast Iron Fittings
IS 1870 : Comparison of Indian and Overseas Standards
IS 1879 : Malleable Iron Pipe Fittings
IS 1978 : Line Pipe
IS 1979 : High Test Line Pipe 8/10
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IS 2002 : Steel Plates

IS 2016 : Plain Washers
IS 2041 : Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels used at moderate and low
IS 2062 : Steel for general structural purposes
IS 2379 : Color Code for Identification of Pipelines
IS 2712 : Compressed Asbestos Fiber Jointing
IS 2825 : Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels
IS 2906 : Specification for Sluice Valves - 350 NB to 1200 NB
IS 3076 : Specification for LDPE Pipes
IS 3114 : Code of Practice for laying pipes
IS 3516 : Cast Iron flanges and flanged fittings for Petroleum Industry
IS 3589 : Seamless or ERW Pipes (150 NB to 2000 NB)
IS 4038 : Specifications for Foot Valves
IS 4179 : Sizes for pressure vessels and leading dimensions
IS 4853 : Radiographic Examination of Butt Weld Joints in pipes
IS 4864 to IS 4870 : Shell Flanges for vessels and equipments
IS 4984 : Specification for HDPE Pipes
IS 4985 : Specification for PVC Pipes
IS 5312 : Specification for Check Valves
IS 5572 : Classification of Hazardous area for Electrical Installation
IS 5822 : Code of practice for laying welded steel pipes
IS 6157 : Inspection and Testing of Valve
IS 6286 : Seamless and Welded pipes for Subzero temperatures
IS 6392 : Steel Pipe Flanges
IS 6630 : Seamless alloy steel pipes for high temperature service
IS 6913 : Stainless Steel tubes for food and beverage industry
IS 7181 : Horizontally cast iron pipes
IS 7240 : Code of Practice for Cold Insulation
IS 7413 : Code of Practice for Hot Insulation
IS 7719 : Metallic spiral wound gaskets
IS 7806 : Stainless Steel Castings
IS 7899 : Alloy Steel castings for pressure services
IS 8008 : Specification for molded HDPE Fittings
IS 8360 : Specification for fabricated HDPE Fittings
IS 9890 : Ball Valves for general purposes
IS 10221 : Code of Practice for coating and wrapping of underground MS
IS 10592 : Eye wash and safety showers
IS 10605 : Steel Globe Valves for Petroleum Industries
IS 10611 : Steel Gate Valves for Petroleum Industries
IS 10711 : Size of Drawing Sheets
IS 10805 : Foot Valves
IS 10989 : Cast / Forged Steel Check Valves for Petroleum Industry
IS 10990 : Technical drawings - Simplified representation of pipelines
IS 11790 : Code of Practice for preparation of Butt welding ends for valves,
flanges and fittings
IS 11791 : Diaphragm Valves for general purposes
IS 11792 : Steel Ball Valves for Petroleum Industry
IS 12709 : Specifications for GRP pipes
IS 13049 : Specifications for Diaphragm type float operated valves
IS 13095 : Butterfly Valves
IS 13257 : Ring type joint gasket and grooves for flanges 9/10
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There are certain other international standards, which are also referred in Piping
Industry. These are DIN standards of Germany and JIS standards of Japan. DIN
standards are more popular and equivalent.
Periodic review of the standards by the committee are done and these are revised to
incorporate the modified features based on the research and feedback from industry.
It is, hence, necessary that the latest editions of the codes and standards are referred
for the design.

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